Astaxanthin Improved the Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Via Selective Activation of mTOR
In conclusion, Ast acti vates the mTOR pathway, which is necessary for mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic plasticity, leading to improved learning and memory. Our results support the use of Ast for the treatment of cognitive deficits.Graphical abstractIn summary, Ast ameliorates cognitive deficits via facilitating the mTOR-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic damage, and reducing A β accumulation. This model supports the use of Ast for the treatment of cognitive deficits (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methamphetamine and Cannabis: A Tale of Two Drugs and their Effects on HIV, Brain, and Behavior
AbstractHIV infection and drug use intersect epidemiologically, and their combination can result in complex effects on brain and behavior. The extent to which drugs affect the health of persons with HIV (PWH) depends on many factors including drug characteristics, use patterns, stage of HIV disease and its treatment, comorbid factors, and age. To consider the range of drug effects, we have selected two that are in common use by PWH: methamphetamine and cannabis. We compare the effects of methamphetamine with those of cannabis, to illustrate how substances may potentiate, worsen, or even buffer the effects of HIV on the CNS...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2: there Is Something More than D614G?
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mitochondria Regulate Inflammatory Paracrine Signalling in Neurodegeneration
AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction occurs in most neurodegenerative diseases, contributing  to both their onset and progression. A recent breakthrough unveiled that propagation of the inflammatory response and subsequent neuronal injury are also mediated extracellularly by damaged mitochondria, which are released from active microglial cells into the brain milieu. These extracellular  fragmented mitochondria can therefore generate sufficient toxicity to trigger neuronal death and widespread brain damage through activation of naïve astrocytes. Besides suggesting potential new pharmacol...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exogenous melatonin as potential adjuvant in anti-SarsCov2 vaccines
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reduction of Lewy Body Pathology by Oral Cinnamon
Abstractα-Synucleinopathies in a broader sense comprise of several neurodegenerative disorders that primarily include Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). These disorders are well characterized by the accumulation of aggregated insoluble α-synuclei n (α-syn) protein known as Lewy bodies. Till date no effective cure is available to reduce the burden of Lewy body. The present investigation underlines the importance of a naturally used spice and flavoring agent viz. cinnamon in reducing α-syn deposits in transgenic mice expressing mutant A53...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Opioid and neuroHIV Comorbidity – Current and Future Perspectives
AbstractWith the current national opioid crisis, it is critical to examine the mechanisms underlying pathophysiologic interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opioids in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent advances in experimental models, methodology, and our understanding of disease processes at the molecular and cellular levels reveal opioid-HIV interactions with increasing clarity. However, despite the substantial new insight, the unique impact of opioids on the severity, progression, and prognosis of neuroHIV and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not fully understood. In this re...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are Critical for Morphine Exacerbation of HIV-1 gp120-Induced Pain
AbstractMany HIV patients develop chronic pain and use opioid-derived medicine as primary analgesics. Emerging clinical evidence suggests that chronic use of opioid analgesics paradoxically heightens pain states in patients. This side effect of opioid analgesics has a significant negative impact on clinical practice, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains elusive. Using a mouse model of HIV-associated pain, we simulated the development of morphine exacerbation on pain and investigated potential underlying cellular and molecular pathways. We found that repeated morphine treatment promoted astrocyte activation in th...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antibodies from Multiple Sclerosis Brain Identified Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 & amp; 2 Epitopes which Are Recognized by Oligoclonal Bands
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), the etiology of which is poorly understood. The most common laboratory abnormality associated with MS is increased intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis and the presence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the major antigenic targets of these antibody responses are unknown. The risk of MS is increased after infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to EBV infection, and MS patients have higher serum titers of anti-EBV antibodies than control populations. Our goal w...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Sudden Death in Parkinson ’s Disease: a Missing Piece of the Jigsaw Puzzle
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Social Environment Ameliorates Behavioral and Immune Impairments in Tyrosine Hydroxylase Haploinsufficient Female Mice
AbstractThe social environment can influence the functional capacity of nervous and immune systems, and consequently the state of health, especially in aged individuals. Adult female tyrosine hydroxylase haploinsufficient (TH-HZ) mice exhibit behavioral impairments, premature immunosenescence and oxidative- inflammatory stress. All these deteriorations are associated with a lower lifespan than wild type (WT) counterparts. The aim was to analyze whether the cohabitation with WT animals could revert or at least ameliorate the deterioration in the nervous and immune systems that female TH-HZ mice show at adult age. Female TH-...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Stress Enhances Proinflammatory Platelet Activity: the Impact of Acute and Chronic Mental Stress
AbstractThe role of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis has long been recognized, recently their contribution to immunological and inflammatory processes is emerging. Platelets could be the missing link between cardiovascular disease, chronic stress and depressive symptoms. Both physical and mental stressors cause platelet activation reflected by changes in platelet bioactivity and aggregation. Here we evaluate the proinflammatory platelet response to acute and chronic mental stress. In a prospective study design an acute mental stress test was administered to 55 healthy male participants once without and once in the pr...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

JNIP Impact Factor Rise Is a Final Tribute to the Years of Impactful Service Made by our Managing Editor
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lipid Profile Alterations during Fingolimod Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
AbstractFingolimod reduces inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) by acting as a functional antagonist of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. It has been suggested that S1P might also contribute to the antiatherogenic effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We conducted a retrospective observational study using data of 72 MS patients from two Finnish hospital districts to find out whether lipid profiles change during treatment with fingolimod. A mixed-effects model with patient as a random effect was used to analyze lipid profile alterations. We found a statistically significant elevation in both total cho...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: HIV Infection and Neurocognitive Disorders in the Context of Chronic Drug Abuse: Evidence for Divergent Findings Dependent upon Prior Drug History
Corrected sentence inInteractions between the Effects of Drug Use and HIV-1 Infection Leads to Accelerated Disease Progression:“White matter damage (Tang et al. 2015; Alakkas et al. 2019), mitochondrial dysfunction (Buch et al. 2011), and iron dysregulation (Drakesmith et al. 2005; Ersche et al. 2017) occur with cocaine use and have also been associated with HIV infection and HAND; these processes may therefore be promisi ng targets for treatment development.” (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicles in HIV, Drug Abuse, and Drug Delivery
AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to perform important biological functions and have been implicated in multiple disease pathogeneses, including HIV and drugs of abuse. EVs can carry biological molecules via biofluids such as plasma and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from healthy or disease organs to distant organs and deliver biomolecules to recipient cells that subsequently alter the physiology of the recipient organs. As biocarriers, EVs have the potential to be developed as non-invasive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis and drug abuse, as the level of specific EV components can be altered under disease/drug ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Natural History, Pathobiology, and Clinical Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 Infections
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with epithelial cell and respiratory system proclivity. Like its predecessor, SARS-CoV, COVID-19 can lead to life-threatening disease. Due to wide geographic impact affecting an extremely high proportion of the world population it was defined by the World Health Organization as a global public health pandemic. The infection is known to readily spread from person-to-person. This occurs through liquid droplets by cough, sneeze, hand-to-...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide Reverses LPS-Induced Behavioral Deficits by Suppressing Microglial Activation and Promoting M2 Polarization
AbstractActivation of microglia is a  hallmark of neuroinflammation and has been implicated in the development of many psychiatric disorders. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S); a gasotransmitter has recently emerged as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule. However, the protective potential of H2S  and its underpin molecular mechanisms in neuroinflammation associated behavioral deficits are still unknown. The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; a source of H2S) on microglial activation and associated behavior phenotype i...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Potent PDE10A Inhibitor MP-10 (PF-2545920) Suppresses Microglial Activation in LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation and MPTP-Induced Parkinson ’s Disease Mouse Models
In this study, we examined the effect of MP-10 in neuroinflammation and PD mouse models. MP-10 inhibited nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin (IL)-6 production, while it prom oted IL-10 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Subsequent western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that MP-10 reduced the mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, proinflammatory cytokine s, and matrix metalloproteinase-3, −8, and − 9 in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Further mechanistic studies re...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation Affects Plasma Corticosterone Concentration and Peripheral Immunity Changes in Rat Model of Parkinson ’s Disease
In this study, we examined the effects of unilateral DBS-STN applied in male Wistar rats wit h 6-hydroxydopamine PD model (DBS-6OHDA) and rats without nigral dopamine depletion (DBS) on corticosterone (CORT) plasma concentration, blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC), leukocyte numbers, lymphocyte population and apoptosis numbers, plasma interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL- 6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) concentration. The same peripheral immune parameters we measured also in non-stimulated rats with PD model (6OHDA). We observed peripheral immunity changes related to PD model. The NKCC a...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of HIV gp120 on Neuroinflammation in Immunodeficient vs. Immunocompetent States
In this study, we examined the effects of gp120 on neuroinflammation in immunodeficient vs. immunocompetent states by examining neuroinflammatory markers in gp120tg mice wi th or without systemic immunodeficiency caused by murine retroviral administration (LP-BM5 murine AIDS). Changes in inflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression was complex and dependent upon expression of gp120 protein, immunodeficiency status, brain region (hippocampus, frontal lobe, or striatu m), and age. Gp120 expression reduced hippocampal synaptophysin expression but did not affect animals’ learning/memory on the spontaneous T-maze test ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Endocrine Dysfunction Following Stroke
In conclusions, stroke survivors have an approximately 2-fold increased risk of developing acquired hypothyroidism, pituitary dysfunction, or disorders of the adrenal glands. These ris ks should be taken into account in the management of patients who have ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes.Graphical Abstract (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Apigenin Modulates Dendritic Cell Activities and Curbs Inflammation Via RelB Inhibition in the Context of Neuroinflammatory Diseases
AbstractNeuroinflammation leads to tissue injury causing many of the clinical symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). While T cells, specifically Th1 and Th17 cells, are the ultimate effectors of this disease, dendritic cells (DCs) mediate T cell polarization, activation, etc. In our previous study, Apigenin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to reduce EAE disease severity through amelioration of demyelination in the CNS as well as the sequestering of DCs and other myeloid cells in the periphery. Here, we show that Apigenin exerts its effects possibly through shifting D...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Does Adding of Hydroxychloroquine to the Standard Care Provide any Benefit in Reducing the Mortality among COVID-19 Patients?: a Systematic Review
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Clomipramine Could Be Useful in Preventing Neurological Complications of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comment on “Smooth or Risky Revisit of an Old Malaria Drug for COVID-19?”
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Combined 1-Deoxynojirimycin and Ibuprofen Treatment Decreases Microglial Activation, Phagocytosis and Dopaminergic Degeneration in MPTP-Treated Mice
In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the combined treatment with a MMPs inhibitor (1-DNJ) plus an anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen) has neuroprotective effects open for future therapeutic interventions.Graphical AbstractMPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a protoxicant that, after crossing the Blood Brain Barrier, is metabolized by astrocytic MAO-B to MPDP+, a pyridinium intermediate, which undergoes further two-electron oxidation to yield the toxic metabolite MPP+ (methyl-phenyltetrahydropyridinium) that is then selectively transported into nigral neurons via the mesencephalic dopamine transporte...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HIV Infection and Neurocognitive Disorders in the Context of Chronic Drug Abuse: Evidence for Divergent Findings Dependent upon Prior Drug History
AbstractThe fronto-striatal circuitry, involving the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and prefrontal cortex, mediates goal-directed behavior and is targeted by both drugs of abuse and HIV-1 infection. Acutely, both drugs and HIV-1 provoke increased dopamine activity within the circuit. However, chronic exposure to drugs or HIV-1 leads to dysregulation of the dopamine system as a result of fronto-striatal adaptations to oppose the effects of repeated instances of transiently increased dopamine. Specifically, chronic drug use leads to reduced dopaminergic tone, upregulation of dopamine transporters, and altered cir...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Neuroinflammatory Responses and Parkinson ’ Disease: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system, which mainly impairs the motor system. However, the pathogenic mechanisms are still unclear. Gene–environment complex interaction leads to selective dopaminergic neuron death in PD. G rowing evidences supports that neuroinflammatory responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PD. This review critically discusses current studies on the inflammatory response of the pathological process of PD. The mechanisms and strategies of modifying inflammatory responses would be potential tre at...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

May the Central Nervous System Be Fogged by the Cytokine Storm in COVID-19?: an Appraisal
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Does Adding of Hydroxychloroquine to the Standard Care Provide any Benefit in Reducing the Mortality among COVID-19 Patients?: a Systematic Review
AbstractHydroxychloroquine has been promoted for its use in treatment of COVID-19 patients based on in-vitro evidences. We searched the databases to include randomized and observational studies evaluating the effect of Hydroxychloroquine on mortality in COVID-19 patients. The outcome was summarized as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We used the inverse-variance method with a random effect model and assessed the heterogeneity using I2 test. We used ROBINS-I tool to assess methodological quality of the included studies. We performed the meta-analysis using ‘Review manager software version 5.3&rsquo...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

T Cell Delivery of Nanoparticles-Bound Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody: Successful B Cell Depletion in the Spinal Cord during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
AbstractWe developed a nanotechnology based-cell mediated drug delivery system by loading myelin antigen-specific T cells with nanoparticles bound to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Anti-CD20 antibody is a current treatment (ocrelizumab) for multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). CD20-depletion has been associated with efficacy in active relapsing and progressive MS, but may not efficiently target inflammatory cells compartmentalized in the CNS. In our work, the intravenous transfer of T cells containing nanoparticle-anti-CD20 complex in mice causes B cel...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HIV Neuropathogenesis in the Presence of a Disrupted Dopamine System
AbstractAntiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV into a chronic condition, lengthening and improving the lives of individuals living with this virus. Despite successful suppression of HIV replication, people living with HIV (PLWH) are susceptible to a growing number of comorbidities, including neuroHIV that results from infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Alterations in the dopaminergic system have long been associated with HIV infection of the CNS. Studies indicate that changes in dopamine concentrations not only alter neurotransmission, but also significantly impact the function of immune cells, contri...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immune Suppression of Glia Maturation Factor Reverses Behavioral Impairment, Attenuates Amyloid Plaque Pathology and Neuroinflammation in an Alzheimer ’s Disease Mouse Model
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is an irreversible progressive neurodegenerative disorder recognized by accumulation of amyloid-plaques (APs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and eventually loss of memory. Glia maturation factor (GMF), a neuroinflammatory protein first time isolated and cloned in our laboratory plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. However, no studies have been reported on whether anti-GMF antibody administration could downregulate neuroinflammation and attenuate amyloid pathology in AD brain. We investigated the potential effect of single dose of (2 mg/kg b.wt/mouse) intrav eno...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - June 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Leads to Neurological Dysfunction
AbstractA number of neurological disease complications have been seen following infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While most person with COVID-19 respiratory disease demonstrate headache, nausea and vomiting, up to 40% present also experience dizziness, confusion, cerebrovascular disease, muscle pain, ataxia and seizures. Loss of taste and smell, defects in visual acuity and pain occur in parallel. Such central nervous system (CNS) signs and symptoms linked to laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection is often life threatening. Health care providers currently evaluating patien...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reciprocal Influences of HIV and Cannabinoids on the Brain and Cognitive Function
AbstractGlobally, cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug, with disproportionately high use among persons with HIV. Despite advances in HIV care, nearly half of persons living with HIV continue to experience neurocognitive deficits or impairments that may have negative impacts on their daily function. Chronic cannabis use may play a role in the development or exacerbation of these impairments. Here we present a review summarizing existing research detailing the effect of cannabis use associated with the neuropathogenesis of HIV. We examine evidence for possible additive or synergistic effects of HIV infection and c...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

CBD Suppression of EAE Is Correlated with Early Inhibition of Splenic IFN- γ + CD8+ T Cells and Modest Inhibition of Neuroinflammation
In this study cannabidiol (CBD) was administered orally to determine its effects and mechanisms in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that 75  mg/kg of oral CBD given for 5 days after initiation of disease would reduce EAE severity through suppression of either the early peripheral immune or late neuroimmune response. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice at two different magnitudes, and peripheral inflammatory and neuroinflammatory responses were measured at days 3, 10, and 18. Th1, Th17, Tc1, Tc17, Tregs, and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) we...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Smooth or Risky Revisit of an Old Malaria Drug for COVID-19?
AbstractHydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an old medication for malaria. In addition to handling this parasitic disease, HCQ is also used to treat a number of autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus when other medications are not effective. Recently a new viral infection (COVID-19) is rocking the entire world so much that it has already taken more than 200,000 lives throughout the world within the last two months and the World Health Organization was forced to declare it as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Interestingly, some reports indicate that this wonder drug may be also beneficial ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor 2 on Peripheral Leukocytes to Attenuate Inflammatory Mechanisms Implicated in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder
AbstractHIV infection affects an estimated 38 million people. Approximately 50% of HIV patients exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction termed HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). HAND is a consequence of chronic low-level neuroinflammation due to HIV entry into the brain. Initially, monocytes become activated in circulation and traffic to the brain. Monocytes, when activated, become susceptible to infection by HIV and can then carry the virus across the blood brain barrier. Once in the brain, activated monocytes secrete chemokines, which recruit virus-specific CD8+ T cells into the brain to further promote neuroinfla...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Feasibility of Therapeutic Effects of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway on COVID-19 Symptoms
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - May 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Messenger Apps of the cell: Extracellular Vesicles as Regulatory Messengers of Microglial Function in the CNS
AbstractThe intense effort of investigators, in particular during the past decade, has highlighted the importance of extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes in regulating both innate and adaptive immunity in the course of a variety of infections, with clear implications for development of novel vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Current and future efforts now need to focus strongly on teasing apart the intricate and complex molecular mechanisms that operate during EV regulation of immunity. In this review, we discuss recent advances that bear on our current understanding of how EVs, including exosomes, can cont...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Greater Sensorimotor Deficits and Abnormally Lower Globus Pallidus Fractional Anisotropy in HIV+ Women than in HIV+ Men
AbstractAimsCognitive impairment may be greater in HIV-positive (HIV+) women than in HIV+ men. Whether sex-specific differences exist in brain microstructure of HIV+ individuals is unknown and was evaluated.Method39 HIV+ (21 men, 18 women) and 45 seronegative (SN, 20 men, 25 women) participants were assessed with brain diffusion tensor imaging and cognitive assessments (7 neuropsychological domains). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured with an automated atlas in selected brain regions. Group comparisons were assessed with linear mixed effects models, with sub-regions and hemisphere (left/righ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lidocaine Alleviates Neuropathic Pain and Neuroinflammation by Inhibiting HMGB1 Expression to Mediate MIP-1 α/CCR1 Pathway
This study aims to explore the effect of lidocaine in a rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI) and the underlying mechanism. An SNI model was established via nerve ligation. Two weeks after the SNI model was established, rats were intrathecally injected with lidocaine, an HMGB1 antibody (HMG Ab), an MIP-1α antibody (MIP-1α Ab), a CCR1 inhibitor (CCR1-RS) or a CCR5 antagonist (CCR5-Mar). Pain b ehaviors were assessed before and after model establishment to calculate the number of spontaneous flinches (NSF), paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWL) and sciatic function index (SFI). Cel...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Alterations of Brain Signal Oscillations in Older Individuals with HIV Infection and Parkinson ’s Disease
We examined the amplitudes of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) across different frequency bands of the BOLD signal in 30 older HIV-infected individuals, 33 older healthy controls, and 36 PD patients. Participants underwent resting-state fMRI, neurop sychological testing, and a clinical motor exam. HIV patients mainly showed abnormalities in cortical ALFF with reduced prefrontal amplitudes and enhanced sensorimotor and inferior temporal amplitudes. Frontal hypoactivation was overlapping for HIV and PD groups and different from controls. PD patie nts further exhibited reduced pallidum amplitudes compared to the other groups...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Phthalide Derivative CD21 against Ischemic Brain Injury:Involvement of MSR1 Mediated DAMP peroxiredoxin1 Clearance and TLR4 Signaling Inhibition
This study investigated the effects of the phthalide derivative CD21 on ischemic brain injury and the mechanism underlying MSR1-induced resolution of neuroinflammation. Using a rat model of 2  h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), MSR1-induced peroxiredoxin1 (PRX1) clearance in RAW264.7 macrophages were investigated. We show here that CD21 significantly ameliorated infarct volumes and neurological deficits in a dose-dependent manner with a ≥ 12 h therapeutic time w indow. Moreover, administration of 5 mg/kg/day CD21 over 24 h significantly reduced pathological damages, wi...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Impairs CD8 + T Cell-Mediated Activation of Astrocytes
The objective of this investigation was to assess the effects of THC treatment on CD8+ T cell-mediated activation of astrocytes. CD3/CD28/IFN α- stimulated CD8+ T cells were treated with vehicle (0.03% EtOH) or THC and cocultured with U251 astrocytes. IP-10+, MCP-1+, and IL-6+ astrocytes were quantified by flow cytometry. LegendPlex ™ was used to measure cytokine secretion by CD8+ T cells and flow cytometry was employed to quantify IFN γ, TNFα, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) expression. Recombinant TNFα and IFNγ were used to stimulate MCP-1, IP-10, IL-6 responses in...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Associations between Antiretrovirals and Cognitive Function in Women with HIV
AbstractCognitive complications persist in antiretroviral therapy(ART)-treated people with HIV. However, the pattern and severity of domain-specific cognitive performance is variable and may be exacerbated by ART-mediated neurotoxicity. 929 women with HIV(WWH) from the Women ’s Interagency HIV Study who were classified into subgroups based on sociodemographic and longitudinal behavioral and clinical data using semi-parametric latent class trajectory modelling. Five subgroups were comprised of: 1) well-controlled HIV with vascular comorbidities(n = 116); 2) profound HIV legacy effects(CD4 nadir
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Crohn ’s and Parkinson’s Disease-Associated LRRK2 Mutations Alter Type II Interferon Responses in Human CD14 + Blood Monocytes Ex Vivo
AbstractThe Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) is one of causative genes of familial Parkinson ’s disease (PD). The M2397T polymorphism inLRRK2 is genetically associated with sporadic Crohn ’s disease (CD). LRRK2 is expressed in human CD14+ monocytes, induced by interferon- γ (IFN-γ) and suppresses inflammatory activation. We hypothesize that IFN-γ-induced LRRK2 and inflammatory gene expression is altered byLRRK2 genetic polymorphism found in CD and PD cases. A total of 46 CD and 51 control cases, and 16 PD cases and 16 PD-linkedLRRK2 mutation cases were recruited. Live human CD14+ monocytes...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analgesic Effects of Cannabinoids for Chronic Non-cancer Pain: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Meta-Regression
AbstractThere is growing interest in using cannabinoids for chronic pain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer pain. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL andclinicaltrials.gov were searched up to December 2018. Information on the type, dosage, route of administration, pain conditions, pain scores, and adverse events were extracted for qualitative analysis. Meta-analysis of analgesic efficacy was performed. Meta-regression was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy for ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The far-reaching HAND of cART: cART effects on astrocytes
AbstractFollowing the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the morbidity and mortality from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been drastically curtailed and HIV has now become a chronic manageable disease. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer and experiencing significant co-morbidities and conditions of aging. NeuroHIV, clinically defined as HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) and pathologically manifested by persistent inflammation in the CNS despite cART, is a significant co-morbid condition for PLWH. In the pre-cART era, HIV mediated much of the pathogenesis in...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research