Different Susceptibility of T and B Cells to Cladribine Depends On Their Levels of Deoxycytidine Kinase Activity Linked to Activation Status
AbstractDeoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and 5 ’ deoxynucleotidase (NT5C2) are involved in metabolism of cladribine (2CdA), the immunomodulatory drug for multiple sclerosis; by mediating phosphorylation (activation) or phosphorolysis (deactivation) of 2CdA, respectively, these enzymes promote or prevent its accumulation in the cell, which lead s to cell death. In particular, lymphocytes which present with a high intracellular dCK/NT5C2 ratio are more sensitive to 2CdA than other immune cells. We aim at determining if the expression of these enzymes and/or their activity differ in specific progenitor and mature immune cells...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HIV-1 gp120-Induced Endolysosome de-Acidification Leads to Efflux of Endolysosome Iron, and Increases in Mitochondrial Iron and Reactive Oxygen Species
AbstractThe HIV-1 coat protein gp120 continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND); a condition known to affect  ~50% of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). Autopsy brain tissues of HAND individuals display morphological changes to mitochondria and endolysosomes, and HIV-1 gp120 causes mitochondrial dysfunction including increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and de-acidification of endolysosomes. F errous iron is linked directly to ROS production, ferrous iron is contained in and released from endolysosomes, and PLWH have elevated iron and ROS levels. Base...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - April 8, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Synergistic Effect and Mechanism of Apoptosis Induction by Morphine and the HIV-1gp120V3 Loop in Hippocampal Neurons
AbstractHIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a collective name for neurological disorders associated with HIV-1 infection. The incidence and severity of HAND are increased by concomitant opioid use disorder, such as heroin and morphine abuse. Our previous study showed that the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 and morphine synergistically induce apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that morphine and gp120 activated the neuronal apoptosis signaling pathway via their typical membrane receptors. If they shared key signaling molecules, their induction...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 31, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chronic Opioid Administration is Associated with Prevotella -dominated Dysbiosis in SIVmac251 Infected, cART-treated Macaques
AbstractPeople living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an elevated risk of opioid misuse due to both prescriptions for HIV-associated chronic pain and because injection drug use remains a primary mode of HIV transmission. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by chronic immune activation and microbial dysbiosis, and translocation across the gut barrier exacerbating inflammation. Despite the high rate of co-occurrence, little is known about the  microbiome during chronic opioid use in the context of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We recently demonstrated the reduction of the CD4&thi...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 31, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lysosomal Stress Response (LSR): Physiological Importance and Pathological Relevance
AbstractExtensive work has characterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial stress responses. In contrast, very little has been published about stress responses in lysosomes; subcellular acidic organelles that are physiologically important and are of pathological relevance. The greater lysosomal system is dynamic and is comprised of endosomes, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, autophagosomes, and autophagolysosomes. They are important regulators of cellular physiology, they represent about 5% of the total cellular volume, they are heterogeneous in their sizes and distribution patterns, they are electron dense, an...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Central Nervous System: Beyond Viral Suppression
AbstractPersistence of cognitive, behavioral and, to a lesser extent, motor dysfunction in People living with HIV (PLWH) despite viral suppression has raised the question about the potential contribution of antiretroviral (ARV) compounds themselves. Converging clinical and experimental evidence support a contribution of ARV compounds. In this issue we explore the existing clinical evidence on the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the CNS across the age continuum and in women. We further examine cell type specific effects of ARV drugs as well as the class specific effects. Finally, underlying mechanisms for the obse...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - March 2, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transactivator of Transcription (HIV-Tat 1-86 ) Protein Alters Nociceptive Processing that is Sensitive to Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Interventions
AbstractDespite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in reducing viral load, a substantial portion of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)+ patients report chronic pain. The exact mechanism underlying this co-morbidity even with undetectable viral load remains unknown, but the transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) protein is of particular interest. Functional HIV-Tat protein is observed even in cerebrospinal fluid of patients who have an undetectable viral load. It is hypothesized that Tat protein exposure is sufficient to induce neuropathic pain-like manifestations via both activation of microglia and g...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Prolonged Peripheral Immunosuppressive Responses as Consequences of Random Amphetamine Treatment, Amphetamine Withdrawal and Subsequent Amphetamine Challenges in Rats
AbstractDrug-induced immunosuppression may underline increased hypothalamic –pituitary–adrenal axis response to stress observed following chronic psychostimulant treatment. However, the consequences of random amphetamine (AMPH) treatment, withdrawal and AMPH challenge after withdrawal on the peripheral immunity and systemic corticosterone response are unknown. In this s tudy, the total blood and spleen leukocyte, lymphocyte, T, B, NK, TCD4+/TCD8+ cell numbers and ratio, pro-inflammatory interferon gamma (IFN- γ), and anti-inflammatory interleukin-4 (IL-4) production, and plasma corticosterone concentratio...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 13, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Role for Extracellular Vesicles in SARS-CoV-2 Therapeutics and Prevention
AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are the common designation for ectosomes, microparticles and microvesicles serving dominant roles in intercellular communication. Both  viable and dying cells release EVs to the extracellular environment for transfer of cell, immune and infectious materials. Defined morphologically as lipid bi-layered structures EVs show molecular, biochemical, distribution, and entry mechanisms similar to viruses within cells and tissues. In re cent years their functional capacities have been harnessed to deliver biomolecules and drugs and immunological agents to specific cells and organ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mutations of Human DopamineTransporter at Tyrosine88, Aspartic Acid206, and Histidine547 Influence Basal and HIV-1 Tat ‐inhibited Dopamine Transport
This study determined the mutational effects of human dopamine transporter (hDAT) on basal and Tat-induced inhibition of dopamine transport. Compared to wild-type hDAT, the maximal velocity (Vmax) of [3H]dopamine uptake was decreased in D381L and Y88F/D206L/H547A, increased in D206L/H547A, and unaltered in D206L. Recombinant TatR1  − 86 inhibited dopamine uptake in wild-type hDAT, which was attenuated in either DAT mutants (D206L, D206L/H547A, and Y88F/D206L/H547A) or mutated TatR1  − 86 (K19A and C22G), demonstrating perturbed Tat-DAT interaction. Mutational effects of hDAT on the t...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 3, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Repurposing of Tetracyclines for COVID-19 Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations: A Valid Option to Control SARS-CoV-2-Associated Neuroinflammation?
AbstractThe recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gained considerable attention worldwide due to its increased potential to spread and infect the general population. COVID-19 primarily targets the human respiratory epithelium but also has neuro-invasive potential. Indeed, neuropsychiatric manifestations, such as fatigue, febrile seizures, psychiatric symptoms, and delirium, are consistently observed in COVID-19. The neurobiological basis of neuropsychiatric COVID-19 symptoms is not fully understood. However, previous evidence about systemic viral infections pointed to an ongoing neuroinflammatory respo...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - February 3, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pretreatment of Indobufen and Aspirin and their Combinations with Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor Alleviates Inflammasome Mediated Pyroptosis Via Inhibiting NF- κB/NLRP3 Pathway in Ischemic Stroke
In this study, we investigated the protective efficiency of pretreatment of indobufen or aspirin combined with clopidogrel or ticagrelor (IACT) on cerebral ischemic injury via NF- κB/NLRP3 pathway. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was simulated in vivo by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model, and rats were pretreated with indobufen and aspirin and their combinations with clopidogrel or ticagrelor respectively. The platelet aggregation, cerebral infarc t size, water content, neurological impairment and LDH release were measured. The relative expression of inflammasome mediated pyroptosis was de...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Intrathecal Administration of an Anti ‐nociceptive Non-CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Reduces Glial Activation and Central Sensitization
AbstractInflammatory pain associates with spinal glial activation and central sensitization. Systemic administration of IMT504, a non-CpG oligodeoxynucleotide originally designed as an immunomodulator, exerts remarkable anti-allodynic effects in rats with complete Freund ´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced hindpaw inflammation. However, the anti-nociceptive mechanisms of IMT504 remain unknown. Here we evaluated whether IMT504 blocks inflammatory pain-like behavior by modulation of spinal glia and central sensitization. The study was performed in Sprague Dawley rats with intr aplantar CFA, and a single lumbosacral intrathecal (...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 27, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Potential of Cannabidiol in Multiple Sclerosis: a Systematic Review
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Efficacy of treatments for MS is associated with risk of adverse effects, and effective and well-tolerated drugs remain a major unmet need. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L., fam. Cannabaceae) and cannabinoids are popular among MS patients to treat spasticity and pain. Cannabinoids are endowed with remarkable immunomodulating properties, and in particular the non-psychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly recognized as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, nevertheless with excellent tolerability even ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 25, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Purinergic Signaling of ATP in COVID-19 Associated Guillain-Barr é Syndrome
AbstractDeclared as a global public health emergency, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is presented as a disease of the respiratory tract, although severe cases can affect the entire organism. Several studies have shown neurological symptoms, ranging from dizziness and loss of consciousness to cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, Guillain-Barr é syndrome, an immune-mediated inflammatory neuropathy, has been closely associated with critical cases of infection with “severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2” (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19. Its pathop...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 18, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

ACE-2-interacting Domain of SARS-CoV-2 (AIDS) Peptide Suppresses Inflammation to Reduce Fever and Protect Lungs and Heart in Mice: Implications for COVID-19 Therapy
AbstractCOVID-19 is an infectious respiratory illness caused by the virus strain severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and until now, there is no effective therapy against COVID-19. Since SARS-CoV-2 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for entering into host cells, to target COVID-19 from therapeutic angle, we engineered a hexapeptide corresponding to the ACE2-interacting domain of SARS-CoV-2 (AIDS) that inhibits the association between receptor-binding domain-containing spike S1 and ACE-2. Accordingly, wild type (wt), but not mutated (m), AIDS peptide inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-induced...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 11, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Immunoproteasome Inhibitor ONX-0914 Affects Long-Term Potentiation in Murine Hippocampus
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutics of SARS-CoV-2 Infections
AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic has affected more than 38 million people world-wide by person to person transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therapeutic and preventative strategies for SARS-CoV-2 remains a significant challenge. Within the past several months, effective treatment options have emerged and now include repurposed antivirals, corticosteroids and virus-specific antibodies. The latter has included convalescence plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Complete viral eradication will be achieved through an effective, safe and preventative vaccine. To now provide a comprehensive...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Is COVID-19 Gender-sensitive?
AbstractWhile clinical characteristics exhibit that susceptibility to COVID-19 infection is equally likely between males and females, clinical outcomes show that males experience both a higher severity and fatality for COVID-19 infection than females. This review examines the evidence for these sex and gender differences and aims to illustrate possible mechanisms behind such sensitivity. Successful entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the body is dependent on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Thus, sex-based differences in the expression of the ACE2 receptor and TMPR...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

SARS-COV2 Alters Blood Brain Barrier Integrity Contributing to Neuro-Inflammation
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Can Cytokine Blocking Prevent Depression in COVID-19 Survivors?
A correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11481-020-09977-w (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kynurenic Acid Protects Against Reactive Glial-associated Reductions in the Complexity of Primary Cortical Neurons
AbstractBrain glia produce neuroactive metabolites via tryptophan-kynurenine catabolism. A role for kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites is proposed in reactive glial associated neurodegeneration. The aim of this investigation was to assess the role of KP induction and KP metabolites in driving reactive glial associated neuronal atrophy. Rat primary mixed glia, and enriched microglial and astroglial cultures were stimulated with IFN γ (10 ng/ml) for 24 hours. KP induction in mixed glial cells was confirmed by raised expression of the rate limiting KP enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and raised concentrati...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - January 3, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Brain Selective Estrogen Treatment Protects Dopaminergic Neurons and Preserves Behavioral Function in MPTP-induced Mouse Model of Parkinson ’s Disease
In conclusions, our findings suggest that DHED protects dopaminergic neurons from MPTP toxicity in mouse model of PD and support a beneficial effect of brain-selective estrogen in attenuating neuro degeneration and motor symptoms in PD-related neurological disorders.Graphical Abstract (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - November 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

IMT504 Provides Analgesia by Modulating Cell Infiltrate and Inflammatory Milieu in a Chronic Pain Model
AbstractIMT504 is a non-CPG, non-coding synthetic oligodeoxinucleotide (ODN) with immunomodulatory properties and a novel inhibitory role in pain transmission, exerting long-lasting analgesic effects upon multiple systemic administrations. However, its mechanisms of anti-nociceptive action are still poorly understood. In the present study in male adult rats undergoing complete Freund ’s adjuvant-induced hindpaw inflammation, we focused in the analysis of the immunomodulatory role of IMT504 over the cellular infiltrate, the impact on the inflammatory milieu, and the correlation with its anti-allodynic role. By means o...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - November 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

An Investigation into Proteomic Constituents of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Patients with Chronic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain Medicated with Opioids- a Pilot Study
This study suggests modulation of CNS homeostasis, possibly attributable to opioids, thus highlighting potential mechanisms for the pharmacodynamics of opioids. We also provide new insights into the immunomodulatory fu nctions of opioids in vivo. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - November 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Unraveling neuroHIV in the Presence of Substance Use Disorders
AbstractThis special issue contains 10 invited review papers that highlighted and extended the presentations at the NIDA-sponsored workshop “Unraveling NeuroAIDS in the Presence of Substance Use Disorders ” at the 25th Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology conference in 2019. The topics covered by these papers focused on the interactive, additive or synergistic effects of substance use disorders (SUD) with HIV infection on the immune system and on  neuropathogenesis. These papers reviewed four categories of substances of abuse (opioids, tobacco, stimulants, and cannabis) and how comorbid HIV infection (inclu...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - November 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells Alleviate a Mouse Model of Parkinson ’s Disease Mainly by Neuroprotective, Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Factors
AbstractHuman amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) have been reported to have neuroprotective roles in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) animal models. However, the molecular mechanism is not fully understood. The present study was designed to explore the possible mechanism by which hAECs ameliorate PD symptoms and the important paracrine factors produced by hAECs that attribute to the recovery of dopaminergic neuro ns. Thus, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments with hAECs in PD models or lesioned dopaminergic neurons, respectively. First, hAECs were transplanted into the striatum of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydr...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - November 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Emerging Role of Nef in the Development of HIV Associated Neurological Disorders
AbstractDespite adherence to treatment, individuals living with HIV have an increased risk for developing cognitive impairments, referred to as HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Due to continued growth in the HIV population, particularly amongst the aging cohort, the neurobiological mechanisms of HAND are increasingly relevant. Similar to other viral proteins (e.g. Tat, Gp120, Vpr), the Negative Factor (Nef) is associated with numerous adverse effects in the CNS as well as cognitive impairments. In particular, emerging data indicate the consequences of Nef may be facilitated by the modulation of cellular autoph...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Restores HIV Tat-Mediated Impairment of Neurogenesis: Role of GSK-3 β/β-Catenin
We have now noticed that that the wrong western blot images of GSK-3 β was inadvertently included in Fig. 4C. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Independent and Combined Effects of Nicotine or Chronic Tobacco Smoking and HIV on the Brain: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies
AbstractTobacco smoking is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Chronic smokers with HIV showed greater cognitive deficits and impulsivity, and had more psychopathological symptoms and greater neuroinflammation than HIV non-smokers or smokers without HIV infection. However, preclinical studies that evaluated the combined effects of HIV-infection and tobacco smoking are scare. The preclinical models typically used cell cultures or animal models that involved specific HIV viral proteins or the administration of nicotine to rodents. These preclinical models consistently demonstrated that nicotine had neuroprotecti...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Can Cytokine Blocking Prevent Depression in COVID-19 Survivors?
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effect of Opioid Use on Immune Activation and HIV Persistence on ART
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Opioid-Mediated HIV-1 Immunopathogenesis
AbstractDespite the ability of combination antiretroviral therapy to dramatically suppress viremia, the brain continues to be a reservoir of HIV-1 low-level replication. Adding further complexity to this is the comorbidity of drug abuse with HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders and neuroHIV. Among several abused drugs, the use of opiates is highly prevalent in HIV-1 infected individuals, both as an abused drug as well as for pain management. Opioids and their receptors have attained notable attention owing to their ability to modulate immune functions, in turn, impacting disease progression. Various cell culture, anim...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: IL-17A Induces MIP-1 α Expression in Primary Astrocytes Via Src/MAPK/PI3K/NF-kB Pathways: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in Fig.  5B. The corrected Fig. 5 is given below. The authors declare that this amendment does not change the result or conclusion of the paper, and apologize for this oversight. (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - October 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Opioid Use on Immune Activation and HIV Persistence on ART
AbstractWhile there is an emerging consensus that engagement of the Mu opioid receptor by opioids may modulate various stages the HIV life cycle (e.g.: increasing cell susceptibility to infection, promoting viral transcription, and depressing immune responses to virally-infected cells), the overall effect on latency and viral reservoirs remains unclear. Importantly, the hypothesis that the increase in immune activation observed in chronic opioid users by direct or indirect mechanisms (i.e., microbial translocation) would lead to a larger HIV reservoir after ART-suppression has not been supported to date. The potential for ...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Emerging Roles of Perivascular Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Synovial Joint Inflammation
AbstractIn contrast to the significant advances in our understanding of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations in bone marrow (BM), little is known about the MSCs that are resident in the synovial joint and their possible roles in the tissue homeostasis, chronic inflammation as well as in repair. Neural crest is a transient embryonic structure, generating multipotential MSC capable of migrating along peripheral nerves and blood vessels to colonize most tissue types. In adult, these MSC can provide functional stromal support as a stem cell niche for lymphocyte progenitors for instance in the BM and the thymus. Critical...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Astaxanthin Improved the Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Via Selective Activation of mTOR
In conclusion, Ast acti vates the mTOR pathway, which is necessary for mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic plasticity, leading to improved learning and memory. Our results support the use of Ast for the treatment of cognitive deficits.Graphical abstractIn summary, Ast ameliorates cognitive deficits via facilitating the mTOR-dependent mitochondrial dynamics and synaptic damage, and reducing A β accumulation. This model supports the use of Ast for the treatment of cognitive deficits (Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methamphetamine and Cannabis: A Tale of Two Drugs and their Effects on HIV, Brain, and Behavior
AbstractHIV infection and drug use intersect epidemiologically, and their combination can result in complex effects on brain and behavior. The extent to which drugs affect the health of persons with HIV (PWH) depends on many factors including drug characteristics, use patterns, stage of HIV disease and its treatment, comorbid factors, and age. To consider the range of drug effects, we have selected two that are in common use by PWH: methamphetamine and cannabis. We compare the effects of methamphetamine with those of cannabis, to illustrate how substances may potentiate, worsen, or even buffer the effects of HIV on the CNS...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2: there Is Something More than D614G?
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mitochondria Regulate Inflammatory Paracrine Signalling in Neurodegeneration
AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction occurs in most neurodegenerative diseases, contributing  to both their onset and progression. A recent breakthrough unveiled that propagation of the inflammatory response and subsequent neuronal injury are also mediated extracellularly by damaged mitochondria, which are released from active microglial cells into the brain milieu. These extracellular  fragmented mitochondria can therefore generate sufficient toxicity to trigger neuronal death and widespread brain damage through activation of naïve astrocytes. Besides suggesting potential new pharmacol...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exogenous melatonin as potential adjuvant in anti-SarsCov2 vaccines
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reduction of Lewy Body Pathology by Oral Cinnamon
Abstractα-Synucleinopathies in a broader sense comprise of several neurodegenerative disorders that primarily include Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). These disorders are well characterized by the accumulation of aggregated insoluble α-synuclei n (α-syn) protein known as Lewy bodies. Till date no effective cure is available to reduce the burden of Lewy body. The present investigation underlines the importance of a naturally used spice and flavoring agent viz. cinnamon in reducing α-syn deposits in transgenic mice expressing mutant A53...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Opioid and neuroHIV Comorbidity – Current and Future Perspectives
AbstractWith the current national opioid crisis, it is critical to examine the mechanisms underlying pathophysiologic interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opioids in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent advances in experimental models, methodology, and our understanding of disease processes at the molecular and cellular levels reveal opioid-HIV interactions with increasing clarity. However, despite the substantial new insight, the unique impact of opioids on the severity, progression, and prognosis of neuroHIV and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not fully understood. In this re...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - September 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are Critical for Morphine Exacerbation of HIV-1 gp120-Induced Pain
AbstractMany HIV patients develop chronic pain and use opioid-derived medicine as primary analgesics. Emerging clinical evidence suggests that chronic use of opioid analgesics paradoxically heightens pain states in patients. This side effect of opioid analgesics has a significant negative impact on clinical practice, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains elusive. Using a mouse model of HIV-associated pain, we simulated the development of morphine exacerbation on pain and investigated potential underlying cellular and molecular pathways. We found that repeated morphine treatment promoted astrocyte activation in th...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antibodies from Multiple Sclerosis Brain Identified Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 & amp; 2 Epitopes which Are Recognized by Oligoclonal Bands
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), the etiology of which is poorly understood. The most common laboratory abnormality associated with MS is increased intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis and the presence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the major antigenic targets of these antibody responses are unknown. The risk of MS is increased after infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to EBV infection, and MS patients have higher serum titers of anti-EBV antibodies than control populations. Our goal w...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Sudden Death in Parkinson ’s Disease: a Missing Piece of the Jigsaw Puzzle
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Social Environment Ameliorates Behavioral and Immune Impairments in Tyrosine Hydroxylase Haploinsufficient Female Mice
AbstractThe social environment can influence the functional capacity of nervous and immune systems, and consequently the state of health, especially in aged individuals. Adult female tyrosine hydroxylase haploinsufficient (TH-HZ) mice exhibit behavioral impairments, premature immunosenescence and oxidative- inflammatory stress. All these deteriorations are associated with a lower lifespan than wild type (WT) counterparts. The aim was to analyze whether the cohabitation with WT animals could revert or at least ameliorate the deterioration in the nervous and immune systems that female TH-HZ mice show at adult age. Female TH-...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Stress Enhances Proinflammatory Platelet Activity: the Impact of Acute and Chronic Mental Stress
AbstractThe role of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis has long been recognized, recently their contribution to immunological and inflammatory processes is emerging. Platelets could be the missing link between cardiovascular disease, chronic stress and depressive symptoms. Both physical and mental stressors cause platelet activation reflected by changes in platelet bioactivity and aggregation. Here we evaluate the proinflammatory platelet response to acute and chronic mental stress. In a prospective study design an acute mental stress test was administered to 55 healthy male participants once without and once in the pr...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

JNIP Impact Factor Rise Is a Final Tribute to the Years of Impactful Service Made by our Managing Editor
(Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - August 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lipid Profile Alterations during Fingolimod Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
AbstractFingolimod reduces inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) by acting as a functional antagonist of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. It has been suggested that S1P might also contribute to the antiatherogenic effect of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We conducted a retrospective observational study using data of 72 MS patients from two Finnish hospital districts to find out whether lipid profiles change during treatment with fingolimod. A mixed-effects model with patient as a random effect was used to analyze lipid profile alterations. We found a statistically significant elevation in both total cho...
Source: Journal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology - July 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research