Agent Orange Exposure and Dementia Diagnosis in US Veterans of the Vietnam Era
This study examines the association between Agent Orange exposure and incident dementia diagnosis among US veterans who served in the Vietnam era. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Omission of Group Information
This article was corrected online. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Absent BOLD fMRI Activation of Orbitofrontal Cortex in a Patient With Persistent Cacosmia and Cacogeusia After COVID-19
This case report describes absent blood oxygen level –dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation of the orbitofrontal cortex in a 25-year-old woman with persistent cacosmia and cacogeusia after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Error in Figure and Table
This article has been corrected online. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Atabecestat in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the short-term effects of atabecestat in preclinical Alzheimer disease. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Interventions and Symptom Reduction for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
This systematic review examines studies of pharmacological interventions to assess their associations with symptom burden reduction among patients with mild traumatic brain injury and to identify directions for future research that may aid in clinical decision-making. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prediction of Early Neurological Deterioration in Minor Stroke and LVO Intended for Intravenous Thrombolysis
This cohort study aims to develop and validate an easily applicable predictive score of early neurological deterioration of presumed ischemic origin following intravenous thrombolysis in patients with minor stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO). (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood Phosphorylated Tau181, Neurofilament Light Chain, and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease
This cohort study uses data from the Alzheimer ’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study to investigate if blood-based biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression of Alzheimer disease neurodegeneration. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adolescent-Onset and Adult-Onset Vitamin-Responsive Neurogenetic Diseases
This narrative review describes adolescent-onset and adult-onset vitamin-responsive neurogenetic diseases, their underlying biology, and their treatments. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Presentation, Investigation Findings, and Treatment Outcomes of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome
This systematic review and meta-analysis provides an objective summary of the available evidence on the clinical presentation, investigations findings, and treatment outcomes for spontaneous intracranial hypotension. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identifying the Distinct Cognitive Phenotypes in Multiple Sclerosis
This cross-sectional study presents a data-driven classification of cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Future Is P-Tau —Anticipating Direct-to-Consumer Alzheimer Disease Blood Tests
This Viewpoint describes the benefits and challenges offered by emerging direct-to-consumer tests for Alzheimer disease through measurement of blood levels of phosphorylated tau. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

JAMA Neurology
Mission Statement: The mission of JAMA Neurology is to publish scientific information primarily important for those physicians caring for people with neurologic disorders but also for those interested in the structure and function of the normal and diseased nervous system. These specific aims are (1) to make timely publication of original research of the nervous system, (2) to record observations of single patients or groups of patients that will provide new information and insights, (3) to report more basic research that is pertinent to the understanding of disease, (4) to introduce topics of practice, ethics, teaching, a...
Source: JAMA Neurology - January 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilateral Vagus Nerve Enhancement in a Patient With Leptomeningeal Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Presenting with Intractable Hiccups
This case report describes a 73-year-old man who presented with intractable hiccups and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of Motor Skill Training vs Strength and Flexibility Exercise on Function in Chronic Low Back Pain
This randomized clinical trial investigates whether an exercise-based treatment of person-specific motor skill training (MST) in performance of functional activities is more effective in improving function than strength and flexibility exercise immediately, 6 months, and 12 months following treatment. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Carotid Physiology and Neck Restraints in Law Enforcement
This Viewpoint reviews the potential neurologic sequelae of any restriction of blood flow or oxygen to the brain and calls for a radical examination on the safety or appropriateness of use of neck restraints by law enforcement. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Error in Figure
This article has been corrected online. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bilateral Temporal Pole Involvement in Adult-Onset X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy
This case report describes a 42-year-old man with difficulties in ambulation, intermittent bowel incontinence, cognitive impairment, emotional fluctuation, and impotence. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Add-On Cannabidiol Treatment for Drug-Resistant Seizures in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex
This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluates the safety of 2 dosages of cannabidiol for treatment of seizures in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Assessment of Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for Dystonic Hand Tremor
This randomized clinical trial assesses the effect of botulinum neurotoxin injections on tremor in patients with upper-extremity dystonic tremor. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perils of Race-Based Norms in Cognitive Testing
This Viewpoint explains the practice and perils of using race-adjusted norms and proposes a new approach that could replace the current standard in the National Football League. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Nilotinib in Patients With Moderately Advanced Parkinson Disease
This randomized clinical trial assesses safety and tolerability of nilotinib in participants with moderately advanced Parkinson disease. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Diagnosis of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis From the Imaging Perspective
This narrative review addresses clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging in progressive multiple sclerosis for diagnosis and prognosis. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association Between Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Administration and Outcomes of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
This cohort study investigates the mortality and functional outcomes of individuals who received a prehospital dose of tranexamic acid for suspected severe traumatic brain injury. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Joy, Suffering, and the Goals of Medicine
This Viewpoint describes the importance of considering joy in the treatment of patients, particularly those with insurmountable or terminal diseases. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optic Neuritis Incidence and Prevalence and Association With Systemic and Neurologic Disease
This cohort study estimates 22-year trends in optic neuritis prevalence and incidence and association with immune-mediated inflammatory disease in the United Kingdom. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Toward a Smoother Rocky Road
This essay reflects on the author ’s experiences as a woman in the male-dominated field of biomedical research and her hopes for the future of this field. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interpreting Biomarker Data After Concussion and Repeated Subconcussive Head Impacts
This Viewpoint provides a critique of diffusion tensor imaging data used to evaluate the efficacy of a jugular compression collar. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Omitted Related Publication and Acknowledgment
In the Original Investigation, “Neurologic and Radiographic Findings Associated With COVID-19 Infection in Children,” published online July 1, 2020, the authors had neglected to report that 4 of the patients in this study had been included in a previously published study of a cohort of 58 children. In addition, the authors ha d omitted the following individuals from the Acknowledgment section for their input into the clinical care of the patients described in this study: Drs Mark Peters, Mae Johnson, Andrew Jones, Andy Petros, Christine Pierce, Emma Borrows, Joe Brierley, Pascale du Pre’, Quen Mok, Samira...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood Pressure Thresholds During Endovascular Therapy in Ischemic Stroke
To the Editor We read with interest the article by Rasmussen et al associating blood pressure (BP) thresholds and neurologic outcomes after endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Although a case might be made for a floor threshold of mean arterial BP (MABP) of 70 mm Hg, we question the authors ’ conclusion that the outcomes of the Sedation vs Intubation for Endovascular Stroke Treatment (SIESTA), Anesthesia During Stroke (ANSTROKE), and General or Local Anesthesia in Intra-Arterial Therapy (GOLIATH) trials argue for an MABP of 90 mm Hg as a ceiling threshold for targeting procedural BP. Concerning the potent...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood Pressure Thresholds During Endovascular Therapy in Ischemic Stroke —Reply
In Reply We thank Sun et al for their interest in our study and questions regarding our findings suggesting that a procedural mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) greater than 90 mm Hg for a period of more than 45 minutes (with a number needed to harm of 10 patients) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. It is not entirely correct to state that the SIESTA, ANSTROKE, and GOLIATH trials argue for an MABP of 90 mm Hg as a ceiling threshold. Our study is a post hoc analysis of observational blood pressure (BP) data from the 3 trials in which patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion in the anterior cir...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Air Pollution, Cardiovascular Disease, and Dementia
This study makes a major contribution to scientific knowledge about the associations of air pollution with dementia risk. The findings of mediation or effect measures modifying the roles of cardiovascular disease (CVD) not onl y provide mechanistic insights and identify more vulnerable populations, but will also have public health implications concerning the potential effectiveness of intervening on CVD to improve dementia risk among adults with high exposure. The study was well conducted. However, we have some concerns r egarding the validity of the claims that CVD is a mediator because of (1) the selection of confounders...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Air Pollution, Cardiovascular Disease, and Dementia
To the Editor In a recent issue, Grande et al contribute to an emerging body of evidence suggesting that exposure to air pollution may increase the risk of dementia. The authors reported that elevated long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particles is linked to an increased risk of dementia, which is aligned with prior research. They also examined the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) subtypes as effect modifiers and intermediates in this association, building on previous findings. The authors reported evidence of outcome heterogeneity by heart failure and ischemic heart disease and mediation by stroke. Evalua...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Air Pollution, Cardiovascular Disease, and Dementia —Reply
In Reply We are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the issues raised by Ilango and Shaffer and Inoue and colleagues. We would like to express our appreciation for their interest in our study. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

JAMA Neurology
Mission Statement: The mission of JAMA Neurology is to publish scientific information primarily important for those physicians caring for people with neurologic disorders but also for those interested in the structure and function of the normal and diseased nervous system. These specific aims are (1) to make timely publication of original research of the nervous system, (2) to record observations of single patients or groups of patients that will provide new information and insights, (3) to report more basic research that is pertinent to the understanding of disease, (4) to introduce topics of practice, ethics, teaching, a...
Source: JAMA Neurology - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Error in P Value in Abstract and Results
The Original Investigation titled “Microbleeds and the Effect of Anticoagulation in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source: An Exploratory Analysis of the NAVIGATE ESUS Randomized Clinical Trial,” published online October 19, 2020, was corrected to fix an erroneous P value in the Abstract and the Results section. Th is article was corrected online. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Self-driven Prehospital Triage Decisions for Suspected Stroke
Setting the course for prehospital triage of patients with suspected stroke is challenging. Few would disagree, and to be frank, this is rather old news. Yet the critical question remains unsolved: how do we optimally drive prehospital triage decisions for patients with suspected stroke? Central to this question is the challenge of identifying stroke specifically due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the prehospital setting. Furthermore, the “best choice” among the various prehospital LVO screening tools available has not been clear. Although several versions have been developed, many had not been validated in...
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sankofa —Highlighting Legacy in the Pursuit of Equity for Dementia Science
Over 5 million Americans currently live with dementia, and it represents the sixth leading cause of death in the US. In 2020, dementia will cost the nation $305 billion, and by the year 2050, these costs could rise to $1.1 trillion. Importantly, 16 million Americans provide unpaid care to persons with dementia, which strains important social networks, communities, neighborhoods, and families. Given that there is no available treatment to cure or slow progression of the disease, the effect of dementia on a US society —where all people are living longer—is and will be substantial. Moreover, the circumstance that ...
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Amyloid PET Positivity in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment
This cross-sectional study examines how environmental risk factors, such as air quality, affect Alzheimer disease or dementia pathology. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prehospital Prediction of Large Anterior Vessel Occlusion
This cohort study performs external validations, head-to-head comparisons, and feasibility ratings of 7 scales used by emergency medical services in the field to predict symptomatic large anterior vessel occlusion among patients suspected of acute stroke. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Non-Hispanic Black and White Individuals in the US
This cohort study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to assess for changes in racial disparities in Alzheimer dementia prevalence and incidence among non-Hispanic Black and White individuals in the US from 2000 to 2016. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Possible Consequences of the Approval of a Disease-Modifying Therapy for Alzheimer Disease
This Viewpoint discusses considerations of a disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer disease and significant challenges for Alzheimer disease clinical practice and research. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Errors in Table 2 and Table 3
This article was corrected online. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Error in Data in Abstract
This article was correc ted online. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of Ezogabine on Cortical and Spinal Motor Neuron Excitability in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
This randomized clinical trial examines the use of clinical neurophysiological metrics of excitability as pharmacodynamic biomarkers in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

What Caring for My Aging Parents Taught Me That Medical Education Did Not
This essay describes the author ’s experience caring for his elderly parents and offers tips to others who are or will be caring for their parents as they age. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Middle-Aged Woman With Severe Scoliosis and Encephalopathy
A 42-year-old woman presented with clinical features of microcephaly, short stature, intellectual disability, severe degree of scoliosis, gait abnormality, and encephalopathy. What is your diagnosis? (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hyperacute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage During Computed Tomography Scanning
This case report describes a man who experienced a hyperacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage when a computed tomography scan was underway. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rapid Progress Toward Reliable Blood Tests for Alzheimer Disease
One of the most important advances in Alzheimer disease (AD) clinical research in the past 2 decades has been the development of biomarkers that detect amyloid- β (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles in vivo with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assays or positron emission tomography (PET). Coupled with imaging or fluid-based markers of brain structural and functional integrity, these biomarkers allow researchers to capture the 3 key features of AD: amyl oid plaques, tau neurofibrillary tangles, and neurodegeneration in living people (Figure). One of the most important insights from biomarker studies in AD is th...
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma Phospho-Tau217 Levels and Tau-PET in Early Alzheimer Disease
This cohort study compares plasma levels of phosphorylated tau at threonine 217 with established cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography (PET) tau biomarkers in early Alzheimer disease. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Source: JAMA Neurology - November 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research