Response
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Response Source Type: research

The Overlooked Role of Fiber Length in Mechanical Load-Induced Growth of Skeletal Muscle
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Letter To The Editor Source Type: research

Transcallosal Control of Bilateral Actions
The corpus callosum is an important neural structure for controlling and coordinating bilateral movements of the upper limbs; however, there remains a substantial lack of knowledge regarding its association with lower limb control. We argue that transcallosal structure is an integral neural mechanism underlying control of the lower limbs and callosal degradation is a key contributor to mobility declines. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Macrophage Regulation of Muscle Regrowth From Disuse in Aging
Skeletal muscle immune cells, such as macrophages, are necessary for proper regrowth after muscle disuse. We suggest that the important role of macrophages concerning muscle regrowth after disuse is divergent compared with young mice (i.e., dysregulated) during the recovery period. Modulation of macrophages may be a promising future therapeutic target to enhance the impaired muscle growth during recovery from disuse in older adults. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Exoskeletons Improve Locomotion Economy by Reducing Active Muscle Volume
Exoskeletons that improve locomotion economy typically are engineered to reduce users’ limb joint mechanical work or moments. Yet, limb joint dynamics do not necessarily reflect muscle dynamics, which dictate whole-body metabolic energy expenditure. Here, we hypothesize that exoskeletons primarily reduce user metabolic energy expenditure across locomotion conditions by reducing active muscle volume. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Overuse Injury: The Result of Pathologically Altered Myofascial Force Transmission?
Overuse injuries are suggested to result from repetitive microdamage eliciting pain in the affected tissue. Therapy commonly focuses on the area of symptom localization; however, such approach may oversimplify the true etiopathology. This review hypothesizes that the development of some sports-related soft tissue disorders, such as plantar fasciitis or lumbago, is promoted by pathologically altered force transmission from anatomically connected structures. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Training-Induced Neural Plasticity and Strength Are Amplified After Stroke
Following stroke, sensorimotor brain networks and descending regulation are compromised but spinal interlimb neural connections remain morphologically intact. After cross-education strength and locomotion training, amplified neural plasticity and functional responses are observed in chronic stroke compared with neurologically intact participants. We hypothesize that poststroke neuroplasticity is amplified because of the involvement of interlimb neural connections that persist from our quadrupedal ancestry. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Carbohydrate Availability as a Regulator of Energy Balance With Exercise
We explore the novel hypothesis that carbohydrate availability is involved in the regulation of energy balance with exercise, via hormonal and neural signals. We propose that carbohydrate availability could play a direct mechanistic role and partially explain previously documented relations between a more active lifestyle and tighter control of energy balance. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

A Framework to Evaluate Devices That Assess Physical Behavior
Body-worn devices that estimate physical behavior have tremendous potential to address key research gaps. However, there is no consensus on how devices and processing methods should be developed and evaluated, resulting in large differences in summary estimates and confusion for end users. We propose a phase-based framework for developing and evaluating devices that emphasizes robust validation studies in naturalistic conditions. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspectives for Progress Source Type: research

Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport: A Focus on Scientific Rigor
We examine the scientific evidence supporting The Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) syndromes. More research is necessary to advance the understanding of both syndromes; however, it is premature to consider RED-S as an evidence-based syndrome. Future research should specifically define RED-S components, determine its clinical relevance, and establish the causality of relative energy deficiency on RED-S outcomes. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspectives for Progress Source Type: research

Priscilla M. Clarkson 2019 Undergraduate Travel Award
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 18, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: 2019 Undergraduate Travel Award Source Type: research

Resistance Exercise-Induced Hypertrophy: A Potential Role for Rapamycin-Insensitive mTOR
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) exerts both rapamycin-sensitive and rapamycin-insensitive signaling events, and the rapamycin-sensitive components of mTOR signaling have been widely implicated in the pathway through which resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. This review explores the hypothesis that rapamycin-insensitive components of mTOR signaling also contribute to this highly important process. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Using Integrated Research-Practice Partnerships to Move Evidence-Based Principles Into Practice
The implementation of evidence-based physical activity interventions is improved when integrated research-practice partnerships are used. These partnerships consider both research- and practice-based evidence that moves beyond only assessing program efficacy. Our novel hypothesis is that integrated research-practice partnerships may lead to interventions that are practical and effective, reach more participants, and are more likely to be sustained in practice. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

The Panacea of Human Aging: Calorie Restriction Versus Exercise
Primary aging is the progressive decline in health and fitness and depends on metabolic rate and oxidative stress. Untoward changes in body composition and metabolic function characterize secondary aging. We hypothesize that both exercise and calorie restriction (CR) improve secondary aging, but only CR improves primary. However, CR followed with exercise is a superior strategy to maintain overall health and quality of life with age. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

A Principle of Neuromechanical Matching for Motor Unit Recruitment in Human Movement
We describe a principle of motor unit recruitment by neuromechanical matching due to mechanisms in the spinal cord that sculpt descending drive to motoneurons. This principle may be applicable to movements in nonrespiratory muscles. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Exercise-Induced Mitophagy in Skeletal Muscle and Heart
Regular exercise enhances mitochondrial function by promoting healthy mitochondrial remodeling, but the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. An emerging hypothesis suggests that, in addition to anabolic events such as mitochondria biogenesis, the selective degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria (i.e., mitophagy) also is a key component of exercise-mediated adaptations in striated muscle, which eventually leads to better mitochondrial functions. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Pulmonary System Influence the Integrative Response to Exercise
Healthy women have proportionally smaller lungs and airways compared with height-matched men. These anatomical sex-based differences result in greater mechanical ventilatory constraints and may influence the integrative response to exercise. Our review will examine this hypothesis in healthy humans in the context of dynamic whole-body exercise. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Arterial Baroreflex Resetting During Exercise in Humans: Underlying Signaling Mechanisms
The arterial baroreflex (ABR) resets during exercise in an intensity-dependent manner to operate around a higher blood pressure with maintained sensitivity. This review provides a historical perspective of ABR resetting and the involvement of other neural reflexes in mediating exercise resetting. Furthermore, we discuss potential underlying signaling mechanisms that may contribute to exercise ABR resetting in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspective for Progress Source Type: research

Moving Research Translation on Physical Activity to Center Stage
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - June 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Commentary to Accompany Source Type: research

Regulation of Body Temperature by Autonomic and Behavioral Thermoeffectors
Thermoregulation is accomplished via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses may influence decisions to behaviorally thermoregulate. For instance, in addition to changes in body temperature, skin wettedness and involuntary muscle contraction, which occur subsequent to sweating and shivering, likely modulate thermal behavior. This autonomic-behavioral interaction provides the rationale for our hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior decreases the requirement for autonomic responses. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Muscle Fiber Splitting Is a Physiological Response to Extreme Loading in Animals
Skeletal muscle fiber branching and splitting typically is associated with damage and regeneration and is considered pathological when observed during loading-induced hypertrophy. We hypothesize that fiber splitting is a nonpathological component of extreme loading and hypertrophy, which is primarily supported by evidence in animals, and propose that the mechanisms and consequences of fiber splitting deserve further exploration. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Considering Type 1 Diabetes as a Form of Accelerated Muscle Aging
Recent evidence reveals impairments to skeletal muscle health in adolescent/young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interestingly, the observed changes in T1D are not unlike aged muscle, particularly, the alterations to mitochondria. Thus, we put forth the novel hypothesis that T1D may be considered a condition of accelerated muscle aging and that, similar to aging, mitochondrial dysfunction is a primary contributor to this complication. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis During Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
An increase in ribosomal capacity is a hallmark of the hypertrophying muscle. We review evidence demonstrating that transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is necessary for the increase in ribosomal capacity, and this is critical for muscle growth in human and animal models of hypertrophy. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

mHealth Interventions for Exercise and Risk Factor Modification in Cardiovascular Disease
Exercise and lifestyle risk factor management are critical for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease but are poorly adhered to. Mobile health interventions could enhance engagement; however, a one-size intervention approach cannot meet the needs of all people. We hypothesize a unifying digital platform that enables choice from a suite of evidence-based programs will enhance access, delivery, and engagement. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Exercise and the Gut Microbiome: A Review of the Evidence, Potential Mechanisms, and Implications for Human Health
The gastrointestinal tract contains trillions of microbes (collectively known as the gut microbiota) that play essential roles in host physiology and health. Studies from our group and others have demonstrated that exercise independently alters the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiota. Here, we review what is known about the gut microbiota, how it is studied, and how it is influenced by exercise training and discuss the potential mechanisms and implications for human health and disease. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspectives for Progress Source Type: research

Exercise and Vascular Insulin Sensitivity in the Skeletal Muscle and Brain
We present the hypothesis that exercise-induced hyperemia, perhaps through vascular shear stress, represents an important factor responsible for the effects of physical activity (PA) on vascular insulin sensitivity. Specifically, we postulate PA involving the greatest amount of skeletal muscle mass and the greatest central neural recruitment maximizes perfusion and consequently enhances vascular insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle and brain. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspectives for Progress Source Type: research

Insulin at the Crossroads of Metabolic, Neurologic, and Vasculature Disease
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Commentaries to Accompany Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Linking Type 1 Diabetes and Sarcopenia
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Commentaries to Accompany Source Type: research

The Importance of mTOR Trafficking for Human Skeletal Muscle Translational Control
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of muscle protein synthesis, and its activation has long been attributed to its translocation to the lysosome. Here, we present a novel model of mTOR activation in skeletal muscle where the translocation of mTOR and the lysosome toward the cell membrane is a key process in mTOR activation. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - January 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Raising an Active and Healthy Generation: A Comprehensive Public Health Initiative
Physical activity (PA) provides important health benefits to youth, but most U.S. children and adolescents fail to meet federal PA guidelines. The purpose of this article is to present a plan for a large-scale public health initiative aimed at producing population-level increases in PA among U.S. youth. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - January 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspective for Progress Source Type: research

Estrogens Are for More Than Just Reproductive Endocrinology
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - January 1, 2019 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Commentary to Accompany Source Type: research

Promoting Exercise Adherence Through Groups: A Self-Categorization Theory Perspective
The hypothesis presented in this paper is that adherence to exercise programs can be understood, and fostered through intervention, by considering how social identities form within group settings. This paper explains these processes from a self-categorization theory perspective. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

The Importance of mTOR Trafficking for Human Skeletal Muscle Translational Control
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of muscle protein synthesis, and its activation has long been attributed to its translocation to the lysosome. Here, we present a novel model of mTOR activation in skeletal muscle where the translocation of mTOR and the lysosome toward the cell membrane is a key process in mTOR activation. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Statistical Considerations for Exercise Protocols Aimed at Measuring Trainability
The individual response to exercise training is of great interest with methods that have been proposed to measure this response reviewed in this paper. However, individual training response estimates may be biased by various sources of variability present in exercise studies, and in particular by within-subject variability. We propose the use of protocols that can separate trainability from within-subject variability. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Protein Metabolism in Active Youth: Not Just Little Adults
Understanding how exercise and dietary protein alter the turnover and synthesis of body proteins in youth can provide guidelines for the optimal development of lean mass. This review hypothesizes that active youth obtain similar anabolic benefits from exercise and dietary protein as adults, but the requirement for amino acids to support growth renders them more sensitive to these nutrients. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Syncing Exercise With Meals and Circadian Clocks
Circadian rhythms, meals, and exercise modulate energy metabolism. This review explores the novel hypothesis that there is an optimal time of day to exercise to improve 24 h glycemia and lipemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Athletes With Versus Without Leg Amputations: Different Biomechanics, Similar Running Economy
Athletes with transtibial amputations use carbon-fiber prostheses to run. Compared with biological legs, these devices differ in structure and function, and consequently yield affected leg running biomechanics that are theoretically more economical than those of nonamputees. However, experimental data indicate that athletes with unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputations exhibit running economy values that are well within the range of nonamputee values. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Raising an Active and Healthy Generation: A Comprehensive Public Health Initiative
Physical activity (PA) provides important health benefits to youth, but most U.S. children and adolescents fail to meet federal PA guidelines. The purpose of this article is to present a plan for a large-scale public health initiative aimed at producing population-level increases in PA among U.S. youth. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspective for Progress Source Type: research

Estrogens Are for More Than Just Reproductive Endocrinology
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Commentary to Accompany Source Type: research

From the Editor
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Response
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

“Live High-Train Low” Paradigm: Moving the Debate Forward
No abstract available (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Exercise and Bariatric Surgery: An Effective Therapeutic Strategy
The long-term efficacy of bariatric surgery is not entirely clear, and weight regain and diabetes relapse are problems for some patients. Exercise is a feasible and clinically effective adjunct therapy for bariatric surgery patients. We hypothesize that exercise is also a critical factor for long-term weight loss maintenance and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Dietary Nitrate Enhances the Contractile Properties of Human Skeletal Muscle
We present the hypothesis that this is due to nitrosylation of the ryanodine receptor and increased NO signaling via the soluble guanyl cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-protein kinase G pathway, which together increase the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration along with the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments themselves. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Resistance Exercise’s Ability to Reverse Cancer-Induced Anabolic Resistance
Skeletal muscle has the dynamic capability to modulate protein turnover in response to anabolic stimuli, such as feeding and contraction. We propose that anabolic resistance, the suppressed ability to induce protein synthesis, is central to cancer-induced muscle wasting. Furthermore, we propose that resistance exercise training has the potential to attenuate or treat cancer-induced anabolic resistance through improvements in oxidative metabolism. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Performance Fatigability Is Not Regulated to A Peripheral Critical Threshold
The critical threshold hypothesis proposes that performance fatigability during high-intensity exercise is tightly regulated by negative-feedback signals from the active muscles. We propose that performance fatigability is simply dependent on the exercise mode and intensity; the consequent adjustments, in skeletal muscle and the other physiological systems that support exercise, interact to modulate fatigue and determine exercise tolerance. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Modulation of Energy Expenditure by Estrogens and Exercise in Women
Reducing estrogen in women results in decreases in energy expenditure, but the mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. We postulate that the loss of estrogens in women is associated with increased accumulation of bone marrow–derived adipocytes in white adipose tissue, decreased activity of brown adipose tissue, and reduced levels of physical activity. Regular exercise may counteract the effects of estrogen deficiency. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Modeling Overuse Injuries in Sport as a Mechanical Fatigue Phenomenon
This paper postulates that overuse injury in sport is a biomechanical event resulting from the mechanical fatigue of biological tissue. A theoretical foundation and operational framework necessary to model overuse injury as a mechanical fatigue phenomenon is introduced. Adopting this framework may provide a more mechanistic understanding of overuse injury and inform training and preventive strategies to reduce their occurrence. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Exercise on Cognition and Brain Health in Older Adults
Accelerated trajectories of cognitive decline in older adults may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD). Physical activity has potential modifying effects on these changes that could prevent or delay ADRD. This review explores the hypothesis that multiple, mutually complimentary, and interacting factors explain the positive association between exercise and the optimization of cognition in older adults. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Articles Source Type: research

The Renin-Angiotensin System and Skeletal Muscle
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the control of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Emerging evidence also reveals that hyperactivity of the RAS contributes to skeletal muscle wasting. This review discusses the key role that the RAS plays in skeletal muscle wasting due to congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and ventilator-induced diaphragmatic wasting. (Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews)
Source: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - September 15, 2018 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Perspective for Progress Source Type: research