The epitome of novel techniques and targeting approaches in drug delivery for treating lymphatic filariasis.
Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is one of the oldest and debilitating health problems for human beings. Currently, 856 million people in 52 countries worldwide affected by lymphatic filariasis. It is a parasitic disease with initial clinical manifestations like the presence of high fever with or without rigors. It is associated with swelling and inflammation of the arms and legs, which can provoke elephantiasis and hydrocele which ultimately causes damage and dysfunction of the lymphatic system. Many drugs and natural compounds have demonstrated conniving filaricidal action against the target parasitic species, the ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shrivastava S, Gupta A, Kaur CD Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Drugs or mechanical devices for obstructive LUTS?
Abstract Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostate obstruction (BPO), afflict a very large part of the population on a global scale. Urologists confront patients with a diversity of BPH-related symptoms in their daily practice. For years, the cornerstone of obstructive BPH treatment consisted of mostly medical and to a lesser extend surgical therapies. However and while medical treatment has come to a standstill, over the last decade, new minimally invasive surgical therapies (MISTs) have emerged, conferring several possible advantages over conventional transurethral resection of the prostat...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Symeonidis EN, Sountoulides P Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor: Promising target for schizophrenia.
In conclusion, the FGF family represent molecular candidates as new drug targets and treatment targets for schizophrenia. PMID: 32598256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Talaei A, Farkhondeh T, Forouzanfar F Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Challenges and New Therapeutic Approaches in the Management of Chronic Wounds.
Abstract Chronic non-healing wounds are estimated to cost the US healthcare $28-$31 billion per year. Diabetic ulcers, arterial and venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers are some of the most common types of chronic wounds. The burden of chronic wounds continues to rise due to the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes and the increase in elderly adults in the population who are more vulnerable to chronic wounds than younger individuals. This patient population is also highly vulnerable to debilitating infections caused by opportunistic and multi-drug resistant pathogens. Reduced microcirculation, decreased availabi...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun H, Pulakat L, Anderson DW Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

A Glance on the Role of Bacterial Siderophore from the Perspectives of Medical and Biotechnological Approaches.
l F Abstract Iron, which is described as the most basic component found in nature, is hard to be assimilated by microorganisms. It has become increasingly complicated to obtain iron from nature as iron (II) in the presence of oxygen oxidized to press (III) oxide and hydroxide, becoming unsolvable at neutral pH. Microorganisms appeared to produce organic molecules known as siderophores in order to overcome this condition. Siderophore's essential function is to connect with iron (II) and make it dissolvable and enable cell absorption. These siderophores, apart from iron particles, have the ability to chelate various...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: AlMatar M, Albarri O, Makky EA, Var I, Köksal F Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolones: Blessings Or Curses.
Abstract Fluoroquinolones are one of the world's most valuable and popularly used categories of antimicrobial agents. This paper attempts to review the substantial progress of fluoroquinolones from its discovery to black box warning. Antibiotic drug choice will remain difficult in the presence of increasing resistance, but introduction of the fluoroquinolones has created a new and exciting era in antimicrobial treatment. These are a synthetic heterogeneous group of compounds used in both hospital and community practices to treat numerous severe infections. The era of quinolone antibiotics began with the serendipit...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Majalekar PP, Shirote PJ Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Berberine Administration in Treatment of Colitis: A Review.
Abstract Berberine (Brb) is one of the well-known naturally occurring compounds exclusively found in Berberis vulgaris and other members of this family such as Berberis aristata, Berberis aroatica, and Berberis aquifolium. This plant-derived natural compound has a variety of therapeutic impacts including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and antitumor. Multiple studies have demonstrated that Brb has great anti-inflammatory activity and is capable of reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while it enhances the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines making it suitable for the treatmen...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ashrafizadeh M, Najafi M, Mohammadinejad R, Farkhondeh T, Samarghandia S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant strategies before radical prostatectomy for high risk prostate cancer in the era of new hormonal agents.
Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is a hormone dependent disease including several different patterns from indolent and clinically meaningless to aggressive and lethal disease. Among non-metastatic PCa, high-risk disease represents a therapeutically challenge, given the unfavorable oncological outcomes after exclusive local therapy. Deprivation therapy in the neoadjuvant setting is not recommended prior to radical prostatectomy since it did not provide any survival advantage, although reducing tumor volume, surgical margins rate, local and nodal stage. However, in the few recent years, new hormonal treatments for met...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tafuri A, Cerruto MA, Antonelli A Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Intravesical Botox for overactive bladder; how to minimize complications and manage failures.
Abstract Intravesical Botox has become a widespread treatment for patients with refractory overactive bladder. Further to its acknowledged efficacy, both physicians and patients must be fully aware of possible complications, such as urinary tract infections, incomplete bladder emptying or even urinary retention and possible need for intermittent selfcatheterizations, fatigue, muscle weakness, transient hematuria and autonomic dysreflexia. Careful patient selection, particularly in terms of comorbidities, caution with technical aspects of the procedure such as the use of fine specifically designed injection needles...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Apostolidis A, Papaefstathiou E, Gatsos S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Facts and myths: Efficacies of repurposing chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19.
Abstract The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The 2019-nCoV first broke out in Wuhan and subsequently spreads worldwide owing to its extreme transmission efficiency. The fact that the COVID-19 cases and mortalities are reported in globally and the WHO has declared this outbreak as the pandemic. The international health authorities have focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as search for therapies able to counter the disease severity. Due to the lack of known specific, effective and proven therapies as well as the situation ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Al-Bari MAA Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss and their Regulation by Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
Abstract Noise exposure (NE) has been recognized as one of the causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); which can bring about irreversible damage to sensory hair cells in the cochlea, through the launch of oxidative stress pathways and inflammation. Accordingly, determining molecular mechanism involved in regulating hair cell apoptosis via NE is essential to prevent hair cell damage. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in degeneration of sensory cells of the cochlea during NE has not been so far uncovered. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to demonstrate the regulatory role of miRNAs in oxidative st...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Forouzanfar F, Asgharzade S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Characteristic of Cyclodextrins: their role and use in the pharmaceutical technology.
Abstract About 40% of newly-discovered entities are poorly soluble in water, and this may be an obstacle in the creation of new drugs. To address this problem, the present review article examines the structure and properties of cyclodextrins and the formation and potential uses of drug - cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides containing six or more D-(+)-glucopyranose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds which are characterized by a favourable toxicological profile, low local toxicity and low mucous and eye irritability; they are virtually non-toxic when administered or...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lachowicz M, Stańczak A, Kołodziejczyk M Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

A review on emerging drug targets in treatment of schizophrenia.
Abstract Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, highly complex behavioral and cognitive disorder caused by disruptions of neurotransmitters in the brain, consequently affecting its functioning. The disorder is known to affect approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide. Antipsychotics used in the treatment have considerable drawbacks as they primarily aim to alleviate the positive symptoms of different aspects of the disorder and fail to treat the negative and cognitive symptoms. Considering the poor functional outcome of conventional antipsychotic therapy, the recent development of effective targets is of clin...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ved HS, Doshi GM Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Rediscovering Tocophersolan: a renaissance for nano-based drug delivery and nanotheranostic applications.
Abstract As a unique and pleiotropic polymer, d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Tocophersolan) is a polymeric synthetic version of vitamin E. Tocophersolan has attracted enormous attention as a versatile excipient in different biomedical applications including drug delivery systems and nutraceuticals. The multiple inherent properties of Tocophersolan make it play flexible roles in drug delivery system design, including excipients with outstanding biocompatibility, solubilizer with the ability of promoting drug dissolution, drug permeation enhancer, P-glycoprotein inhibitor and anticancer compound. ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wande DP, Cui Q, Chen S, Xu C, Xiong H, Yao J Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Abstract The carcinogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) results from a complex series of events. Chronic inflammation and infections are crucial in this context. Infiltrating M2 type macrophages, as well as neutrophils and T lymphocytes, contribute to PCa development, progression and response to therapy. The preliminary findings on the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with PCa were not encouraging. However, a series of studies investigating anti-PD-L1 agents such as Atezolizumab, Avelumab and Durvalumab used alone or in combination with other immunotherapies, chemotherapy or loco-regional approaches are in cours...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Santoni M, Massari F, Cheng L, Cimadamore A, Scarpelli M, Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Present Scenario Of M-Cell Targeting Ligands For Oral Mucosal Immunization.
Abstract The immune system plays an important role in the prevention of infection and forms the first line of defense against pathogen attack. Delivering of antigen through mucosal route may elicit mucosal immune system as the mucosal surface is the most common site of pathogen entry. Mucosal immune system will be capable to counter pathogen at mucosal surface. Oral mucosal immunization opens the ways to deliver antigens at gut-associated lymphoid tissue. This can elicit both local and systemic immune response. Mucosal vaccines are economical, highly accessible, non parenteral delivery and capacity to produce mass...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saraf S, Jain S, Sahoo RN, Mallick S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: current concepts and future challenges.
Abstract Dysbiosis has been repeatedly observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is now recognized as an essential factor in the gut inflammatory process. IBD is a significant burden to health-care systems, mainly due to treatment-related costs. Available treatments have several limitations: up to 30% of patients are primary non-responders, and between 10 and 20% lose response per year, requiring a dose-escalation or a switch to another biologic. Hence, the current IBD treatment is not sufficient, and there is an urgent need to introduce new therapies in the management of these patients. Recently, the corre...
Source: Current Drug Targets - June 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zatorsk H, Nakov R Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Current and future prospective of a versatile moiety: Imidazole.
Abstract Imidazole containing compounds have been a very much explored field since ancient times. Subsequently, it constitutes a significant moiety for the new drug development. A variety of compounds having imidazole moiety have been synthesized, evaluated and marketed for the treatment of various diseases such as antifungal, antiepileptic, ACE inhibitors and so on as shown in figure. The search for imidazole containing compounds with more selective biological potency with low side effects continue to be an active area of research in medicinal chemistry. This review is in an effort to highlight the marketed drugs...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rani N, Kumar P, Singh R, de Sousa DP, Sharma P Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and resistance mechanisms developed against the proteasomal inhibitors in cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: A number of proteasome inhibitors are approved and used for the treatment of advanced and relapsed multiple myeloma. Unfortunately, drug resistance mechanisms may develop very fast within days of the start of to the proteasome inhibitor-treatment either due to the inherent or acquired resistance mechanisms under the selective drug pressure. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms leading to the proteasome inhibitor-resistance will eventually help design and development of novel strategies involving new drugs and/or drug combinations for the treatment of a number of cancers. PMID: 32448101...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yerlikaya A, Kanbur E Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Terpenoids as a Potential Substitute in Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance.
Abstract There was a golden era where everyone thought that microbes can no longer establish threat to humans but the time has come where microbes are proposing strong resistance against majority of antimicrobials. Over the years the inappropriate use and easy availability of antimicrobials has made antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to be emerged as the world's third leading cause of death. Microorganisms over the time span have acquired resistance through various mechanisms such as efflux pump, transfer through plasmids causing mutation, changing antimicrobial site of action or modifying the antimicrobial which will...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sharma A, Biharee A, Kumar A, Jaitak V Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Targeting Enteric Neurons and Plexitis for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Abstract Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are pathological conditions with an unknown aetiology that are characterised by severe inflammation of the intestinal tract and collectively referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current treatments are mostly ineffective due to their limited efficacy or toxicity necessitating surgical resection of the affected bowel. The management of IBD is hindered by a lack of prognostic markers for clinical inflammatory relapse. Intestinal inflammation associates with the infiltration of immune cells (leukocytes) into, or surrounding, the neuronal ganglia of ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stavely R, Abalo R, Nurgali K Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Nanoparticle-based Drug Delivery Systems for Targeted Epigenetics Cancer Therapy.
Abstract This review summarizes the epigenetic mechanisms of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, histone modifications in cancer and the epigenetic modifications in cancer therapy. Due to their undesired side effects, the use of epigenetic drugs as chemo-drugs in cancer therapies are limited. The drug delivery system opens a door for minimizing these side effects and achieving greater therapeutic benefits. The limitations of current epigenetic therapies in clinical cancer treatment and the advantages of using drug delivery systems for epigenetic agents are also discussed. Combining drug delivery systems with ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen F, Shi Y, Zhang J, Liu Q Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Acetaminophen Oxidation And Inflammatory Markers - A Review From Hepatic Molecular Mechanisms And Preclinical Studies.
Abstract Acetaminophen is a widely used analgesic for pain management especially useful in chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, easy access to this medicine has increased the occurrence of episodes of poisoning. Patients often develop severe liver damage, which may quickly lead to death. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to identify new biomarkers that allow the prediction of the degree of acetaminophen intoxication and thus intervene in a timely manner to save patients' lives. This review highlights the main mechanisms of the induction and progression of liver damage arising f...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stefanello ST, de Carvalho NR, Reis SB, Soares FAA, Barcelos RP Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

PD-L1 Testing for Urothelial Carcinoma: Interchangeability, Reliability and Future Perspectives.
Abstract Five programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are currently approved for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and the upper urinary tract. Following the FDA and EMA restrictions of first-line treatment with Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab in platinum-ineligible patients, immunohistochemical PD-L1 testing is now required. Several emerging issues on antibodies, test platforms and scoring algorithms have raised concerns about the comparability and interchangeability between these assays. In this review we have focused on the interchangeabil...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gevaert T, Cimadamore A, Montironi R, Eckstein M Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Targeting autophagic pathways by plant natural compounds in cancer treatment.
Abstract Nowadays, natural compounds of plant origin with anticancer effect have gained more attention because of their clinical safety and broad efficacy profiles. Autophagy is a multistep lysosomal degradation pathway may have a unique potential for clinical benefit in the setting of cancer treatment. To retrieve articles related to the study, the databases of Google Scholar, Web of sciences, Medline and Scopus, using the following keywords: Autophagic pathways; herbal medicine, oncogenic autophagic pathways, tumour suppressive autophagic pathways and cancer were searched. Plant natural compounds such as resvera...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Forouzanfar F, Mousavi SH Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Nutritional support and probiotics as potential treatment in IBD.
Abstract The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. However, there is growing evidence that the increase in the overall incidence of IBD relates to the improvement of the sanitary and hygienic conditions of the society leading to lower exposure to both bacterial and parasitic infections. IBD is uncurable and characterized by alternating periods of exacerbation and remission of symptoms. Therefore, the main goal of treatment strategies in IBD patients is the most effective maintenance of clinical and endoscopic remission, which does allow patients to function normally for a significant pa...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tarasiuk A, Eibl G Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

The Epigenetic modification of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) on cancer.
Abstract Among the major components of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most effective for its anti-cancer characteristics. The bulk of studies provide the mechanisms of suppressive function of EGCG are involved in alteration of cancer cell cycle, development, and apoptosis through activation/inhibition of several signal pathways. Another mechanism that explains the multiple effects exerted by EGCG in cancer is the epigenetic change by DNA methylation or methyltransferases, histone acetylation or deacetylases, and no coding RNAs (micoRNAs). Furthermore, decontrolled expression of miRNA transcrip...
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yang L, Zhang W, Chopra S, Kaur D, Wang H, Li M, Chen P, Zhang W Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

The role of immune and epithelial stem cells in inflammatory bowel disease therapy.
CONCLUSION: Both, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to restore damaged tissue and regulate the immune system. Autologous HSCs transplantation eliminates autoreactive cells and replace them with new T-cells resulting a long-time remission. Whereas MSCs transplantation is effective therapy in one of the major complications of IBD, perianal fistulas. PMID: 32364073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agata B, Sylwia Z, Hans HI, Maciej S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Regulation of Cl- Electrolyte Permeability in Epithelia by Active Traditional Chinese Medicine.
In conclusion, the crosstalk between Clelectrolyte transport and active traditional Chinese medicine monomers may lead to the development of new strategies for diarrhea by manipulating the function and expression of ion channels. PMID: 32364074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - May 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen L, Ding Y, Hou Y, Liu Y, Nie H Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

IL-37 as a potential biotherapeutics of inflammatory diseases.
Abstract Interleukin-37 (IL-37) was discovered as a new member of pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily. However, further studies suggested that IL-37 plays a critical antiinflammatory role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-37 may suppress the inflammatory process via intracellular SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) and extracellular IL-18 Receptor alpha (IL-18Rα) signaling pathway respectively. Meanwhile, the abnormal expression of IL-37 was observed in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, asthma, and multiple...
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bai J, Li Y, Li M, Tan S, Wu D Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Use Of Anti-Vegf Drugs In Retinal Vein Occlusions.
Abstract Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is one of the most prevalent causes of visual loss in the Western World. Its pathogenesis is still not completely known. Chronic macular edema and ischemia compromise the functional and anatomical status of the retina. Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections have demonstrated better results than other previous options including observation or laser therapy. This narrative review aims to analyze the current aspects related to these drugs. PMID: 32342813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vilela MA Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

New Anti-Vegf Drugs In Ophthalmology.
Abstract This review focuses on 5 new anti-VEGF drugs in advanced stage of clinical development (i.e. phase 3): conbercept, brolucizumab, port delivery system with ranibizumab, abicipar pegol and faricimab. Results of clinical trials and advantages of each drug compared to the available molecules are discussed in detail. PMID: 32342814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Campa C Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Exosomes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: What We Learnt So Far?
Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease. Although the uncertain etiology, there is marked dysbalanced of mucosal immune responses in part shaped with genetic susceptibility and intestinal microbial dysbiosis. To suppress inflammatory activity adequately and maintain it are the main goals for current therapies. However, corticosteroids are only suitable for therapy of active disease, and the effects of immunosuppressive agents are mainly limited to maintenance of remission. Biologics have become widely available, which provide therapeutic benefits to the IBD pati...
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang H, Ye C, Wu Y, Yang P, Chen C, Liu Z, Wang X Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Anti-VEGF and Retinal Dystrophies.
Abstract The therapeutic approach based on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) molecules can be used to treat two important complications of retinal dystrophies: choroidal neovascularization and macular edema. The macular involvement in retinal dystrophies can lead to further visual deterioration in patients in young age and already affected by functional limitations. The chapter reports the effect of anti-VEGF treatment in several subforms of retinal dystrophies, critically discussing advantages and limitations. PMID: 32342816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Parodi MB, Iacono P, Da Pozzo S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Is HE4 Superior over CA-125 in the Follow-up of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?
Abstract Notwithstanding important advances in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), this disease is still a leading cause of global high mortality from gynecological malignancies. Recurrence in EOC is inevitable and it is responsible for poor survival rates. There is a critical need for novel effective biomarkers with improved accuracy compared to the standard carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125) for followup. The human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is used for early detection of EOC (ROMA algorithm) as well as for predicting optimal cytoreduction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival outcomes. Notabl...
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: El Bairi K, Afqir S, Amrani M Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factors as tools in management of neuropathic pain disorders.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is caused by damage to or dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system. The main mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain including ectopic activity in nociceptive nerves, peripheral and central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and microglial activation. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) make up a large family of growth factors that mediate neural development, metabolism, and function through three main key signaling pathways, including RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/Akt pathway, and PLCγ. An association between the members of the FGF system and improvement of neur...
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Forouzanfar F, Sadeghnia HR Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

An Insight into the Current Perspective and Potential Drug Targets for Visceral Leishmania (VL).
Abstract Leishmaniasis is one of the six entities on the list of most important diseases of the World Health Organization/Tropical Disease Research (WHO/TDR). After Malaria, it is one of the most prevalent and lethal parasitic diseases. VL is one of the most fatal forms of this disease, especially if left untreated. The drugs that are currently available for the treatment of this disease are expensive, toxic or no longer effective especially in endemic regions. Currently no vaccine has been developed to immunize humans against this disease. The major problems with the current drugs are the development of resistanc...
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mansuri R, Singh J Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

The association and influencing factors between antipsychotics exposure and the risk of VTE and PE: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: The use of antipsychotics will increase the risk of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism, which will be affected by the type of antipsychotics and patient characteristics. PMID: 32321400 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - April 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dai L, Zuo Q, Chen F, Chen L, Shen Y Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

PD1/PD-L1 axis in uro-oncology.
Abstract The immune system is important to control tumor development and progression. However, tumor cells and cells of the tumor microenvironment can induce immune escape mechanisms including activation of immune checkpoints such as PD-1/PD-L1. Based on this knowledge, new immune therapies including PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibition have been developed and are already recommended as standard treatment in metastatic bladder and kidney cancer patients. In addition to its role as a therapeutic target PD-L1 seems to be a prognostic parameter although data are controversial. Only little is known about signaling pathways induc...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Junker K, Eckstein M, Fiorentino M, Montironi R Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Epigenetic therapies and potential drugs for treating human cancer.
Abstract Epigenetic modifications ensure the maintenance of normal cellular functions, and their dysregulation is frequently found in many disease states, including cancer. Nowadays, the most studied epigenetic dysregulation associated with tumorigenesis, cancer progression and metastasis refers to the variations in DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin structure. The development of novel agents targeting these processes has enabled us to open up new pathways for anti-cancer strategies. To date, many small molecules have been designed to target epigenetic modifiers, and some of them are currently in ...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lin S, Li X Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

PD1 and PD-L1 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Kidney Cancer: the Role of PD-L1 Assay.
Conclusion So far, data on the use of PD-L1 expression alone is not sufficient to predict treatment response and present many limitations: the lack of consensus between different methodologies on biomarker assessment, the heterogeneity of PD-L1 between primary tumors and metastatic sites, different criteria of response to therapy (RECIST vs. irRECIST), the complex interplay with inflammatory components, previous treatments, administration of an antibiotic therapy. Combinations of different biomarkers and biological features such as gene expression associated with angiogenesis, immune response and myeloid inflammation are p...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cimadamore A, Massari F, Santoni M, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Scarpelli M, Montironi R, Moch H Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Pivotal Role Of The Interaction Between Herbal Medicines And Gut Microbiota On Disease Treatment.
Abstract With the recognition of the important role of gut microbiota in both health and disease progression, attempts to modulate its composition as well as its co-metabolism with the organism have attracted special attention. Abundant studies have demonstrated that dysfunction or imbalance of gut microbiota is closely with disease including endocrine diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, tumors, cardiovascular diseases, et al. Herbal medicines have been applied for preventing and treating disease worldwide for hundreds of years. Although the underlying mechanism seems to be complex, one of the important one is t...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhao T, Wang Z, Liu Z, Xu Y Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Anti-VEGF Treatment in Corneal Diseases.
CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of anti-VEGF agents support their adoption into the daily clinical practice for the management of CN. PMID: 32189591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Giannaccare G, Pellegrini M, Bovone C, Spena R, Senni C, Scorcia V, Busin M Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Prediction of late recurrence and distant metastasis in early-stage breast cancer: Overview of Current and Emerging Biomarkers.
Abstract Due to increased screening, the majority of patients are diagnosed at early-stage breast cancer. It is essential therefore to be able to more accurately predict the risk of recurrence and distant metastasis for the management and prediction of breast cancer progression. Clinicopathological parameters, specifically nodal status, tumor size and hormonal receptor status are routinely used for the identification of women at high risk of recurrence. However, these parameters alone and prognostic scores based on clinical variables have limited predictive value for late metastasis risk in patients with early bre...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Benarba B, Gouri A, Dekaken A, Aoures H, Benharkat S Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Immunotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy has a strong rationale and pre-clinical studies support their association because it can overcome the immunosuppression of the tumor microenvironment and increase the anti-tumor immune response. Other: More clinical evidences, deriving from on-clinical trials, are needed to prove the efficacy and safety of these treatments combined. PMID: 32160846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mollica V, Santoni M, Di Nunno V, Cimadamore A, Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A, Battelli N, Montironi R, Massari F Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Medicinal Perspective of Indole Derivatives: Recent Developments and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies.
Abstract Heterocyclic compounds play significant role in various biological processes of human body and many of them are in clinical use due to their diverse, chemical and biological properties. Among these, indole is one of most promising pharmacologically active molecules. Due to its chemical reactivity, indole has been willingly modified to obtain a variety of new lead molecules, which has been successfully utilized to obtained novel drug candidates for the treatment of different pharmacological diseases. Indole-based compounds such as vincristine (Anticancer), reserpine (Antihypertensive), amedalin (Antidepres...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kumar D, Sharma S, Kalra S, Singh G, Monga VD, Kumar B Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Current Studies of Osteoclastogenesis and Potential Drug Targets.
PMID: 32141412 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kong L Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Curcumin sensitizes cancers towards TRAIL-induced apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.
Abstract Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a natural protein expressed in a wide range of tissues in our body. It is a promising anti-cancer agent due to its selective killing of cancer cells, rendering normal cells unharmed. However, resistance occurs either intrinsically or developed over the course of TRAIL treatment. In view of its specificity to cancer cells, there is a pushing need to overcome TRAIL resistance. Curcumin (Cur), a natural active constituent of turmeric, has been evidenced to have anti-cancer properties. However, it is limited by its sparing solubility and...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ngai SC Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Challenges with wound infection models in drug development.
Abstract Wound research is an evolving science trying to unfold the complex untold mechanisms behind the wound healing cascade. In particular, interest is growing regarding the role of microorganisms in both acute and chronic wound healing. Microbial burden plays an important role in the persistence of chronic wound, ultimately resulting in delayed wound healing. It is therefore important for clinicians to understand the evolution of infection science and its various etiologies. Therefore, to understand the role of bacterial biofilm in chronic wound pathogenesis various in- vitro and in-vivo models are required to...
Source: Current Drug Targets - March 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shukla SK, Sharma AK, Gupta V, Kalonia A, Shaw P Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

A review of aberrant DNA methylation and epigenetic agents targeting DNA methyltransferase in endometriosis.
CONCLUSION: Aberrant DNA methylation plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and epigenetic agents targeting DNA methyltransferase is expected to be the theoretical basis for the new treatment of endometriosis. PMID: 32107990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Drug Targets)
Source: Current Drug Targets - February 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yang L, Ding L, Ren C, Zhang H, Lu J, Wang S, Wu Z, Yang Y Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research