The relevance of α-KLOTHO to the central nervous system: Some key questions.
The relevance of α-KLOTHO to the central nervous system: Some key questions. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Mar 18;: Authors: Lopes-Cararo MM, Mazucanti CH, Scavone C, Kawamoto EM, Berwick DC Abstract α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-K...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 18, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lopes-Cararo MM, Mazucanti CH, Scavone C, Kawamoto EM, Berwick DC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

in vivo tau PET imaging in dementia: pathophysiology, radiotracer quantification, and a systematic review of clinical findings.
Abstract In addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Until now, our understanding about the natural history and topography of tau deposition has only been based on post-mortem and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and evidence continues to implicate tau as a central driver of downstream neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. Recently, it has become possible to assess the regional distribution and severity of tau burden in vivo...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 14, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hall B, Mak E, Cervenka S, Aigbirhio FI, Rowe JB, O'Brien JT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia: a systematic review.
DISCUSSION: We provided mean cognitive test scores and cut-off scores that will improve the diagnostic process of cognitive impairment in individuals aged 90 years and older. PMID: 28284872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 8, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Legdeur N, Binnekade TT, Otten RH, Badissi M, Scheltens P, Visser PJ, Maier AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dietary protein, aging and nutritional geometry.
Abstract Nearly a century of research has shown that nutritional interventions can delay aging and age- related diseases in many animal models and possibly humans. The most robust and widely studied intervention is caloric restriction, while protein restriction and restriction of various amino acids (methionine, tryptophan) have also been shown to delay aging. However, there is still debate over whether the major impact on aging is secondary to caloric intake, protein intake or specific amino acids. Nutritional geometry provides new perspectives on the relationship between nutrition and aging by focusing on calori...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Simpson SJ, Couteur DG, Raubenheimer D, Solon-Biet SM, Cooney GJ, Cogger VC, Fontana L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Theoretical and practical aspects of using fetal fibroblasts for skin regeneration.
Abstract Cutaneous wounding in late-gestational fetal or postnatal humans results in scar formation without any skin appendages. Early or mid- gestational skin healing in humans is characterized by the absence of scaring in a process resembling regeneration. Tremendous cellular and molecular mechanisms contribute to this distinction, and fibroblasts play critical roles in scar or scarless wound healing. This review discussed the different repair mechanisms involved in wound healing of fibroblasts at different developmental stages and further confirmed that fetal fibroblast transplantation resulted in reduced scar ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 23, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li M, Zhao Y, Hao H, Han W, Fu X Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Suspected Non Alzheimer's Pathology - Is it non-Alzheimer's or non-Amyloid?
We describe the pathological correlates of SNAP and comment on the different causes of neurodegeneration. Finally, we discuss the debate around the concept of SNAP, and further unanswered questions that are emerging. PMID: 28235659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dani M, Brooks DJ, Edison P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Targeting the TLR4 signaling pathway by polyphenol: A novel therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammation.
Abstract A wide array of cell signaling mediators and their interactions play vital roles in neuroinflammation associated with ischemia, brain trauma, developmental disorders and age-related neurodegeneration. Along with neurons, microglia and astrocytes are also affected by the inflammatory cascade by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. The release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to neural dysfunction may be helpful, neutral or even deleterious to normal cellular survival. Moreover, the important role of NF-κB factors in the central nervous system (CNS) th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rahimifard M, Maqbool F, Moeini-Nodeh S, Niaz K, Abdollahi M, Braidy N, Nabavi SM, Nabavi SF Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Frailty and Sarcopenia: The potential role of an aged immune system.
Abstract Frailty is a common negative consequence of ageing. Sarcopenia, the syndrome of loss of muscle mass, quality and strength, is more common in older adults and has been considered a precursor syndrome or the physical manifestation of frailty. The pathophysiology of both syndromes is incompletely described with multiple causes, inter-relationships and complex pathways proposed. Age-associated changes to the immune system (both immunesenescence, the decline in immune function with ageing, and inflammageing, a state of chronic inflammation) have been suggested as contributors to sarcopenia and frailty but a di...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 18, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wilson D, Jackson T, Sapey E, Lord JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nutrition, metabolism, and targeting aging in nonhuman primates.
Abstract This short review focuses on the importance of nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and makes the case that a targeted expansion of the use of this highly translatable model would be advantageous to the biology of aging field. First, we describe the high degree of similarity of the model in terms of aging phenotypes including incidence and prevalence of common human age-related diseases. Second, we discuss the importance of the nonhuman primate nutrition and aging studies and the extent to which the outcomes of two ongoing long-term studies of caloric restriction are congruent with short-term equi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 17, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Balasubramanian P, Mattison JA, Anderson RM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Protective effects of short-term dietary restriction in surgical stress and chemotherapy.
Abstract Reduced caloric intake including fasting, as well as the dietary composition or the timing of food intake impact longevity, likely through a modification in the onset or the severity of chronic aging-related diseases such as cancer. As with pre- and post-operative dietary recommendations, evidence-based nutritional advice from healthcare professionals during and after cancer treatment is often vague or conflicting. We hypothesize that preventive dietary recommendations can help in the context of both chronic cancer treatment efficacy and the avoidance of development of secondary malignancies, as well as i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 16, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brandhorst S, Harputlugil E, Mitchell JR, Longo VD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Handgrip Strength as a Means of Monitoring Progression of Cognitive Decline - A Scoping Review.
Abstract Cognitive decline in older adults contributes to reduced ability to perform daily tasks and continued disuse leads to muscle weakness and potentiates functional loss. Despite explicit links between the motor and cognitive systems, few health care providers assess motor function when addressing the needs of individuals with cognitive loss. Early and easy measurable biomarkers of cognitive decline have the potential to improve care for individuals with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic search to determine the relationship among handgrip strength, as a ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 8, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fritz NE, McCarthy CJ, Adamo DE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Pain perception in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies.
Abstract While hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of clinical pain in Parkinson's disease (PD), experimental research is equivocal and mechanisms are poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing PD patients to healthy controls (HCs) in their response to experimental pain stimuli. Articles were acquired through systematic searches of major databases from inception until 10/2016. Twenty-six studies met inclusion criteria, comprising 1,292 participants (PD=739, HCs=553). Random effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thompson T, Gallop K, Correll CU, Carvalho AF, Veronese N, Wright E, Stubbs B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Gut microbiota: A player in aging and a target for anti-aging intervention.
Abstract Aging-associated alterations in composition, diversity and functional features of intestinal microbiota are well-described in the modern literature. They are suggested to be caused by an age-related decline in immune system functioning (immunosenescence) and a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), which accompany many aging-associated pathologies. The microbiota-targeted dietary and probiotic interventions have been shown to favorably affect the host health and aging by an enhancement of antioxidant activity, improving immune homeostasis, suppression of chronic inflammation, regulation of fat dep...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 18, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman AM, Koliada AK, Marotta F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Understanding quasi-apoptosis of the most numerous enucleated components of blood needs detailed molecular autopsy.
Abstract Erythrocytes are the most numerous cells in human body and their function of oxygen transport is pivotal to human physiology. However, being enucleated, they are often referred to as a sac of molecules and their cellularity is challenged. Interestingly, their programmed death stands a testimony to their cell-hood. They are capable of self-execution after a defined life span by both cell-specific mechanism and that resembling the cytoplasmic events in apoptosis of nucleated cells. Since the execution process lacks the nuclear and mitochondrial events in apoptosis, it has been referred to as quasi-apoptosis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 18, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gusev GP, Govekar R, Gadewal N, Agalakova NI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Inflammation and frailty in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis" [Ageing Res Rev. 31 (2016) 1-8].
Corrigendum to "Inflammation and frailty in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis" [Ageing Res Rev. 31 (2016) 1-8]. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Jan 12;: Authors: Soysal P, Stubbs B, Lucato P, Luchini C, Solmi M, Peluso R, Sergi G, Isik AT, Manzato E, Maggi S, Maggio M, Prina AM, Cosco TD, Wu YT, Veronese N PMID: 28089523 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 12, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Soysal P, Stubbs B, Lucato P, Luchini C, Solmi M, Peluso R, Sergi G, Isik AT, Manzato E, Maggi S, Maggio M, Prina AM, Cosco TD, Wu YT, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

'Tagging' along memories in aging: Synaptic tagging and capture mechanisms in the aged hippocampus.
Abstract Aging is accompanied by a general decline in the physiological functions of the body with the deteriorating organ systems. Brain is no exception to this and deficits in cognitive functions are quite common in advanced aging. Though a variety of age-related alterations are observed in the structure and function throughout the brain, certain regions show selective vulnerability. Medial temporal lobe, especially the hippocampus, is one such preferentially vulnerable region and is a crucial structure involved in the learning and long-term memory functions. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term po...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shetty MS, Sajikumar S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does Music Therapy Enhance Behavioral and Cognitive Function in Elderly Dementia Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016036153. PMID: 28025173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 23, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang Y, Cai J, An L, Hui F, Ren T, Ma H, Zhao Q Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Biomarkers associated with sedentary behaviour in older adults: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Most studied biomarkers associated with SB were of cardiovascular or metabolic origin. There is a suggestion of a negative impact of SB on biomarkers but still a paucity of high quality investigations exist. Longitudinal studies with objectively measured SB are needed to further elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and possible associations of unexplored biomarkers. PMID: 28025174 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 23, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wirth K, Klenk J, Brefka S, Dallmeier D, Faehling K, Figuls MR, Tully MA, Giné-Garriga M, Caserotti P, Salvà A, Rothenbacher D, Denkinger M, Stubbs B, SITLESS consortium Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.
Abstract Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 22, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Manoogian EN, Panda S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aberrant spontaneous low-frequency brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis of resting-state fMRI studies.
Abstract Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have provided strong evidence of abnormal spontaneous brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the conclusions have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis of whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) between aMCI patients and healthy controls was conducted using the Seed-based d Mapping software package. Twelve studies reporting 14 datasets were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to healthy controls, patients with aMCI showed decreased...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 22, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pan P, Zhu L, Yu T, Shi H, Zhang B, Qin R, Zhu X, Qian L, Zhao H, Zhou H, Xu Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

HIV-associated cellular senescence: a contributor to accelerated aging.
Abstract Due to the advent of antiretroviral therapy HIV is no longer a terminal disease and the HIV infected patients are becoming increasingly older. While this is a major success, with increasing age comes an increased risk for disease. The age-related comorbidities that HIV infected patients experience suggest that they suffer from accelerated aging. One possible contributor to this accelerated aging is cellular senescence, an age-associated response that can occur prematurely in response to stress, and that is emerging as a contributor to disease and aging. HIV patients experience several stressors such as th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 22, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cohen J, Torres C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dietary restriction and lifespan: Lessons from invertebrate models.
Abstract Dietary restriction (DR) is the most robust environmental manipulation known to increase active and healthy lifespan in many species. Despite differences in the protocols and the way DR is carried out in different organisms, conserved relationships are emerging among multiple species. Elegant studies from numerous model organisms are further defining the importance of various nutrient-signaling pathways including mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and sirtuins in mediating the effects of DR. We here review current advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 19, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kapahi P, Kaberlein M, Hansen M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

New perspectives on lysosomes in ageing and neurodegenerative disease.
PMID: 27894596 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 1, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nixon RA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Melatonin: Protection against Age-related Cardiac Pathology.
Abstract Aging is a complex and progressive process that involves physiological and metabolic deterioration in every organ and system. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among elderly subjects worldwide. Most age-related cardiovascular disorders can be influenced by modifiable behaviours such as a healthy diet rich in fruit and vegetables, avoidance of smoking, increased physical activity and reduced stress. The role of diet in prevention of various disorders is a well-established factor, which has an even more important role in the geriatric population. Melatonin,...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 21, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Favero G, Franceschetti L, Buffoli B, Mohammed MH, Reiter RJ, Rodella LF, Rezzani R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Stem cell therapies in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and stroke.
Abstract Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 19, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang Y, Ji X, Leak RK, Chen F, Cao G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The emerging role of ECM crosslinking in T cell mobility as a hallmark of immunosenescence in humans.
Abstract Immunosenescence is thought to result from cellular aging and to reflect exposure to environmental stressors and antigens, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, not all of the features of immunosenescence are consistent with this view, and this has led to the emergence of the sister theory of "inflammaging". The recently discovered diffuse tissue distribution of resident memory T cells (TRM) which don't recirculate, calls these theories into question. These cells account for most T cells residing in barrier epithelia which sit in and travel through the extracellular matrix (ECM). With almost...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 19, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moreau JF, Pradeu T, GRignolio A, Nardini C, Castiglione F, Tieri P, Capri M, Salvioli S, Taupin JL, Garagnani P, Franceschi C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging of Cerebral White Matter.
Abstract White matter (WM) occupies a large volume of the human cerebrum and is mainly composed of myelinated axons and myelin-producing glial cells. The myelinated axons within WM are the structural foundation for efficient neurotransmission between cortical and subcortical areas. Similar to neuron-enriched gray matter areas, WM undergoes a series of changes during the process of aging. WM malfunction can induce serious neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments. Thus, age-related changes in WM may contribute to the functional decline observed in the elderly. In addition, aged WM becomes more susceptible to neurol...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 16, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu H, Yang Y, Xia Y, Zhu W, Leak RK, Wei Z, Wang J, Hu X Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Arterial ageing: major nutritional and life-style effects.
PMID: 27836705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 8, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Papaioannou TG, Karatzi K, Psaltopoulou T, Tousoulis D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of age on force steadiness: a literature review and meta-analysis.
JH Abstract The variability of force is indicative of the biological variability inherent in the human motor system. Previous literature showed inconsistent findings of the effect of age on the variability of force and hence a systematic review was performed. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review, of which twelve provided sufficient data to determine effect sizes for the effect of age. After determining the pooled effect size, the effect of sample size on dichotomized effect sizes (significant vs. non-significant) was determined. Also, the effect of possible determinants, age difference between a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 8, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Oomen NM, van Dieën JH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metal Ions Influx is a Double Edged Sword for the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common form of dementia in aged people, which is defined by two pathological characteristics: β-amyloid protein (Aβ) deposition and tau hyperphosphorylation. Although the mechanisms of AD development are still being debated, a series of evidence supports the idea that metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, magnesium and aluminium, are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, the processes of Aβ deposition in senile plaques (SP) and the inclusion of phosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are markedly influenced by alterations in the...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang P, Wang ZY Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Disordered APP metabolism in trauma and aging: Dual risk for chronic neurodegenerative disorders.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI), advanced age, and cerebral vascular disease are factors conferring increased risk for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). These conditions are also related pathologically through multiple interacting mechanisms. The hallmark pathology of AD consists of pathological aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. These molecules are also involved in neuropathology of several other chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and are under intense investigation in the aftermath of TBI as potential contributors to the risk for developing AD and chronic traumatic enceph...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ikonomovic MD, Mi Z, Abrahamson EE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Multiple pathways of SIRT6 at the crossroads in the control of longevity, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a member of the sirtuin family NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases with multiple roles in controlling organism homeostasis, lifespan, and diseases. Due to its complex and opposite functional roles, this sirtuin is considered a two-edged sword in health and disease. Indeed, SIRT6 improves longevity, similarly to the founding yeast member, silent information regulator-2 (Sir2), and modulates genome stability, telomere integrity, transcription, and DNA repair. Its deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, obesity, liver dysfunction, muscle/adipocyte dis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vitiello M, Zullo A, Servillo L, Mancini FP, Borriello A, Giovane A, Ragione FD, D'Onofrio N, Balestrieri ML Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8): a novel murine model for cardiac aging.
Abstract Because cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity world-wide, there remains a compelling need for new insights and novel therapeutic avenues. In this regard, the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) line is a particularly good model for studying the effects of aging on cardiovascular health. Accumulating evidence suggests that this model may shed light on age-associated cardiac and vascular dysfunction and disease. These animals manifest evidence of inflammation, oxidative stress and adverse cardiac remodeling that may recapitulate processes involved in human diseas...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 5, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Karuppagounder V, Arumugam S, Babu SS, Palaniyandi SS, Watanabe K, Cooke JP, Thandavarayan RA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Origin of Life at the Origin of Ageing?
Abstract At first glance, the ageing of unicellular organisms would appear to be different from the ageing of complex, multicellular organisms. In an attempt to describe the nature of ageing in diverse organisms, the intimate links between the origins of life and ageing are examined. Departing from Leslie Orgel's initial ideas on why organisms age, it is then discussed how the potentially detrimental events characteristic of ageing are continuous, cell-autonomous and universal to all organisms. The manifestation of these alterations relies on the balance between their production and cellular renewal. Renewal is ac...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Currais A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Impact of Intermittent Fasting on Health and Disease Processes.
Abstract Humans in modern societies typically consume food at least three times daily, while laboratory animals are fed ad libitum. Overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance, excessive accumulation of visceral fat, etc.), particularly when associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Because animals, including humans, evolved in environments where food was relatively scarce, they developed numerous adaptations that enabled them to function at a high level, both physically and cognitively, when in a food-deprived/fasted state. Intermittent fasting (IF) enco...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mattson MP, Longo VD, Harvie M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Introduction to Special Issue: Neurovascular Aging - a driving force for neurological dysfunction in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases.
PMID: 27793608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 25, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Graham SH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Structural neuroimaging in preclinical dementia: from microstructural deficits and grey matter atrophy to macroscale connectomic changes.
Abstract The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of neuroimaging studies characterising brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), where both widespread atrophy and 'signature' brain regions have been implicated. In parallel, a prolonged latency period has been established in AD, with abnormal cerebral changes beginning many years before symptom onset. This raises the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, even before symptoms, when treatments could have the greatest effect on disease-course modification. Two important prerequisites of this endeavour are (1) accurate characterisation or ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 21, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mak E, Gabel S, Mirette H, Su L, Williams GB, Waldman A, Wells K, Ritchie K, Ritchie C, O'Brien J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Prevalence and Incidence of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: The only statistically significant finding emerging from this study was that women have a higher prevalence of non-amnestic MCI. To better understand sex differences in the preclinical stages of dementia, studies must better characterize the etiology of the cognitive impairment. PMID: 27771474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 19, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Au B, Dale-McGrath S, Tierney MC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Molecular pathology endpoints useful for aging studies.
MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY ENDPOINTS USEFUL FOR AGING STUDIES. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Oct 6;: Authors: Niedernhofer LJ, Kirkland JL, Ladiges W Abstract The first clinical trial aimed at targeting fundamental processes of aging will soon be launched (TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin). In its wake is a robust pipeline of therapeutic interventions that have been demonstrated to extend lifespan or healthspan of preclinical models, including rapalogs, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and senolytics. This ensures that if the TAME trial is successful, numerous additional clinical trials are apt to follow. ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Niedernhofer LJ, Kirkland JL, Ladiges W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nutrition for the ageing brain: towards evidence for an optimal diet.
Sijben J, Spencer JP, Thuret S, van de Rest O, Vandewoude M, Wesnes K, Williams RJ, Williams RS, Ramirez M Abstract As people age they become increasingly susceptible to chronic and extremely debilitating brain diseases. The precise cause of the neuronal degeneration underlying these disorders, and indeed normal brain ageing remains however elusive. Considering the limits of existing preventive methods, there is a desire to develop effective and safe strategies. Growing preclinical and clinical research in healthy individuals or at the early stage of cognitive decline has demonstrated the beneficial impact of nutr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vauzour D, Robles MC, Miquel-Kergoat S, Andres-Lacueva C, Bánáti D, Barberger-Gateau P, Bowman GL, Caberlotto L, Clarke R, Hogervorst E, Kiliaan AJ, Lucca U, Manach C, Minihane AM, Mitchell ES, Perneczky R, Perry H, Roussel AM, Schuermans J, Sijben J, S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Life and death in the trash heap: the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and UCHL1 in brain aging, neurodegenerative disease and cerebral Ischemia.
Abstract The ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) is essential for removing abnormal proteins and preventing accumulation of potentially toxic proteins within the neuron. UPP dysfunction occurs with normal aging and is associated with abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates within neurons in neurodegenerative diseases. Ischemia disrupts UPP function and thus may contribute to UPP dysfunction seen in the aging brain and in neurodegenerative diseases. Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), an important component of the UPP in the neuron, is covalently modified and its activity inhibited by reactive lipid...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 1, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Graham SH, Liu H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Targeting chaperones, heat shock factor-1, and unfolded protein response: Promising therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative disorders.
Abstract Protein misfolding, which is known to cause several serious diseases, is an emerging field that addresses multiple therapeutic areas. Misfolding of a disease-specific protein in the central nervous system ultimately results in the formation of toxic aggregates that may accumulate in the brain, leading to neuronal cell death and dysfunction, and associated clinical manifestations. A large number of neurodegenerative diseases in humans, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and prion diseases, are primarily caused by protein misfolding and aggregation. Notably, the cellular system is equipped wi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 1, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bose S, Cho J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sarcopenic obesity or obese sarcopenia: a cross talk between age-associated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation as a main mechanism of the pathogenesis.
Abstract Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune c...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 1, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kalinkovich A, Livshits G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

ER stress and impaired autophagy flux in neuronal degeneration and brain injury.
Discussion of DHA functions is focused on modulating ER stress and autophagy in regard to its neuroprotection and anti-tumor functions. PMID: 27594375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 1, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yin Y, Sun G, Li E, Kiselyov K, Sun D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nutrition in early life and age-associated diseases.
Abstract The prevalence of age-associated disease is increasing at a striking rate globally. It is known that a strong association exists between a suboptimal maternal and/or early-life environment and increased propensity of developing age-associated disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dissection of underlying molecular mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, which is known as 'developmental programming' is still emerging; however three common mechanisms have emerged in many models of developmental programming. These mechanisms are a) changes in tissue structure,...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 1, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tarry-Adkins JL, Ozanne SE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammation and frailty in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
In conclusion, frailty and pre-frailty are associated with higher inflammatory parameters and in particular CRP and IL-6. Further longitudinal studies are needed. PMID: 27592340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 31, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Soysal P, Stubbs B, Lucato P, Luchini C, Solmi M, Peluso R, Sergi G, Isik AT, Manzato E, Maggi S, Maggio M, Prina AM, Cosco TD, Wu YT, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cutting back on the essentials; can manipulating intake of specific amino acids modulate health and lifespan?
Abstract With few exceptions, nutritional and dietary interventions generally impact upon both old-age quality of life and longevity. The life prolonging effects, commonly observed with dietary restriction reportedly are linked to alterations in protein intake and specifically limiting the dietary intake of certain essential amino acids. There is however a paucity of data methodically evaluating the various essential amino acids on health- and lifespan and the mechanisms involved. Rodent diets containing either lower methionine content, or tryptophan, than that found in commercially available chow, appear to elici...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 25, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brown-Borg HM, Buffenstein R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Calorie restriction in humans: An update.
Abstract Calorie restriction (CR), a nutritional intervention of reduced energy intake but with adequate nutrition, has been shown to extend healthspan and lifespan in rodent and primate models. Accumulating data from observational and randomized clinical trials indicate that CR in humans results in some of the same metabolic and molecular adaptations that have been shown to improve health and retard the accumulation of molecular damage in animal models of longevity. In particular, moderate CR in humans ameliorates multiple metabolic and hormonal factors that are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 17, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Most J, Tosti V, Redman LM, Fontana L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Anti-aging pharmacology: promises and pitfalls.
Abstract Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 11, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman AM, Lushchak OV, Koliada AK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Skin Aging and Oxidative Stress: Equol's Anti-Aging Effects via Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms.
Abstract Oxygen in biology is essential for life. It comes at a cost during normal cellular function, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative metabolism. Human skin exposed to solar ultra-violet radiation (UVR) dramatically increases ROS production/oxidative stress. It is important to understand the characteristics of human skin and how chronological (intrinsic) aging and photo-aging (extrinsic aging) occur via the impact of ROS production by cascade signaling pathways. The goal is to oppose or neutralize ROS insults to maintain good dermal health. Botanicals, as active ingredients, represen...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 9, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lephart ED Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research