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Muscle plasticity of aged subjects in response to electrical stimulation training and inversion and/or limitation of the sarcopenic process.
Abstract This review addresses the possible structural and functional adaptations of the muscle function to neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training in frail and/or aged (without advanced chronic disease) subjects. Evidence suggests that the sarcopenic process and its structural and functional effects would be limited and/or reversed through NMES training using excito-motor currents (or direct currents). From a structural viewpoint, NMES helps reduce muscle atrophy. From a functional viewpoint, NMES enables the improvement of motor output (i.e., muscle strength), gait, balance and activities of daily l...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Paillard T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Anti-senescence compounds: a potential nutraceutical approach to healthy aging.
eri F Abstract The desire of eternal youth seems to be as old as mankind. However, the increasing life expectancy experienced by populations in developed countries also involves a significantly increased incidence of the most common age-related diseases (ARDs). Senescent cells (SCs) have been identified as culprits of organismal aging. Their number rises with age and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels the chronic, pro-inflammatory systemic state (inflammaging) that characterizes aging, impairing the regenerative ability of stem cells and increasing the risk of developing ARDs. A variegated class...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gurău F, Baldoni S, Prattichizzo F, Espinosa E, Amenta F, Procopio AD, Albertini MC, Bonafè M, Olivieri F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Muscle Morphology and Performance in Master Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The extent to which chronic exercise training preserves age-related decrements in physical function, muscle strength, mass and morphology is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine to what extent chronically trained master athletes (strength/power and endurance) preserve levels of physical function, muscle strength, muscle mass and morphology in older age, compared with older and younger controls and young trained individuals. METHODS: The systematic data search included Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. IN...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mckendry J, Breen L, Shad BJ, Greig C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metab...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sun MF, Shen YQ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Multi-tissue DNA Methylation Age: Molecular Relationships and Perspectives for Advancing Biomarker Utility.
Abstract The multi-tissue DNA methylation estimator of chronological age (DNAm-age) has been associated with a wide range of exposures and health outcomes. Still, it is unclear how DNAm-age can have such broad relationships and how it can be best utilized as a biomarker. Understanding DNAm-age's molecular relationships is a promising approach to address this critical knowledge gap. In this review, we discuss the existing literature regarding DNAm-age's molecular relationships in six major categories: animal model systems, cancer processes, cellular aging processes, immune system processes, metabolic processes, and...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Weisskopf MG, Baccarelli AA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to oxidative phosphorylation xenobiotics and late-onset parkinson disease.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION XENOBIOTICS AND LATE-ONSET PARKINSON DISEASE. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Apr 21;: Authors: Iglesias E, Pesini A, Garrido-Pérez N, Meade P, Bayona-Bafaluy MP, Montoya J, Ruiz-Pesini E Abstract Late-onset Parkinson disease is a multifactorial and multietiological disorder, age being one of the factors implicated. Genetic and/or environmental factors, such as pesticides, can also be involved. Up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are lost before motor features of the disorder begin to appear. In humans, these neurons are only formed a fe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Iglesias E, Pesini A, Garrido-Pérez N, Meade P, Bayona-Bafaluy MP, Montoya J, Ruiz-Pesini E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effective multicomponent interventions in comparison to active control and no interventions on physical capacity, cognitive function and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly people with and without mild impaired cognition - A systematic review and network meta-analysis.
n K Abstract Multicomponent interventions (MCT) combine physical exercises and cognitive training and seem to be most effective in improving cognition in elderly people. However, literature is inconclusive if MCTs are superior to active comparison interventions, if delivery modes matter, and if people can transfer achieved effects to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This network meta-analysis aimed to a) identify MCTs that were effective on physical capacity and/or cognitive function and able to transfer these effects into IADL in elderly people with normal cognition (NC) and mild cognitive impairme...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 18, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bruderer-Hofstetter M, Rausch-Osthoff AK, Meichtry A, Münzer T, Niedermann K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Auditory System Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease and its Prodromal States: A Review.
Abstract Recent findings suggest that both peripheral and central auditory system dysfunction occur in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and therefore may represent early indicators of the disease. In addition, loss of auditory function itself leads to communication difficulties, social isolation and poor quality of life for both patients with AD and their caregivers. Developing a greater understanding of auditory dysfunction in early AD may shed light on the mechanisms of disease progression and carry diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Herein, we review the literature on hearing abilities in AD ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Swords GM, Nguyen LT, Mudar RA, Llano DA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The multiple functions of melatonin in regenerative medicine.
Abstract Melatonin research has been experiencing hyper growth in the last two decades; this relates to its numerous physiological functions including anti-inflammation, oncostasis, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity. Recently, a large number of studies have focused on the role of melatonin in the regeneration of cells or tissues after their partial loss. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on the molecular involvement of melatonin in the regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Majidinia M, Reiter RJ, Shakouri SK, Mohebbi I, Rasteghar M, Kaviani M, Darband SG, Jahanban-Esfahlan R, Nabavi SM, Yousefik B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

PGC-1 α sparks the fire of neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders.
PGC-1α sparks the fire of neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Mar 23;: Authors: Lv J, Jiang S, Yang Z, Hu W, Wang Z, Li T, Yang Y Abstract Recently, growing evidence has demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a superior transcriptional regulator that acts via controlling the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins and inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, which plays a beneficial part in the central nervous system (CNS). Given the significance of PGC-1α, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lv J, Jiang S, Yang Z, Hu W, Wang Z, Li T, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sirtuins in Mitochondrial Stress: Indispensable Helpers behind the Scenes.
Abstract Mitochondria play an essential part in guaranteeing normal cellular physiological functions through providing ATP and participating in diverse processes and signaling pathways. Recently, more and more studies have revealed the vital roles of mitochondria in coping with stressors in the aging process, metabolic disturbances and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial stress responses, including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), antioxidant defense, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy, are induced to maintain cellular integrity in response to stress. The sirtuin family...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lin S, Xing H, Zang T, Ruan X, Wo L, He M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Beyond ROS clearance: peroxiredoxins in stress signaling and aging.
Abstract Antioxidants were long predicted to have lifespan-promoting effects, but in general this prediction has not been well supported. While some antioxidants do seem to have a clear effect on longevity, this may not be primarily as a result of their role in the removal of reactive oxygen species, but rather mediated by other mechanisms such as the modulation of intracellular signaling. In this review we discuss peroxiredoxins, a class of proteinaceous antioxidants with redox signaling and chaperone functions, and their involvement in regulating longevity and stress resistance. Peroxiredoxins have a clear role ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Detienne G, De Haes W, Mergan L, Edwards SL, Temmerman L, Van Bael S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Epidemiological and clinical significance of cognitive frailty: A mini review.
In conclusion, there is no consensus on the definition of cognitive frailty for use in clinical and community settings or on which measures to be used for detecting cognitive impairment. Further study is required to formulate effective preventive strategies for disability in the elderly. PMID: 29544875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sugimoto T, Sakurai T, Ono R, Kimura A, Saji N, Niida S, Toba K, Chen LK, Arai H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The neurochemistry of agitation in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of the dynamic balance between multiple neurotransmitter systems could impair functional neural networks involved in affective regulation and executive function. Differences in study design and methodology may have contributed to conflicting findings. Future studies that overcome these limitations (e.g. using standardized criteria to define agitation) and employ neuroimaging methods such as MRI/PET to investigate specific neural networks are needed to clarify the role of neurotransmitter alterations in these patients. PMID: 29524596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 7, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu KY, Stringer AE, Reeves SJ, Howard RJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Interventional programmes to improve cognition during healthy and pathological ageing: Cortical modulations and evidence for brain plasticity.
ri MC Abstract A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease). Moreover, given the clinical relevance of neuroplasticity, we discuss how evidence for neu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cespón J, Miniussi C, Pellicciari MC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of Sirtuin1-p53 regulatory axis in Aging, Cancer and Cellular Reprogramming.
Abstract Regulatory role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), one of the most extensively studied members of its kind in histone deacetylase family in governing multiple cellular fates, is predominantly linked to p53 activity. SIRT1 deacetylates p53 in a NAD+-dependent manner to inhibit transcription activity of p53, in turn modulate pathways that are implicated in regulation of tissue homoeostasis and many disease states. In this review, we discuss the role of SIRT1-p53 pathway and its regulatory axis in the cellular events which are implicated in cellular aging, cancer and reprogramming. It is noteworthy that these cellular ev...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ong ALC, Ramasamy TS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Healthy brain aging: interplay between reactive species, inflammation and energy supply.
Abstract Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first tw...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Garaschuk O, Semchyshyn HM, Lushchak VI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

GIT2-a keystone in ageing and age-related disease.
Abstract Since its discovery, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2, GIT2, and its family member, GIT1, have received considerable interest concerning their potential key roles in regulating multiple inter-connected physiological and pathophysiological processes. GIT2 was first identified as a multifunctional protein that is recruited to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) during the process of receptor internalization. Recent findings have demonstrated that perhaps one of the most important effects of GIT2 in physiology concerns its role in controlling multiple aspects of the complex ageing proc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van Gastel J, Boddaert J, Jushaj A, Premont RT, Luttrell LM, Janssens J, Martin B, Maudsley S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cellular senescence: immunosurveillance and future immunotherapy.
Abstract In response to persistent DNA damage, induction into cell senescence promotes an immunogenic program which facilitates immune clearance of these damaged cells. Under physiological conditions, senescent cells can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, functioning to maintain tissue homeostasis. In addition, emerging findings suggest that programmed induction of cell senescence may be important for regulating reproductive processes, partly facilitated by immune clearance. However, likely owing to ageing of the immune system, a failure to eliminate senescent cells can contribute to their persist...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 7, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Burton DGA, Stolzing A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Increasing use of cognitive measures in the operational definition of frailty - a systematic review.
Abstract Ageing is associated both with frailty and cognitive decline. The quest for a unifying approach has led to a new concept: cognitive frailty. This systematic review explores the contribution of cognitive assessment in frailty operationalization. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched until December 2016 using the keywords aged; frail elderly; aged, 80 and over; frailty; diagnosis; risk assessment and classification, yielding 2,863 hits. Seventy-nine articles were included, describing 94 frailty instruments. Two instruments were not sufficiently specified and excluded. 46% of the identified fra...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Azzopardi RV, Beyer I, Vermeiren S, Petrovic M, Van Den Noortgate N, Bautmans I, Gorus E, Gerontopole Brussels Study group Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Procancerogenic activity of senescent cells: a case of the peritoneal mesothelium.
Abstract Human peritoneal mesothelial cells belong to a narrow group of somatic cells in which both the triggers and the mechanisms of senescence have already been well defined. Importantly, senescent mesothelial cells have been found in the peritoneal cavity in vivo. From a clinical point of view, peritoneal mesothelial cells have been recognized as playing a critical role in the intraperitoneal development of tumor metastases. The pro-cancerogenic behavior of mesothelial cells is even more pronounced when the cells exhaust their proliferative capacity and become senescent. In this review, we summarize the curren...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 17, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Stryczyński Ł, Uruski P, Tykarski A, Książek K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Altered function of neuronal L-type calcium channels in ageing and neuroinflammation: implications in age-related synaptic dysfunction and cognitive decline.
Abstract The rapid developments in science have led to an increase in human life expectancy and thus, ageing and age-related disorders/diseases have become one of the greatest concerns in the 21st century. Cognitive abilities tend to decline as we get older. This age-related cognitive decline is mainly attributed to aberrant changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal connections. Recent studies show that alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis underlie the increased vulnerability of neurons to age-related processes like cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunctions. Dysregulation of Ca2+ can lead to dramatic changes in neu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Navakkode S, Liu C, Soong TW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The genetics of Parkinson disease.
Abstract About 15% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have family history and 5-10% have a monogenic form of the disease with Mendelian inheritance. To date, at least 23 loci and 19 disease-causing genes for parkinsonism have been found, but many more genetic risk loci and variants for sporadic PD phenotype have been identified in various association studies. Investigating the mutated protein products has uncovered potential pathogenic pathways that provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration in familial and sporadic PD. To commemorate the 200th anniversary of Parkinson's publication of An Essay on ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Deng H, Wang P, Jankovic J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cartilage regeneration and ageing: Targeting cellular plasticity in osteoarthritis.
Abstract Ageing processes play a major contributing role for the development of Osteoarthritis (OA). This prototypic degenerative condition of ageing is the most common form of arthritis and is accompanied by a general decline, chronic pain and mobility deficits. The disease is primarily characterized by articular cartilage degradation, followed by subchondral bone thickening, osteophyte formation, synovial inflammation and joint degeneration. In the early stages, osteoarthritic chondrocytes undergo phenotypic changes that increase cell proliferation and cluster formation and enhance the production of matrix-remod...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 16, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Varela-Eirin M, Loureiro J, Fonseca E, Corrochano S, Caeiro JR, Collado M, Mayan MD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Poor cognitive ageing: Vulnerabilities, mechanisms and the impact of nutritional interventions.
CONCLUSION: Coupling studies of cognitive ageing with studies investigating the effect of nutrition and dietary interventions as strategies targeting specific mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, protein clearance, inflammation, and non-coding and microRNAs is of high value. Future research on the impact of nutrition on cognitive ageing will need to adopt a longitudinal approach and multimodal nutritional interventions will likely need to be imposed in early-life to observe significant impact in older age. PMID: 29248758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 15, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miquel S, Champ C, Day J, Aarts E, Bahr BA, Bakker M, Bánáti D, Calabrese V, Cederholm T, Cryan J, Dye L, Farrimond JA, Korosi A, Layé S, Maudsley S, Milenkovic D, Mohajeri MH, Sijben J, Solomon A, Spencer JPE, Thuret S, Vanden Berghe W, Vauzour D, Vel Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of microglia-neuron interactions in diabetic encephalopathy.
Abstract In the central nervous system, the primary immune cells, the microglia, prevent pathogenic invasion as the first line of defense. Microglial energy consumption is dependent on their degree of activity. Microglia express transporters for the three primary energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids, glutamine) and regulate diabetic encephalopathy via microglia-neuron interactions. Microglia may play a sentry role for rapid protection or even ablation of impaired neurons. Neurons exhibit hyperactivity in response to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and neurotoxic factors and release potential microglial activator...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu Y, Li M, Zhang Z, Ye Y, Zhou J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Autobiographical memory, the ageing brain and mechanisms of psychological interventions.
Abstract Elucidating the impact of healthy cognitive ageing and dementia on autobiographical memory (AM) may help deepen our theoretical understanding of memory and underlying neural changes. The distinction between episodic and semantic autobiographical memory is particularly informative in this regard. Psychological interventions, particularly those involving reminiscence or music, have led to differential effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory. We propose that executive function is a key mediator of psychological therapies on autobiographical memory. We also highlight that interventions that a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 12, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Allen AP, Doyle C, Commins S, Roche RAP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) as a marker of cognitive decline in normal ageing: A review.
Abstract Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and its signaling pathway play a primary role in normal growth and ageing, however serum IGF-1 is known to reduce with advancing age. Recent findings suggest IGF-1 is essential for neurogenesis in the adult brain, and this reduction of IGF-1 with ageing may contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Experimental studies have shown manipulation of the GH/GF-1 axis can slow rates of cognitive decline in animals, making IGF-1 a potential biomarker of cognition, and/or its signaling pathway a possible therapeutic target to prevent or slow age-related cognitive decline. A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Frater J, Lie D, Bartlett P, McGrath JJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mandibuloacral dysplasia: a premature ageing disease with aspects of physiological ageing.
MANDIBULOACRAL DYSPLASIA: A PREMATURE AGEING DISEASE WITH ASPECTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AGEING. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Dec 02;: Authors: Cenni V, D'Apice MR, Garagnani P, Columbaro M, Novelli G, Franceschi C, Lattanzi G Abstract Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is a rare genetic condition characterized by bone abnormalities including localized osteolysis and generalized osteoporosis, skin pigmentation, lipodystrophic signs and mildly accelerated ageing. The molecular defects associated with MAD are mutations in LMNA or ZMPSTE24 (FACE1) gene, causing type A or type B MAD, respectively. Downstream of LMNA or ZMP...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cenni V, D'Apice MR, Garagnani P, Columbaro M, Novelli G, Franceschi C, Lattanzi G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Werner syndrome (WRN) gene variants and their association with altered function and age-associated diseases.
Abstract Werner syndrome (WS) is a heritable autosomal recessive human disorder characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies including cancer. The protein defective in WS patients, WRN, is encoded by a member of the human RECQ gene family that contains both a DNA exonuclease and a helicase domain. WRN has been shown to participate in several DNA metabolic pathways including DNA replication, recombination and repair, as well as telomere maintenance and transcription modulation. Here we review base pair-level genetic variation that has been documented in WRN, with an emphasis on non-syn...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lebel M, Monnat RJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

FOXO1/3: Potential suppressors of fibrosis.
Abstract Fibrosis is a universally age-related disease that involves nearly all organs. It is typically initiated by organic injury and eventually results in organ failure. There are still few effective therapeutic strategy targets for fibrogenesis. Forkhead box proteins O1 and O3 (FOXO1/3) have been shown to have favorable inhibitory effects on fibroblast activation and subsequent extracellular matrix production and can ameliorate fibrosis levels in numerous organs, including the heart, liver, lung, and kidney; they are therefore promising targets for anti-fibrosis therapy. Moreover, we can develop appropriate st...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 11, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xin Z, Ma Z, Hu W, Jiang S, Yang Z, Li T, Chen F, Jia G, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Connecting chaperone-mediated autophagy dysfunction to cellular senescence.
e;n S Abstract Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is one of the main pathways of the lysosome-autophagy proteolytic system. It regulates different cellular process through the selective degradation of cytosolic proteins. In ageing, the function of CMA is impaired causing an inefficient stress response and the accumulation of damaged, oxidized or misfolded proteins, which is associated with numerous age-related diseases. Deficient protein degradation alters cellular proteostasis and activates signaling pathways that culminate in the induction of cellular senescence, whose accumulation is a typical feature of ageing...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moreno-Blas D, Gorostieta-Salas E, Castro-Obregón S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Differential gene expression analysis in ageing muscle and drug discovery perspectives.
and J Abstract Identifying therapeutic target genes represents the key step in functional genomics-based therapies. Within this context, the disease heterogeneity, the exogenous factors and the complexity of genomic structure and function represent important challenges. The functional genomics aims to overcome such obstacles via identifying the gene functions and therefore highlight disease-causing genes as therapeutic targets. Genomic technologies promise to reshape the research on ageing muscle, exercise response and drug discovery. Herein, we describe the functional genomics strategies, mainly differential gene...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Melouane A, Ghanemi A, Aubé S, Yoshioka M, St-Amand J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The influence and impact of ageing and immunosenescence (ISC) on adaptive immunity during multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal counterpart experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
Abstract The human ageing process encompass mechanisms that effect a decline in homeostasis with increased susceptibility to disease and the development of chronic life-threatening illness. Increasing age affects the immune system which undergoes a progressive loss of efficiency, termed immunosenescence (ISC), to impact on quantitative and functional aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. The human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the corresponding animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are strongly governed by immunological events that primarily involve the adaptive arm of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bolton C, Smith PA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammageing and metaflammation: The yin and yang of type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation, recently referred to as 'metaflammation', a relevant factor contributing to the development of both diabetes and its complications. Nonetheless, 'canonical' anti-inflammatory drugs do not yield satisfactory results in terms of prevention of diabetes progression and of cardiovascular events, suggesting that the causal mechanisms fostering metaflammation deserve further research to identify new druggable targets. Metaflammation resembles ageing-induced low-grade inflammation, previously referred to as inflammageing, in terms...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 25, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Prattichizzo F, De Nigris V, Spiga R, Mancuso E, La Sala L, Antonicelli R, Testa R, Procopio AD, Olivieri F, Ceriello A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Chronic Inflammation - Inflammaging - in the Ageing Cochlea: A Novel Target for Future Presbycusis Therapy.
Abstract Chronic, low-grade inflammation, or inflammaging, is a crucial contributor to various age-related pathologies and natural processes in aging tissue, including the nervous system. Over the past two decades, much effort has been done to understand the mechanisms of inflammaging in disease models such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. However, despite being the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population; little research has been con...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 7, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Watson N, Ding B, Zhu X, Frisina RD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sirt1 and Parp1 as epigenome safeguards and microRNAs as SASP-associated signals, in cellular senescence and aging.
Abstract Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The second approach concerns modification of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 6, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hekmatimoghaddam S, Dehghani-Firoozabadi A, Zare-Khormizi MR, Pourrajab F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Alpha-synuclein, epigenetics, mitochondria, metabolism, calcium traffic, & circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. An integrated strategy for management.
Alpha-synuclein, epigenetics, mitochondria, metabolism, calcium traffic, & circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. An integrated strategy for management. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Oct 03;: Authors: Phillipson OT Abstract The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combinati...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Phillipson OT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The science of nutritional modulation of aging.
PMID: 28823380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 22, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fontana L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metformin reduces all-cause mortality and diseases of ageing independent of its effect on diabetes control: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract This systematic review investigated whether the insulin sensitiser metformin has a geroprotective effect in humans. Pubmed and Embase were searched along with databases of unpublished studies. Eligible research investigated the effect of metformin on all-cause mortality or diseases of ageing relative to non-diabetic populations or diabetics receiving other therapies with adjustment for disease control achieved. Overall, 260 full-texts were reviewed and 53 met the inclusion criteria. Diabetics taking metformin had significantly lower all-cause mortality than non-diabetics (hazard ratio (HR)=0.93, 95%CI 0.8...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Campbell JM, Bellman SM, Stephenson MD, Lisy K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sirtuins, epigenetics and longevity.
Abstract Aging of organisms begins from a single cell at the molecular level. It includes changes related to telomere shortening, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications. These processes accumulate over the lifespan. Research studies show that epigenetic signaling contributes to human disease, tumorigenesis and aging. Epigenetic DNA modifications involve changes in the gene activity but not in the DNA sequence. An epigenome consists of chemical modifications to the DNA and histone proteins without the changes in the DNA sequence. These modifications strongly depend on the environment, could be reversible and ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wątroba M, Dudek I, Skoda M, Stangret A, Rzodkiewicz P, Szukiewicz D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging and Osteoarthritis: Central Role of the Extracellular Matrix.
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA), is a major cause of severe joint pain, physical disability and quality of life impairment in the aging population across the developed and developing world. Increased catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the articular cartilage is a key factor in the development and progression of OA. The molecular mechanisms leading to an impaired matrix turnover have not been fully clarified, however cellular senescence, increased expression of inflammatory mediators as well as oxidative stress in association with an inherently limited regenerative potential of the tissue, are all importa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rahmati M, Nalesso G, Mobasheri A, Mozafari M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Protein aggregation, cardiovascular diseases, and exercise training: where do we stand?
iro F Abstract Cells ensure their protein quality control through the proteostasis network. Aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, have been associated to the reduction of proteostasis network efficiency and, consequently, to the accumulation of protein misfolded aggregates. The decline in protein homeostasis has been associated with the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. Exercise training is a key component of the management of patients with cardiovascular disease, consiste...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 27, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gouveia M, Xia K, Colón W, Vieira SI, Ribeiro F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Use of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of research.
Abstract The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field. The aim of th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Agbangla NF, Audiffren M, Albinet CT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Modulation of dendritic cell and T cell cross-talk during aging: The potential role of checkpoint inhibitory molecules.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) undergo continuous changes throughout life, and there is evidence that elderly DCs have a reduced capacity to stimulate T cells, which may contribute to impaired anti-tumour immune responses in elderly people with cancer. Changes in checkpoint inhibitory molecules/pathways during aging may be one mechanism that impairs the ability of elderly DCs to activate T cells. However, little is currently known regarding the combined effects of aging and cancer on DC and T cell inhibitory molecules/pathways. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the influence of aging and canc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 20, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gardner JK, Mamotte CDS, Jackaman C, Nelson DJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

AMPK orchestrates an elaborate cascade protecting tissue from fibrosis and aging.
Abstract Fibrosis is a common process characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation after inflammatory injury, which is also a crucial cause of aging. The process of fibrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of most diseases of the heart, liver, kidney, lung, and other organs/tissues. However, there are no effective therapies for this pathological alteration. Annually, fibrosis represents a huge financial burden for the USA and the world. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal energy sensor that alleviates or delays the process of fibrogenesis. In this review, we first present basi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 11, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jiang S, Li T, Yang Z, Yi W, Di S, Sun Y, Wang D, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Historical demography and longevity genetics: back to the future.
Abstract Research into the genetic component of human longevity can provide important insights in mechanisms that may protect against age-related diseases and multi-morbidity. Thus far only a limited number of robust longevity loci have been detected in either candidate or genome wide association studies. One of the issues in these genetic studies is the definition of the trait being either lifespan, including any age at death or longevity, i.e. survival above a diverse series of thresholds. Likewise heritability and segregation research have conflated lifespan with longevity. The heritability of lifespan estimate...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van den Berg N, Beekman M, Smith KR, Janssens A, Slagboom PE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A viewpoint on considering physiological principles to study stress resistance and resilience with aging.
Abstract Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience. PMID: 28676286 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miller BF, Seals DR, Hamilton KL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Healthy Ageing: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: There is consistent evidence from longitudinal observational studies that PA is positively associated with HA, regardless of definition and measurement. Future research should focus on the implementation of a single metric of HA, on the use of objective measures for PA assessment and on a full-range of confounding adjustment. In addition, our research indicated the limited research on ageing in low-and-middle income countries. PMID: 28648951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 22, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Daskalopoulou C, Stubbs B, Kralj C, Koukounari A, Prince M, Prina AM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Evolution of human apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoforms: gene structure, protein function and interaction with dietary factors.
Abstract Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a member of the vertebrate protein family of exchangeable apolipoproteins that is characterized by amphipathic α-helices encoded by multiple nucleotide tandem repeats. Its equivalent in flying insects - apolipophorin-III - shares structural and functional commonalities with APOE, suggesting the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between the proteins. In contrast to all other known species, human APOE is functionally polymorphic and possesses three major allelic variants (ε4, ε3 and ε2). The present review examines the current knowledge on A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 21, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Huebbe P, Rimbach G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research