Telomere length and health outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies.
TELOMERE LENGTH AND HEALTH OUTCOMES: AN UMBRELLA REVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES OF OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Feb 15;: Authors: Smith L, Luchini C, Demurtas J, Soysal P, Stubbs B, Hamer M, Nottegar A, Lawlor RT, Lopez-Sanchez GF, Firth J, Koyanagi A, Roberts J, Willeit P, Waldhoer T, Loosemore M, Abbs AD, Johnstone J, Yang L, Veronese N Abstract The aim of the present study was to map and grade evidence for the relationships between telomere length with a diverse range of health outcomes, using an umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses. We searched fo...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Smith L, Luchini C, Demurtas J, Soysal P, Stubbs B, Hamer M, Nottegar A, Lawlor RT, Lopez-Sanchez GF, Firth J, Koyanagi A, Roberts J, Willeit P, Waldhoer T, Loosemore M, Abbs AD, Johnstone J, Yang L, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The peculiar aging of human liver: A geroscience perspective within transplant context.
Abstract An appraisal of recent data highlighting aspects inspired by the new Geroscience perspective are here discussed. The main findings are summarized as follows: i) liver has to be considered an immunological organ, and new studies suggest a role for the recently described cells named telocytes; ii) the liver-gut axis represents a crucial connection with environment and life style habits and may influence liver diseases onset; iii) the physiological aging of liver shows relatively modest alterations. Nevertheless, several molecular changes appear to be relevant: a) an increase of microRNA-31-5p; -141-3p; -200...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Morsiani C, Bacalini MG, Santoro A, Garagnani P, Collura S, D'Errico A, de Eguileor M, Grazi GL, Cescon M, Franceschi C, Capri M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in immunosenescence.
Abstract A healthy functioning immune system is critical to stave off infectious diseases, but as humans and other organisms age, their immune systems decline. As a result, diseases that were readily thwarted in early life pose nontrivial harm and can even be deadly in late life. Immunosenescence is defined as the general deterioration of the immune system with age, and it is characterized by functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and specific blood cell types as well as changes in levels of numerous factors, particularly those involved in inflammation. Potential mechanisms underlying immunosenescen...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Johnson ND, Conneely KN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Unravelling Protein Aggregation as an Ageing Related Process or a Neuropathological Response.
Abstract Protein aggregation is normally associated with amyloidosis, namely motor neurone, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or prion diseases. However, recent results have unveiled a concept of gradual increase of protein aggregation associated with the ageing process, apparently not necessarily associated with pathological conditions. Given that protein aggregation is sufficient to activate stress-response and inflammation, impairing protein synthesis and quality control mechanisms, the former is assumed to negatively affect cellular metabolism and behaviour. In this review the state of the art in protein aggregation re...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Trigo D, Nadais A, da Cruz E Silva OAB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Post stroke depression and risk of stroke recurrence and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Post stroke depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality in stroke survivors. More researches are required on the association with stroke recurrence. PMID: 30711712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cai W, Mueller C, Li YJ, Shen WD, Stewart R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis of Real-World Interventions for Cognitive Ageing in Healthy Older Adults.
Abstract Activities running in community-based-settings offer a method of delivering multimodal interventions to older adults beyond cognitive training programmes. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impact of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'real-world' interventions on the cognitive abilities of healthy older adults. Database searches were performed between October 2016 and September 2018. Forty-three RCTs were eligible for inclusion with 2,826 intervention participants and 2,234 controls. Interventions to enhance cognitive ability consisted of participation in activities that were p...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaportzis E, Niechcial MA, Gow AJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The prion-like spreading of α-synuclein: From in vitro to in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.
The prion-like spreading of α-synuclein: From in vitro to in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Jan 25;: Authors: Vargas JY, Grudina C, Zurzolo C Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, primarily in brain regions that control motor functions, thereby leading to motor impairments in the patients. Pathological aggregated forms of the synaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), are involved in the generation and progression of PD. In PD brai...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vargas JY, Grudina C, Zurzolo C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The optimal treatment for improving the cognitive function in elder people diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment incorporating Bayesian network meta-analysis and systematic review.
This study focuses on three cognitive interventions referred from Clare and Woods, that is, Cognitive stimulation(CS), Cognitive training(CT) and Cognitive rehabilitation(CR). Our Network meta-analysis(NMA) is aimed at comparing them with each other for evaluating the optimal cognitive intervention to help elderly adults with MCI to improve their cognitive function. We applied extensive strategies on preliminary literature collection to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which scrupulously compare any of these cognitive interventions with each other or instead with control groups such as with placebo or ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liang JH, Shen WT, Li JY, Qu XY, Li J, Jia RX, Wang YQ, Wang S, Wu RK, Zhang HB, Hang L, Xu Y, Lin L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Transitions between frailty states among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Frailty is a well-established risk factor for adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about the dynamic nature of frailty and the extent it can improve. The purposes of this study were to systematically search for studies examining frailty transitions over time among community-dwelling older people, and to synthesise pooled frailty transitions rates. Four electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL) were searched in July 2018. Inclusion criteria were: prospective design, community-dwelling older people with mean age>60, using 5-item frailty phenotype criteria to define three st...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 16, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kojima G, Taniguchi Y, Iliffe S, Jivraj S, Walters K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effect of soluble cleavage products of important receptors/ligands on efferocytosis: Their role in inflammatory, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract Efferocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs), is a physiologic, multifaceted and dynamic process and a fundamental mechanism for the preservation of tissue homeostasis by avoiding unwanted inflammation and autoimmune responses through special phagocytic receptors. Defective efferocytosis is associated with several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and impaired immune surveillance, as occurs in cancer and autoimmune disease. A major cause of defective efferocytosis is non-functionality of surface receptors on either the phagocytic cells or the ACs, such as TAM family tyrosine kinas...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tajbakhsh A, Gheibi Hayat SM, Butler AE, Sahebkar A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does senescence promote fitness in Caenorhabditis elegans by causing death?
Abstract A widely appreciated conclusion from evolutionary theory is that senescence (aging) is of no adaptive value to the individual that it afflicts. Yet studies of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are increasingly revealing the presence of processes which actively cause senescence and death, leading some biogerontologists to wonder about the established theory. Here we argue that programmed death that increases fitness could occur in C. elegans and S. cerevisiae, and that this is consistent with the classic evolutionary theory of aging. This is because of the special conditions under which t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lohr JN, Galimov ER, Gems D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Survival time and differences between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease following diagnosis: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence across longitudinal studies comparing survival in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing survival in clinically diagnosed DLB to AD. Longitudinal cohort studies were identified through a systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to May 2018. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate survival time and relative risk of death. RESULTS: Overall, 11 studies were identified including 22,952 patients with dementia: 2,029 with ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mueller C, Soysal P, Rongve A, Isik AT, Thompson T, Maggi S, Smith L, Basso C, Stewart R, Ballard C, O'Brien JT, Aarsland D, Stubbs B, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Exploring the relationship between physical activity, beta-amyloid and tau: A narrative review.
Abstract Several prospective cohort studies have reported an association between higher levels of physical activity and decreased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, years later. To support physical activity as a preventative measure against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD; the most common form of dementia), evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms is vital. Here, we review previous work examining the role of physical activity in modulating levels of AD pathological hallmarks, beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau (in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and blood). Robust evidence from transgenic animal st...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brown BM, Peiffer J, Rainey-Smith SR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The telomere world and aging: analytical challenges and future perspectives.
Olivieri F Abstract Telomeres, the terminal nucleoprotein structures of eukaryotic chromosomes, play pleiotropic functions in cellular and organismal aging. Telomere length (TL) varies throughout life due to the influence of genetic factors and to a complex balancing between "shortening" and "elongation" signals. Telomerase, the only enzyme that can elongate a telomeric DNA chain, and telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a long non-coding RNA involved in looping maintenance, play key roles in TL during life. Despite recent advances in the knowledge of TL, TERRA and telomerase activity (TA)...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mensà E, Latini S, Ramini D, Storci G, Bonafè M, Olivieri F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the association of increased neuroinflammation during the progression of MCI and AD, relative to HCs. PMID: 30610927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bradburn S, Murgatroyd C, Ray N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder and represents the most common form of senile dementia. The pathogenesis of AD is not yet completely understood and no curative treatment is currently available. With the recent advancement in transcriptome-wide profiling approach, several non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified. Among them, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are long transcripts without apparent protein-coding capacity, have received increasing interest for their involvement in a wide range of biological processes as regulatory molecules. Recent studies have ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cortini F, Roma F, Villa C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Reversibility of irreversible aging.
Abstract Most multicellular organisms are known to age, due to accumulation of damage and other deleterious changes over time. These changes are often irreversible as organisms, humans included, evolved fully differentiated, irreplaceable cells (e.g. neurons) and structures (e.g. skeleton). Hence, deterioration or loss of at least some cells and structures should lead to inevitable aging of these organisms. Yet, some cells may escape this fate: adult somatic cells may be converted to partially reprogrammed cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). By their nature, iPSCs are the cells representing the early ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Galkin F, Zhang B, Dmitriev SE, Gladyshev VN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) processing as a biological link between Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer.
ra IR Abstract Aging is a risk factor for several illnesses, such as Alzheimer's Disease and various cancers. However, an inverse correlation between malignancies and Alzheimer's Disease has been suggested. This review addressed the potential role of non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic pathways of amyloid precursor protein processing as a relevant biochemical mechanism to clarify this association. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways have been related to Alzheimer's Disease and certain malignancies, respectively. Several known molecules involved in APP processing, including its regulation and final product...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Galvão F, Grokoski KC, da Silva BB, Lamers ML, Siqueira IR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MRI-based Evaluation of Structural Degeneration in the Ageing Brain: Pathophysiology and Assessment.
Abstract Advances in MRI technology have significantly contributed to our ability to understand the process of brain ageing, allowing us to track and assess changes that occur during normal ageing and neurological conditions. This paper focuses on reviewing structural changes of the ageing brain that are commonly seen using MRI, summarizing the pathophysiology, prevalence, and neuroanatomical distribution of changes including atrophy, lacunes, white matter lesions, and dilated perivascular spaces. We also review the clinically accessible methodology for assessing these MRI-based changes, covering visual rating sca...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Grajauskas LA, Siu W, Medvedev G, Guo H, D'Arcy RC, Song X Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence for Aging and Longevity Research: Recent Advances and Perspectives.
Abstract The applications of modern artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms within the field of aging research offer tremendous opportunities. Aging is an almost universal unifying feature possessed by all living organisms, tissues, and cells. Modern deep learning techniques used to develop age predictors offer new possibilities for formerly incompatible dynamic and static data types. AI biomarkers of aging enable a holistic view of biological processes and allow for novel methods for building causal models-extracting the most important features and identifying biological targets and mechanisms. Recent development...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhavoronkov A, Mamoshina P, Vanhaelen Q, Scheibye-Knudsen M, Moskalev A, Aliper A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MicroRNAs and Mild Cognitive Impairment: a systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review is to summarize available evidence on the use of miRNAs as biomarkers in subjects with MCI. METHODS: Relevant literature published up to June 2018 was retrieved searching the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Database. Only studies considering miRNAs and a diagnosis of MCI were included. Data were extracted using a specifically-designed standardized form, and their methodological quality was assessed using QUADAS-2 and QUIPS. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies of 153 retrieved articles met the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Studies included a number...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Piscopo P, Lacorte E, Feligioni M, Mayer F, Crestini A, Piccolo L, Bacigalupo I, Filareti M, Ficulle E, Confaloni A, Vanacore N, Corbo M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Age-related diseases as vicious cycles.
Abstract The mortality rates of age-related diseases (ARDs) increase exponentially with age. Processes described by the exponential growth function typically involve a branching chain reaction or, more generally, a positive feedback loop. Here I propose that each ARD is mediated by one or several positive feedback loops (vicious cycles). I then identify critical vicious cycles in five major ARDs: atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. I also propose that the progression of ARDs can be halted by selectively interrupting the vicious cycles and suggest the most promising targets. P...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 17, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Belikov AV Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The potential nutrigeroprotective role of Mediterranean diet and its functional components on telomere length dynamics.
Abstract The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a gold standard for nutrition and the most evidence-based diet to delay the onset of age-associated pathologies. Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered a reliable hallmark of biological ageing. Telomere shortening is, at least in part, a modifiable factor and there is evidence that adherence to the MD is associated with longer telomeres. Data from several studies indicate an association between "inflammatory/oxidative status" and telomere length (TL). The MD, as a complex exposome wit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Davinelli S, Trichopoulou A, Corbi G, De Vivo I, Scapagnini G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

microRNA diagnostic panel for Alzheimer's disease and epigenetic trade-off between neurodegeneration and cancer.
Abstract microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Their profiles have been analyzed in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue. However, due to the high variability between the reported data, stemming from the lack of methodological standardization and the heterogeneity of AD, the most promising miRNA biomarker candidates have not been selected. Our literature review shows that out of 137 miRNAs found to be altered in AD blood, 36 have been replicated in at least one independent study, and out of 166 miRNAs reported as differential in AD CSF, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nagaraj S, Zoltowska KM, Laskowska-Kaszub K, Wojda U Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Homocysteine and age-associated disorders.
Abstract There are numerous theories of aging, a process which still seems inevitable. Aging leads to cancer and multi-systemic disorders as well as chronic diseases including those that impair the functions of endothelial cells, kidney and lung. Decline in age- associated cellular functions leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline that affect the quality of life. Accumulation of damage, mutations, metabolic changes, failure in cellular energy production and clearance of altered proteins over the lifetime, and hyperhomocysteinemia, ultimately result in tissue degeneration. Moreover, approximately 50% of pe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ostrakhovitch EA, Tabibzadeh S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to treat malnutrition in older persons: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The SENATOR project ONTOP series and MaNuEL Knowledge Hub project.
CONCLUSIONS: This review has highlighted the lack of high quality evidence to indicate which interventions are effective in treating malnutrition in older people. High quality research studies are urgently needed in this area. PMID: 30391755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Correa-Pérez A, Abraha I, Cherubini A, Collinson A, Dardevet D, de Groot LC, de van der Schueren MAE, Hebestreit A, Hickson M, Jaramillo-Hidalgo J, Lozano-Montoya I, O'Mahony D, Soiza RL, Visser M, Volkert D, Wolters M, Jentoft AJC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Association between human herpes virus seropositivity and frailty in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ho PR Abstract Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to environmental factors. Several studies have examined the association between persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and poor clinical outcomes in the elderly, but the results are often contradictory. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the association between human herpesvirus seropositivity [CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Herpes simplex virus (HSV)] and frailty in elderly people. Searches were performed in PubMe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Araújo Carvalho AC, Tavares Mendes ML, Santos VS, Tanajura DM, Prado Nunes MA, Saquete Martins-Filho PR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Orthostatic hypotension and physical functioning in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: OH was associated with impaired balance, ADL performance and HY/UPDRS III performance, but not with other physical functioning categories. The results suggest that OH interventions could potentially improve some aspects of physical functioning. PMID: 30394339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mol A, Reijnierse EM, Bui Hoang PTS, van Wezel RJA, Meskers CGM, Maier AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Overview of Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an age-related arrhythmia, particularly affecting elderly patients. The ultimate goals in the treatment of AF are to improve prognosis and quality of life. Anticoagulants are effective for stroke prevention in AF patients, however, managing anticoagulation in elderly patients is especially challenging; requiring a comprehensive assessment of the patient and deep understanding of available therapies and doses to maximize the net benefit. This review summarizes available evidence on the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation therapy, and provides contemporary updates on the manag...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kato ET, Goto S, Giugliano RP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Postmenopausal health interventions: time to move on from the women's health initiative?
POSTMENOPAUSAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: TIME TO MOVE ON FROM THE WOMEN'S HEALTH INITIATIVE? Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Oct 21;: Authors: Thaung Zaw JJ, Howe PRC, Wong RHX Abstract Menopause is a critical period during which, without timely interventions, increased risks of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction and premature cognitive decline will contribute to diminished quality-of-life in women. Hormone therapy (HT) used to be the standard of care for managing vasomotor symptoms and prevention of chronic diseases until publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 200...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thaung Zaw JJ, Howe PRC, Wong RHX Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Genetic modifiers of age-at-onset in polyglutamine diseases.
Abstract Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases. Expansion size correlates with age-at-onset (AO) and severity, and shows a critical threshold for each polyQ disease. Although an expanded CAG tract is sufficient to trigger disease, not all variation in AO is explained by (CAG)n length, which suggests the contribution of other modifying factors. Methods used to identify genetic modifiers in polyQ diseases have progressed from candidate genes to unbiased genome-wide searches. Inconsistency of results from candidate-genes studies are partly ex...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chen Z, Sequeiros J, Tang B, Jiang H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Pleiotropic effects of metformin: Shaping the microbiome to manage type 2 diabetes and postpone ageing.
llo A Abstract Metformin is the first-choice therapy to lower glycaemia and manage type 2 diabetes. Continuously emerging epidemiological data and experimental models are showing additional protective effects of metformin against a number of age-related diseases (ARDs), e.g., cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This evidence has prompted the design of a specific trial, i.e., the Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) trial, to test metformin as an anti-ageing molecule. However, a unifying or prevailing mechanism of action of metformin is still debated. Here, we summarize the epidemiological data linking metformin t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Prattichizzo F, Giuliani A, Mensà E, Sabbatinelli J, De Nigris V, Rippo MR, La Sala L, Procopio AD, Olivieri F, Ceriello A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Exercise-Induced Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression: Therapeutic Implications for Alzheimer's Dementia.
Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF express...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang R, Holsinger RMD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Major trauma and acceleration of the ageing process.
Abstract It is well established that numerous factors can affect the rate at which we age biologically. Diet, physical activity, lifestyle and our genes all play a major role in influencing the ageing trajectory and longevity. Major trauma affects millions globally, is the major cause of death in young adults and could influence ageing processes but has largely been ignored by biogenterologists. The long-term health consequences of physical trauma are well known in the medical community, how trauma effects the ageing process at a molecular level is not. It has long been difficult to assess ageing trajectories due ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 11, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sullivan J, Mirbahai L, Lord JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing, the autonomic nervous system and arrhythmia: From brain to heart.
Abstract An ageing myocardium possesses significant electrophysiological alterations that predisposes the elderly patient to arrhythmic risk. Whilst these alterations are intrinsic to the cardiac myocytes, they are modulated by the cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consequently, ageing of the cardiac ANS is fundamental to the development of arrhythmias. A systems-based approach that incorporates the influence of the cardiac ANS could lead to better mechanistic understanding of how arrhythmogenic triggers and substrates interact spatially and temporally to produce sustained arrhythmia and why its incidence...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chadda KR, Ajijola OA, Vaseghi M, Shivkumar K, Huang CL, Jeevaratnam K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Significance of urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane b2 in age-related diseases: focus on atherothrombosis.
SIGNIFICANCE OF URINARY 11-DEHYDRO-THROMBOXANE B2 IN AGE-RELATED DISEASES: FOCUS ON ATHEROTHROMBOSIS. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Sep 28;: Authors: Simeone P, Boccatonda A, Liani R, Santilli F Abstract Platelet activation plays a key role in atherogenesisis and atherothrombosis. Biochemical evidence of increased platelet activation in vivo can be reliably obtained through non-invasive measurement of thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion. Persistent biosynthesis of TXA2 has been associated with several ageing-related diseases, including acute and chronic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular ris...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Simeone P, Boccatonda A, Liani R, Santilli F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomere Length and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-analysis.
g S Abstract Telomere attrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of various age-related diseases. Reports of association between telomere length (TL) and all-cause mortality remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed using published cohort studies and un-published data from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). Twenty-five studies were included: four STR cohorts (12,083 individuals with 2517 deaths) and 21 published studies. In the STR studies, one standard deviation (SD) decrement of leukocyte TL corresponded to 13% increased all-cause mortality risk (95% confidence in...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang Q, Zhan Y, Pedersen NL, Fang F, Hägg S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in neurodegenerative processes and the role of low molecular weights compounds in counteracting its aggregation and nuclear translocation.
Abstract A number of independent studies have shown the contribution of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, GAPDH aggregates have been found in many post-mortem samples of brains of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease. Currently, it is accepted that GAPDH-mediated cell death pathways in the neurodegenerative processes are associated with apoptosis caused by GAPDH nuclear translocation and excessive aggregation under oxidative stress conditions. Also the role of GAPDH in neurodegenerative diseases is linked to it ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gerszon J, Rodacka A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the inflammaging process.
Abstract A chronic low-grade inflammation is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. This gradually augmenting inflammatory state has been termed inflammaging. Inflammaging is associated with increased myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. This myelopoiesis-biased process increases the generation not only of mature myeloid cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, but also immature myeloid progenitors and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). It is known that the aging process is associated with a significant increase in the presence of MDSCs in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nod...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A, Kaarniranta K, Kauppinen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The effect of fasting or calorie restriction on autophagy induction: a review of the literature.
Abstract Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process and protective housekeeping mechanism to eliminate damaged organelles, long-lived misfolded proteins and invading pathogens. Autophagy functions to recycle building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis, allowing cells to adapt to stress. Modulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target for a diverse range of diseases, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. Traditionally, food deprivation and calorie restriction (CR) have been considered to slow aging and increase longevity. Sinc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bagherniya M, Butler AE, Barreto GE, Sahebkar A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Adjustment of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis for control of cellular senescence.
Abstract Mitochondria and lysosomes undergo the most marked senescence-related alterations among all cellular organelles. Whereas mitochondria undergo gradual structural changes associated with reduced function, lysosomes exhibit progressively deteriorated function along with the accumulation of lipofuscins. Lysosomal dysfunction induces the deterioration of mitochondrial turnover, resulting in the generation of more reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the increased ROS levels in turn targeting lysosomes. This vicious feedback loop between lysosomes and mitochondria thus aggravates senescence phenotypes. Based on ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Park JT, Lee YS, Cho KA, Park SC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

AMP-activated protein kinase sparks the fire of cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and cardiac ageing.
Abstract AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of some endogenous defensive molecules in various pathological processes, particularly myocardial ischemia (MI), a high risk of myocardial infarction. Thereby it is of great significance to explore the inherent mechanism between AMPK and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the structure and role of AMPK in the heart. Next, we introduce the mechanisms of AMPK in the heart; followed by the energy regulation of AMPK in MI. Lastly, the attention will be expanded to some potential directions and further perspectives. The informati...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gu C, Li T, Jiang S, Yang Z, Lv J, Yi W, Yang Y, Fang M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Shared Biological Pathways for Frailty and Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.
PMID: 30102995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sargent L, Nalls M, Starkweather A, Hobgood S, Thompson H, Amella EJ, Singleton A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The effects of physical exercise on executive function in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia: A systematic review.
Abstract Executive function deficit is an indicator of Alzheimer's-type dementia and manifests as disruptions of attentional control, memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and reasoning, among other cognitive problems. Physical exercise is suggested to have a protective effect on global cognition with aging. However, whether it influences executive function in people living with Alzheimer's-type dementia specifically is unknown. The current systematic review examined the efficacy of physical exercise on executive function performance in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia. An e...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Guitar NA, Connelly DM, Nagamatsu LS, Orange JB, Muir-Hunter SW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of melatonin, a multitasking molecule, in retarding the processes of ageing.
Abstract Biological ageing is generally accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular functions and physiological integrity of organ systems, the consequential enhancement of vulnerability, senescence and finally death. Mechanisms which underlie ageing are primarily attributed to an array of diverse but related factors including free radical-induced damage, dysfunction of mitochondria, disruption of circadian rhythms, inflammaging, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, deregulated sensing of nutrients, epigenetic alterations, altered intercellular communication, and decreased capacity for tiss...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Majidinia M, Reiter RJ, Shakouri SK, Yousefi B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Towards frailty biomarkers: Candidates from genes and pathways regulated in aging and age-related diseases.
CONCLUSION: Biomarker panels for frailty would be of high value and better than single markers. Based on our search we would propose a core panel of frailty biomarkers consisting of (1) CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10), IL-6 (interleukin 6), CX3CL1 (C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1), (2) GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15), FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5), vimentin (VIM), (3) regucalcin (RGN/SMP30), calreticulin, (4) PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), AGT (angiotensinogen), (5) BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor), progranulin (PGRN), (6) α-klotho (KL), FGF23 (fibroblast growth ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cardoso AL, Fernandes A, Aguilar-Pimentel JA, de Angelis MH, Guedes JR, Brito MA, Ortolano S, Pani G, Athanasopoulou S, Gonos ES, Schosserer M, Grillari J, Peterson P, Tuna BG, Dogan S, Meyer A, van Os R, Trendelenburg AU Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Developmental programming of aging trajectory.
Abstract There is accumulating evidence that aging phenotype and longevity may be developmentally programmed. Main mechanisms linking developmental conditions to later-life health outcomes include persistent changes in epigenetic regulation, (re)programming of major endocrine axes such as growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and also early-life immune maturation. Recently, evidence has also been generated on the role of telomere biology in developmental programming of aging trajectory. In addition, persisting changes of intestinal microbiota appears to be crucially...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman A, Koliada A, Lushchak O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

'Evolutionary medicine' perspectives on Alzheimer's Disease: Review and new directions.
Abstract Evolution by natural selection eliminates maladaptive traits from a species, and yet Alzheimer's Disease (AD) persists with rapidly increasing prevalence globally. This apparent paradox begs an explanation within the framework of evolutionary sciences. Here, I summarize and critique previously proposed theories to explain human susceptibility to AD, grouped into 8 distinct hypotheses based on the concepts of novel extension of the lifespan; lack of selective pressure during the post-reproductive phase; antagonistic pleiotropy; rapid brain evolution; delayed neuropathy by selection for grandmothering; nove...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fox M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function: measurement and mechanisms of muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss in humans.
Abstract Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, is associated with physical frailty and increased risk of morbidity (chronic diseases), in addition to all-cause mortality. The loss of muscle mass occurs incipiently from middle-age (~1%/year), and in severe instances can lead to a loss of ~50% by the 8-9th decade of life. This review will focus on muscle deterioration with ageing and highlight the two underpinning mechanisms regulating declines in muscle mass and function: muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss (hypoplasia) - and their measurement. The mechanisms of muscle fibre atro...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wilkinson DJ, Piasecki M, Atherton PJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A Scoping Systematic Review of Social Stressors and Various Measures of Telomere Length Across the Life Course.
Abstract Numerous studies examine the relationship between social stressors and telomere length (TL). Beyond considering methods and major findings, this scoping systematic review takes a novel approach as it groups studies according to the types of social stressor considered and by age groups. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus. We included all English-language human subject research articles that modeled any measure of TL as a dependent variable and exposure to a social stressor as an independent variable. For the sample of 105 articles, we summarized methods and ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Willis M, Reid SN, Calvo E, Staudinger UM, Factor-Litvak P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research