Epigenetic Enzymes: A Role in Aging and Prospects for Pharmacological Targeting
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 28:101312. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101312. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe development of interventions aimed at improving healthspan is one of the priority tasks for the academic and public health authorities. It is also the main objective of a novel branch in biogerontological research, geroscience. According to the geroscience concept, targeting aging is an effective way to combat age-related disorders. Since aging is an exceptionally complex process, system-oriented integrated approaches seem most appropriate for such an interventional strategy. Given the high plasticity and adaptability of t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Elena G Pasyukova Alexander V Symonenko Olga Y Rybina Alexander M Vaiserman Source Type: research

Epigenetic Enzymes: A Role in Aging and Prospects for Pharmacological Targeting
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 28:101312. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101312. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe development of interventions aimed at improving healthspan is one of the priority tasks for the academic and public health authorities. It is also the main objective of a novel branch in biogerontological research, geroscience. According to the geroscience concept, targeting aging is an effective way to combat age-related disorders. Since aging is an exceptionally complex process, system-oriented integrated approaches seem most appropriate for such an interventional strategy. Given the high plasticity and adaptability of t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Elena G Pasyukova Alexander V Symonenko Olga Y Rybina Alexander M Vaiserman Source Type: research

Association of HIV Infection and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Meta-analysis
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Our meta-analysis provides empirical evidence that HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment among older adults, especially in cognitive domains of executive function, processing speed, verbal, recall, and motor/psychomotor.PMID:33640473 | DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2021.101310 (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 28, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luojia Deng Xuezhixing Zhang Yanxiao Gao DeAnne Turner Frank Qian Hui Lu Sten H Vermund Yue Zhang Han-Zhu Qian Source Type: research

Association of HIV Infection and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Meta-analysis
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Our meta-analysis provides empirical evidence that HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment among older adults, especially in cognitive domains of executive function, processing speed, verbal, recall, and motor/psychomotor.PMID:33640473 | DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2021.101310 (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 28, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luojia Deng Xuezhixing Zhang Yanxiao Gao DeAnne Turner Frank Qian Hui Lu Sten H Vermund Yue Zhang Han-Zhu Qian Source Type: research

Association of HIV Infection and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Meta-analysis
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Our meta-analysis provides empirical evidence that HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment among older adults, especially in cognitive domains of executive function, processing speed, verbal, recall, and motor/psychomotor.PMID:33640473 | DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2021.101310 (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 28, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luojia Deng Xuezhixing Zhang Yanxiao Gao DeAnne Turner Frank Qian Hui Lu Sten H Vermund Yue Zhang Han-Zhu Qian Source Type: research

Region-specific vulnerability in neurodegeneration: lessons from normal ageing
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 24:101311. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101311. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA number of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), possess a shared characteristic of region-specific neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms which determine why particular regions within the nervous system are selectively vulnerable to neurodegeneration, whilst others remain relatively unaffected throughout disease progression, remain elusive. Here, we review how regional susceptibility to the ubiquitous physiological ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Virenkumar A Pandya Rickie Patani Source Type: research

Region-specific vulnerability in neurodegeneration: lessons from normal ageing
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 24:101311. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101311. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA number of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), possess a shared characteristic of region-specific neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms which determine why particular regions within the nervous system are selectively vulnerable to neurodegeneration, whilst others remain relatively unaffected throughout disease progression, remain elusive. Here, we review how regional susceptibility to the ubiquitous physiological ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Virenkumar A Pandya Rickie Patani Source Type: research

Sestrin2 and mitochondrial quality control: potential impact in myogenic differentiation
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 21:101309. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101309. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMitochondria are highly dynamic organelles capable of adapting their network, morphology, and function, playing a role in oxidative phosphorylation and many cellular processes in most cell types. Skeletal muscle is a very plastic tissue, subjected to many morphological changes following diverse stimuli, such as during myogenic differentiation and regenerative myogenesis. For some time now, mitochondria have been reported to be involved in myogenesis by promoting a bioenergetic remodeling and assisting myoblasts in surviving th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luiz F Piochi Ivo F Machado Carlos M Palmeira Anabela P Rolo Source Type: research

Sestrin2 and mitochondrial quality control: potential impact in myogenic differentiation
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 21:101309. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101309. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMitochondria are highly dynamic organelles capable of adapting their network, morphology, and function, playing a role in oxidative phosphorylation and many cellular processes in most cell types. Skeletal muscle is a very plastic tissue, subjected to many morphological changes following diverse stimuli, such as during myogenic differentiation and regenerative myogenesis. For some time now, mitochondria have been reported to be involved in myogenesis by promoting a bioenergetic remodeling and assisting myoblasts in surviving th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luiz F Piochi Ivo F Machado Carlos M Palmeira Anabela P Rolo Source Type: research

Sestrin2 and mitochondrial quality control: potential impact in myogenic differentiation
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 21:101309. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101309. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMitochondria are highly dynamic organelles capable of adapting their network, morphology, and function, playing a role in oxidative phosphorylation and many cellular processes in most cell types. Skeletal muscle is a very plastic tissue, subjected to many morphological changes following diverse stimuli, such as during myogenic differentiation and regenerative myogenesis. For some time now, mitochondria have been reported to be involved in myogenesis by promoting a bioenergetic remodeling and assisting myoblasts in surviving th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 24, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luiz F Piochi Ivo F Machado Carlos M Palmeira Anabela P Rolo Source Type: research

Re-emphasizing early Alzheimer's disease pathology starting in select entorhinal neurons, with a special focus on mitophagy
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 20:101307. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101307. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe entorhinal-hippocampal system contains distinct networks subserving declarative memory. This system is selectively vulnerable to changes of ageing and pathological processes. The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a pivotal component of this memory system since it serves as the interface between the neocortex and the hippocampus. EC is heavily affected by the proteinopathies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These appear in a stereotypical spatiotemporal manner and include increased levels of intracellular amyloid-beta Aβ (iAβ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 23, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Asgeir Kobro-Flatmoen Maria Jose Lagartos-Donate Yahyah Aman Paul Edison Menno P Witter Evandro F Fang Source Type: research

COVID-19 mortality as a fingerprint of biological age
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 20;67:101308. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101308. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCorona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global emergency able to overwhelm the healthcare capacities worldwide and to affect the older generation especially. When addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations of COVID-19, it becomes evident that the disease targets pathways and domains affected by the main aging- and frailty-related pathophysiological changes. A closer analysis of the existing data supports a possible role of biological age rather than chronological age in the prognosis of COVID...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 23, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: M Cristina Polidori Helmut Sies Luigi Ferrucci Thomas Benzing Source Type: research

Re-emphasizing early Alzheimer's disease pathology starting in select entorhinal neurons, with a special focus on mitophagy
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 20:101307. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101307. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe entorhinal-hippocampal system contains distinct networks subserving declarative memory. This system is selectively vulnerable to changes of ageing and pathological processes. The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a pivotal component of this memory system since it serves as the interface between the neocortex and the hippocampus. EC is heavily affected by the proteinopathies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These appear in a stereotypical spatiotemporal manner and include increased levels of intracellular amyloid-beta Aβ (iAβ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 23, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Asgeir Kobro-Flatmoen Maria Jose Lagartos-Donate Yahyah Aman Paul Edison Menno P Witter Evandro F Fang Source Type: research

COVID-19 mortality as a fingerprint of biological age
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 20:101308. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101308. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCorona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global emergency able to overwhelm the healthcare capacities worldwide and to affect the older generation especially. When addressing the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations of COVID-19, it becomes evident that the disease targets pathways and domains affected by the main aging- and frailty-related pathophysiological changes. A closer analysis of the existing data supports a possible role of biological age rather than chronological age in the prognosis of COVID-19...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 23, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: M Cristina Polidori Helmut Sies Luigi Ferrucci Thomas Benzing Source Type: research

Late-onset hypogonadism: clinical evidence, biological aspects and evolutionary considerations
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 18:101301. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101301. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing life expectancy in modern societies has raised scientific interest in identifying medical interventions to alleviate age-associated pathologies such as vascular calcification, cognitive decline, sarcopenia, osteoporosis and sexual dysfunction. Although no such single treatment has thus far been established in humans, some clinicians and patients have set their hopes on testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) as a potential "fountain of youth" for aging men. While TRT has proven effective in ameliorating di...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nikolai Jaschke Andrew Wang Lorenz C Hofbauer Martina Rauner Tilman D Rachner Source Type: research

Exploring the multifunctional role of melatonin in regulating autophagy and sleep to mitigate Alzheimer's disease neuropathology
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 18:101304. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101304. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMelatonin (MLT) is a neurohormone that is regulated by the circadian clock and plays multifunctional roles in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is associated with the degradation of axons and synapses resulting in memory loss and cognitive impairment. Despite extensive research, there is still no effective cure or specific treatment to prevent the progression of AD. The pathogenesis of AD involves atrophic alterations in the brain...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Md Farhad Hossain Ni Wang Ruijun Chen Siwen Li Jaydeep Roy Md Giash Uddin Zhong Li Lee Wei Lim You-Qiang Song Source Type: research

The decreased exclusion of nuclear eccDNA: from molecular and subcellular levels to human aging and age-related diseases
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 18:101306. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101306. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExtrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) accumulates within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells during physiological aging and in age-related diseases (ARDs) and the accumulation could be caused by the declined exclusion of nuclear eccDNA in these states. This review focuses on the formation of eccDNA and the roles of some main factors, such as nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR), and nuclear actin, in eccDNA exclusion. eccDNAs are mostly formed from non-coding DNA during DNA damage repair. They move to NPCs ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Guo-Hua Qiu Xintian Zheng Mingjun Fu Cuiqin Huang Xiaoyan Yang Source Type: research

The Emerging Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Skeletal Muscle Motor Innervation and Sarcopenia
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 18:101305. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101305. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTExamining neural etiologic factors'role in the decline of neuromuscular function with aging is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sarcopenia, the age-dependent decline in muscle mass, force and power. Innervation of the skeletal muscle by both motor and sympathetic axons has been established, igniting interest in determining how the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) affect skeletal muscle composition and function throughout the lifetime. Selective expression of the heart and neural crest derivative 2 ge...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Osvaldo Delbono Carolina Zaia Rodrigues Henry Jacob Bonilla Maria Laura Messi Source Type: research

Targeting impaired nutrient sensing with repurposed therapeutics to prevent or treat age-related cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review
CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of nutrient sensing pathway therapeutics, particularly growth hormone secretagogues, have the potential to improve cognitive outcomes. Overall, there is a clear lack of translation from animal models to human populations.PMID:33609776 | DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2021.101302 (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 20, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Benjamin Kioussis Camilla S L Tuttle Daniel S Heard Brian K Kennedy Nicola T Lautenschlager Andrea B Maier Source Type: research

The functions and regulation of Otubains in protein homeostasis and diseases
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 17:101303. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101303. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding proteins Otubain1 (OTUB1) and Otubain2 (OTUB2) were initially identified as OTU deubiquitinases (DUBs). Recently, Otubains have emerged as essential regulators of diverse physiological processes, such as immune signaling and DNA damage response. Dysregulation of those processes likely to increase the risk in multiple aspects of aging-related diseases, including cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, chronic kidney diseases, bone dysplasia and pulmonary fibrosis. Consistently, Otu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 20, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Qiong Zhu Yesheng Fu Lei Li Cui Hua Liu Lingqiang Zhang Source Type: research

Associations of Omega-3 fatty acids with brain morphology and volume in cognitively healthy older adults: A narrative review
CONCLUSION: The search identified only 12 studies, 8 of which were cross-sectional observational studies, 3 longitudinal observational studies, and 1 randomized controlled trial published between 2007 and 2019. The largest amount of evidence indicated that the hippocampus was most frequently involved in this association, with a higher volume associated with higher omega-3 levels. Larger total grey matter, total brain volume, and lower white matter lesion volume were also associated with higher omega-3 among four of the reviewed studies. However, most studies reviewed provided mixed findings regarding the presence or absenc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 19, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tony Macaron Kelly Virecoulon Giudici Gene L Bowman Alan Sinclair Elie Stephan Bruno Vellas Philipe de Souto Barreto Source Type: research

SARS CoV2 infection _The longevity study perspectives
Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 16;67:101299. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101299. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLike other infectious diseases, COVID-19 shows a clinical outcome enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal. In Italy, like in other countries, old male individuals, with one or more comorbidity, are the most susceptible group, and show, consequently, the highest mortality, and morbidity, including lethal respiratory distress syndrome, as the most common complication. In addition, another extraordinary peculiarity, that is a surprising resistance to COVID-19, characterizes some Italian nonagenarians/centenari...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 19, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Domenico Lio Letizia Scola Rosa Maria Giarratana Giuseppina Candore Giuseppina Colonna-Romano Calogero Caruso Carmela Rita Balistreri Source Type: research

The association of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior with skeletal muscle strength and muscle power in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
CONCLUSIONS: Higher PA and lower SB are associated with greater skeletal muscle strength and muscle power, particularly with the chair stand test.PMID:33607291 | DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2021.101266 (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 19, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Keenan A Ramsey Anna G M Rojer Luke D'Andrea Ren é H J Otten Martijn W Heymans Marijke C Trappenburg Sjors Verlaan Anna C Whittaker Carel G M Meskers Andrea B Maier Source Type: research

Targeting impaired nutrient sensing with repurposed therapeutics to prevent or treat age-related cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of nutrient sensing pathway therapeutics, particularly growth hormone secretagogues, have the potential to improve cognitive outcomes. Overall, there is a clear lack of translation from animal models to human populations. PMID: 33609776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 17, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kioussis B, Tuttle CSL, Heard DS, Kennedy BK, Lautenschlager NT, Maier AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The functions and regulation of Otubains in protein homeostasis and diseases.
Abstract OTU domain-containing ubiquitin aldehyde-binding proteins Otubain1 (OTUB1) and Otubain2 (OTUB2) were initially identified as OTU deubiquitinases (DUBs). Recently, Otubains have emerged as essential regulators of diverse physiological processes, such as immune signaling and DNA damage response. Dysregulation of those processes likely to increase the risk in multiple aspects of aging-related diseases, including cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, chronic kidney diseases, bone dysplasia and pulmonary fibrosis. Consistently, Otubains are aberrantly expressed in cancers and have been identified to be both tu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 17, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhu Q, Fu Y, Li L, Liu CH, Zhang L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Associations of Omega-3 Fatty Acids with Brain Morphology and Volume in Cognitively Healthy Older Adults: a narrative review.
CONCLUSION: The search identified only 12 studies, 8 of which were cross-sectional observational studies, 3 longitudinal observational studies, and 1 randomized controlled trial published between 2007 and 2019. The largest amount of evidence indicated that the hippocampus was most frequently involved in this association, with a higher volume associated with higher omega-3 levels. Larger total grey matter, total brain volume, and lower white matter lesion volume were also associated with higher omega-3 among four of the reviewed studies. However, most studies reviewed provided mixed findings regarding the presence or absenc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 16, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Macaron T, Giudici KV, Bowman GL, Sinclair A, Stephan E, Vellas B, de Souto Barreto P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

SARS CoV2 Infection _The longevity study Perspectives.
Abstract Like other infectious diseases, COVID-19 shows a clinical outcome enormously variable, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal. In Italy, like in other countries, old male individuals, with one or more comorbidity, are the most susceptible group, and show, consequently, the highest mortality, and morbidity, including lethal respiratory distress syndrome, as the most common complication. In addition, another extraordinary peculiarity, that is a surprising resistance to COVID-19, characterizes some Italian nonagenarians/centenarians. Despite having the typical COVID-19 signs and/or symptoms, such exceptional in...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 16, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lio D, Scola L, Giarratana RM, Candore G, Colonna-Romano G, Caruso C, Balistreri CR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The association of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior with skeletal muscle strength and muscle power in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher PA and lower SB are associated with greater skeletal muscle strength and muscle power, particularly with the chair stand test. PMID: 33607291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 16, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ramsey KA, Rojer AGM, D'Andrea L, Otten RHJ, Heymans MW, Trappenburg MC, Verlaan S, Whittaker AC, Meskers CGM, Maier AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Quantifying physical activity in aged residential care facilities: A structured review.
DISCUSSION: Based on findings and limitations of current research, we recommend that total volume or low-light intensity PA are more useful interventional outcomes than higher-intensity PA. Researchers also need to consider which methodology and PA outcomes are most useful to quantify PA in ARC residents. PMID: 33592308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mc Ardle R, Sverdrup K, Del Din S, Lord S, Kerse N, Rochester L, Taylor L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Feed-forward regulation between cellular senescence and immunosuppression promotes the aging process and age-related diseases.
Abstract Aging is a progressive degenerative process involving a chronic low-grade inflammation and the accumulation of senescent cells. One major issue is to reveal the mechanisms which promote the deposition of pro-inflammatory senescent cells within tissues. The accumulation involves mechanisms which increase cellular senescence as well as those inhibiting the clearance of senescent cells from tissues. It is known that a persistent inflammatory state evokes a compensatory immunosuppression which inhibits pro-inflammatory processes by impairing the functions of effector immune cells, e.g., macrophages, T cells a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 10, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of resveratrol in cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease pathology: from antioxidant to epigenetic therapy.
őti C, Sanfeliu C, Pallàs M Abstract While the elderly segment of the population continues growing in importance, neurodegenerative diseases increase exponentially. Lifestyle factors such as nutrition, exercise, and education, among others, influence ageing progression, throughout life. Notably, the Central Nervous System (CNS) can benefit from nutritional strategies and dietary interventions that prevent signs of senescence, such as cognitive decline or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's Disease. The dietary polyphenol Resveratrol (RV) possesses antioxidant and cytoprot...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Griñán-Ferré C, Bellver-Sanchis A, Izquierdo V, Corpas R, Roig-Soriano J, Chillón M, Andres-Lacueva C, Somogyvári M, Sőti C, Sanfeliu C, Pallàs M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Home-based exercise programmes improve physical fitness of healthy older adults: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis with relevance for COVID-19.
anacher U Abstract This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of home-based exercise programmes on measures of physical-fitness in healthy older adults. Seventeen randomized-controlled trials were included with a total of 1,477 participants. Results indicated small effects of home-based training on muscle strength (between-study standardised-mean-difference [SMD] = 0.30), muscle power (SMD = 0.43), muscular endurance (SMD = 0.28), and balance (SMD = 0.28). We found no statistically significant effects for single-mode strength vs. mu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chaabene H, Prieske O, Herz M, Moran J, Höhne J, Kliegl R, Ramirez-Campillo R, Behm DG, Hortobágyi T, Granacher U Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Pasteurized non-fermented cow ´s milk but not fermented milk is a promoter of mTORC1-driven aging and increased mortality.
Pasteurized non-fermented cow´s milk but not fermented milk is a promoter of mTORC1-driven aging and increased mortality. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Feb 08;:101270 Authors: Melnik BC, Schmitz G Abstract Recent epidemiological studies in Sweden, a country with traditionally high milk consumption, revealed that the intake of non-fermented pasteurized milk increased all-cause mortality in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the majority of epidemiological and clinical studies report beneficial health effects of fermented milk products, especially of yogurt. It is the intention of this review to delinea...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Melnik BC, Schmitz G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Tau Internalization: A Complex Step in Tau Propagation.
Abstract Aggregation of microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) may underlie abnormalities of the intracellular matrix and neuronal death in tauopathies. Tau proteins can be secreted to the extracellular space and internalized into adjacent cells. The internalization of Tau is a complex but critical step in Tau propagation. This review summarizes the internalization pathways of Tau, including macropinocytosis, Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), lipid raft dependent endocytosis, Tunneling nanotubes dependent endocytosis (TNTs) and phagocytosis. The conformation of Tau fibrils and the types of recipient cell det...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhao J, Wu H, Tang XQ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Demonstrated Hormetic Putatively Mechanisms Subserve Riluzole-induced Effects in Neuroprotection Against Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Implications for Research and Clinical Practice.
Abstract This paper provides evidence to support that riluzole, an FDA-approved treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), like many neuroprotective agents, displays and exerts hormetic biphasic dose responses. These findings have important implications for the experimental study and clinical treatment of ALS. PMID: 33571705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Calabrese EJ, Calabrese V, Giordano J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Is Personality Associated with Dementia Risk? A Meta-Analytic Investigation.
This study provides a quantitative synthesis of the prospective associations between personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness) and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. We conducted five separate meta-analyses with 8-12 samples (N = 30,036 to 33,054) that were identified through a systematic literature search following the MOOSE guidelines. Higher neuroticism (HR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.17, 1.31]) and lower conscientiousness (HR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.73, 0.81]) were associated with increased dementia risk, even after ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 6, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Aschwanden D, Strickhouser JE, Luchetti M, Stephan Y, Sutin AR, Terracciano A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Obesity and Aging: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches.
Abstract The epidemic of obesity is a major challenge for health policymakers due to its far-reaching effects on population health and potentially overwhelming financial burden on healthcare systems. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing acute and chronic diseases, including hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Interestingly, the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity is similar to that observed in normal aging, and substantial evidence suggests the potential of obesity to accelerate aging. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 5, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Santos AL, Sinha S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

To breathe or not to breathe: understanding how oxygen sensing contributes to age-related phenotypes.
We describe various clinical manifestations associated with deregulation of oxygen balance, and how oxygen-modulating therapies and natural oxygen oscillations influence longevity. We conclude by discussing how a better understanding of oxygen-related mechanisms that orchestrate aging processes may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies to extend healthy aging. PMID: 33556549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 5, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van Vliet T, Casciaro F, Demaria M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Fatigue and the prediction of negative health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Overall fatigue increases the risk for developing negative health outcomes. The analyses presented in this study show that fatigue related physical decline occurs earlier than hospitalization, diseases and mortality, suggesting the importance of early interventions. PMID: 33548508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 3, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Knoop V, Cloots B, Costenoble A, Debain A, Azzopardi RV, Vermeiren S, Jansen B, Scafoglieri A, Bautmans I, Gerontopole Brussels Study group Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and regulated cell death in Parkinson's disease.
ues C Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Motor deficits usually associated with PD correlate with dopaminergic axonal neurodegeneration starting at the striatum, which is then followed by dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN), with both events occurring already at the prodromal stage. We will overview the main physiological characteristics responsible for the higher susceptibility of the nigrostriatal circuit to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, as determined from the acting mechanisms of the PD-causing neu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dionísio PA, Amaral JD, Rodrigues C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Deterioration of Nuclear morphology and architecture: A hallmark of senescence and aging.
Abstract The metazoan nucleus is a highly structured organelle containing several well-defined sub-organelles. It is the largest organelle inside a cell taking up from one tenth to half of entire cell volume. This makes it one of the easiest organelles to identify and study under the microscope. Abnormalities in the nuclear morphology and architecture are commonly observed in an aged and senescent cell. For example, the nuclei enlarge, loose their shape, appear lobulated, harbour nuclear membrane invaginations, carry enlarged/fragmented nucleolus, loose heterochromatin, etc. In this review we discuss about the age...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 1, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pathak RU, Soujanya M, Mishra RK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging Adipose: Depot Location Dictates Age-Associated Expansion and Dysfunction.
Abstract Adipose tissue has a variety of diverse functions that maintain energy homeostasis. In conditions of excess energy availability, adipose tissue increases its lipid storage and communicates the nutritional abundance to various organs in the body. In conditions of energy depletion, such as fasting, cold exposure, or prolonged exercise, triglycerides stored in adipose tissue are released as free fatty acids to support the shift to catabolic metabolism. These diverse functions of storage, communication, and energy homeostasis are shared between numerous adipose depots including subcutaneous, visceral, brown, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 27, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Von Bank H, Kirsh C, Simcox J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Physical activity and exercise in the context of SARS-Cov-2: a perspective from geroscience field.
Abstract The recent pandemics of the SARS-Cov-2 has pushed physical activity (PA) and exercise at the forefront of the discussion, since PA is associated with a reduced risk of developing all the chronic diseases strongly associated with severe cases of SARS-Cov-2 and exercise is considered a complimentary therapeutics for the treatment of these age-related conditions. The mechanisms through which PA and exercise could contribute to reduce the severity of the SARS-Cov-2 infection would be multiple, including their capacity to boost the immune system, but also their global effect on slowing down the progression of ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 12, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Barreto PS, Vellas B, Rolland Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Elastic fibers during aging and disease.
Abstract Elastic fibers are essential constituents of the extracellular matrix of higher vertebrates and endow several tissues and organs including lungs, skin and blood vessels with elasticity and resilience. During the human lifespan, elastic fibers are exposed to a variety of enzymatic, chemical and biophysical influences, and accumulate damage due to their low turnover. Aging of elastin and elastic fibers involves enzymatic degradation, oxidative damage, glycation, calcification, aspartic acid racemization, binding of lipids and lipid peroxidation products, carbamylation and mechanical fatigue. These processes...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Heinz A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of tart cherry and its metabolites on aging and inflammatory conditions: Efficacy and possible mechanisms.
Abstract Inflammation is an underlying cause of or a contributing factor to a number of chronic conditions, including hypertension, insulin resistance, arthritis, and cognitive disorders. A chronic inflammatory state is also associated with aging. Tart cherry (TC) has been extensively studied for its ability to prevent or treat inflammatory diseases and their associated risk factors. TC contains active compounds, including polyphenols that may contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory signaling pathways regulate the recruitment of inflammatory cells important for the pathogenesis of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mansoori S, Dini A, Chai SC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Stem cells for treatment of cardiovascular diseases: an umbrella review of randomized controlled trials.
STEM CELLS FOR TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: AN UMBRELLA REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Jan 09;:101257 Authors: Demurtas J, Fanelli GN, Romano SL, Solari M, Yang L, Soysal P, Sánchez GFL, Grabovac I, Smith L, Zorzi A, Luchini C, Veronese N Abstract AIMS: Stem cells are a promising therapy for various medical conditions. The literature regarding their adoption for the clinical care of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is still conflicting. Therefore, our aim is to assess the strength and credibility of the evidence on clinical outcomes and application of stem ce...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Demurtas J, Fanelli GN, Romano SL, Solari M, Yang L, Soysal P, Sánchez GFL, Grabovac I, Smith L, Zorzi A, Luchini C, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Monoamine oxidases in age-associated diseases: New perspectives for old enzymes.
Abstract Population aging is one of the most significant social changes of the twenty-first century. This increase in longevity is associated with a higher prevalence of chronic diseases, further rising healthcare costs. At the molecular level, cellular senescence has been identified as a major process in age-associated diseases, as accumulation of senescent cells with aging leads to progressive organ dysfunction. Of particular importance, mitochondrial oxidative stress and consequent organelle alterations have been pointed out as key players in the aging process, by both inducing and maintaining cellular senescen...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Santin Y, Resta J, Parini A, Mialet-Perez J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors for Slow Gait in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review.
Abstract PURPOSE: Slow gait speed in older adults is associated with increased risk for falls and fractures, functional dependence, multimorbidity, and even mortality. The risk of these adverse outcomes can be reduced by intervening on potentially modifiable risk factors. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify potentially modifiable risk factors associated with slow gait speed and clinically meaningful gait speed decline in older community-dwelling adults. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL, Google Scholar, and in the bibliographies of retrieved articles....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 8, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Figgins E, Pieruccini-Faria F, Speechley M, Montero-Odasso M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Brain changes associated with sleep disruption in cognitively unimpaired older adults: a short review of neuroimaging studies.
G, Rauchs G Abstract Ageing is characterized by a progressive decline of sleep quality. Sleep difficulties are increasingly recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and have been associated with cognitive decline. However, the brain substrates underlying this association remain unclear. In this review, our objective was to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between sleep changes and brain structural, functional and molecular integrity, including amyloid and tau pathologies in cognitively unimpaired older adults. We especially discuss the topography and causality of these associa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 5, 2021 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: André C, Laniepce A, Chételat G, Rauchs G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of Mitochondrial Quality Surveillance in Myocardial Infarction: From Bench to Bedside.
Abstract Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible death of cardiomyocyte secondary to prolonged lack of oxygen or fresh blood supply. Historically considered as merely cardiomyocyte powerhouse that manufactures ATP and other metabolites, mitochondrion is recently being identified as a signal regulator that is implicated in the crosstalk and signal integration of cardiomyocyte contraction, metabolism, inflammation, and death. Mitochondria quality surveillance is an integrated network system modifying mitochondrial structure and function through the coordination of various processes including mitochondrial fis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 31, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhou H, Ren J, Toan S, Mui D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research