Functional roles of circular RNAs in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Although efforts have been made to develop therapeutic approaches, the clinical management of AD maintains a major challenge. CircRNAs are highly abundant and evolutionarily conserved in neuronal tissues in mammals. Accumulating data suggest that circRNAs regulate biological and pathological processes by sponging miRNAs, binding to RBPs, modulating mRNA stability, and being translated into peptides in various diseases, serving as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Growing evidence demonstrates that circRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we summarized current studies on c...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 29, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Huang JL, Su M, Wu DP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Brain lipid peroxidation and alzheimer disease: synergy between the butterfield and mattson laboratories.
BRAIN LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ALZHEIMER DISEASE: SYNERGY BETWEEN THE BUTTERFIELD AND MATTSON LABORATORIES. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Mar 20;:101049 Authors: Butterfield DA Abstract Brains from persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and its earlier stage, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), exhibit high levels of oxidative damage, including that to phospholipids. One type of oxidative damage is lipid peroxidation, the most important index of which is protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE). This highly reactive alkenal changes the conformations and lowers the activities of brain proteins to which HN...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Butterfield DA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Blood fatty acids in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis and systematic review.
Abstract Plasma fatty acids have been reported to be dysregulated in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), though outcomes are not always consistent, and subject numbers often small. Our aim was to use a meta-analysis and systematic review approach to identify if plasma fatty acid dysregulation would be observed in case control studies of AD and MCI. Six databases were searched for studies reporting quantified levels of fatty acids in MCI and/or AD individuals, relative to cognitively normal controls. Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and vaccenic acids were significantly lower and higher respectively ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hosseini M, Poljak A, Braidy N, Crawford J, Sachdev P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Is living alone a risk factor of frailty? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of living alone with frailty in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by a systematic review and meta-analysis. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older adults with a mean age of>60 years. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed in February 2019 without language restriction for cohort studies that examined the associations between living alone and frailty. The reference lists of the relevant articles and the included ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 12, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kojima G, Taniguchi Y, Kitamura A, Fujiwara Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Using Sox2 to alleviate the hallmarks of age-related hearing loss.
Abstract Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most prevalent age-related sensory deficit. ARHL reduces the quality of life of the growing aging population, setting seniors up for the enhanced mental decline. The size of the needy population, the structural deficit, and a likely research strategy for effective treatment of chronic neurosensory hearing in the elderly are needed. Although there has been profound advancement in auditory regenerative research, there remain multiple challenges to restore hearing loss. Thus, additional investigations are required, using novel tools. We propose how the flat epithelium, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 12, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yamoah EN, Li M, Shah A, Elliott KL, Cheah K, Xu PX, Phillips S, Young SM, Eberl DF, Fritzsch B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Circadian and Sleep Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating and irreversible cognitive impairment and the most common type of dementia. Along with progressive cognitive impairment, dysfunction of the circadian rhythms also play a pivotal role in the progression of AD. A mutual relationship among circadian rhythms, sleep, and AD has been well-recommended. The etiopathogenesis of the disturbances of the circadian system and AD share some general features that also unlock the outlook of observing them as a mutually dependent pathway. Indeed, the burden of amyloid β (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), neuroinflamma...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Uddin MS, Tewari D, Mamun AA, Kabir MT, Niaz K, Wahed MII, Barreto GE, Ashraf GM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Prevention of dementia in an ageing world: evidence and biological rationale.
Abstract As the population ages, the number of people with dementia is expected to increase in the coming decades, with consequences at the societal and individual levels. In this narrative review, we provide a summary of the scientific evidence concerning dementia prevention, with a focus on the following three strategies: 1) Targeting the body to protect the brain, including prevention and treatment of cardiovascular morbidity; 2) Compensatory interventions to counteract brain ageing, including education and life-long engagement in cognitively and socially stimulating activities; and 3) Lifespan health promotion...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Grande G, Qiu C, Fratiglioni L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Towards an understanding of the physical activity-BDNF-cognition triumvirate: a review of associations and dosage.
Abstract Physical activity has received substantial research attention due to its beneficial impact on cognition in ageing, particularly via the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It is well established that physical activity can elevate circulating levels of BDNF, and that BDNF has neurotrophic, neuroprotective and cognitively beneficial properties. Yet, practical implementation of this knowledge is limited by a lack of clarity on context and dose-effect. Against a shifting backdrop of gradually diminishing physical and cognitive capacity in normal ageing, the type, intensity, and duration of phy...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Walsh EI, Smith L, Northey J, Rattray B, Cherbuin N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A Multidimensional Approach to Frailty in Older People.
Abstract Frailty is an important factor determining a higher risk of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Although scientific community in the last two decades put a lot of effort for its definition, to date no consensus was reached on its assessment. The mainstream thinking describes frailty as a loss of physical functions or as accumulation of multiple deficits. Recently, a novel conceptual model of frailty has emerged based on the loss of harmonic interaction between multiple domains (also referred as dimensions) including genetic, biological, functional, cognitive, psychological and socio-economic domain t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pilotto A, Custodero C, Maggi S, Polidori MC, Veronese N, Ferrucci L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Perivascular adipose tissue in age-related vascular disease.
Abstract Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), a crucial regulator of vascular homeostasis, is actively involved in vascular dysfunction during aging. PVAT releases various adipocytokines, chemokines and growth factors. In an endocrine and paracrine manner PVAT-derived factors regulate vascular signalling and inflammation modulating functions of adjacent layers of the vasculature. Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, vascular injury and aging can cause PVAT dysfunction, leading to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions. We and others have suggested that PVAT is involved i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Queiroz M, Sena CM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Calorie restriction for enhanced longevity: The role of novel dietary strategies in the present obesogenic environment.
Abstract Calorie restriction (CR) is a potent modulator of longevity in multiple species. A growing body of evidence shows that sustained periods of CR without malnutrition improves risk factors involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and neurological disorders in humans. Innovative dietary strategies such as intermittent fasting and protein restriction have recently emerged as alternative approaches to boost compliance and improve markers of aging. Some of these newer strategies might provide benefits for healthy aging with little to no CR, and therefore, compared to t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dorling JL, Martin CK, Redman LM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The road ahead for health and lifespan interventions.
Abstract Aging is a modifiable risk factor for most chronic diseases and an inevitable process in humans. The development of pharmacological interventions aimed at delaying or preventing the onset of chronic conditions and other age-related diseases has been at the forefront of the aging field. Preclinical findings have demonstrated that species, sex and strain confer significant heterogeneity on reaching the desired health- and lifespan-promoting pharmacological responses in model organisms. Translating the safety and efficacy of these interventions to humans and the lack of reliable biomarkers that serve as pred...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gonzalez-Freire M, Diaz-Ruiz A, Hauser D, Martinez-Romero J, Ferrucci L, Bernier M, de Cabo R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The implications of late-life cannabis use on brain health: A mapping review and implications for future research.
Abstract While medical and recreational cannabis use is becoming more frequent among older adults, the neurocognitive consequences of cannabis use in this age group are unclear. The aim of this literature review was to synthesize and evaluate the current knowledge on the association of cannabis use during older-adulthood with cognitive function and brain aging. We reviewed the literature from old animal models and human studies while focusing on the link of middle- and old-age use of cannabis with cognition. The report highlights the gap in knowledge on cannabis use in late-life and cognitive health, and discusses...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Weinstein G, Sznitman SR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Astrocyte Mitochondria: Central players and potential therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases and injury.
Abstract Mitochondrial function has long been the focus of many therapeutic strategies for ameliorating age-related neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Historically, the role of mitochondria in non-neuronal cell types has been overshadowed by neuronal mitochondria, which are responsible for the bulk of oxidative metabolism in the brain. Despite this neuronal bias, mitochondrial function in glial cells, particularly astrocytes, is increasingly recognized to play crucial roles in overall brain metabolism, synaptic transmission, and neuronal protection. Changes in astrocytic mitochondrial function appear to be i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 24, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gollihue JL, Norris CM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Biomarkers, oxidative stress and autophagy in skin aging.
Abstract Aging is a major cause of many degenerative diseases. The most intuitive consequence of aging is mainly manifested on the skin, resulting in cumulative changes in skin structure, function and appearance, such as increased wrinkles, laxity, elastosis, telangiectasia, and aberrant pigmentation of the skin. Unlike other organs of the human body, skin is not only inevitably affected by the intrinsic aging process, but also affected by various extrinsic environmental factors to accelerate aging, especially ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Skin aging is a highly complex and not fully understood process, and the lack...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 24, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gu Y, Han J, Jiang C, Zhang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and P50 gating in aging and Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Inhibition plays a crucial role in many functional domains, such as cognition, emotion, and actions. Studies on cognitive aging demonstrate changes in inhibitory mechanisms are age- and pathology-related. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is the suppression of an acoustic startle reflex (ASR) to an intense stimulus when a weak prepulse stimulus precedes the startle stimulus. A reduction of PPI is thought to reflect dysfunction of sensorimotor gating which normally suppresses excessive behavioral responses to disruptive stimuli. Both human and rodent studies show age-dependent alterations of PPI of the ASR that ar...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jafari Z, Kolb BE, Mohajerani MH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Exploiting the telomere machinery to put the brakes on inflamm-aging.
eri F Abstract Telomere shortening accompanies mammalian aging in vivo, and the burden of senescent cells with short telomeres and a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) increases with aging. The release into the cytoplasm and the extracellular vesicle-mediated intercellular exchange of telomeric TTAGGG repeats could exert an anti-inflammatory activity by preventing the activation of the misplaced nucleic acid-sensing pathway. Many pharmacological and genetic strategies have been developed to prevent telomere shortening or to achieve telomere elongation. Recently, it was demonstrated that telomere elon...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 14, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bonafè M, Sabbatinelli J, Olivieri F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Perturbation of bulk and selective macroautophagy, abnormal UPR activation and their interplay pave the way to immune dysfunction, cancerogenesis and neurodegeneration in ageing.
Abstract A plethora of studies has indicated that ageing is characterized by an altered proteostasis, ROS accumulation and a status of mild/chronic inflammation, in which macroautophagy reduction and abnormal UPR activation play a pivotal role. The dysregulation of these inter-connected processes favors immune dysfunction and predisposes to a variety of several apparently unrelated pathological conditions including cancer and neurodegeneration. Given the progressive ageing of the population, a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating autophagy, UPR and their interplay is needed in order to design new ther...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 1, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cirone M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The emerging role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dynamics in exercise and ageing.
Abstract Mitochondria are the hub for energy production within living cells. They can undergo morphological changes in response to nutrient availability and cellular stress. Here, we review how exercise chronically and acutely affects mitochondrial dynamics. Moreover, we discuss whether mitochondrial dysfunction observed in elderly subjects is due to the ageing process per se or due to the associated sedentary state. Finally, we study how endurance exercise can improve mitochondrial dynamics in older subjects, thereby improving their overall health and likely limiting muscle waste. PMID: 32018055 [PubMed - as...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 1, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Casuso RA, Huertas JR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on ageing: molecular mechanisms.
Abstract Human ageing is determined by degenerative alterations and processes with different manifestations such as gradual organ dysfunction, tissue function loss, increased population of aged (senescent) cells, incapability of maintaining homeostasis and reduced repair capacity, which collectively lead to an increased risk of diseases and death. The inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins) are the most widely used lipid-lowering agents, which can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence has documented several pleiotropic effects of statins in addition to their lipid-lowering properti...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 29, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bahrami A, Bo S, Jamialahmadi T, Sahebkar A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cell-free miRNAs in Parkinson's disease: potential biomarkers that provide new insights into disease pathogenesis.
This study integrated the data across twenty-four reports to identify steadily deregulated miRNAs that may assist in the path towards biomarker development and molecular characterization of the underlying pathology. Stringent KEGG pathway analysis of the miRNA targets revealed FoxO, Prolactin, TNF, and ErbB signaling pathways as the most significantly enriched categories while Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the protein targets are mostly associated with transcription. Chromosomal location of the consistently deregulated miRNAs revealed that over a third of them were clustered at the same location at Chr14q32 suggesti...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 27, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Doxakis E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Motoric cognitive risk syndrome: integration of two early harbingers of dementia in older adults.
Abstract Dementia is characterized by a long preclinical phase that may last years to decades before the onset of mild cognitive impairment. Slow gait speed and subjective memory complaint commonly co-occur during this preclinical phase, and each is a strong independent predictor of cognitive decline and dementia. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is a pre-dementia syndrome that combines these two early harbingers of dementia. The risk of cognitive decline or dementia is stronger for MCR than for either slow gait speed or subjective memory complaint alone. Slow gait speed and subjective memory complaint have s...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Semba RD, Tian Q, Carlson MC, Xue QL, Ferrucci L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Roles of the actin cytoskeleton in aging and age-associated diseases.
The objective of this article is to revisit the current understanding of the roles played by the actin cytoskeleton in aging, and to review the opportunities and challenges for transition of basic research to intervention development. It is hoped that, with the snapshot of evidence regarding changes in actin dynamics with advanced age, insights on anti-aging medicine can be attained for future research. PMID: 31968269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 19, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lai WF, Wong WT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

How age relates to spatial navigation performance: functional and methodological considerations.
Abstract Aging effects have often been reported for spatial navigation performance. Moreover, navigation performance is thought to be an early marker of pathological aging. Yet, the cognitive complexity of navigation and large individual variation in healthy population make it difficult to pinpoint the precise aging mechanisms involved. We performed a systematic literature review with specific attention to functional dissociation between the tasks used and methodological characteristics. The literature search resulted in 39 articles in which age comparisons were made for large-scale navigation measures. Outcomes w...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van der Ham IJM, Claessen MHG Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

HORMESIS AND GINKGO BILOBA (GB): Numerous Biological Effects of GB are Mediated via Hormesis.
Abstract Ginkgo biloba (GB) extracts have been shown to commonly induce biphasic dose responses in a range of cell types and endpoints (e.g., cochlea neural stem cells, cell viability, cell proliferation). The magnitude and width of the low dose stimulation of these biphasic dose responses are similar to those reported for hormetic dose responses. These hormetic dose responses occur within direct stimulatory responses as well as in preconditioning experimental protocols, displaying acquired resistance within an adaptive homeodynamic and temporal framework and repeated measurement protocols. The demonstrated GB dos...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 10, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Calabrese EJ, Calabrese V, Tsatsakis A, Giordano JJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ribosomal DNA instability: an evolutionary conserved fuel for inflammaging.
ve; M Abstract Across eukaryotes, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are characterized by intrinsic genomic instability due to their repetitive nature and their base composition that facilitate DNA double strand breaks and RNA:DNA hybrids formation. In the yeast, ribosomal DNA instability affects lifespan via the formation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERC) that accrue into aged cells. In humans, rDNA instability has long been reported in a variety of progeric syndromes caused by the dysfunction of DNA helicases, but its role in physiological aging and longevity still needs to be clarified. Here we propose that rDNA in...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Storci G, Bacalini MG, Bonifazi F, Garagnani P, De Carolis S, Salvioli S, Olivieri F, Bonafè M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A third of community-dwelling elderly with intermediate and high level of Alzheimer's neuropathologic changes are not demented: A meta-analysis.
Abstract This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the bidirectional association between AD pathology and dementia in community-dwelling elderly populations. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and references of the pertinent articles for community/population-based longitudinal cohorts with regular assessment of cognitive status of participants followed by postmortem neuropathology data, with no language and date restrictions, until 20 September 2019. Finally, we retrieved 18 articles with data from 17 cohorts comprising 4677 persons. Dementia was twice as likely in participants wit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 30, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Azarpazhooh MR, Avan A, Cipriano LE, Munoz DG, Erfanian M, Amiri A, Stranges S, Hachinski V Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Endosomal dysfunction impacts extracellular vesicle release: central role in A β pathology.
Endosomal dysfunction impacts extracellular vesicle release: central role in Aβ pathology. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Dec 28;:101006 Authors: Arbo BD, Cechinel LR, Palazzo RP, Siqueira IR Abstract Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive abilities; senile plaques represent the major histopathological findings. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing machinery, and its product amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, have been found in extracellular vesicles (EVs), specifically exosomes, which allows for Aβ peptide aggregation and subsequent senile plaques deposition. We...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Arbo BD, Cechinel LR, Palazzo RP, Siqueira IR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Education and Age-related Decline in Cognitive Performance: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Longitudinal Cohort Studies.
acute;n M Abstract Central theories of cognitive aging propose that education is an important protective factor for decline in cognitive performance in older age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported estimates of an association between educational attainment and change in performance in six cognitive domains (episodic memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, and global ability) in the general population of older individuals. The systematic search (11th of October 2019) identified 92 eligible articles. The episodic memory domain had the highe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Seblova D, Berggren R, Lövdén M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A viewpoint on change point modeling for cognitive aging research: Moving from description to intervention and practice.
Abstract Chronological age is a commonly-used time metric, but there may be more relevant time measures in older adulthood. This paper reviews change point modeling, a type of analysis increasingly common in cognitive aging research but with limited application in applied research. Here, we propose a new application of such models for cognitive training studies. Change point models have the potential to assess intervention outcomes such as compression of morbidity or reduced decline after an event (e.g., reduced cognitive decline after a dementia diagnosis) as well as changes in outcome trajectories across differe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sprague BN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does the neuropsychiatric inventory predict progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that NPI/NPI-Q ratings are associated with conversion from MCI to dementia. PMID: 31881368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mallo SC, Patten SB, Ismail Z, Pereiro AX, Facal D, Otero C, Juncos-Rabadán O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Medium Chain Triglycerides induce mild ketosis and may improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies.
CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we demonstrated that MCTs can induce mild ketosis and may improve cognition in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, risk of bias of existing studies necessitates future trials. PMID: 31870908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Avgerinos KI, Egan JM, Mattson MP, Kapogiannis D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The effect of ageing on the resolution of inflammation.
PMID: 31862417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 17, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sendama W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Activation of immunosuppressive network in the aging process.
Abstract Chronic low-grade inflammation has a key role in the aging process, a state called inflammaging. It is known that the chronic inflammatory condition generates counteracting immunosuppressive state in many diseases. Inflammaging is also associated with an immune deficiency; generally termed as immunosenescence, although it is not known whether it represents the senescence of immune cells or the active remodeling of immune system. Evidence has accumulated since the 1970's indicating that immunosenescence might be caused by an increased activity of immunosuppressive cells rather than cellular senescence. Imm...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Comparative Effectiveness of Three Exercise Types to Treat Clinical Depression in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings should be used to advise allied health professionals and stakeholders in clinical geriatrics that clinically depressed older adults can self-select their preferred exercise type in order to achieve therapeutic benefit on symptoms of depression. In coalition with high levels of compliance, these data provide encouraging evidence for the antidepressant effect of either aerobic, resistance, or mind-body exercise as an adjunct to prescribed therapy for clinical depression in older populations. PMID: 31837462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miller KJ, Gonçalves-Bradley DC, Areerob P, Hennessy D, Mesagno C, Grace F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The influence of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Inconsistencies exist with regard to influence of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels. The inconsistencies could be attributed to several factors, such as dosage and duration of intervention, among others. To address these inconsistencies, this study was conducted to determine the impact of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase for RCTs that investigated the impact of vitamin D intake...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Varkaneh HK, Rinaldi G, Hekmatdoost A, Fatahi S, Tan SC, Shadnoush M, Khni V, Mousavi SM, Zarezadeh M, Salamat S, Bawadi H, Rahmani J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does perturbation in the mitochondrial protein folding pave the way for neurodegeneration diseases?
Abstract Mitochondria, which are cell compartments that are widely present in eukaryotic cells, have been shown to be involved in a variety of synthetic, metabolic, and signaling processes, thereby playing a vital role in cells. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) is a response in which mitochondria reverse the signal to the nucleus and maintain mitochondrial protein homeostasis when unfolded and misfolded proteins continue to accumulate. Multiple neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), are public h...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ji T, Zhang X, Xin Z, Xu B, Jin Z, Wu J, Hu W, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of transposable elements activity in aging and their possible involvement in laminopathic diseases.
Abstract Eukaryotic genomes contain a large number of transposable elements, part of which are still active and able to transpose in the host genome. Mobile element activation is repressed to avoid deleterious effects, such as gene mutation or chromosome rearrangements. Control of transposable elements includes a variety of mechanisms comprising silencing pathways, which are based on the production of small non-coding RNAs. Silencing can occur either through transposable element RNA degradation or through the targeting of DNA sequences by heterochromatin formation and consequent transcriptional inhibition. Since t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Andrenacci D, Cavaliere V, Lattanzi G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dopamine D3 receptor: a neglected participant in Parkinson Disease pathogenesis and treatment?
Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms which relentlessly and progressively lead to substantial disability and economic burden. Pathologically, these symptoms follow the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) associated with abnormal α-synuclein (α-Syn) deposition as cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in pigmented brainstem nuclei, and in dystrophic neurons in striatal and cortical regions (Lewy neurites). Pharmacotherapy for PD focuses on improving quality of life and primarily targets dopa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang P, Perlmutter JS, Benzinger TLS, Morris JC, Xu J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The yin and yang faces of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 in age-related disorders.
Abstract Aging, the most important risk factor for many of the chronic diseases affecting Western society, is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and dynamics. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that has emerged as a key regulator of fundamental processes which are frequently dysregulated in aging and related disorders. This review highlights recent advances and controversies regarding the roles of SIRT3 in metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the use of SIRT3 modulators as a therapeutic strategy against those disorders. Although most studies point to a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gomes P, Viana SD, Nunes S, Rolo AP, Palmeira CM, Reis F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Premature cell senescence in human skin: dual face in chronic acquired pigmentary disorders.
Abstract Although senescence was originally described as an in vitro acquired cellular characteristic, it was recently recognized that senescence is physiologically and pathologically involved in aging and age-related diseases in vivo. The definition of cellular senescence has expanded to include the growth arrest caused by various cellular stresses, including DNA damage, inadequate mitochondria function, activated oncogene or tumor suppressor genes and oxidative stress. While senescence in normal aging involves various tissues over time and contributes to a decline in tissue function even with healthy aging, dise...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bellei B, Picardo M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing, Age-related Diseases and Oxidative Stress: What to Do Next?
Abstract Among other mechanisms, oxidative stress has been postulated to play an important role in the rate of ageing. Oxidative damage contributes to the hallmarks of ageing and essential components in pathological pathways which are thought to drive multiple age-related diseases. Nonetheless, results from studies testing the hypothesis of oxidative stress in ageing and diseases showed controversial results. While observational studies mainly found detrimental effects of high oxidative stress levels on disease status, randomized clinical trials examining the effect of antioxidant supplementation on disease status...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luo J, Mills K, le Cessie S, Noordam R, van Heemst D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammaging as a common ground for the development and maintenance of sarcopenia, obesity, cardiomyopathy and dysbiosis.
Abstract Sarcopenia, obesity and their coexistence, obese sarcopenia (OBSP) as well as atherosclerosis-related cardio-vascular diseases (ACVDs), including chronic heart failure (CHF), are among the greatest public health concerns in the ageing population. A clear age-dependent increased prevalence of sarcopenia and OBSP has been registered in CHF patients, suggesting mechanistic relationships. Development of OBSP could be mediated by a crosstalk between the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and the skeletal muscle under conditions of low-grade local and systemic inflammation, inflammaging. The present ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Livshits G, Kalinkovich A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Emerging Role of Stem cell-derived Extravesicular MicroRNAs in Age-associated Human Diseases and in Different Therapies of Longevity.
Abstract Organismal aging involves the progressive decline in organ function and increased susceptibility to age-associated diseases. This has been associated with the aging of stem cell populations within the body that decreases the capacity of stem cells to self-renew, differentiate, and regenerate damaged tissues and organs. This review aims to explore how aging is associated with the dysregulation of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (SCEVs) and their corresponding miRNA cargo (SCEV-miRNAs), which are short non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of target genes. Recent evidence has ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ullah M, Ng NN, Concepcion W, Thakor AS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy options for patients with dementia based on cognitive function--A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract Dementia represents one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. However, it is still unclear whether non-pharmacological therapies (NPTs) are effective or not and which treatment should be preferred. We applied a series of search strategies to identify eligible randomized controlled trials on 1st October, 2018, investigating the effects of NPTs of dementia in the older persons. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were sequentially performed. A total of 31 trials were included, which enrolled 1895 participants and 7 NPTs. Compared with control group, all the NPTs included were statis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liang JH, Lin L, Wang YQ, Jia RX, Qu XY, Li J, Li JY, Qian S, Qian YX, Wang S, Gao Z, Cheng XX, Xu Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Anti-Ageing Gene Therapy: Not so Far Away?
Abstract Improving healthspan is the main objective of anti-ageing research. Currently, innovative gene therapy-based approaches seem to be among the most promising for preventing and treating chronic polygenic pathologies, including age-related ones. The gene-based therapy allows to modulate the genome architecture using both direct (e.g., by gene editing) and indirect (e.g., by viral or non-viral vectors) approaches. Nevertheless, considering the extraordinary complexity of processes involved in ageing and ageing-related diseases, the effectiveness of these therapeutic options is often unsatisfactory and limited...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 26, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman A, De Falco E, Koliada A, Maslova O, Balistreri CR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Intervertebral disc ageing and degeneration: the antiapoptotic effect of oestrogen.
Abstract As an important part of the spinal column, the intervertebral disc (IVD) plays an important role in the intervertebral juncture and spinal movement in general. IVD degeneration (IVDD), which mimics disc ageing but at an accelerated rate, is a common and chronic process that results in severe spinal symptoms, such as lower back pain. It is generally assumed that lower back pain caused by IVDD can also develop secondary conditions, including spinal canal stenosis, spinal segmental instability, osteophyte formation, disc herniation and spinal cord and nerve root compression. Over the past few years, many res...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang S, Zhang F, Ma J, Ding W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Is Alzheimer's disease an inflammasomopathy?
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly and, despite the tremendous efforts researchers have put into AD research, there are no effective options for prevention and treatment of the disease. The best way to reach this goal is to clarify the mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of AD. In the last few years the views about the drivers of AD have been changing and nowadays it is believed that neuroinflammation takes center stage in disease pathogenesis. Herein, we provide an overview about the role of neuroinflammation in AD describing the role of microglia and...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pereira CF, Santos AE, Moreira PI, Pereira AC, Sousa FJ, Cardoso SM, Cruz MT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Viewpoint on the role of tissue maintenance in ageing: focus on biomarkers of bone, cartilage, muscle, and brain tissue maintenance.
Abstract Specific hallmarks are thought to underlie the ageing process and age-related functional decline. In this viewpoint, we put forward the hypothesis that disturbances in the process of tissue maintenance are an important common denominator that may lie in between specific hallmarks of ageing (i.e. damage and responses to damage) and their ultimate (patho)physiological consequences (i.e. functional decline and age-related disease). As a first step towards verifying or falsifying this hypothesis, it will be important to measure biomarkers of tissue maintenance in future studies in different study populations....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van der Spoel E, van Vliet NA, van Heemst D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Age-Related Hearing Loss and Tinnitus, Dementia Risk, and Auditory Amplification Outcomes.
Abstract Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), as the third leading cause of chronic disability in older adults, has been shown to be associated with predisposing cognitive impairment and dementia. Tinnitus is also a chronic auditory disorder demonstrating a growth rate with increasing age. Recent evidence stands for the link between bothersome tinnitus and impairments in various aspects of cognitive function. Both ARHL and age-related tinnitus affect mental health and contribute to developing anxiety, stress, and depression. The present review is a comprehensive multidisciplinary study on diverse interactions among AR...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 23, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jafari Z, Kolb BE, Mohajerani MH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research