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Healthy brain aging: interplay between reactive species, inflammation and energy supply.
Abstract Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first tw...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Garaschuk O, Semchyshyn HM, Lushchak VI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

GIT2-a keystone in ageing and age-related disease.
Abstract Since its discovery, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2, GIT2, and its family member, GIT1, have received considerable interest concerning their potential key roles in regulating multiple inter-connected physiological and pathophysiological processes. GIT2 was first identified as a multifunctional protein that is recruited to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) during the process of receptor internalization. Recent findings have demonstrated that perhaps one of the most important effects of GIT2 in physiology concerns its role in controlling multiple aspects of the complex ageing proc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van Gastel J, Boddaert J, Jushaj A, Premont RT, Luttrell LM, Janssens J, Martin B, Maudsley S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cellular senescence: immunosurveillance and future immunotherapy.
Abstract In response to persistent DNA damage, induction into cell senescence promotes an immunogenic program which facilitates immune clearance of these damaged cells. Under physiological conditions, senescent cells can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, functioning to maintain tissue homeostasis. In addition, emerging findings suggest that programmed induction of cell senescence may be important for regulating reproductive processes, partly facilitated by immune clearance. However, likely owing to ageing of the immune system, a failure to eliminate senescent cells can contribute to their persist...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 7, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Burton DGA, Stolzing A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Increasing use of cognitive measures in the operational definition of frailty - a systematic review.
Abstract Ageing is associated both with frailty and cognitive decline. The quest for a unifying approach has led to a new concept: cognitive frailty. This systematic review explores the contribution of cognitive assessment in frailty operationalization. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched until December 2016 using the keywords aged; frail elderly; aged, 80 and over; frailty; diagnosis; risk assessment and classification, yielding 2,863 hits. Seventy-nine articles were included, describing 94 frailty instruments. Two instruments were not sufficiently specified and excluded. 46% of the identified fra...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Azzopardi RV, Beyer I, Vermeiren S, Petrovic M, Van Den Noortgate N, Bautmans I, Gorus E, Gerontopole Brussels Study group Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Procancerogenic activity of senescent cells: a case of the peritoneal mesothelium.
Abstract Human peritoneal mesothelial cells belong to a narrow group of somatic cells in which both the triggers and the mechanisms of senescence have already been well defined. Importantly, senescent mesothelial cells have been found in the peritoneal cavity in vivo. From a clinical point of view, peritoneal mesothelial cells have been recognized as playing a critical role in the intraperitoneal development of tumor metastases. The pro-cancerogenic behavior of mesothelial cells is even more pronounced when the cells exhaust their proliferative capacity and become senescent. In this review, we summarize the curren...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 17, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Stryczyński Ł, Uruski P, Tykarski A, Książek K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Altered function of neuronal L-type calcium channels in ageing and neuroinflammation: implications in age-related synaptic dysfunction and cognitive decline.
Abstract The rapid developments in science have led to an increase in human life expectancy and thus, ageing and age-related disorders/diseases have become one of the greatest concerns in the 21st century. Cognitive abilities tend to decline as we get older. This age-related cognitive decline is mainly attributed to aberrant changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal connections. Recent studies show that alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis underlie the increased vulnerability of neurons to age-related processes like cognitive decline and synaptic dysfunctions. Dysregulation of Ca2+ can lead to dramatic changes in neu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Navakkode S, Liu C, Soong TW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The genetics of Parkinson disease.
Abstract About 15% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) have family history and 5-10% have a monogenic form of the disease with Mendelian inheritance. To date, at least 23 loci and 19 disease-causing genes for parkinsonism have been found, but many more genetic risk loci and variants for sporadic PD phenotype have been identified in various association studies. Investigating the mutated protein products has uncovered potential pathogenic pathways that provide insights into mechanisms of neurodegeneration in familial and sporadic PD. To commemorate the 200th anniversary of Parkinson's publication of An Essay on ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Deng H, Wang P, Jankovic J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cartilage regeneration and ageing: Targeting cellular plasticity in osteoarthritis.
Abstract Ageing processes play a major contributing role for the development of Osteoarthritis (OA). This prototypic degenerative condition of ageing is the most common form of arthritis and is accompanied by a general decline, chronic pain and mobility deficits. The disease is primarily characterized by articular cartilage degradation, followed by subchondral bone thickening, osteophyte formation, synovial inflammation and joint degeneration. In the early stages, osteoarthritic chondrocytes undergo phenotypic changes that increase cell proliferation and cluster formation and enhance the production of matrix-remod...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 16, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Varela-Eirin M, Loureiro J, Fonseca E, Corrochano S, Caeiro JR, Collado M, Mayan MD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Poor cognitive ageing: Vulnerabilities, mechanisms and the impact of nutritional interventions.
CONCLUSION: Coupling studies of cognitive ageing with studies investigating the effect of nutrition and dietary interventions as strategies targeting specific mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, protein clearance, inflammation, and non-coding and microRNAs is of high value. Future research on the impact of nutrition on cognitive ageing will need to adopt a longitudinal approach and multimodal nutritional interventions will likely need to be imposed in early-life to observe significant impact in older age. PMID: 29248758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 15, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miquel S, Champ C, Day J, Aarts E, Bahr BA, Bakker M, Bánáti D, Calabrese V, Cederholm T, Cryan J, Dye L, Farrimond JA, Korosi A, Layé S, Maudsley S, Milenkovic D, Mohajeri MH, Sijben J, Solomon A, Spencer JPE, Thuret S, Vanden Berghe W, Vauzour D, Vel Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of microglia-neuron interactions in diabetic encephalopathy.
Abstract In the central nervous system, the primary immune cells, the microglia, prevent pathogenic invasion as the first line of defense. Microglial energy consumption is dependent on their degree of activity. Microglia express transporters for the three primary energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids, glutamine) and regulate diabetic encephalopathy via microglia-neuron interactions. Microglia may play a sentry role for rapid protection or even ablation of impaired neurons. Neurons exhibit hyperactivity in response to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and neurotoxic factors and release potential microglial activator...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu Y, Li M, Zhang Z, Ye Y, Zhou J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Autobiographical memory, the ageing brain and mechanisms of psychological interventions.
Abstract Elucidating the impact of healthy cognitive ageing and dementia on autobiographical memory (AM) may help deepen our theoretical understanding of memory and underlying neural changes. The distinction between episodic and semantic autobiographical memory is particularly informative in this regard. Psychological interventions, particularly those involving reminiscence or music, have led to differential effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory. We propose that executive function is a key mediator of psychological therapies on autobiographical memory. We also highlight that interventions that a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 12, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Allen AP, Doyle C, Commins S, Roche RAP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) as a marker of cognitive decline in normal ageing: A review.
Abstract Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and its signaling pathway play a primary role in normal growth and ageing, however serum IGF-1 is known to reduce with advancing age. Recent findings suggest IGF-1 is essential for neurogenesis in the adult brain, and this reduction of IGF-1 with ageing may contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Experimental studies have shown manipulation of the GH/GF-1 axis can slow rates of cognitive decline in animals, making IGF-1 a potential biomarker of cognition, and/or its signaling pathway a possible therapeutic target to prevent or slow age-related cognitive decline. A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Frater J, Lie D, Bartlett P, McGrath JJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mandibuloacral dysplasia: a premature ageing disease with aspects of physiological ageing.
MANDIBULOACRAL DYSPLASIA: A PREMATURE AGEING DISEASE WITH ASPECTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AGEING. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Dec 02;: Authors: Cenni V, D'Apice MR, Garagnani P, Columbaro M, Novelli G, Franceschi C, Lattanzi G Abstract Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is a rare genetic condition characterized by bone abnormalities including localized osteolysis and generalized osteoporosis, skin pigmentation, lipodystrophic signs and mildly accelerated ageing. The molecular defects associated with MAD are mutations in LMNA or ZMPSTE24 (FACE1) gene, causing type A or type B MAD, respectively. Downstream of LMNA or ZMP...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cenni V, D'Apice MR, Garagnani P, Columbaro M, Novelli G, Franceschi C, Lattanzi G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Werner syndrome (WRN) gene variants and their association with altered function and age-associated diseases.
Abstract Werner syndrome (WS) is a heritable autosomal recessive human disorder characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies including cancer. The protein defective in WS patients, WRN, is encoded by a member of the human RECQ gene family that contains both a DNA exonuclease and a helicase domain. WRN has been shown to participate in several DNA metabolic pathways including DNA replication, recombination and repair, as well as telomere maintenance and transcription modulation. Here we review base pair-level genetic variation that has been documented in WRN, with an emphasis on non-syn...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lebel M, Monnat RJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

FOXO1/3: Potential suppressors of fibrosis.
Abstract Fibrosis is a universally age-related disease that involves nearly all organs. It is typically initiated by organic injury and eventually results in organ failure. There are still few effective therapeutic strategy targets for fibrogenesis. Forkhead box proteins O1 and O3 (FOXO1/3) have been shown to have favorable inhibitory effects on fibroblast activation and subsequent extracellular matrix production and can ameliorate fibrosis levels in numerous organs, including the heart, liver, lung, and kidney; they are therefore promising targets for anti-fibrosis therapy. Moreover, we can develop appropriate st...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 11, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xin Z, Ma Z, Hu W, Jiang S, Yang Z, Li T, Chen F, Jia G, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Connecting chaperone-mediated autophagy dysfunction to cellular senescence.
e;n S Abstract Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is one of the main pathways of the lysosome-autophagy proteolytic system. It regulates different cellular process through the selective degradation of cytosolic proteins. In ageing, the function of CMA is impaired causing an inefficient stress response and the accumulation of damaged, oxidized or misfolded proteins, which is associated with numerous age-related diseases. Deficient protein degradation alters cellular proteostasis and activates signaling pathways that culminate in the induction of cellular senescence, whose accumulation is a typical feature of ageing...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 4, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moreno-Blas D, Gorostieta-Salas E, Castro-Obregón S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Differential gene expression analysis in ageing muscle and drug discovery perspectives.
and J Abstract Identifying therapeutic target genes represents the key step in functional genomics-based therapies. Within this context, the disease heterogeneity, the exogenous factors and the complexity of genomic structure and function represent important challenges. The functional genomics aims to overcome such obstacles via identifying the gene functions and therefore highlight disease-causing genes as therapeutic targets. Genomic technologies promise to reshape the research on ageing muscle, exercise response and drug discovery. Herein, we describe the functional genomics strategies, mainly differential gene...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Melouane A, Ghanemi A, Aubé S, Yoshioka M, St-Amand J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The influence and impact of ageing and immunosenescence (ISC) on adaptive immunity during multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal counterpart experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).
Abstract The human ageing process encompass mechanisms that effect a decline in homeostasis with increased susceptibility to disease and the development of chronic life-threatening illness. Increasing age affects the immune system which undergoes a progressive loss of efficiency, termed immunosenescence (ISC), to impact on quantitative and functional aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. The human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the corresponding animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are strongly governed by immunological events that primarily involve the adaptive arm of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bolton C, Smith PA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammageing and metaflammation: The yin and yang of type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterised by chronic low-grade inflammation, recently referred to as 'metaflammation', a relevant factor contributing to the development of both diabetes and its complications. Nonetheless, 'canonical' anti-inflammatory drugs do not yield satisfactory results in terms of prevention of diabetes progression and of cardiovascular events, suggesting that the causal mechanisms fostering metaflammation deserve further research to identify new druggable targets. Metaflammation resembles ageing-induced low-grade inflammation, previously referred to as inflammageing, in terms...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 25, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Prattichizzo F, De Nigris V, Spiga R, Mancuso E, La Sala L, Antonicelli R, Testa R, Procopio AD, Olivieri F, Ceriello A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Chronic Inflammation - Inflammaging - in the Ageing Cochlea: A Novel Target for Future Presbycusis Therapy.
Abstract Chronic, low-grade inflammation, or inflammaging, is a crucial contributor to various age-related pathologies and natural processes in aging tissue, including the nervous system. Over the past two decades, much effort has been done to understand the mechanisms of inflammaging in disease models such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and others. However, despite being the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, the number one communication disorder, and one of the top three chronic medical conditions of our aged population; little research has been con...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 7, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Watson N, Ding B, Zhu X, Frisina RD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sirt1 and Parp1 as epigenome safeguards and microRNAs as SASP-associated signals, in cellular senescence and aging.
Abstract Cellular senescence (CS) is underlying mechanism of organism aging and is closely interconnected with age-related diseases (ARDs). Thus, any attempt that influences CS, may be undertaken to reverse or inhibit senescence, whereby could prolong healthy life span. Until now, two main proposes are epigenetic and genetic modifications of cell fate. The first one concerns rejuvenation through effective reprogramming in cells undergoing senescence, or derived from very old or progeroid patients, by which is effective in vitro in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The second approach concerns modification of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 6, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hekmatimoghaddam S, Dehghani-Firoozabadi A, Zare-Khormizi MR, Pourrajab F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Alpha-synuclein, epigenetics, mitochondria, metabolism, calcium traffic, & circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. An integrated strategy for management.
Alpha-synuclein, epigenetics, mitochondria, metabolism, calcium traffic, & circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. An integrated strategy for management. Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Oct 03;: Authors: Phillipson OT Abstract The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combinati...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Phillipson OT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The science of nutritional modulation of aging.
PMID: 28823380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 22, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fontana L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metformin reduces all-cause mortality and diseases of ageing independent of its effect on diabetes control: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract This systematic review investigated whether the insulin sensitiser metformin has a geroprotective effect in humans. Pubmed and Embase were searched along with databases of unpublished studies. Eligible research investigated the effect of metformin on all-cause mortality or diseases of ageing relative to non-diabetic populations or diabetics receiving other therapies with adjustment for disease control achieved. Overall, 260 full-texts were reviewed and 53 met the inclusion criteria. Diabetics taking metformin had significantly lower all-cause mortality than non-diabetics (hazard ratio (HR)=0.93, 95%CI 0.8...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Campbell JM, Bellman SM, Stephenson MD, Lisy K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sirtuins, epigenetics and longevity.
Abstract Aging of organisms begins from a single cell at the molecular level. It includes changes related to telomere shortening, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications. These processes accumulate over the lifespan. Research studies show that epigenetic signaling contributes to human disease, tumorigenesis and aging. Epigenetic DNA modifications involve changes in the gene activity but not in the DNA sequence. An epigenome consists of chemical modifications to the DNA and histone proteins without the changes in the DNA sequence. These modifications strongly depend on the environment, could be reversible and ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wątroba M, Dudek I, Skoda M, Stangret A, Rzodkiewicz P, Szukiewicz D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging and Osteoarthritis: Central Role of the Extracellular Matrix.
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA), is a major cause of severe joint pain, physical disability and quality of life impairment in the aging population across the developed and developing world. Increased catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the articular cartilage is a key factor in the development and progression of OA. The molecular mechanisms leading to an impaired matrix turnover have not been fully clarified, however cellular senescence, increased expression of inflammatory mediators as well as oxidative stress in association with an inherently limited regenerative potential of the tissue, are all importa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 31, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rahmati M, Nalesso G, Mobasheri A, Mozafari M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Protein aggregation, cardiovascular diseases, and exercise training: where do we stand?
iro F Abstract Cells ensure their protein quality control through the proteostasis network. Aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, have been associated to the reduction of proteostasis network efficiency and, consequently, to the accumulation of protein misfolded aggregates. The decline in protein homeostasis has been associated with the development and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, and heart failure. Exercise training is a key component of the management of patients with cardiovascular disease, consiste...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 27, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gouveia M, Xia K, Colón W, Vieira SI, Ribeiro F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Use of Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the investigation of brain activation during cognitive aging: A systematic review of an emerging area of research.
Abstract The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a growing and stimulating research area. The development of neuroimaging techniques in the past two decades has considerably increased our understanding of the brain mechanisms that might underlie cognitive performance and resulting changes due to normal aging. Beside traditional metabolic neuroimaging techniques, such as Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique allowing to monitor real-time cerebral blood oxygenation, has gained recent interest in this field. The aim of th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Agbangla NF, Audiffren M, Albinet CT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Modulation of dendritic cell and T cell cross-talk during aging: The potential role of checkpoint inhibitory molecules.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) undergo continuous changes throughout life, and there is evidence that elderly DCs have a reduced capacity to stimulate T cells, which may contribute to impaired anti-tumour immune responses in elderly people with cancer. Changes in checkpoint inhibitory molecules/pathways during aging may be one mechanism that impairs the ability of elderly DCs to activate T cells. However, little is currently known regarding the combined effects of aging and cancer on DC and T cell inhibitory molecules/pathways. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the influence of aging and canc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 20, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gardner JK, Mamotte CDS, Jackaman C, Nelson DJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

AMPK orchestrates an elaborate cascade protecting tissue from fibrosis and aging.
Abstract Fibrosis is a common process characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation after inflammatory injury, which is also a crucial cause of aging. The process of fibrosis is involved in the pathogenesis of most diseases of the heart, liver, kidney, lung, and other organs/tissues. However, there are no effective therapies for this pathological alteration. Annually, fibrosis represents a huge financial burden for the USA and the world. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal energy sensor that alleviates or delays the process of fibrogenesis. In this review, we first present basi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 11, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jiang S, Li T, Yang Z, Yi W, Di S, Sun Y, Wang D, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Historical demography and longevity genetics: back to the future.
Abstract Research into the genetic component of human longevity can provide important insights in mechanisms that may protect against age-related diseases and multi-morbidity. Thus far only a limited number of robust longevity loci have been detected in either candidate or genome wide association studies. One of the issues in these genetic studies is the definition of the trait being either lifespan, including any age at death or longevity, i.e. survival above a diverse series of thresholds. Likewise heritability and segregation research have conflated lifespan with longevity. The heritability of lifespan estimate...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van den Berg N, Beekman M, Smith KR, Janssens A, Slagboom PE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A viewpoint on considering physiological principles to study stress resistance and resilience with aging.
Abstract Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience. PMID: 28676286 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miller BF, Seals DR, Hamilton KL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Physical Activity and Healthy Ageing: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: There is consistent evidence from longitudinal observational studies that PA is positively associated with HA, regardless of definition and measurement. Future research should focus on the implementation of a single metric of HA, on the use of objective measures for PA assessment and on a full-range of confounding adjustment. In addition, our research indicated the limited research on ageing in low-and-middle income countries. PMID: 28648951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 22, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Daskalopoulou C, Stubbs B, Kralj C, Koukounari A, Prince M, Prina AM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Evolution of human apolipoprotein E (APOE) isoforms: gene structure, protein function and interaction with dietary factors.
Abstract Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a member of the vertebrate protein family of exchangeable apolipoproteins that is characterized by amphipathic α-helices encoded by multiple nucleotide tandem repeats. Its equivalent in flying insects - apolipophorin-III - shares structural and functional commonalities with APOE, suggesting the possibility of an evolutionary relationship between the proteins. In contrast to all other known species, human APOE is functionally polymorphic and possesses three major allelic variants (ε4, ε3 and ε2). The present review examines the current knowledge on A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 21, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Huebbe P, Rimbach G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The emerging role of Wnt signaling dysregulation in the understanding and modification of age-associated diseases.
L, Arias C Abstract Wnt signaling is a highly conserved pathway that participates in multiple aspects of cellular function during development and in adults. In particular, this pathway has been implicated in cell fate determination, proliferation and cell polarity establishment. In the brain, it contributes to synapse formation, axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. The expression and distribution of Wnt components in different organs vary with age, which may have important implications for preserving tissue homeostasis. The dysregulation of Wnt signalin...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 14, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: García-Velázquez L, Arias C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Calorie Restriction in Rodents: Caveats to Consider.
Abstract The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 10, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ingram DK, de Cabo R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of physical exercise on cognitive function in healthy older adults: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
Izquierdo M PMID: 28587957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 3, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: de Asteasu MLS, Martínez-Velilla N, Zambom-Ferraresi F, Casas-Herrero Á, Izquierdo M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Vascular aging: molecular mechanisms and potential treatments for vascular rejuvenation.
Abstract Aging is the main risk factor contributing to vascular dysfunction and the progression of vascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the causes and mechanisms of vascular aging at the tissue and cellular level. We focus on Endothelial Cell (EC) and Smooth Muscle Cell (SMC) aging due to their critical role in mediating the defective vascular phenotype. We elaborate on two categories that contribute to cellular dysfunction: cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors reflect systemic or environmental changes which alter EC and SMC homeostasis compromising vascular function. Intrinsic factors ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 1, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mistriotis P, Andreadis ST Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Regulation of longevity by FGF21: interaction between energy metabolism and stress responses.
Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses. Recent studie...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A, Kaarniranta K, Kauppinen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Remote tissue conditioning - an emerging approach for inducing body-wide protection against diseases of ageing.
We describe evidence for the efficacy of two 'remote' protective interventions - remote ischemic conditioning and remote photobiomodulation - and discuss the mechanisms underlying their protective actions. While the biological phenomenon of remote tissue conditioning is only partially understood, it holds promise for protecting critical-to-life tissues while mitigating risks and practical barriers to direct conditioning of these tissues. PMID: 28552720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kim B, Brandli A, Mitrofanis J, Stone J, Purushothuman S, Johnstone DM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Evidence on multimorbidity from definition to intervention: an overview of systematic reviews.
Abstract The increasing challenge of multiple chronic diseases (multimorbidity) requires more evidence-based knowledge and effective practice. In order to better understand the existing evidence on multimorbidity, we performed a systematic review of systematic reviews on multimorbidity with pre-established search strategies and exclusion criteria by searching multiple databases and grey literature. Of 8006 articles found, 53 systematic reviews (including meta-analysis and qualitative research synthesis performed in some reviews) that stated multimorbidity as the main focus were included, with 79% published during ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xu X, Mishra GD, Jones M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in development, aging and age-related diseases.
F, Fraga MF Abstract DNA methylation at the fifth position of cytosines (5mC) represents a major epigenetic modification in mammals. The recent discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting from 5mC oxidation, is redefining our view of the epigenome, as multiple studies indicate that 5hmC is not simply an intermediate of DNA demethylation, but a genuine epigenetic mark that may play an important functional role in gene regulation. Currently, the availability of platforms that discriminates between the presence of 5mC and 5hmC at single-base resolution is starting to shed light on the functions of 5hmC. In...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 9, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: López V, Fernández AF, Fraga MF Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Influence of anaerobic and aerobic exercise on age-related pathways in skeletal muscle.
PMID: 28487241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Navas-Enamorado I, Bernier M, Brea-Calvo G, de Cabo R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Oxidative stress, genomic features and DNA repair in frail elderly: A systematic review.
B, Valdiglesias V Abstract Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by higher vulnerability to stressors, with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, disability, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Although it is generally recognized to have a biological basis, no particular biological trait has been consistently associated to frailty status so far. In this work, epidemiological studies evaluating association of frailty status with alterations at cellular level - namely oxidative stress, genomic instability and DNA damage and repair biomarkers -were revised...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sánchez-Flores M, Marcos-Pérez D, Costa S, Teixeira JP, Bonassi S, Pásaro E, Laffon B, Valdiglesias V Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Circuit resistance training is an effective means to enhance muscle strength in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Physical exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is presently the only proven means to reduce the accelerated decline in muscle strength exhibited by older adults, but its effect is hindered by low adherence rate, even under well-structured programs. Here we investigate the efficacy of circuit resistance training (CRT) on muscle strength, lean mass and aerobic capacity in older adults. MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane electronic databases were systematically searched including references of pertinent articles up to August 2016. The search yielded a total of 237 articles, 106 o...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 27, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Buch A, Kis O, Carmeli E, Keinan-Boker L, Berner Y, Barer Y, Shefer G, Marcus Y, Stern N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Splicing regulatory factors, ageing and age-related disease.
Abstract Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicin...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 26, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Latorre E, Harries LW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

In vivo prion models and the disconnection between transmissibility and neurotoxicity.
Abstract The primary causative event in the development of prion diseases is the misfolding of the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into an ensemble of altered conformers (herein collectively denoted as PrP(Sc)) that accumulate in the brain. Prominent amongst currently unresolved key aspects underpinning prion disease pathogenesis is whether transmission and toxicity are sub-served by different molecular species of PrP(Sc), which may directly impact on the development of effective targeted treatments. The use of murine models of prion disease has been of fundamental importance for probing the relationship between hyp...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 24, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Senesi M, Lewis V, Kim JH, Adlard PA, Finkelstein DI, Collins SJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Recent advances in cochlear hair cell regeneration-a promising opportunity for the treatment of age-related hearing loss.
The objective of this paper is to review current information regarding the treatment of age-related hearing loss by using cochlear hair cell regeneration. Recent advances in the regeneration of the inner ear, including the usefulness of stem cells, are also presented. Based on the current literature, cochlear cell regeneration may well be possible in the short term and cochlear gene therapy may also be useful for the treatment of hearing loss associated with ageing. The present review provide further insight into the pathogenesis of Inner Ear senescence and aged-related hearing loss and facilitate the development of therap...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 13, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Revuelta M, Santaolalla F, Arteaga O, Alvarez A, Del Rey AS, Hilario E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

From lymphopoiesis to plasma cells differentiation, the age-related modifications of B cell compartment are influenced by "Inflamm-Ageing".
From lymphopoiesis to plasma cells differentiation, the age-related modifications of B cell compartment are influenced by "Inflamm-Ageing". Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Apr 07;: Authors: Bulati M, Caruso C, Colonna-Romano G Abstract Ageing is a complex process characterized by a general decline in physiological functions with increasing morbidity and mortality. The most important aspect of ageing is the chronic inflammatory status, named "inflamm-ageing", strictly associated with the deterioration of the immune function, termed "immunosenescence". Both are causes of increased sus...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 7, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bulati M, Caruso C, Colonna-Romano G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging and cancer: The role of macrophages and neutrophils.
Abstract Impaired immune function has been implicated in the declining health and higher incidence of cancer in the elderly. However, age-related changes to immunity are not completely understood. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of defence yet their ability to phagocytose pathogens decreases with aging. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical in eliminating tumors, but T cell function is also compromised with aging. T cell responses can be regulated by macrophages and may depend on the functional phenotype macrophages adopt in response to microenvironmental signals. This can range from pro-inflam...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 5, 2017 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jackaman C, Tomay F, Duong L, Razak NB, Pixley FJ, Metharom P, Nelson DJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research