Exercise-Induced Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression: Therapeutic Implications for Alzheimer's Dementia.
Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF express...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang R, Holsinger RMD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Major trauma and acceleration of the ageing process.
Abstract It is well established that numerous factors can affect the rate at which we age biologically. Diet, physical activity, lifestyle and our genes all play a major role in influencing the ageing trajectory and longevity. Major trauma affects millions globally, is the major cause of death in young adults and could influence ageing processes but has largely been ignored by biogenterologists. The long-term health consequences of physical trauma are well known in the medical community, how trauma effects the ageing process at a molecular level is not. It has long been difficult to assess ageing trajectories due ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 11, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sullivan J, Mirbahai L, Lord JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing, the autonomic nervous system and arrhythmia: From brain to heart.
Abstract An ageing myocardium possesses significant electrophysiological alterations that predisposes the elderly patient to arrhythmic risk. Whilst these alterations are intrinsic to the cardiac myocytes, they are modulated by the cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consequently, ageing of the cardiac ANS is fundamental to the development of arrhythmias. A systems-based approach that incorporates the influence of the cardiac ANS could lead to better mechanistic understanding of how arrhythmogenic triggers and substrates interact spatially and temporally to produce sustained arrhythmia and why its incidence...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chadda KR, Ajijola OA, Vaseghi M, Shivkumar K, Huang CL, Jeevaratnam K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Significance of urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane b2 in age-related diseases: focus on atherothrombosis.
SIGNIFICANCE OF URINARY 11-DEHYDRO-THROMBOXANE B2 IN AGE-RELATED DISEASES: FOCUS ON ATHEROTHROMBOSIS. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Sep 28;: Authors: Simeone P, Boccatonda A, Liani R, Santilli F Abstract Platelet activation plays a key role in atherogenesisis and atherothrombosis. Biochemical evidence of increased platelet activation in vivo can be reliably obtained through non-invasive measurement of thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion. Persistent biosynthesis of TXA2 has been associated with several ageing-related diseases, including acute and chronic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular ris...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Simeone P, Boccatonda A, Liani R, Santilli F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomere Length and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-analysis.
g S Abstract Telomere attrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of various age-related diseases. Reports of association between telomere length (TL) and all-cause mortality remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed using published cohort studies and un-published data from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). Twenty-five studies were included: four STR cohorts (12,083 individuals with 2517 deaths) and 21 published studies. In the STR studies, one standard deviation (SD) decrement of leukocyte TL corresponded to 13% increased all-cause mortality risk (95% confidence in...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang Q, Zhan Y, Pedersen NL, Fang F, Hägg S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Oxidatively modified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in neurodegenerative processes and the role of low molecular weights compounds in counteracting its aggregation and nuclear translocation.
Abstract A number of independent studies have shown the contribution of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, GAPDH aggregates have been found in many post-mortem samples of brains of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and Parkinson disease. Currently, it is accepted that GAPDH-mediated cell death pathways in the neurodegenerative processes are associated with apoptosis caused by GAPDH nuclear translocation and excessive aggregation under oxidative stress conditions. Also the role of GAPDH in neurodegenerative diseases is linked to it ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gerszon J, Rodacka A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the inflammaging process.
Abstract A chronic low-grade inflammation is one of the hallmarks of the aging process. This gradually augmenting inflammatory state has been termed inflammaging. Inflammaging is associated with increased myelopoiesis in the bone marrow. This myelopoiesis-biased process increases the generation not only of mature myeloid cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, but also immature myeloid progenitors and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). It is known that the aging process is associated with a significant increase in the presence of MDSCs in the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nod...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A, Kaarniranta K, Kauppinen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The effect of fasting or calorie restriction on autophagy induction: a review of the literature.
Abstract Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process and protective housekeeping mechanism to eliminate damaged organelles, long-lived misfolded proteins and invading pathogens. Autophagy functions to recycle building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis, allowing cells to adapt to stress. Modulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target for a diverse range of diseases, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. Traditionally, food deprivation and calorie restriction (CR) have been considered to slow aging and increase longevity. Sinc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bagherniya M, Butler AE, Barreto GE, Sahebkar A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Adjustment of the lysosomal-mitochondrial axis for control of cellular senescence.
Abstract Mitochondria and lysosomes undergo the most marked senescence-related alterations among all cellular organelles. Whereas mitochondria undergo gradual structural changes associated with reduced function, lysosomes exhibit progressively deteriorated function along with the accumulation of lipofuscins. Lysosomal dysfunction induces the deterioration of mitochondrial turnover, resulting in the generation of more reactive oxygen species (ROS), with the increased ROS levels in turn targeting lysosomes. This vicious feedback loop between lysosomes and mitochondria thus aggravates senescence phenotypes. Based on ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Park JT, Lee YS, Cho KA, Park SC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

AMP-activated protein kinase sparks the fire of cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and cardiac ageing.
Abstract AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of some endogenous defensive molecules in various pathological processes, particularly myocardial ischemia (MI), a high risk of myocardial infarction. Thereby it is of great significance to explore the inherent mechanism between AMPK and myocardial infarction. In this review, we first introduce the structure and role of AMPK in the heart. Next, we introduce the mechanisms of AMPK in the heart; followed by the energy regulation of AMPK in MI. Lastly, the attention will be expanded to some potential directions and further perspectives. The informati...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gu C, Li T, Jiang S, Yang Z, Lv J, Yi W, Yang Y, Fang M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Shared Biological Pathways for Frailty and Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.
PMID: 30102995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sargent L, Nalls M, Starkweather A, Hobgood S, Thompson H, Amella EJ, Singleton A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The effects of physical exercise on executive function in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia: A systematic review.
Abstract Executive function deficit is an indicator of Alzheimer's-type dementia and manifests as disruptions of attentional control, memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and reasoning, among other cognitive problems. Physical exercise is suggested to have a protective effect on global cognition with aging. However, whether it influences executive function in people living with Alzheimer's-type dementia specifically is unknown. The current systematic review examined the efficacy of physical exercise on executive function performance in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia. An e...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Guitar NA, Connelly DM, Nagamatsu LS, Orange JB, Muir-Hunter SW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of melatonin, a multitasking molecule, in retarding the processes of ageing.
Abstract Biological ageing is generally accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular functions and physiological integrity of organ systems, the consequential enhancement of vulnerability, senescence and finally death. Mechanisms which underlie ageing are primarily attributed to an array of diverse but related factors including free radical-induced damage, dysfunction of mitochondria, disruption of circadian rhythms, inflammaging, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, deregulated sensing of nutrients, epigenetic alterations, altered intercellular communication, and decreased capacity for tiss...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Majidinia M, Reiter RJ, Shakouri SK, Yousefi B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Towards frailty biomarkers: Candidates from genes and pathways regulated in aging and age-related diseases.
CONCLUSION: Biomarker panels for frailty would be of high value and better than single markers. Based on our search we would propose a core panel of frailty biomarkers consisting of (1) CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10), IL-6 (interleukin 6), CX3CL1 (C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1), (2) GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15), FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5), vimentin (VIM), (3) regucalcin (RGN/SMP30), calreticulin, (4) PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), AGT (angiotensinogen), (5) BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor), progranulin (PGRN), (6) α-klotho (KL), FGF23 (fibroblast growth ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cardoso AL, Fernandes A, Aguilar-Pimentel JA, de Angelis MH, Guedes JR, Brito MA, Ortolano S, Pani G, Athanasopoulou S, Gonos ES, Schosserer M, Grillari J, Peterson P, Tuna BG, Dogan S, Meyer A, van Os R, Trendelenburg AU Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Developmental programming of aging trajectory.
Abstract There is accumulating evidence that aging phenotype and longevity may be developmentally programmed. Main mechanisms linking developmental conditions to later-life health outcomes include persistent changes in epigenetic regulation, (re)programming of major endocrine axes such as growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and also early-life immune maturation. Recently, evidence has also been generated on the role of telomere biology in developmental programming of aging trajectory. In addition, persisting changes of intestinal microbiota appears to be crucially...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman A, Koliada A, Lushchak O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

'Evolutionary medicine' perspectives on Alzheimer's Disease: Review and new directions.
Abstract Evolution by natural selection eliminates maladaptive traits from a species, and yet Alzheimer's Disease (AD) persists with rapidly increasing prevalence globally. This apparent paradox begs an explanation within the framework of evolutionary sciences. Here, I summarize and critique previously proposed theories to explain human susceptibility to AD, grouped into 8 distinct hypotheses based on the concepts of novel extension of the lifespan; lack of selective pressure during the post-reproductive phase; antagonistic pleiotropy; rapid brain evolution; delayed neuropathy by selection for grandmothering; nove...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fox M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function: measurement and mechanisms of muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss in humans.
Abstract Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, sarcopenia, is associated with physical frailty and increased risk of morbidity (chronic diseases), in addition to all-cause mortality. The loss of muscle mass occurs incipiently from middle-age (~1%/year), and in severe instances can lead to a loss of ~50% by the 8-9th decade of life. This review will focus on muscle deterioration with ageing and highlight the two underpinning mechanisms regulating declines in muscle mass and function: muscle fibre atrophy and muscle fibre loss (hypoplasia) - and their measurement. The mechanisms of muscle fibre atro...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wilkinson DJ, Piasecki M, Atherton PJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A Scoping Systematic Review of Social Stressors and Various Measures of Telomere Length Across the Life Course.
Abstract Numerous studies examine the relationship between social stressors and telomere length (TL). Beyond considering methods and major findings, this scoping systematic review takes a novel approach as it groups studies according to the types of social stressor considered and by age groups. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus. We included all English-language human subject research articles that modeled any measure of TL as a dependent variable and exposure to a social stressor as an independent variable. For the sample of 105 articles, we summarized methods and ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Willis M, Reid SN, Calvo E, Staudinger UM, Factor-Litvak P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Physical strategies to prevent disuse-induced functional decline in the elderly.
Abstract Disuse situations can have serious adverse health consequences in the elderly, including mainly functional impairment with subsequent increase in the risk of falls or morbimortality. The present review provides clinicians and care givers with detailed and practical information on the feasibility and effectiveness of physical strategies that are currently available to prevent or attenuate the functional decline that occurs secondarily to disuse situations in the elderly, notably in the hospital setting. In this context, active approaches such as resistance exercises and maximal voluntary contractions, whic...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 18, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Valenzuela PL, Morales JS, Pareja-Galeano H, Izquierdo M, Emanuele E, de la Villa P, Lucia A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The TRPM2 channel nexus from oxidative damage to Alzheimer's pathologies: an emerging novel intervention target for age-related dementia.
This article will review the emerging evidence from recent studies and propose a novel 'hypothesis' that multiple TRPM2-mediated cellular and molecular mechanisms cascade Aβ and/or oxidative damage to AD pathologies. The 'hypothesis' based on these new findings discusses the prospect of considering the TRPM2 channel as a novel therapeutic target for intervening AD and age-related dementia. PMID: 30009973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jiang LH, Li X, Mortadza SAS, Lovatt M, Yang W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Future perspectives on neural mechanisms underlying rhythm and music based neurorehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by a dysfunctional basal ganglia (BG) system, producing motor and non-motor symptoms. A significant number of studies have demonstrated that rhythmic auditory stimulation can improve gait and other motor behaviors in PD that are not well managed by the conventional therapy. As music, being highly complex stimulus, can modulate brain activity/function in distributed areas of brain, the therapeutic properties of music potentially extend to alleviate non-motor symptoms of PD. Despite the clinical, behavioral evidence and promises of music based intervention...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Koshimori Y, Thaut MH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products And Their Relevance For Human Health.
e T Abstract Due to their bioactivity and harmful potential, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are discussed to affect human health. AGEs are compounds formed endogenously in the human body and exogenously, especially, in foods while thermal processing. In contrast to endogenous AGEs, dietary AGEs are formed in much higher extent. However, their risk potential is also depending on absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. For over 10 years an intense debate on the risk of dietary AGEs on human health is going on. On the one hand, studies provided evidence that dietary AGEs contribute to clinical o...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 30, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nowotny K, Schröter D, Schreiner M, Grune T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cancer-free aging: insights from Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies.
Abstract Cancer and ageing can be regarded as two different manifestations of the same underlying process-accumulation of cellular damage-and therefore both are closely linked. Nowadays, the ageing of populations worldwide is leading to an unprecedented increase in cancer cases and fatalities, and therefore the understanding of links between cancer and ageing is more important than ever. Spalax is considered an excellent model for ageing and, additionally, for cancer research, due to not show clear age-related phenotypic changes and not develop spontaneous tumours, despite its relatively long lifespan (~20 years i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lagunas-Rangel FA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nrf2: Molecular and epigenetic regulation during aging.
igsberg M Abstract Increase in life-span is commonly related with age-related diseases and with gradual loss of genomic, proteomic and metabolic integrity. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) controls the expression of genes whose products include antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters and numerous cytoprotective proteins. Several experimental approaches have evaluated the potential regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 to enhance the expression of genes that contend against accumulative oxidative stress and promote healthy aging. Negative regulators of Nrf2 that act ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Silva-Palacios A, Ostolga-Chavarría M, Zazueta C, Königsberg M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Divergent mechanisms of metabolic dysfunction drive fibroblast and T-cell senescence.
Abstract The impact of cellular senescence during ageing is well established, however senescence is now recognised to play a role in a variety of age related and metabolic diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. It is therefore crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that control cellular senescence. In recent years our understanding of the intimate relationship between cell metabolism, cell signalling and cellular senescence has greatly improved. In this review we discuss the differing roles of glucose and protein metabolism in both senescent fibroblast and CD8+ T-cells,...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 11, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Callender LA, Carroll EC, Bober EA, Henson SM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cerebral small vessel disease and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Some CSVD markers were significantly associated with clinical AD pathology and may be associated with Aβ/tau pathology. WMHs and microinfarcts were associated with increased risk of AD. It remains unclear whether they precede or follow AD pathology. PMID: 29898422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 10, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu Y, Braidy N, Poljak A, Chan DK, Sachdev P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

NAD metabolism: Implications in aging and longevity.
Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important co-factor involved in numerous physiological processes, including metabolism, post-translational protein modification, and DNA repair. In living organisms, a careful balance between NAD production and degradation serves to regulate NAD levels. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that NAD levels decrease with age, and the deterioration of NAD metabolism promotes several aging-associated diseases, including metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases and various cancers. Conversely, the upregulation of NAD metabolism, including dietary supplem...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 5, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yaku K, Okabe K, Nakagawa T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

From fetus to older age: a review of brain metabolic changes across the lifespan.
DISCUSSION: The results presented in the reviewed papers provide evidence that normal aging is associated with a number of metabolic changes characteristic for every period of life. Therefore, it can be concluded that the age matching is essential for comparative studies of disease states using 1H MRS. PMID: 29864489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cichocka M, Bereś A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Evidence-based nutritional and pharmacological interventions targeting chronic low-grade inflammation in middle-age and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
on SD Abstract Growing evidence suggests chronic low-grade inflammation (LGI) as a possible mechanism underlying the aging process. Some biological and pharmaceutical compounds may reduce systemic inflammation and potentially avert functional decline occurring with aging. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the association of pre-selected interventions on two established biomarkers of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in middle-age and older adults with chronic LGI. We reviewed the literature on potential anti-inflammatory compounds, selecting them based on safety, to...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 24, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Custodero C, Mankowski RT, Lee SA, Chen Z, Wu S, Manini TM, Hincapie JE, Sabbà C, Beavers DP, Cauley JA, Espeland MA, Fielding RA, Kritchevsky SB, Liu C, McDermott MM, Miller ME, Tracy RP, Newman AB, Ambrosius WT, Pahor M, Anton SD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

O-GlcNAcylation and neuronal energy status: implications for Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Since the first clinical case reported more than 100 years ago, it has been a long and winding road to demystify the initial pathological events underling the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fortunately, advanced imaging techniques extended the knowledge regarding AD origin, being well accepted that a decline in brain glucose metabolism occurs during the prodromal phases of AD and is aggravated with the progression of the disease. In this sense, in the last decades, the post-translational modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) has emerged as a potential causative link ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 19, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pinho TS, Verde DM, Correia SC, Cardoso SM, Moreira PI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Muscle plasticity of aged subjects in response to electrical stimulation training and inversion and/or limitation of the sarcopenic process.
Abstract This review addresses the possible structural and functional adaptations of the muscle function to neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training in frail and/or aged (without advanced chronic disease) subjects. Evidence suggests that the sarcopenic process and its structural and functional effects would be limited and/or reversed through NMES training using excito-motor currents (or direct currents). From a structural viewpoint, NMES helps reduce muscle atrophy. From a functional viewpoint, NMES enables the improvement of motor output (i.e., muscle strength), gait, balance and activities of daily l...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Paillard T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Anti-senescence compounds: a potential nutraceutical approach to healthy aging.
eri F Abstract The desire of eternal youth seems to be as old as mankind. However, the increasing life expectancy experienced by populations in developed countries also involves a significantly increased incidence of the most common age-related diseases (ARDs). Senescent cells (SCs) have been identified as culprits of organismal aging. Their number rises with age and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype fuels the chronic, pro-inflammatory systemic state (inflammaging) that characterizes aging, impairing the regenerative ability of stem cells and increasing the risk of developing ARDs. A variegated class...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gurău F, Baldoni S, Prattichizzo F, Espinosa E, Amenta F, Procopio AD, Albertini MC, Bonafè M, Olivieri F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Muscle Morphology and Performance in Master Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The extent to which chronic exercise training preserves age-related decrements in physical function, muscle strength, mass and morphology is unclear. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine to what extent chronically trained master athletes (strength/power and endurance) preserve levels of physical function, muscle strength, muscle mass and morphology in older age, compared with older and younger controls and young trained individuals. METHODS: The systematic data search included Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. IN...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 28, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mckendry J, Breen L, Shad BJ, Greig C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of gut microbiota and microbial metabolites in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Gut microbial dysbiosis and alteration of microbial metabolites in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been increasingly reported. Dysbiosis in the composition and abundance of gut microbiota can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis and thereby causing CNS diseases. Disturbance of the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been linked to specific microbial products that are related to gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. Future directions should therefore focus on the exploration of specific gut microbes or microbial metab...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 26, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sun MF, Shen YQ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Multi-tissue DNA Methylation Age: Molecular Relationships and Perspectives for Advancing Biomarker Utility.
Abstract The multi-tissue DNA methylation estimator of chronological age (DNAm-age) has been associated with a wide range of exposures and health outcomes. Still, it is unclear how DNAm-age can have such broad relationships and how it can be best utilized as a biomarker. Understanding DNAm-age's molecular relationships is a promising approach to address this critical knowledge gap. In this review, we discuss the existing literature regarding DNAm-age's molecular relationships in six major categories: animal model systems, cancer processes, cellular aging processes, immune system processes, metabolic processes, and...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Weisskopf MG, Baccarelli AA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to oxidative phosphorylation xenobiotics and late-onset parkinson disease.
PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION XENOBIOTICS AND LATE-ONSET PARKINSON DISEASE. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Apr 21;: Authors: Iglesias E, Pesini A, Garrido-Pérez N, Meade P, Bayona-Bafaluy MP, Montoya J, Ruiz-Pesini E Abstract Late-onset Parkinson disease is a multifactorial and multietiological disorder, age being one of the factors implicated. Genetic and/or environmental factors, such as pesticides, can also be involved. Up to 80% of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra are lost before motor features of the disorder begin to appear. In humans, these neurons are only formed a fe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Iglesias E, Pesini A, Garrido-Pérez N, Meade P, Bayona-Bafaluy MP, Montoya J, Ruiz-Pesini E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effective multicomponent interventions in comparison to active control and no interventions on physical capacity, cognitive function and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly people with and without mild impaired cognition - A systematic review and network meta-analysis.
n K Abstract Multicomponent interventions (MCT) combine physical exercises and cognitive training and seem to be most effective in improving cognition in elderly people. However, literature is inconclusive if MCTs are superior to active comparison interventions, if delivery modes matter, and if people can transfer achieved effects to instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This network meta-analysis aimed to a) identify MCTs that were effective on physical capacity and/or cognitive function and able to transfer these effects into IADL in elderly people with normal cognition (NC) and mild cognitive impairme...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 18, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bruderer-Hofstetter M, Rausch-Osthoff AK, Meichtry A, Münzer T, Niedermann K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Auditory System Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease and its Prodromal States: A Review.
Abstract Recent findings suggest that both peripheral and central auditory system dysfunction occur in the prodromal stages of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and therefore may represent early indicators of the disease. In addition, loss of auditory function itself leads to communication difficulties, social isolation and poor quality of life for both patients with AD and their caregivers. Developing a greater understanding of auditory dysfunction in early AD may shed light on the mechanisms of disease progression and carry diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Herein, we review the literature on hearing abilities in AD ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Swords GM, Nguyen LT, Mudar RA, Llano DA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The multiple functions of melatonin in regenerative medicine.
Abstract Melatonin research has been experiencing hyper growth in the last two decades; this relates to its numerous physiological functions including anti-inflammation, oncostasis, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity. Recently, a large number of studies have focused on the role of melatonin in the regeneration of cells or tissues after their partial loss. In this review, we discuss the recent findings on the molecular involvement of melatonin in the regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Majidinia M, Reiter RJ, Shakouri SK, Mohebbi I, Rasteghar M, Kaviani M, Darband SG, Jahanban-Esfahlan R, Nabavi SM, Yousefik B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

PGC-1 α sparks the fire of neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders.
PGC-1α sparks the fire of neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders. Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Mar 23;: Authors: Lv J, Jiang S, Yang Z, Hu W, Wang Z, Li T, Yang Y Abstract Recently, growing evidence has demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a superior transcriptional regulator that acts via controlling the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and uncoupling proteins and inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, which plays a beneficial part in the central nervous system (CNS). Given the significance of PGC-1α, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lv J, Jiang S, Yang Z, Hu W, Wang Z, Li T, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sirtuins in Mitochondrial Stress: Indispensable Helpers behind the Scenes.
Abstract Mitochondria play an essential part in guaranteeing normal cellular physiological functions through providing ATP and participating in diverse processes and signaling pathways. Recently, more and more studies have revealed the vital roles of mitochondria in coping with stressors in the aging process, metabolic disturbances and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial stress responses, including the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), antioxidant defense, mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy, are induced to maintain cellular integrity in response to stress. The sirtuin family...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lin S, Xing H, Zang T, Ruan X, Wo L, He M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Beyond ROS clearance: peroxiredoxins in stress signaling and aging.
Abstract Antioxidants were long predicted to have lifespan-promoting effects, but in general this prediction has not been well supported. While some antioxidants do seem to have a clear effect on longevity, this may not be primarily as a result of their role in the removal of reactive oxygen species, but rather mediated by other mechanisms such as the modulation of intracellular signaling. In this review we discuss peroxiredoxins, a class of proteinaceous antioxidants with redox signaling and chaperone functions, and their involvement in regulating longevity and stress resistance. Peroxiredoxins have a clear role ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Detienne G, De Haes W, Mergan L, Edwards SL, Temmerman L, Van Bael S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Epidemiological and clinical significance of cognitive frailty: A mini review.
In conclusion, there is no consensus on the definition of cognitive frailty for use in clinical and community settings or on which measures to be used for detecting cognitive impairment. Further study is required to formulate effective preventive strategies for disability in the elderly. PMID: 29544875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 12, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sugimoto T, Sakurai T, Ono R, Kimura A, Saji N, Niida S, Toba K, Chen LK, Arai H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The neurochemistry of agitation in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of the dynamic balance between multiple neurotransmitter systems could impair functional neural networks involved in affective regulation and executive function. Differences in study design and methodology may have contributed to conflicting findings. Future studies that overcome these limitations (e.g. using standardized criteria to define agitation) and employ neuroimaging methods such as MRI/PET to investigate specific neural networks are needed to clarify the role of neurotransmitter alterations in these patients. PMID: 29524596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 7, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu KY, Stringer AE, Reeves SJ, Howard RJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Interventional programmes to improve cognition during healthy and pathological ageing: Cortical modulations and evidence for brain plasticity.
ri MC Abstract A growing body of evidence suggests that healthy elderly individuals and patients with Alzheimer's disease retain an important potential for neuroplasticity. This review summarizes studies investigating the modulation of neural activity and structural brain integrity in response to interventions involving cognitive training, physical exercise and non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy elderly and cognitively impaired subjects (including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease). Moreover, given the clinical relevance of neuroplasticity, we discuss how evidence for neu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 6, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cespón J, Miniussi C, Pellicciari MC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of Sirtuin1-p53 regulatory axis in Aging, Cancer and Cellular Reprogramming.
Abstract Regulatory role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), one of the most extensively studied members of its kind in histone deacetylase family in governing multiple cellular fates, is predominantly linked to p53 activity. SIRT1 deacetylates p53 in a NAD+-dependent manner to inhibit transcription activity of p53, in turn modulate pathways that are implicated in regulation of tissue homoeostasis and many disease states. In this review, we discuss the role of SIRT1-p53 pathway and its regulatory axis in the cellular events which are implicated in cellular aging, cancer and reprogramming. It is noteworthy that these cellular ev...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ong ALC, Ramasamy TS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Healthy brain aging: interplay between reactive species, inflammation and energy supply.
Abstract Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first tw...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Garaschuk O, Semchyshyn HM, Lushchak VI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

GIT2-a keystone in ageing and age-related disease.
Abstract Since its discovery, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2, GIT2, and its family member, GIT1, have received considerable interest concerning their potential key roles in regulating multiple inter-connected physiological and pathophysiological processes. GIT2 was first identified as a multifunctional protein that is recruited to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) during the process of receptor internalization. Recent findings have demonstrated that perhaps one of the most important effects of GIT2 in physiology concerns its role in controlling multiple aspects of the complex ageing proc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van Gastel J, Boddaert J, Jushaj A, Premont RT, Luttrell LM, Janssens J, Martin B, Maudsley S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cellular senescence: immunosurveillance and future immunotherapy.
Abstract In response to persistent DNA damage, induction into cell senescence promotes an immunogenic program which facilitates immune clearance of these damaged cells. Under physiological conditions, senescent cells can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, functioning to maintain tissue homeostasis. In addition, emerging findings suggest that programmed induction of cell senescence may be important for regulating reproductive processes, partly facilitated by immune clearance. However, likely owing to ageing of the immune system, a failure to eliminate senescent cells can contribute to their persist...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 7, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Burton DGA, Stolzing A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Increasing use of cognitive measures in the operational definition of frailty - a systematic review.
Abstract Ageing is associated both with frailty and cognitive decline. The quest for a unifying approach has led to a new concept: cognitive frailty. This systematic review explores the contribution of cognitive assessment in frailty operationalization. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched until December 2016 using the keywords aged; frail elderly; aged, 80 and over; frailty; diagnosis; risk assessment and classification, yielding 2,863 hits. Seventy-nine articles were included, describing 94 frailty instruments. Two instruments were not sufficiently specified and excluded. 46% of the identified fra...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Azzopardi RV, Beyer I, Vermeiren S, Petrovic M, Van Den Noortgate N, Bautmans I, Gorus E, Gerontopole Brussels Study group Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research