New insights into the interplay between miRNA and autophagy in the ageing of intervertebral disc.
Abstract Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been widely known as a main contributor to low back pain which has a negative socioeconomic impact worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and serve key roles in various types of biological processes. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that maintains cellular homeostasis through recycling of nutrients and degradation of damaged or aged cytoplasmic organelles. Autophagy has been proposed as a "double-edged sword"...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lan T, Shiyu-Hu, Shen Z, Yan B, Chen J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Endothelial cell senescence: A systematic review and machine learning-based meta-analysis of transcriptomic studies.
Abstract Numerous systemic vascular dysfunction that leads to age-related diseases is highly associated with endothelial cell senescence; thus, identifying consensus features of endothelial cell senescence is crucial in understanding the mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Here, by utilizing a total of 8 screened studies from four different origins, we have successfully obtained common features in both gene and pathway level via sophisticated machine learning algorithms. A total of 400 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were newly discovered with meta-analysis when compared to the usage of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 12, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Park HS, Kim SY Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

β-amyloid: the known unknowns.
β-amyloid: the known unknowns. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Nov 11;:101212 Authors: Ayton S, Bush AI Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) stands out as a major disease without any form of preventative or disease modifying therapy. This is not for lack of trying. 33 phase 3 clinical trials of drugs targeting amyloid beta (Aβ) have failed to slow cognitive decline in AD. The field is at a cross-roads about whether to continue anti-Aβ therapy or more actively pursue alternative targets. With the burden of this disease to patients, families, and healthcare budgets growing yearly, the need for disease ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 11, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ayton S, Bush AI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of Nrf2 in Neural stem/Progenitors cells: from maintaining stemness and self-renewal to promoting differentiation capability and facilitating therapeutic application in neurodegenerative disease.
Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) cause progressive loss of neurons in nervous system. NDs are categorized as acute NDs such as stroke and head injury, besides chronic NDs including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, Friedreich's Ataxia, Multiple Sclerosis. The exact etiology of NDs is not understood but oxidative stress, inflammation and synaptic dysfunction are main hallmarks. Oxidative stress leads to free radical attack on neural cells which contributes to protein misfolding, glia cell activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of DNA repair system and subsequently cellular death. ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 10, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kahroba H, Ramezani B, Maadi H, Sadeghi MR, Jaberie H, Ramezani F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The impact of aging in dementia: it is time to refocus attention on the main risk factor of dementia.
THE IMPACT OF AGING IN DEMENTIA: IT IS TIME TO REFOCUS ATTENTION ON THE MAIN RISK FACTOR OF DEMENTIA. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Nov 10;:101210 Authors: Mecocci P, Boccardi V Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia among old age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms remain unsolved, and no cure is available. The amyloid hypothesis has been recently questioned due to the failure of amyloid-centered treatments. The fact that cognitively normal old age subjects have substantial amyloid deposition in the brain comparable to the...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 10, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mecocci P, Boccardi V Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Emerging potential of cannabidiol in reversing proteinopathies.
Abstract The aberrant accumulation of disease-specific protein aggregates accompanying cognitive decline is a pathological hallmark of age-associated neurological disorders, also termed as proteinopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Along with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, disruption in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), a network that constitutes protein surveillance system, plays a pivotal role in the pathobiology of these dementia disorders. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dash R, Ali MC, Jahan I, Munni YA, Mitra S, Hannan MA, Timalsina B, Oktaviani DF, Choi HJ, Moon IS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Targeting microglial autophagic degradation in NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is considered as a detrimental factor in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), etc. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), the most well-studied inflammasome, is abundantly expressed in microglia and has gained considerable attention. Misfolded proteins are characterized as the common hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases due to not only their induced neuronal toxicity, but also their effects in over-activating microglia and the NLRP3 inflammaso...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 5, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wu AG, Zhou XG, Qiao G, Yu L, Tang Y, Yan L, Qiu WQ, Pan R, Yu CL, Law BY, Qin DL, Wu JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does eNOS derived nitric oxide protect the young from severe COVID-19 complications?
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic poses an imminent threat to humanity, especially to the elderly. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the age-dependent disparity for disease progression is not clear. COVID-19 is both a respiratory and a vascular disease in severe patients. The damage endothelial system provides a good explanation for the various complications seen in COVID-19 patients. These observations lead us to suspect that endothelial cells are a barrier that must be breached before progression to severe disease. Endothelial intracellular defences are largely dependent of the activation of the interferon (IFN...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Guan SP, Raymond Seet CS, Kennedy BK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Synaptic Basis of Alzheimer's Disease: Focus on Synaptic Amyloid Beta, P-Tau and Mitochondria.
This article addresses the mechanisms of synaptic action, mitochondrial regulation/dysregulation, resulting synaptic changes caused by amyloid beta and phosphorylated tau in AD progression. This article also highlights recent developments of risk factors, genetics and ApoE4 involvement, factors related to synaptic damage and loss, mislocalization of amyloid beta and phosphorylated tau, mitophagy, microglial activation and synapse-based therapies in AD. Furthermore, impairments in LTD and reactivation of microglia are discussed. PMID: 33157321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: John A, Reddy PH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Octodon degus: a natural model of multimorbidity for ageing research.
Abstract Integrating the multifactorial processes co-occurring in both physiological and pathological human conditions still remains one of the main challenges in translational investigation. Moreover, the impact of age-associated disorders has increased, which underlines the urgent need to find a feasible model that could help in the development of successful therapies. In this sense, the Octodon degus has been indicated as a 'natural' model in many biomedical areas, especially in ageing. This rodent shows complex social interactions and high sensitiveness to early-stressful events, which have been used to invest...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 2, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cuenca-Bermejo L, Pizzichini E, Gonzalez-Cuello AM, De Stefano ME, Fernandez-Villalba E, Herrero MT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Novel Target for Treating Alzheimer's Diseases: Crosstalk between the Nrf2 Pathway and Autophagy.
Abstract In mammals, the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway (henceforth, "the Nrf2 pathway") and autophagy are major intracellular defence systems that combat oxidative damage and maintain homeostasis. p62/SQSTM1, a ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptor protein, links the Nrf2 pathway and autophagy. Phosphorylation of p62 dramatically enhances its affinity for Keap1, which induces Keap1 to release Nrf2, and the p62-Keap1 heterodimer recruits LC3 and mediates the permanent degradation of Keap1 in the selective autophagy pathway. Eventually, Nrf2 accumulates in the cytoplasm and then translocates into the nucleus to ac...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang W, Feng C, Jiang H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nrf2: a dark horse in Alzheimer's disease treatment.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder, is the main cause of dementia. Common hallmarks of AD include the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation, high levels of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) and failure in redox homeostasis. To date, all proposed drugs affecting Aβ and/or p-tau have been failed in clinical trials. A decline in the expression of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) and its driven genes (NQO1, HO-1, and GCLC), and alteration of the Nrf2-related pathways have been observed in AD brains. Nrf2 plays ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Osama A, Zhang J, Yao J, Yao X, Fang J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging in COVID-19: Vulnerability, immunity and intervention.
Abstract The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, moved across the globe at an unprecedented speed, and has caused a profound and yet still unfolding health and socioeconomic impacts. SARS-CoV-2, a β-coronavirus, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes a disease that has been termed the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clinical experience thus far indicates that COVID-19 is highly heterogeneous, ranging from being asymptomatic and mild to severe and causing death. Host factors including age, sex, and como...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 30, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chen Y, Klein SL, Garibaldi BT, Li H, Wu C, Osevala NM, Li T, Margolick JB, Pawelec G, Leng SX Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Branched chain amino acids, aging and age-related health.
Abstract Branched chain amino acids (BCAA: leucine, valine, isoleucine) have key physiological roles in the regulation of protein synthesis, metabolism, food intake and aging. Many studies report apparently inconsistent conclusions about the relationships between blood levels of BCAAs or dietary manipulation of BCAAs with age-related changes in body composition, sarcopenia, obesity, insulin and glucose metabolism, and aging biology itself. These divergent results can be resolved by consideration of the role of BCAAs as signalling molecules and the bidirectional mechanistic relationship between BCAAs and some aging...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 24, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Le Couteur DG, Solon-Biet SM, Cogger VC, Ribeiro R, de Cabo R, Raubenheimer D, Cooney GJ, Simpson SJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Healthful Aging Mediated by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress.
Abstract The progressive increase in lifespan over the past century carries with it some adversity related to the accompanying burden of debilitating diseases prevalent in the older population. This review focuses on oxidative stress as a major mechanism limiting longevity in general, and healthful aging, in particular. Accordingly, the first goal of this review is to discuss the role of oxidative stress in limiting longevity, and compare healthful aging and its mechanisms in different longevity models. Secondly, we discuss common signaling pathways involved in protection against oxidative stress in aging and in t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 19, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vatner SF, Zhang J, Oydanich M, Berkman T, Naftalovich R, Vatner DE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

TIP60 in Aging and Neurodegeneration.
This article reviews the current advances on TIP60/KAT5, a major histone acetyltransferase with diverse functions in eukaryotes, with emphasis on its regulation of autophagy, proteasome-dependent protein turnover, RNA transcription, DNA repair, circadian rhythms, learning and memory, and other neurological functions implicated in aging and neurodegeneration. Moreover, the promising therapeutic potential of TIP60 is discussed to target Alzheimer's disease and other neurological diseases. PMID: 33091598 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 19, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li Z, Rasmussen LJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Relevance of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria interactions in age-associated diseases.
ios A Abstract Although the elixir of youth remains in the darkness, medical and scientific advances have succeeded in increasing human longevity; however, the predisposition to disease and its high economic cost are increasing. Different strategies (e.g., antioxidants) and signaling pathways (e.g., Nrf2) have been identified to help regulate disease progression, nevertheless, there are still missing links that we need to understand. Contact sites called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM) allow bi-directional communication between organelles as part of the essential functions in the cell to maintain its homeo...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gil-Hernández A, Silva-Palacios A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, and it is characterised by progressive deterioration in cognitive and memory abilities, which can severely influence the elderly population's daily living abilities. Although researchers have made great efforts in the field of AD, there are still no well-established strategies to prevent and treat this disease. Therefore, better clarification of the molecular mechanisms associated with the onset and progression of AD is critical to provide a theoretical basis for the establishment of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 13, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Feng YS, Tan ZX, Wu LY, Dong F, Zhang F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Benefits and harms of exercise therapy in people with multimorbidity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials" [Ageing Res. Rev. 63C (2020) 101166].
Corrigendum to "Benefits and harms of exercise therapy in people with multimorbidity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials" [Ageing Res. Rev. 63C (2020) 101166]. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Oct 07;:101190 Authors: Bricca A, Harris LK, Jäger M, Smith SM, Juhl CB, Skou ST PMID: 33039345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 7, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bricca A, Harris LK, Jäger M, Smith SM, Juhl CB, Skou ST Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Targeting metabolic pathways for extension of lifespan and healthspan across multiple species.
Abstract Metabolism plays a significant role in the regulation of aging at different levels, and metabolic reprogramming represents a major driving force in aging. Metabolic reprogramming leads to impaired organismal fitness, an age-dependent increase in susceptibility to diseases, decreased ability to mount a stress response, and increased frailty. The complexity of age-dependent metabolic reprogramming comes from the multitude of levels on which metabolic changes can be connected to aging and regulation of lifespan. This is further complicated by the different metabolic requirements of various tissues, cross-org...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 5, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Parkhitko AA, Filine E, Mohr SE, Moskalev A, Perrimon N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Defective Mitophagy in Alzheimer's Disease.
This article also discusses the physiological states of mitochondria, including fission-fusion balance, Ca2+ transport, and mitochondrial transport in normal and diseased conditions. Our article summarizes current therapeutic interventions, like chemical or natural mitophagy enhancers, that influence mitophagy in AD. Our article discusses whether a partial reduction of Drp1 can be a mitophagy enhancer and a therapeutic target for mitophagy in AD and other neurological diseases. PMID: 33022416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 2, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pradeepkiran JA, Hemachandra Reddy P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A new understanding of GHSR1a--independent of ghrelin activation.
Abstract Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is a functional receptor of ghrelin. The expression levels and activities of GHSR1a are affected by various factors. In past years, it has been found that the ghrelin-GHSR1a system can perform biological functions such as anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-oxidative stress. In addition to mediating the effect of ghrelin, GHSR1a also has abnormally high constitutive activity; that is, it can still transmit intracellular signals without activation of the ghrelin ligand. This constitutive acti...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 28, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xiao X, Bi M, Jiao Q, Chen X, Du X, Jiang H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Time-restricted feeding (TRF) for prevention of age-related vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.
Abstract Aging is the most significant risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), and the number of individuals affected by VCI is expected to exponentially increase in the upcoming decades. Yet, there are no current preventative or therapeutic treatments available against the development and progression of VCI. Therefore, there is a pressing need to better understand the pathophysiology underlying these conditions, for the development of novel tools and interventions to improve cerebrovascular health and delay the onset of VCI. There is strong epidemiological and experimental evidence that lifestyle fac...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Balasubramanian P, DelFavero J, Ungvari A, Papp M, Tarantini A, Price N, de Cabo R, Tarantini S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Protective response of Sestrin under stressful conditions in aging.
Abstract The aging at cellular level manifests itself in the form of uncontrolled formation of ROS, chronic inflammation, and increased susceptibility to cellular stress. Aging is often regarded as a risk factor for several diseases due to several age-associated pathological changes in cells. Sestrin (Sesn) is an important molecule for controlling normal cellular physiology and play a significant role in the progression of certain age-associated cellular pathologies. This review deals with the structure, function, regulation, signaling network, and the potential role of Sesn in age-associated cellular pathophysiol...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rai N, Dey S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Biological and environmental predictors of heterogeneity in neurocognitive ageing: Evidence from Betula and other longitudinal studies.
A, Adolfsson R Abstract Individual differences in cognitive performance increase with advancing age, reflecting marked cognitive changes in some individuals along with little or no change in others. Genetic and lifestyle factors are assumed to influence cognitive performance in aging by affecting the magnitude and extent of age-related brain changes (i.e., brain maintenance or atrophy), as well as the ability to recruit compensatory processes. The purpose of this review is to present findings from the Betula study and other longitudinal studies, with a focus on clarifying the role of key biological and environmen...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nyberg L, Boraxbekk CJ, Sörman DE, Hansson P, Herlitz A, Kauppi K, Ljungberg JK, Lövheim H, Lundquist A, Adolfsson AN, Oudin A, Pudas S, Rönnlund M, Stiernstedt M, Sundström A, Adolfsson R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Markers of Inflammation and their association with Muscle Strength and Mass: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation has been associated with sarcopenia and its components skeletal muscle strength and muscle mass. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between systemic inflammation, muscle strength and/or muscle mass in adults. METHODS: An electronic search using keywords such as 'acute phase proteins, cytokines and sarcopenia, muscle mass, muscle strength' was conducted via Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase from inception until the 30th of June 2020. A meta-analysis using correlation data was performed to determine the overall relation...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 25, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tuttle CSL, Thang LAN, Maier AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The geroscience agenda: What does stress have to do with it?
Abstract Geroscience offers a counterpoint to the challenged pursuit of curing diseases of aging by focusing on slowing the biological aging process for extended healthspan earlier in life. Remarkable progress has led this field toward animal trials and the next challenge lies with translation to humans. There is an emerging number of small human trials that can take advantage of new models integrating behavioral and social factors. Understanding dynamic aging mechanisms, given the powerful social determinants of aging (Crimmins, 2019) and human variability and environmental contexts (Moffitt, 2019), will be criti...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Epel ES Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Transposable elements in brain health and disease.
Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) occupy a large fraction of the human genome but only a small proportion of these elements are still active today. Recent works have suggested that TEs are expressed and active in the brain, challenging the dogma that neuronal genomes are static and revealing that they are susceptible to somatic genomic alterations. These new findings have major implications for understanding the neuroplasticity of the brain, which could hypothetically have a role in behavior and cognition, and contribute to vulnerability to disease. As active TEs could induce genetic diversity and mutagenesis, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ahmadi A, De Toma I, Vilor-Tejedor N, Eftekhariyan Ghamsari MR, Sadeghi I Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Promising biomarkers of human aging: in search of a multi-omics panel to understand the aging process from a multidimensional perspective.
z-Verjan JC Abstract The aging process has been linked to the occurrence of chronic diseases and functional impairments, including cancer, sarcopenia, frailty, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Nonetheless, aging is highly variable and heterogeneous and represents a challenge for its characterization. In this sense, intrinsic capacity (IC) stands as a novel perspective by the World Health Organization, which integrates the individual wellbeing, environment, and risk factors to understand aging. However, there is a lack of quantitative and qualitative attributes to define it objectively. Th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rivero-Segura NA, Bello-Chavolla OY, Barrera-Vázquez OS, Gutierrez-Robledo LM, Gómez-Verjan JC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Fight to the bitter end: DNA repair and aging.
Abstract DNA carries the genetic information that directs complex biological processes; thus, maintaining a stable genome is critical for individual growth and development and for human health. DNA repair is a fundamental and conserved mechanism responsible for mending damaged DNA and restoring genomic stability, while its deficiency is closely related to multiple human disorders. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the field of DNA repair and aging. Here, we will extensively discuss the relationship among DNA damage, DNA repair, aging and aging-associated diseases based on the latest research. I...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chen Y, Geng A, Zhang W, Qian Z, Wan X, Jiang Y, Mao Z Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A research agenda for ageing in China in the 21st century (2nd edition): Focusing on basic and translational research, long-term care, policy and social networks.
Abstract One of the key issues facing public healthcare is the global trend of an increasingly ageing society which continues to present policy makers and caregivers with formidable healthcare and socio-economic challenges. Ageing is the primary contributor to a broad spectrum of chronic disorders all associated with a lower quality of life in the elderly. In 2019, the Chinese population constituted 18 % of the world population, with 164.5 million Chinese citizens aged 65 and above (65+), and 26 million aged 80 or above (80+). China has become an ageing society, and as it continues to age it will continue to exace...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fang EF, Xie C, Schenkel JA, Wu C, Long Q, Cui H, Aman Y, Frank J, Liao J, Zou H, Wang NY, Wu J, Liu X, Li T, Fang Y, Niu Z, Yang G, Hong J, Wang Q, Chen G, Li J, Chen HZ, Kang L, Su H, Gilmour BC, Zhu X, Jiang H, He N, Tao J, Leng SX, Tong T, Woo J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Insights into disease mechanisms and potential therapeutics for C9orf72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia.
Abstract In 2011, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in the noncoding region of C9orf72 was associated with the most frequent genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The main pathogenic mechanisms in C9-ALS/FTD are haploinsufficiency of the C9orf72 protein and gain of function toxicity from bidirectionally-transcribed repeat-containing RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) resulting from non-canonical RNA translation. Additionally, abnormalities in different downstream cellular mechanisms, such as nucleocytoplasmic transport and autophagy, play a role in pat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gagliardi D, Costamagna G, Taiana M, Andreoli L, Biella F, Bersani M, Bresolin N, Comi GP, Corti S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Roles and mechanisms of MFG-E8 in vascular aging-related diseases.
Abstract The aging of the vasculature plays a crucial role in the pathological progression of various vascular aging-related diseases. As endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are essential parts in the inner and medial layers of vessel wall, respectively, the structural and functional alterations of ECs and VSMCs are the major causes of vascular aging. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a multifunctional glycoprotein which exerts a regulatory role in the intercellular interactions involved in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Emerging evidence sugge...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ni YQ, Zhan JK, Liu YS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cortisol hypersecretion and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Morning cortisol levels have been reported to be elevated among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet no meta-analysis has been conducted to confirm the existence and magnitude of this association. It also remains unclear whether hypercortisolism is a risk factor for AD. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for eligible studies. Cross-sectional data were pooled using random effects meta-analyses; the differences in morning cortisol levels between patients and cognitively normal controls were quantified. Longitudinal studies were qualitatively synthesise...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zheng B, Tal R, Yang Z, Middleton L, Udeh-Momoh C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation of aging and age-related disease.
Abstract Inquiry into relationships between energy metabolism and brain function requires a uniquely interdisciplinary mindset, and implementation of anti-aging lifestyle strategies based on this work also involves consistent mental and physical discipline. Dr. Mark P. Mattson embodies both of these qualities, based on the breadth and depth of his work on neurobiological responses to energetic stress, and on his own diligent practice of regular exercise and caloric restriction. Dr. Mattson created a neurotrophic niche in his own laboratory, allowing trainees to grow their skills, form new connections, and eventual...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hamrick MW, Stranahan AM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does APOE genotype moderate the relationship between physical activity, brain health and dementia risk? A systematic review.
DISCUSSION: Although we have identified some patterns for the modulating effect of APOE ε4 on PA and dementia or brain pathology, the available data is, overall, inconclusive. Heterogeneity in study design, methodology, and outcomes blur the ability to detect clear associations. PMID: 32961338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: de Frutos-Lucas J, Frost N, Erickson KI, Serrano JM, Maestu F, Laws SM, Brown BM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Single-cell analyses of aging, inflammation and senescence.
n G Abstract Single-cell gene expression (transcriptomics) data are becoming robust and abundant, and are increasingly used to track organisms along their life-course. This allows investigation into how aging affects cellular transcriptomes, and how changes in transcriptomes may underlie aging, including chronic inflammation (inflammaging), immunosenescence and cellular senescence. We compiled and tabulated aging-related single-cell datasets published to date, collected and discussed relevant findings, and inspected some of these datasets ourselves. We specifically note insights that cannot (or not easily) be base...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Uyar B, Palmer D, Kowald A, Escobar HM, Barrantes I, Möller S, Akalin A, Fuellen G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation of immune cells in proinflammatory microenvironments and diseases during ageing.
Abstract The process of ageing includes molecular changes within cells and interactions between cells, eventually resulting in age-related diseases. Although various cells (immune cells, parenchymal cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells) in tissues secrete proinflammatory signals in age-related diseases, immune cells are the major contributors to inflammation. Many studies have emphasized the role of metabolic dysregulation in parenchymal cells in age-related inflammatory diseases. However, few studies have discussed metabolic modifications in immune cells during ageing. In this review, we introduce the metabol...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 4, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li PH, Zhang R, Cheng LQ, Liu JJ, Chen HZ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Benefits and harms of exercise therapy in people with multimorbidity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise therapy appears to be safe and to have a beneficial effect on physical and psychosocial health in people with multimorbidity. Although the evidence supporting this was of low quality, it highlights the potential of exercise therapy in the management and care of this population. PMID: 32896665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bricca A, Harris LK, Saracutu M, Smith SM, Juhl CB, Skou ST Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mitochondria in Ovarian Aging and Reproductive Longevity.
Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of aging. Consistently mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and function decline with age in various tissues. There is increasing evidence to support that mitochondrial dysfunction drives ovarian aging. A decreased mtDNA copy number is also reported during ovarian aging. However, the mitochondrial mechanisms contributing to ovarian aging and infertility are not fully understood. Additionally, investigations into mitochondrial therapies to rejuvenate oocyte quality, select viable embryos and improve mitochondrial function may help enhance fertility or exte...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chiang JL, Shukla P, Pagidas K, Ahmed N, Karri S, Gunn D, Hurd W, Singh KK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Do not neglect the role of circadian rhythm in muscle atrophy.
Abstract In addition to its role in movement, human skeletal muscle also plays important roles in physiological activities related to metabolism and the endocrine system. Aging and disease onset and progression can induce the reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby exacerbating skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent studies have confirmed that skeletal muscle atrophy is mainly controlled by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation, the activation of satellite cells, and mitochondrial quality in skeletal muscle. Circadian rhythm is an internal rhythm related to an organism's adaptation to ligh...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 30, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang H, Liang J, Chen N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Shared perturbations in the metallome and metabolome of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and dementia with Lewy bodies: a systematic review.
Abstract Despite differences in presentation, age-related dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may share pathogenic processes. This review aims to systematically assemble and compare findings in various biochemical pathways across these four dementias. PubMed and Google Scholar were screened for articles reporting on brain and biofluid measurements of metals and/or metabolites in AD, PD, HD, or DLB. Articles were assessed using specific a priori-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of 284 papers identified, 198 met c...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Scholefield M, Unwin RD, Cooper GJS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mechanosensing dysregulation in the fibroblast: a hallmark of the aging heart.
Abstract The myofibroblast is a specialized fibroblast that expresses α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and participates in wound contraction and fibrosis. The fibroblast to myofibroblast transition depends on chemical and mechanical signals. A fibroblast senses the changes in the environment (extracellular matrix (ECM)) and transduces these changes to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus, resulting in activation or inhibition of α-SMA transcription in a process called mechanosensing. A stiff matrix greatly facilitates the transition from fibroblast to myofibroblast, and although the aging heart is much ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Angelini A, Trial J, Ortiz-Urbina J, Cieslik KA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Resilience in older persons: A systematic review of the conceptual literature.
Abstract Although ageing research increasingly incorporates resilience, a common notion on what resilience means is lacking. We aimed to give a comprehensive overview of the conceptual literature on resilience in older persons, identifying areas of consensus and variation/debate. A systematic search of eight databases from different disciplines led to the inclusion of 36 texts. Across the conceptual literature of resilience in older persons, three common features of descriptions of resilience were identified: a stressor, a response and a mechanism. Based on differences in their interpretation of how resilience is ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Angevaare MJ, Roberts J, van Hout HPJ, Joling KJ, Smalbrugge M, Schoonmade LJ, Windle G, Hertogh CMPM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The ageing kidney: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.
Abstract As human life expectancy keeps increasing, ageing populations present a growing challenge for clinical practices. Human ageing is associated with molecular, structural, and functional changes in a variety of organ systems, including the kidney. During the ageing process, the kidney experiences progressive functional decline as well as macroscopic and microscopic histological alterations, which are accentuated by systemic comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes mellitus, or by preexisting or underlying kidney diseases. Although ageing per se does not cause kidney injury, physiologic changes associated...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fang Y, Gong AY, Haller ST, Dworkin LD, Liu Z, Gong R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nutritional domains in frailty tools: Working towards an operational definition of nutritional frailty.
Abstract Different methods have been proposed for the assessment of the nutritional status in frailty phenotypes. In the present narrative review article, we have summarized the number and specifications of nutritional items in existing frailty tools, in order to develop a possible means of assessment and operational definition of the nutritional frailty phenotype. In six different databases until December 2019, we searched for original articles regarding frailty tools (i.e., scales, indexes, scores, questionnaires, instruments, evaluations, screening, indicators), analyzing each tool regarding nutritional items. ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zupo R, Castellana F, Bortone I, Griseta C, Sardone R, Lampignano L, Lozupone M, Solfrizzi V, Castellana M, Giannelli G, De Pergola G, Boeing H, Panza F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

COVID-19: risk accumulation among biologically and socially vulnerable older populations.
atiglioni L Abstract Emerging data show that the health and economic impacts of COVID-19 are being disproportionately borne by individuals who are not only biologically, but also socially vulnerable. Based on preliminary data from Sweden and other reports, in this paper we propose a conceptual framework whereby different factors related to biological and social vulnerability may explain the specific COVID-19 burden among older people. There is already some evidence showing large social disparities in the prevention, treatment, prognosis and/or long-term consequences of COVID-19. The remaining question is to what e...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Calderón-Larrañaga A, Dekhtyar S, Vetrano DL, Bellander T, Fratiglioni L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The association of dietary patterns with cognition through the lens of neuroimaging-a systematic review.
os NC Abstract Despite the reported benefits of diet on cognition in older adults, randomized controlled trials (RCT) testing the impact of dietary interventions on cognitive scores have yielded less promising results when cognition was assessed via neuropsychological tests. More recently, neuroimaging has been used to identify more subtle brain-related changes associated to cognition. Hence, employing a combination of neuroimaging techniques with neuropsychological tests could clarify this controversy. To determine the effect of diet on cognitive performance, we conducted a systematic review of PubMed and Scopus ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rodrigues B, Asamane EA, Magalhães R, Sousa N, Thompson JL, Santos NC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Harnessing the Effects of Endurance Exercise to Optimize Cognitive Health: Fundamental Insights from Dr. Mark P. Mattson.
Abstract Dr. Mark Mattson has had a highly productive and impactful tenure as a neuroscientist at the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging. He has made notable contributions to understanding the mechanisms by which energetic stress, imparted by behaviors such as physical activity and periods of fasting, promotes rejuvenation and resilience within brain regions critical for learning and memory. In honor of Dr. Mattson's work, this manuscript will highlight the fascinating mechanisms by which endurance exercise training conveys beneficial effects upon the structure and function of the nervo...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jachim SK, Sakamoto AE, Zhang X, Pearsall VM, Schafer MJ, LeBrasseur NK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Behavioral and Social Research to Accelerate the Geroscience Translation Agenda.
This article recommends some ways in which geroscience can be augmented through collaboration with behavioral and social science to: accomplish translation from animal models to humans; inform the design of clinical trials of anti-aging therapies; develop outcome measures for evaluating efficacy of anti-aging therapies, and reduce and not exacerbate health disparities. PMID: 32814128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moffitt TE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research