Does the neuropsychiatric inventory predict progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that NPI/NPI-Q ratings are associated with conversion from MCI to dementia. PMID: 31881368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mallo SC, Patten SB, Ismail Z, Pereiro AX, Facal D, Otero C, Juncos-Rabadán O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Medium Chain Triglycerides induce mild ketosis and may improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies.
CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we demonstrated that MCTs can induce mild ketosis and may improve cognition in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, risk of bias of existing studies necessitates future trials. PMID: 31870908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Avgerinos KI, Egan JM, Mattson MP, Kapogiannis D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The effect of ageing on the resolution of inflammation.
PMID: 31862417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 17, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sendama W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Activation of immunosuppressive network in the aging process.
Abstract Chronic low-grade inflammation has a key role in the aging process, a state called inflammaging. It is known that the chronic inflammatory condition generates counteracting immunosuppressive state in many diseases. Inflammaging is also associated with an immune deficiency; generally termed as immunosenescence, although it is not known whether it represents the senescence of immune cells or the active remodeling of immune system. Evidence has accumulated since the 1970's indicating that immunosenescence might be caused by an increased activity of immunosuppressive cells rather than cellular senescence. Imm...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Comparative Effectiveness of Three Exercise Types to Treat Clinical Depression in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings should be used to advise allied health professionals and stakeholders in clinical geriatrics that clinically depressed older adults can self-select their preferred exercise type in order to achieve therapeutic benefit on symptoms of depression. In coalition with high levels of compliance, these data provide encouraging evidence for the antidepressant effect of either aerobic, resistance, or mind-body exercise as an adjunct to prescribed therapy for clinical depression in older populations. PMID: 31837462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miller KJ, Gonçalves-Bradley DC, Areerob P, Hennessy D, Mesagno C, Grace F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The influence of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Inconsistencies exist with regard to influence of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels. The inconsistencies could be attributed to several factors, such as dosage and duration of intervention, among others. To address these inconsistencies, this study was conducted to determine the impact of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase for RCTs that investigated the impact of vitamin D intake...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Varkaneh HK, Rinaldi G, Hekmatdoost A, Fatahi S, Tan SC, Shadnoush M, Khni V, Mousavi SM, Zarezadeh M, Salamat S, Bawadi H, Rahmani J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does perturbation in the mitochondrial protein folding pave the way for neurodegeneration diseases?
Abstract Mitochondria, which are cell compartments that are widely present in eukaryotic cells, have been shown to be involved in a variety of synthetic, metabolic, and signaling processes, thereby playing a vital role in cells. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) is a response in which mitochondria reverse the signal to the nucleus and maintain mitochondrial protein homeostasis when unfolded and misfolded proteins continue to accumulate. Multiple neurodegeneration diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), are public h...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ji T, Zhang X, Xin Z, Xu B, Jin Z, Wu J, Hu W, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of transposable elements activity in aging and their possible involvement in laminopathic diseases.
Abstract Eukaryotic genomes contain a large number of transposable elements, part of which are still active and able to transpose in the host genome. Mobile element activation is repressed to avoid deleterious effects, such as gene mutation or chromosome rearrangements. Control of transposable elements includes a variety of mechanisms comprising silencing pathways, which are based on the production of small non-coding RNAs. Silencing can occur either through transposable element RNA degradation or through the targeting of DNA sequences by heterochromatin formation and consequent transcriptional inhibition. Since t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Andrenacci D, Cavaliere V, Lattanzi G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dopamine D3 receptor: a neglected participant in Parkinson Disease pathogenesis and treatment?
Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms which relentlessly and progressively lead to substantial disability and economic burden. Pathologically, these symptoms follow the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) associated with abnormal α-synuclein (α-Syn) deposition as cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in pigmented brainstem nuclei, and in dystrophic neurons in striatal and cortical regions (Lewy neurites). Pharmacotherapy for PD focuses on improving quality of life and primarily targets dopa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang P, Perlmutter JS, Benzinger TLS, Morris JC, Xu J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The yin and yang faces of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 in age-related disorders.
Abstract Aging, the most important risk factor for many of the chronic diseases affecting Western society, is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and dynamics. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that has emerged as a key regulator of fundamental processes which are frequently dysregulated in aging and related disorders. This review highlights recent advances and controversies regarding the roles of SIRT3 in metabolic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the use of SIRT3 modulators as a therapeutic strategy against those disorders. Although most studies point to a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gomes P, Viana SD, Nunes S, Rolo AP, Palmeira CM, Reis F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Premature cell senescence in human skin: dual face in chronic acquired pigmentary disorders.
Abstract Although senescence was originally described as an in vitro acquired cellular characteristic, it was recently recognized that senescence is physiologically and pathologically involved in aging and age-related diseases in vivo. The definition of cellular senescence has expanded to include the growth arrest caused by various cellular stresses, including DNA damage, inadequate mitochondria function, activated oncogene or tumor suppressor genes and oxidative stress. While senescence in normal aging involves various tissues over time and contributes to a decline in tissue function even with healthy aging, dise...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bellei B, Picardo M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing, Age-related Diseases and Oxidative Stress: What to Do Next?
Abstract Among other mechanisms, oxidative stress has been postulated to play an important role in the rate of ageing. Oxidative damage contributes to the hallmarks of ageing and essential components in pathological pathways which are thought to drive multiple age-related diseases. Nonetheless, results from studies testing the hypothesis of oxidative stress in ageing and diseases showed controversial results. While observational studies mainly found detrimental effects of high oxidative stress levels on disease status, randomized clinical trials examining the effect of antioxidant supplementation on disease status...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Luo J, Mills K, le Cessie S, Noordam R, van Heemst D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammaging as a common ground for the development and maintenance of sarcopenia, obesity, cardiomyopathy and dysbiosis.
Abstract Sarcopenia, obesity and their coexistence, obese sarcopenia (OBSP) as well as atherosclerosis-related cardio-vascular diseases (ACVDs), including chronic heart failure (CHF), are among the greatest public health concerns in the ageing population. A clear age-dependent increased prevalence of sarcopenia and OBSP has been registered in CHF patients, suggesting mechanistic relationships. Development of OBSP could be mediated by a crosstalk between the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) and the skeletal muscle under conditions of low-grade local and systemic inflammation, inflammaging. The present ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Livshits G, Kalinkovich A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Emerging Role of Stem cell-derived Extravesicular MicroRNAs in Age-associated Human Diseases and in Different Therapies of Longevity.
Abstract Organismal aging involves the progressive decline in organ function and increased susceptibility to age-associated diseases. This has been associated with the aging of stem cell populations within the body that decreases the capacity of stem cells to self-renew, differentiate, and regenerate damaged tissues and organs. This review aims to explore how aging is associated with the dysregulation of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (SCEVs) and their corresponding miRNA cargo (SCEV-miRNAs), which are short non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of target genes. Recent evidence has ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ullah M, Ng NN, Concepcion W, Thakor AS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy options for patients with dementia based on cognitive function--A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract Dementia represents one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. However, it is still unclear whether non-pharmacological therapies (NPTs) are effective or not and which treatment should be preferred. We applied a series of search strategies to identify eligible randomized controlled trials on 1st October, 2018, investigating the effects of NPTs of dementia in the older persons. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were sequentially performed. A total of 31 trials were included, which enrolled 1895 participants and 7 NPTs. Compared with control group, all the NPTs included were statis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liang JH, Lin L, Wang YQ, Jia RX, Qu XY, Li J, Li JY, Qian S, Qian YX, Wang S, Gao Z, Cheng XX, Xu Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Anti-Ageing Gene Therapy: Not so Far Away?
Abstract Improving healthspan is the main objective of anti-ageing research. Currently, innovative gene therapy-based approaches seem to be among the most promising for preventing and treating chronic polygenic pathologies, including age-related ones. The gene-based therapy allows to modulate the genome architecture using both direct (e.g., by gene editing) and indirect (e.g., by viral or non-viral vectors) approaches. Nevertheless, considering the extraordinary complexity of processes involved in ageing and ageing-related diseases, the effectiveness of these therapeutic options is often unsatisfactory and limited...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 26, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman A, De Falco E, Koliada A, Maslova O, Balistreri CR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Intervertebral disc ageing and degeneration: the antiapoptotic effect of oestrogen.
Abstract As an important part of the spinal column, the intervertebral disc (IVD) plays an important role in the intervertebral juncture and spinal movement in general. IVD degeneration (IVDD), which mimics disc ageing but at an accelerated rate, is a common and chronic process that results in severe spinal symptoms, such as lower back pain. It is generally assumed that lower back pain caused by IVDD can also develop secondary conditions, including spinal canal stenosis, spinal segmental instability, osteophyte formation, disc herniation and spinal cord and nerve root compression. Over the past few years, many res...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang S, Zhang F, Ma J, Ding W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Is Alzheimer's disease an inflammasomopathy?
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly and, despite the tremendous efforts researchers have put into AD research, there are no effective options for prevention and treatment of the disease. The best way to reach this goal is to clarify the mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of AD. In the last few years the views about the drivers of AD have been changing and nowadays it is believed that neuroinflammation takes center stage in disease pathogenesis. Herein, we provide an overview about the role of neuroinflammation in AD describing the role of microglia and...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pereira CF, Santos AE, Moreira PI, Pereira AC, Sousa FJ, Cardoso SM, Cruz MT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Viewpoint on the role of tissue maintenance in ageing: focus on biomarkers of bone, cartilage, muscle, and brain tissue maintenance.
Abstract Specific hallmarks are thought to underlie the ageing process and age-related functional decline. In this viewpoint, we put forward the hypothesis that disturbances in the process of tissue maintenance are an important common denominator that may lie in between specific hallmarks of ageing (i.e. damage and responses to damage) and their ultimate (patho)physiological consequences (i.e. functional decline and age-related disease). As a first step towards verifying or falsifying this hypothesis, it will be important to measure biomarkers of tissue maintenance in future studies in different study populations....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van der Spoel E, van Vliet NA, van Heemst D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Age-Related Hearing Loss and Tinnitus, Dementia Risk, and Auditory Amplification Outcomes.
Abstract Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), as the third leading cause of chronic disability in older adults, has been shown to be associated with predisposing cognitive impairment and dementia. Tinnitus is also a chronic auditory disorder demonstrating a growth rate with increasing age. Recent evidence stands for the link between bothersome tinnitus and impairments in various aspects of cognitive function. Both ARHL and age-related tinnitus affect mental health and contribute to developing anxiety, stress, and depression. The present review is a comprehensive multidisciplinary study on diverse interactions among AR...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 23, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jafari Z, Kolb BE, Mohajerani MH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Frailty as a predictor of adverse outcomes in hospitalized older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Frailty syndrome is prevalent among hospitalized older adults as are the occurrence of adverse outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated whether frailty in older adults at hospital admission predicts adverse outcomes. Manual (ProQuest, conferences annals and references) and electronic searches (PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Lilacs, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Google Scholar) were performed. We included prospective studies of hospitalized older adults. Primary outcomes were functional decline at hospital discharge and mortality after discharge. Other data were considered secondary outcomes...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cunha A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Association of blood lipids, atherosclerosis and statin use with dementia and cognitive impairment after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Atherosclerosis may be associated with an increased risk of post-stroke dementia. Post-stroke statin use was associated with decreased risk of cognitive impairment. To confirm whether or not statins confer advantages in the post-stroke population in terms of preventing cognitive decline over and above their known effectiveness in reducing risk of further vascular events, further stroke trials including cognitive assessment and observational analyses adjusted for key confounders, focusing on key subgroups or statin use patterns are required. PMID: 31505259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 7, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang Z, Wang H, Edwards D, Ding C, Yan L, Brayne C, Mant J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

SIRT2: Controversy and multiple roles in disease and physiology.
Abstract Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that was under studied compared to other sirtuin family members. SIRT2 is the only sirtuin protein which is predominantly found in the cytoplasm but is also found in the mitochondria and in the nucleus. Recently, accumulating evidence has uncovered a growing number of substrates and additional detailed functions of SIRT2 in a wide range of biological processes, marking its crucial role. Here, we give a comprehensive profile of the crucial physiological functions of SIRT2 and its role in neurological diseases, cancers, and other diseases. This review summa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 7, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang Y, Yang J, Hong T, Chen X, Cui L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Caveolin-1 in Skin Aging From Innocent Bystander to Major Contributor.
Abstract Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) appears to be both a pathophysiological contributor and a target in different inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin conditions as well as in skin aging. Skin fibroblasts demonstrate an up-regulation of Cav-1 expression both in chronological and UV-induced aging, and such an up-regulation was observed both in vitro and in vivo. Typical alterations in aging skin involve a reduction of the dermis thickness, a significant expansion of the dermal white adipose tissue as well as modifications of the content and distribution of hyaluronan, impairment of autophagic flux, a reduction of colla...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kruglikov IL, Zhang Z, Scherer PE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The plant hormone kinetin in disease therapy and healthy aging.
M, Voller J Abstract It has been more than 60 years since the discovery of kinetin, the first known member of a group of plant hormones called cytokinins. In this review we summarize the health-promoting activity of kinetin in animal systems, ranging from cells cultured in vitro through invertebrates to mammals. Kinetin has been shown to modulate aging, to delay age-related physiological decline and to protect against some neurodegenerative diseases. We also review studies on its mechanism of action, as well as point out gaps in our current knowledge. PMID: 31479763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kadlecová A, Maková B, Artal-Sanz M, Strnad M, Voller J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Olfactory dysfunction in the pathophysiological continuum of dementia.
Abstract Sensory capacities like smell, taste, hearing, vision decline with aging, but increasing evidence show that sensory dysfunctions are one of the early signs diagnosing the conversion from physiological to pathological brain state. Smell loss represents the best characterized sense in clinical practice and is considered as one of the first preclinical signs of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, occurring a decade or more before the onset of cognitive and motor symptoms. Despite the numerous scientific reports and the adoption in clinical practice, the etiology of sensory damage as prodromal of dementia re...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bathini P, Brai E, Auber LA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Developmental Origins of Type 2 Diabetes: Focus on Epigenetics.
Abstract Traditionally, genetics and lifestyle are considered as main determinants of aging-associated pathological conditions. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that risk of many age-related diseases is not only determined by genetic and adult lifestyle factors but also by factors acting during early development. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), an age-related disease generally manifested after the age of 40, is among such disorders. Since several age-related conditions, such as pro-inflammatory states, are characteristic of both T2D and aging, this disease is conceptualized by many authors as a kind of premature or...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaiserman A, Lushchak O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Do Anti-Amyloid- β Drugs affect Neuropsychiatric Status in Alzheimer's Disease Patients?
Do Anti-Amyloid-β Drugs affect Neuropsychiatric Status in Alzheimer's Disease Patients? Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Aug 24;:100948 Authors: Panza F, Lozupone M, Bellomo A, Imbimbo BP Abstract In the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide starts 15-20 years before clinical symptoms become apparent and is believed to be the initial event of the pathological process. Unfortunately, candidate drugs targeting production, clearance and deposition of Aβ have failed to show clinical benefit in patients with established or prodromal disease, or in cognitively no...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Panza F, Lozupone M, Bellomo A, Imbimbo BP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Revamping the Evolutionary Theories of Aging.
Abstract Radical lifespan disparities exist in the animal kingdom. While the ocean quahog can survive for half a millennium, the mayfly survives for less than 48 hours. The evolutionary theories of aging seek to explain why such stark longevity differences exist and why a deleterious process like aging evolved. The classical mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, and disposable soma theories predict that increased extrinsic mortality should select for the evolution of shorter lifespans and vice versa. Most experimental and comparative field studies conform to this prediction. Indeed, animals with e...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 23, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Johnson AA, Shokhirev MN, Shoshitaishvili B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and osteoarthritis management: an expert consensus of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO).
R Abstract The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases not only because of longer life expectancy but also because of the modern lifestyle, in particular physical inactivity and diets low in fiber and rich in sugar and saturated fats, which promote chronic low-grade inflammation and obesity. Adverse alterations of the gut microbiota (GMB) composition, called microbial dysbiosis, may favor metabolic syndrome and inflammaging, two important components of OA onset and evolution. Considering the burden of OA and the need to define preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting the modifiable components of OA, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Biver E, Berenbaum F, Valdes AM, de Carvalho IA, Bindels LB, Brandi ML, Calder PC, Castronovo V, Cavalier E, Cherubini A, Cooper C, Dennison E, Franceschi C, Fuggle N, Laslop A, Miossec P, Thomas T, Tuzun S, Veronese N, Vlaskovska M, Reginster JY, Rizzoli Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ghrelin in Alzheimer's disease: pathologic roles and therapeutic implications.
Abstract Ghrelin, which has many important physiological roles, such as stimulating food intake, regulating energy homeostasis, and releasing insulin, has recently been studied for its roles in a diverse range of neurological disorders. Despite the several functions of ghrelin in the central nervous system, whether it works as a therapeutic agent for neurological dysfunction has been unclear. Altered levels and various roles of ghrelin have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the accumulation of misfolded proteins resulting in synaptic loss and cognitive decline. Interestingly, tre...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 18, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jeon SG, Hong SB, Nam Y, Tae J, Yoo A, Ji Song E, Kim KI, Lee D, Park J, Lee SM, Kim JI, Moon M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Development of new treatments for Alzheimer's disease based on the modulation of translocator protein (TSPO).
Abstract The increase in life expectancy of the world population is associated with a higher prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting currently 43 million people over the world. To date, most of the pharmacological interventions in AD are intended for the alleviation of some of its symptoms, and there are no effective treatments to inhibit the progression of the disease. Translocator protein (TSPO) is present in contact points between the outer and the inner mitochondrial membranes and is involved in the control of steroidogenesis, i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Arbo BD, Ribeiro MF, Garcia-Segura LM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Amyloid cross-seeding raises new dimensions to understanding of amyloidogenesis mechanism.
Abstract Hallmarks of most of the amyloid pathologies are surprisingly found to be heterocomponent entities such as inclusions and plaques which contain diverse essential proteins and metabolites. Experimental evidences have already revealed the occurrence of coaggregation and cross-seeding during amyloid formation of several proteins and peptides, yielding multicomponent assemblies of amyloid nature. Further, research reports on the co-occurrence of more than one type of amyloid-linked pathologies in the same individual suggest the possible cross-talk among the disease related amyloidogenic protein species during...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chaudhuri P, Prajapati KP, Anand BG, Dubey K, Kar K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus and risks of cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 144 prospective studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, even prediabetes and changes of diabetes-related biochemical indicators, predicted increased incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia. The protective effects of pioglitazone warrant further investigation in randomized trials. PMID: 31430566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 17, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xue M, Xu W, Ou YN, Cao XP, Tan MS, Tan L, Yu JT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Shaping the Nrf2-ARE-related pathways in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
go AC Abstract A failure in redox homeostasis is a common hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease (PD), two age-dependent neurodegenerative disorders (NDD), causing increased oxidative stress, oxidized/damaged biomolecules, altered neuronal function and consequent cell death. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox-regulated transcription factor, results in upregulation of cytoprotective and antioxidant enzymes/proteins, protecting against oxidative stress. Nrf2 regulation is achieved by various proteins and pathways, at both cytoplasmatic and nuclear level; h...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fão L, Mota SI, Rego AC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mitochondria in the signaling pathways that control longevity and health span.
Abstract Genetic and pharmacological intervention studies have identified evolutionarily conserved and functionally interconnected networks of cellular energy homeostasis, nutrient-sensing, and genome damage response signaling pathways, as prominent regulators of longevity and health span in various species. Mitochondria are the primary sites of ATP production and key players in several other important cellular processes. Mitochondrial dysfunction diminishes tissue and organ functional performance and is a commonly considered feature of the aging process. Here we review the evidence that through reciprocal and mul...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Akbari M, Kirkwood TBL, Bohr VA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Targeting normal and cancer senescent cells as a strategy of senotherapy.
Abstract Senotherapy is an antiaging strategy. It refers to selective killing of senescent cells by senolytic agents, strengthening the activity of immune cells that eliminate senescent cells or alleviating the secretory phenotype (SASP) of senescent cells. As senescent cells accumulate with age and are considered to be at the root of age-related disorders, senotherapy seems to be very promising in improving healthspan. Genetic approaches, which allowed to selectively induce death of senescent cells in transgenic mice, provided proof-of-concept evidence that elimination of senescent cells can be a therapeutic appr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sikora E, Bielak-Zmijewska A, Mosieniak G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Intestinal epithelial barrier functions in ageing.
Abstract The intestinal epithelial barrier protects the mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract and plays a key role in maintaining the host homeostasis. It encompasses several elements that include the intestinal epithelium and biochemical and immunological products, such as the mucus layer, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and secretory immunologlobulin A (sIgA). These components are interlinked with the large microbial community inhabiting the gut to form a highly sophisticated biological system that plays an important role on many aspects of human health both locally and systemically. Like any other organ and t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Branca JJV, Gulisano M, Nicoletti C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Diabetes drugs in the fight against alzheimer's disease.
DIABETES DRUGS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Jul 19;:100936 Authors: Boccardi V, Murasecco I, Mecocci P Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia, particularly in old age subjects. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which are known as pathophysiological features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), have also been demonstrated to have a significant impact on cognitive impairment. Studies have shown that an altered insulin pathway may interact with amyloid-β protein deposition and tau protein phosphorylation, both leading factors ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Boccardi V, Murasecco I, Mecocci P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Altered immune system in frailty: genetics and diet may influence inflammation.
ALTERED IMMUNE SYSTEM IN FRAILTY: GENETICS AND DIET MAY INFLUENCE INFLAMMATION. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Jul 18;:100935 Authors: Pansarasa O, Pistono C, Davin A, Bordoni M, Mimmi MC, Guaita A, Cereda C Abstract Frailty is a complex geriatric syndrome associated with biological vulnerability to stressors and decreased physiological reserve. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not completely understood, although various causes and complex pathways have been proposed. Immune system alterations (immunosenescence and "InflammAging") have been suggested to contribute to frailty, but a precise causative ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 18, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pansarasa O, Pistono C, Davin A, Bordoni M, Mimmi MC, Guaita A, Cereda C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Call for articles on neglected topics.
PMID: 31319175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Franceschi C, Brosh RM, Fratiglioni L, Salvioli S, Santoro A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Adipose-derived cellular and cell-derived regenerative therapies in dermatology and aesthetic rejuvenation.
Abstract Cellular and cell-derived components of adipose-derived tissue for the purposes of dermatologic and aesthetic rejuvenation applications have become increasingly studied and integrated into clinical practice. These components include micro-fragmented fat (nanofat), the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), and extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have all shown capability to repair, regenerate, and rejuvenate surrounding tissue. Various aesthetic applications including hair growth, scar reduction, skin ischemia-reperfusion recovery, and facial rejuvenation are review...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 24, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Suh A, Pham A, Cress MJ, Pincelli T, TerKonda SP, Bruce AJ, Zubair AC, Wolfram J, Shapiro SA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

"All is not lost" - Rethinking the nature of memory and the self in dementia.
"All is not lost" - Rethinking the nature of memory and the self in dementia. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Jun 22;:100932 Authors: Strikwerda-Brown C, Grilli MD, Andrews-Hanna J, Irish M Abstract Memory and the self have long been considered intertwined, leading to the assumption that without memory, there can be no self. This line of reasoning has led to the misconception that a loss of memory in dementia necessarily results in a diminished sense of self. Here, we challenge this assumption by considering discrete facets of self-referential memory, and their relative profiles of loss and sparing, ac...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Strikwerda-Brown C, Grilli MD, Andrews-Hanna J, Irish M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A systematic review of existing ageism scales.
ntilde;ez V Abstract Ageism has been shown to have a negative impact on older people's health and wellbeing. Though multiple scales are currently being used to measure this increasingly important issue, syntheses of the psychometric properties of these scales are unavailable. This means that existing estimates of ageism prevalence may not be accurate. We conducted a systematic review aimed at identifying available ageism scales and evaluating their scope and psychometric properties. A comprehensive search strategy was used across fourteen different databases, including PubMed and CINAHL. Independent reviewers extr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ayalon L, Dolberg P, Mikulionienė S, Perek-Białas J, Rapolienė G, Stypinska J, Willińska M, de la Fuente-Núñez V Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Developmental Programming of Adult Haematopoiesis System.
Abstract The Barker hypothesis of 'foetal origin of adult diseases' has led to emphasize the concept of 'developmental programming', based on the crucial role of epigenetic factors. Accordingly, it has been demonstrated that parental adversity (before conception and during pregnancy) and foetal factors (i.e., hypoxia, malnutrition and placental insufficiency) permanently modify the physiological systems of the progeny, predisposing them to premature ageing and chronic disease during adulthood. Thus, an altered functionality of the endocrine, immune, nervous and cardiovascular systems is observed in the progeny. Ho...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 18, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Balistreri CR, Garagnani P, Madonna R, Vaiserman A, Melino G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammation and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Systematic Review.
Abstract Inflammation is increasingly implicated as a risk factor for dementia, stroke, and small vessel disease (SVD). However, the underlying mechanisms and causative pathways remain unclear. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the associations between markers of inflammation and SVD (i.e., white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS), cerebral microbleeds (CMB)) in cohorts of older people with good health, cerebrovascular disease, or cognitive impairment. Based on distinctions made in the literature, markers of inflammation were classified as systemic infla...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 7, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Low A, Mak E, Rowe JB, Markus HS, O'Brien JT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Synthesis and metabolism of methylglyoxal, S-D-lactoylglutathione and D-lactate in cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Exploring the crossroad of eternal youth and premature aging.
Abstract Both cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are emerging as metabolic diseases in which aberrant/dysregulated glucose metabolism and bioenergetics occur, and play a key role in disease progression. Interestingly, an advantageous enhancement of glucose uptake, glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway occurs in both cancer cells and amyloid-β-resistant neurons in the early phase of AD. However, this metabolic shift has its adverse effects. One of them is the increase in methylglyoxal production, a physiological cytotoxic by-product of glucose catabolism. Methylglyoxal is mainly detoxified via cytosolic gl...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: de Bari L, Atlante A, Armeni T, Kalapos MP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomere length and frailty in older adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ho PR Abstract Telomere shortening has been proposed as a potentially useful biomarker of human ageing and age-related morbidity and mortality. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize results from individual studies on the telomere length according to the frailty status and frailty index in older adults. We searched the PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases to identify studies that evaluated the telomere length in frail and non-frail older adults and the relationship between telomere length and frailty index score. We used the base pairs (bp) as a measure of the telomere length. Summa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Araújo Carvalho AC, Tavares Mendes ML, da Silva Reis MC, Santos VS, Tanajura DM, Saquete Martins-Filho PR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cognitive and Neural Plasticity in Old Age: A Systematic Review of Evidence from Executive Functions Cognitive Training.
Abstract Cognitive training is a popular intervention aimed at attenuating age-related cognitive decline, however, the effects of this intervention on brain structure and function have not been thoroughly explored. Core executive functions (working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility) are dependent upon prefrontal brain regions-one of the most vulnerable areas of age-related decline. They are also implicated in numerous cognitive processes and higher-order functions. Training executive functions should therefore promote cognitive and neural enhancements in old age. This systematic review examined the effects...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 30, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nguyen L, Murphy K, Andrews G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of light on aging and longevity.
Abstract Increasing evidence suggests an important role for light in regulation of aging and longevity. UV radiation is a mutagen that can promote aging and decrease longevity. In contrast, NIR light has shown protective effects in animal disease models. In invertebrates, visible light can shorten or extend lifespan, depending on the intensity and wavelength composition. Visible light also impacts human health, including retina function, sleep, cancer and psychiatric disorders. Possible mechanisms of visible light include: controlling circadian rhythms, inducing oxidative stress, and acting through the retina to a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 30, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shen J, Tower J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research