Frailty and Cognitive Impairment-A Review of the Evidence and Causal Mechanisms.
Abstract Incidence rates of cognitive impairment and dementia are rising with the ageing population. Meanwhile, the limited success of current treatments has led to a search for early markers of dementia which could predict future progression or improve quality of life for those already suffering from the disease. One focus has been on the correlation between physical and cognitive measures with an increasing interest in the association between frailty and cognitive decline. Frailty is an age-related syndrome described as the decreased ability of an organism to respond to stressors. A number of epidemiological stu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 4, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Robertson DA, Savva GM, Kenny RA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Role of Polyphenols in the Modulation of Sirtuins and other Pathways involved in Alzheimer's Disease.
v P Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by extracellular amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic loss, inflammation and extensive oxidative stress. Polyphenols, which include resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin, have gained considerable interest for their ability to reduce these hallmarks of disease and their potential to slow down cognitive decline. Although their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties are well established, more recently polyphenols have been shown to produce other important effects including anti-amyloidogenic activity, cell signalling modula...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 4, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jayasena T, Poljak A, Smythe G, Braidy N, Münch G, Sachdev P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of mealtime interventions on nutritional outcomes for the elderly living in residential care: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract The need to improve the nutrition of the elderly living in long term care has long been recognised, but how this can best be achieved, and whether (and which) intervention is successful in reducing morbidity is less well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of mealtime interventions for the elderly living in residential care. Mealtime interventions were considered as those that aimed to change/improve the mealtime routine, practice, experience or environment. Following comprehensive searches, review and appraisal, thirty seven articles were included. Inadequate ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 27, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Abbott RA, Whear R, Thompson-Coon J, Ukoumunne OC, Rogers M, Bethel A, Hemsley A, Stein K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The growth factors cascade and the dendrito-/synapto-genesis versus cell survival in adult hippocampal neurogenesis: the chicken or the egg.
jo JL Abstract The decision between cellular survival and death is governed by a balance between proapoptotic versus antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Growth factors are key actors, playing two main roles both at developmental and adult stages: a supporting antiapoptotic role through diverse actions converging in the mitochondria, and a promoter role of cell maturation and plasticity through dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis, especially relevant for the adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a case of development during adulthood. Here, both parallel roles mutually feed forward each other (the success in avoiding apopto...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 15, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pérez-Domper P, Gradari S, Trejo JL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Should visceral fat be reduced to increase longevity?
Abstract Several epidemiologic studies have implicated visceral fat as a major risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and death. Utilizing novel models of visceral obesity, numerous studies have demonstrated that the relationship between visceral fat and longevity is causal while the accrual of subcutaneous fat does not appear to play an important role in the etiology of disease risk. Specific recommended intake levels vary based on a number of factors, including current weight, activity levels, and weight loss goals. It is discussed the nee...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 10, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Finelli C, Sommella L, Gioia S, La Sala N, Tarantino G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Calcium dysregulation and neuroinflammation: Discrete and integrated mechanisms for age-related synaptic dysfunction.
Abstract Some of the best biomarkers of age-related cognitive decline are closely linked to synaptic function and plasticity. This review highlights several age-related synaptic alterations as they relate to Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis, through elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and neuroinflammation, through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Though distinct in many ways, Ca(2+) and neuroinflammatory signaling mechanisms exhibit extensive cross-talk and bidirectional interactions. For instance, cytokine production in glial ce...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 7, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sama DM, Norris CM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Phagocyte dysfunction, tissue aging and degeneration.
Abstract Immunologically-silent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is critical to maintaining tissue homeostasis and innate immune balance. Aged phagocytes reduce their functional activity, leading to accumulation of unphagocytosed debris, chronic sterile inflammation and exacerbation of tissue aging and damage. Macrophage dysfunction plays an important role in immunosenescence. Microglial dysfunction has been linked to age-dependent neurodegenerations. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Despite several reports on the ch...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 4, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue of Ageing Research Reviews on Synaptic Global Positioning Systems.
PMID: 23732404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 31, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Stranahan AM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The association between vitamin D and cognition: a systematic review.
In conclusion, this review supports the hypothesis that hypovitaminosis D is associated with worse outcome on one or more cognitive function tests or a higher frequency of dementia in cross-sectional as well as prospective studies. Further studies should focus on the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of cognitive decline in participants with low vitamin D levels. PMID: 23727408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 29, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van der Schaft J, Koek HL, Dijkstra E, Verhaar HJ, van der Schouw YT, Emmelot-Vonk MH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Interventions targeting pain or behaviour in dementia: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Available evidence suggests that (pain) interventions targeting behaviour, and (behavioural) interventions targeting pain are effective in reducing pain and behavioural symptoms in dementia. PMID: 23727161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 28, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pieper MJ, van Dalen-Kok AH, Francke AL, van der Steen JT, Scherder EJ, Husebø BS, Achterberg WP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MicroRNAs linking inflamm-aging; cellular senescence and cancer.
Abstract Epidemiological and experimental data demonstrate a strong correlation between age-related chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) and cancer development. However, a comprehensive approach is needed to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Chronic inflammation has mainly been attributed to continuous immune cell activation, but the cellular senescence process, which may involve acquisition of a secretory phenotype (SASP), can be another important contributor, especially in the elderly. MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of molecules involved in gene expression regulation, are emerging as modulators of some pat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 17, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Olivieri F, Rippo MR, Monsurro V, Salvioli S, Capri M, Procopio AD, Franceschi C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Epigenetic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease: Implications for pathogenesis and therapy.
Abstract The vast majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are late-onset forms (LOAD) likely due to the interplay of environmental influences and individual genetic susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs, constitute dynamic intracellular processes for translating environmental stimuli into modifications in gene expression. Over the past decade it has become increasingly clear that epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in aging the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a review of the major mechanisms for epigenetic modification and how they are r...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 17, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang J, Yu JT, Tan MS, Jiang T, Tan L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Wnt signaling: Role in LTP, neural networks and memory.
Abstract Wnt components are key regulators of a variety of developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. The Wnt signaling pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulates the function of the adult nervous system. In fact, most of the key components including Wnts and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the adult brain. Wnt ligands have been implicated in the regulation of synaptic assembly as well as in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Deregulation of Wnt signaling has been asso...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 7, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Oliva CA, Vargas JY, Inestrosa NC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults.
Abstract Forming the first line of defence against virally infected and malignant cells, natural killer (NK) cells are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. With age, significant impairments have been reported in the two main mechanisms by which NK cells confer host protection: direct cytotoxicity and the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines. In elderly subjects, decreased NK cell activity has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence and severity of viral infection, highlighting the clinical implications that age-associated changes in NK cell biology have on the heal...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 6, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hazeldine J, Lord JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Bioengineered stem cells in neural development and neurodegeneration research.
Abstract The recent discovery of a simple method for making induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from human somatic cells was a major scientific advancement that opened the way for many promising new developments in the study of developmental and degenerative diseases. iPSC have already been used to model many different types of neurological diseases, including autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Because of their pluripotent property, iPSC offer the possibility of modeling human development in vitro. Their differentiation seems to follow the developmental timeline and obeys environ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 4, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yuan SH, Shaner M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The ACE DD genotype and D-allele are associated with exceptional longevity: A meta-analysis.
The objective of this study was to detect the possible unequal distribution of the alleles and genotypes of this polymorphism among centenarians and younger segments of the population. Relevant data were extracted from studies in the literature, comparing genotype and allele frequencies between centenarians and younger controls. The association of ACE I/D polymorphism with exceptional longevity was analyzed in a total of 1803 centenarians and 10,484 controls using the chi-square test with the Yates correction. We conducted combined analyses for all ethnic groups studied in the literature (Caucasian, Chinese and Korean) as ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 23, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Garatachea N, Marín PJ, Lucia A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Notch signaling in the brain: In good and bad times.
Abstract Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which is fundamental for neuronal development and specification. In the last decade, increasing evidence has pointed out an important role of this pathway beyond embryonic development, indicating that Notch also displays a critical function in the mature brain of vertebrates and invertebrates. This pathway appears to be involved in neural progenitor regulation, neuronal connectivity, synaptic plasticity and learning/memory. In addition, Notch appears to be aberrantly regulated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and ischemic ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 6, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Alberi L, Hoey SE, Brai E, Scotti AL, Marathe S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Life extension after heat shock exposure: Assessing meta-analytic evidence for hormesis.
Abstract Hormesis is the response of organisms to a mild stressor resulting in improved health and longevity. Mild heat shocks have been thought to induce hormetic response because they promote increased activity of heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may extend lifespan. Using data from 27 studies on 12 animal species, we performed a comparative meta-analysis to quantify the effect of heat shock exposure on longevity. Contrary to our expectations, heat shock did not measurably increase longevity in the overall meta-analysis, although we observed much heterogeneity among studies. Thus, we explored the relative contr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 6, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lagisz M, Hector KL, Nakagawa S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomere dysfunction and tumor suppression responses in dyskeratosis congenita: Balancing cancer and tissue renewal impairment.
Abstract Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) encompasses a large spectrum of diseases and clinical manifestations generally related to premature aging, including bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. The major risk factor for DC is to carry germline telomere-related mutations - in telomerase or telomere shelterin genes - which results in premature telomere dysfunction, thus increasing the risk of premature aging impairments. Despite the advances that have been accomplished in DC research, the molecular aspects underlying the phenotypic variability of the disease remain poorly understood. Here different aspects of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 27, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hartwig FP, Collares T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The intersection of amyloid beta and tau in glutamatergic synaptic dysfunction and collapse in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The synaptic connections that form between neurons during development remain plastic and able to adapt throughout the lifespan, enabling learning and memory. However, during aging and in particular in neurodegenerative diseases, synapses become dysfunctional and degenerate, contributing to dementia. In the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), synapse loss is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive decline, indicating that synaptic degeneration plays a central role in dementia. Over the past decade, strong evidence has emerged that oligomeric forms of amyloid beta, the protein that accumulates in se...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 22, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Crimins JL, Pooler A, Polydoro M, Luebke JI, Spires-Jones TL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of music therapy on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy on BPSD, cognitive function, and activities of daily living in patients with dementia. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. We selected 20 studies, including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and controlled trials, and conducted a meta-analysis using standardized mean differences (SMD). The results showed that music therapy had moderate effects on anxiety [SMD, -0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.05 - -0.24; p=0.002] and small effects on behavior...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 16, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ueda T, Suzukamo Y, Sato M, Izumi SI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The biomechanical mechanism of how strength and power training improves walking speed in old adults remains unknown.
gyi T Abstract Maintaining and increasing walking speed in old age is clinically important because this activity of daily living predicts functional and clinical state. We reviewed evidence for the biomechanical mechanisms of how strength and power training increase gait speed in old adults. A systematic search yielded only four studies that reported changes in selected gait biomechanical variables after an intervention. A secondary analysis of 20 studies revealed an association of r(2)=0.21 between the 22% and 12% increase, respectively, in quadriceps strength and gait velocity in 815 individuals age 72. In 6 stu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 15, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Beijersbergen CM, Granacher U, Vandervoort AA, Devita P, Hortobágyi T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Applications of physiological bases of ageing to forensic sciences. Estimation of age-at-death.
Abstract Age-at-death estimation is one of the main challenges in forensic sciences since it contributes to the identification of individuals. There are many anthropological techniques to estimate the age at death in children and adults. However, in adults this methodology is less accurate and requires population specific references. For that reason, new methodologies have been developed. Biochemical methods are based on the natural process of ageing, which induces different biochemical changes that lead to alterations in cells and tissues. In this review, we describe different attempts to estimate the age in adul...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 27, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: C Zapico S, Ubelaker DH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

From development to dysfunction: Microglia and the complement cascade in CNS homeostasis.
Abstract Of the many mysteries that surround the brain, few surpass the awe-inspiring complexity of its development. The intricate wiring of the brain at both the system and molecular level is both spatially and temporally regulated in perfect synchrony. How such a delicate, yet elegant, system arises from an embryo's most basic cells remains at the forefront of neuroscientific research. At the cellular level, the competitive dance between synapses struggling to gain dominance seems to be refereed by both neurons themselves and microglia, the innate immune cells of the nervous system. Additionally, the unexpected ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 15, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zabel MK, Kirsch WM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mesothelial cell: A multifaceted model of aging.
Abstract Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) dominate within the peritoneal cavity and thus play a central role in a variety of intraperitoneal processes, including the transport of water and solutes, inflammation, host response, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. In addition, they contribute to the development of abdominal adhesions, peritonitis, endometriosis, cancer cell metastases, and peritoneal dialysis complications. For less than a decade the primary cultures of omental HPMCs have also been used as an experimental tool in studies on cellular aging. This paper provides the first compr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Książek K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Food for thought: The role of appetitive peptides in age-related cognitive decline.
Abstract Through their well described actions in the hypothalamus, appetitive peptides such as insulin, orexin and leptin are recognized as important regulators of food intake, body weight and body composition. Beyond these metabolic activities, these peptides also are critically involved in a wide variety of activities ranging from modulation of immune and neuroendocrine function to addictive behaviors and reproduction. The neurological activities of insulin, orexin and leptin also include facilitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and enhancement of cognitive performance. While patients with metabolic disor...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 13, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fadel JR, Jolivalt CG, Reagan LP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and brain resistance to ageing and stress: Body of evidence and possible mechanisms.
Abstract The increasing life expectancy in the populations of rich countries raises the pressing question of how the elderly can maintain their cognitive function. Cognitive decline is characterized by the loss of short-term memory due to a progressive impairment of the underlying brain cell processes. Age-related brain damage has many causes, some of which may be influenced by diet. An optimal diet may therefore be a practical way of delaying the onset of age-related cognitive decline. Nutritional investigations indicate that the ω-3 poyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of western diets is too low to pr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 6, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Denis I, Potier B, Vancassel S, Heberden C, Lavialle M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Perturbations of neural circuitry in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a global public health threat that continues to rise as the proportion of the population over the age of 60 rapidly increases. Aging and dementia are both associated with cognitive decline and share some features in terms of structural and functional alterations in neural circuitry. In this review, we attempt to highlight the network perturbations that occur in "typical" aging and emphasize how they may differ from those that manifest in dementia. We focus in particular on neuroimaging studies of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) network, which is involved in episodic me...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 4, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Leal S, Yassa MA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Reelin signaling in development, maintenance, and plasticity of neural networks.
Abstract The developing brain is formed through an orchestrated pattern of neuronal migration, leading to the formation of heterogeneous functional regions in the adult. Several proteins and pathways have been identified as mediators of developmental neuronal migration and cell positioning. However, these pathways do not cease to be functionally relevant after the embryonic and early postnatal period; instead, they switch from guiding cells, to guiding synapses. The outcome of synaptic guidance determines the strength and plasticity of neuronal networks by creating a scalable functional architecture that is sculpt...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 24, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Stranahan AM, Erion JR, Wosiski-Kuhn M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Life's timekeeper.
Abstract Life's timekeeper is a 'free-running' intracellular oscillator synchronised across all cells. It runs throughout life splitting lifespan into equal length phases. During the maturational period it controls the overall rate of progression whereas in the post-maturational period it controls the overall rate of ageing. This includes the rate of senescence and hence time to death. As such life's timekeeper equates maturational and post-maturational time, hence explains the tight correlation between these time periods that has existed throughout mammalian evolution. Life's timekeeper is proposed to have played...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 24, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Neill D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A systematic review of leucocyte telomere length and age in adults.
r H Abstract OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of the relationship between age and leucocyte telomere length (LTL) in adults. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Key data, such as age and LTL, were extracted from the studies along with correlation coefficients and yearly attrition rates where available. Obtained data were used to calculate weighted means and correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Overall, 124 cross-sectional studies and 5 longitudinal studies were identified. A statistically significant inverse correlation betw...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 16, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Müezzinler A, Zaineddin AK, Brenner H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Generating insulin-producing cells for diabetic therapy: existing strategies and new development.
Abstract Type 1 and 2 diabetes are characterized by a deficiency in β-cell mass, which cannot be reversed with existing therapeutic strategies. Therefore, restoration of the endogenous insulin-producing cell mass holds great promise for curing diabetes in the future. Since the initial induction of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from embryonic stem (ES) cells in 1999, several strategies and alternative cell sources have been developed to generate β-like cells, including direct differentiation from ES cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, proliferation of existing adult β-cells, and reprogra...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 11, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shen J, Cheng Y, Han Q, Mu Y, Han W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Involving People with Dementia in the Development of Supportive IT Applications: a Systematic Review.
CONCLUSION: To develop valuable, user-friendly, supportive IT applications that increase the quality of life of people with dementia involvement in all phases of the development process is of great importance. PMID: 23318684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 11, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Span M, Hettinga M, Vernooij-Dassen M, Eefsting J, Smits C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The eye as a model of ageing in translational research - Molecular, epigenetic and clinical aspects.
Abstract The eye and visual system are valuable in many areas of translational research such as stem cell therapy, transplantation research and gene therapy. Changes in many ocular tissues can be measured directly, easily and objectively in vivo (e.g. lens transparency; retinal blood vessel calibre; corneal endothelial cell counts) and so the eye may also be a uniquely useful site as a model of ageing. This review details cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms related to ageing within the eye, and describes ocular parameters that can be directly measured clinically and which might be of value in ageing rese...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 27, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pathai S, Shiels PG, Lawn SD, Cook C, Gilbert C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Falling short: Recruiting elderly individuals for a fall study.
This article addresses recruitment and sampling methodology issues and draws attention to the gap in best practices left by previous literature. Authors conducted a systematic review of methods used to recruit elderly individuals for "activity-related fall studies" that assessed subjects' movement and mobility, and investigated incidence of real falls. The review highlighted effective recruitment strategies and identified challenges across several settings. Literature review findings were compared to recruitment challenges encountered in an activity-related fall study from 2011, focused on enrolling a target grou...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 27, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wilding MJ, Seegert L, Rupcic S, Griffin M, Kachnowski S, Parasuraman S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sustained attention in the elderly: What do we know and what does it tell us about cognitive aging?
ond A Abstract The ability to achieve and maintain the focus of cognitive activity on a given stimulation source or task, in other words to sustain attention or vigilance, is a fundamental component of human cognition. Given the omnipresent need for sustained attention in people's daily lives, a precise knowledge of the effects of normal aging on sustained attention is crucial. Findings in this topic are currently not consistent since they highlight either alteration or preservation or even the two, depending on the experimental approach used. This review presents and attempts to explain these results by putting t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 20, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Staub B, Doignon-Camus N, Després O, Bonnefond A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research