Insights into disease mechanisms and potential therapeutics for C9orf72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia.
Abstract In 2011, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in the noncoding region of C9orf72 was associated with the most frequent genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The main pathogenic mechanisms in C9-ALS/FTD are haploinsufficiency of the C9orf72 protein and gain of function toxicity from bidirectionally-transcribed repeat-containing RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) resulting from non-canonical RNA translation. Additionally, abnormalities in different downstream cellular mechanisms, such as nucleocytoplasmic transport and autophagy, play a role in pat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gagliardi D, Costamagna G, Taiana M, Andreoli L, Biella F, Bersani M, Bresolin N, Comi GP, Corti S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Roles and mechanisms of MFG-E8 in vascular aging-related diseases.
Abstract The aging of the vasculature plays a crucial role in the pathological progression of various vascular aging-related diseases. As endothelial cells (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are essential parts in the inner and medial layers of vessel wall, respectively, the structural and functional alterations of ECs and VSMCs are the major causes of vascular aging. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a multifunctional glycoprotein which exerts a regulatory role in the intercellular interactions involved in a variety of biological and pathological processes. Emerging evidence sugge...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ni YQ, Zhan JK, Liu YS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cortisol hypersecretion and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Morning cortisol levels have been reported to be elevated among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet no meta-analysis has been conducted to confirm the existence and magnitude of this association. It also remains unclear whether hypercortisolism is a risk factor for AD. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for eligible studies. Cross-sectional data were pooled using random effects meta-analyses; the differences in morning cortisol levels between patients and cognitively normal controls were quantified. Longitudinal studies were qualitatively synthesise...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zheng B, Tal R, Yang Z, Middleton L, Udeh-Momoh C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation of aging and age-related disease.
Abstract Inquiry into relationships between energy metabolism and brain function requires a uniquely interdisciplinary mindset, and implementation of anti-aging lifestyle strategies based on this work also involves consistent mental and physical discipline. Dr. Mark P. Mattson embodies both of these qualities, based on the breadth and depth of his work on neurobiological responses to energetic stress, and on his own diligent practice of regular exercise and caloric restriction. Dr. Mattson created a neurotrophic niche in his own laboratory, allowing trainees to grow their skills, form new connections, and eventual...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hamrick MW, Stranahan AM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does APOE genotype moderate the relationship between physical activity, brain health and dementia risk? A systematic review.
DISCUSSION: Although we have identified some patterns for the modulating effect of APOE ε4 on PA and dementia or brain pathology, the available data is, overall, inconclusive. Heterogeneity in study design, methodology, and outcomes blur the ability to detect clear associations. PMID: 32961338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: de Frutos-Lucas J, Frost N, Erickson KI, Serrano JM, Maestu F, Laws SM, Brown BM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Single-cell analyses of aging, inflammation and senescence.
n G Abstract Single-cell gene expression (transcriptomics) data are becoming robust and abundant, and are increasingly used to track organisms along their life-course. This allows investigation into how aging affects cellular transcriptomes, and how changes in transcriptomes may underlie aging, including chronic inflammation (inflammaging), immunosenescence and cellular senescence. We compiled and tabulated aging-related single-cell datasets published to date, collected and discussed relevant findings, and inspected some of these datasets ourselves. We specifically note insights that cannot (or not easily) be base...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Uyar B, Palmer D, Kowald A, Escobar HM, Barrantes I, Möller S, Akalin A, Fuellen G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Metabolic regulation of immune cells in proinflammatory microenvironments and diseases during ageing.
Abstract The process of ageing includes molecular changes within cells and interactions between cells, eventually resulting in age-related diseases. Although various cells (immune cells, parenchymal cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells) in tissues secrete proinflammatory signals in age-related diseases, immune cells are the major contributors to inflammation. Many studies have emphasized the role of metabolic dysregulation in parenchymal cells in age-related inflammatory diseases. However, few studies have discussed metabolic modifications in immune cells during ageing. In this review, we introduce the metabol...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 4, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li PH, Zhang R, Cheng LQ, Liu JJ, Chen HZ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Benefits and harms of exercise therapy in people with multimorbidity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise therapy appears to be safe and to have a beneficial effect on physical and psychosocial health in people with multimorbidity. Although the evidence supporting this was of low quality, it highlights the potential of exercise therapy in the management and care of this population. PMID: 32896665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bricca A, Harris LK, Saracutu M, Smith SM, Juhl CB, Skou ST Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mitochondria in Ovarian Aging and Reproductive Longevity.
Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of aging. Consistently mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and function decline with age in various tissues. There is increasing evidence to support that mitochondrial dysfunction drives ovarian aging. A decreased mtDNA copy number is also reported during ovarian aging. However, the mitochondrial mechanisms contributing to ovarian aging and infertility are not fully understood. Additionally, investigations into mitochondrial therapies to rejuvenate oocyte quality, select viable embryos and improve mitochondrial function may help enhance fertility or exte...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 3, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chiang JL, Shukla P, Pagidas K, Ahmed N, Karri S, Gunn D, Hurd W, Singh KK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Do not neglect the role of circadian rhythm in muscle atrophy.
Abstract In addition to its role in movement, human skeletal muscle also plays important roles in physiological activities related to metabolism and the endocrine system. Aging and disease onset and progression can induce the reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby exacerbating skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent studies have confirmed that skeletal muscle atrophy is mainly controlled by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation, the activation of satellite cells, and mitochondrial quality in skeletal muscle. Circadian rhythm is an internal rhythm related to an organism's adaptation to ligh...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 30, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang H, Liang J, Chen N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Shared perturbations in the metallome and metabolome of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and dementia with Lewy bodies: a systematic review.
Abstract Despite differences in presentation, age-related dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) may share pathogenic processes. This review aims to systematically assemble and compare findings in various biochemical pathways across these four dementias. PubMed and Google Scholar were screened for articles reporting on brain and biofluid measurements of metals and/or metabolites in AD, PD, HD, or DLB. Articles were assessed using specific a priori-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of 284 papers identified, 198 met c...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Scholefield M, Unwin RD, Cooper GJS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mechanosensing dysregulation in the fibroblast: a hallmark of the aging heart.
Abstract The myofibroblast is a specialized fibroblast that expresses α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and participates in wound contraction and fibrosis. The fibroblast to myofibroblast transition depends on chemical and mechanical signals. A fibroblast senses the changes in the environment (extracellular matrix (ECM)) and transduces these changes to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus, resulting in activation or inhibition of α-SMA transcription in a process called mechanosensing. A stiff matrix greatly facilitates the transition from fibroblast to myofibroblast, and although the aging heart is much ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Angelini A, Trial J, Ortiz-Urbina J, Cieslik KA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Resilience in older persons: A systematic review of the conceptual literature.
Abstract Although ageing research increasingly incorporates resilience, a common notion on what resilience means is lacking. We aimed to give a comprehensive overview of the conceptual literature on resilience in older persons, identifying areas of consensus and variation/debate. A systematic search of eight databases from different disciplines led to the inclusion of 36 texts. Across the conceptual literature of resilience in older persons, three common features of descriptions of resilience were identified: a stressor, a response and a mechanism. Based on differences in their interpretation of how resilience is ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Angevaare MJ, Roberts J, van Hout HPJ, Joling KJ, Smalbrugge M, Schoonmade LJ, Windle G, Hertogh CMPM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The ageing kidney: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.
Abstract As human life expectancy keeps increasing, ageing populations present a growing challenge for clinical practices. Human ageing is associated with molecular, structural, and functional changes in a variety of organ systems, including the kidney. During the ageing process, the kidney experiences progressive functional decline as well as macroscopic and microscopic histological alterations, which are accentuated by systemic comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes mellitus, or by preexisting or underlying kidney diseases. Although ageing per se does not cause kidney injury, physiologic changes associated...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 20, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fang Y, Gong AY, Haller ST, Dworkin LD, Liu Z, Gong R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nutritional domains in frailty tools: Working towards an operational definition of nutritional frailty.
Abstract Different methods have been proposed for the assessment of the nutritional status in frailty phenotypes. In the present narrative review article, we have summarized the number and specifications of nutritional items in existing frailty tools, in order to develop a possible means of assessment and operational definition of the nutritional frailty phenotype. In six different databases until December 2019, we searched for original articles regarding frailty tools (i.e., scales, indexes, scores, questionnaires, instruments, evaluations, screening, indicators), analyzing each tool regarding nutritional items. ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zupo R, Castellana F, Bortone I, Griseta C, Sardone R, Lampignano L, Lozupone M, Solfrizzi V, Castellana M, Giannelli G, De Pergola G, Boeing H, Panza F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

COVID-19: risk accumulation among biologically and socially vulnerable older populations.
atiglioni L Abstract Emerging data show that the health and economic impacts of COVID-19 are being disproportionately borne by individuals who are not only biologically, but also socially vulnerable. Based on preliminary data from Sweden and other reports, in this paper we propose a conceptual framework whereby different factors related to biological and social vulnerability may explain the specific COVID-19 burden among older people. There is already some evidence showing large social disparities in the prevention, treatment, prognosis and/or long-term consequences of COVID-19. The remaining question is to what e...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Calderón-Larrañaga A, Dekhtyar S, Vetrano DL, Bellander T, Fratiglioni L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The association of dietary patterns with cognition through the lens of neuroimaging-a systematic review.
os NC Abstract Despite the reported benefits of diet on cognition in older adults, randomized controlled trials (RCT) testing the impact of dietary interventions on cognitive scores have yielded less promising results when cognition was assessed via neuropsychological tests. More recently, neuroimaging has been used to identify more subtle brain-related changes associated to cognition. Hence, employing a combination of neuroimaging techniques with neuropsychological tests could clarify this controversy. To determine the effect of diet on cognitive performance, we conducted a systematic review of PubMed and Scopus ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 16, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rodrigues B, Asamane EA, Magalhães R, Sousa N, Thompson JL, Santos NC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Harnessing the Effects of Endurance Exercise to Optimize Cognitive Health: Fundamental Insights from Dr. Mark P. Mattson.
Abstract Dr. Mark Mattson has had a highly productive and impactful tenure as a neuroscientist at the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging. He has made notable contributions to understanding the mechanisms by which energetic stress, imparted by behaviors such as physical activity and periods of fasting, promotes rejuvenation and resilience within brain regions critical for learning and memory. In honor of Dr. Mattson's work, this manuscript will highlight the fascinating mechanisms by which endurance exercise training conveys beneficial effects upon the structure and function of the nervo...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jachim SK, Sakamoto AE, Zhang X, Pearsall VM, Schafer MJ, LeBrasseur NK Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Behavioral and Social Research to Accelerate the Geroscience Translation Agenda.
This article recommends some ways in which geroscience can be augmented through collaboration with behavioral and social science to: accomplish translation from animal models to humans; inform the design of clinical trials of anti-aging therapies; develop outcome measures for evaluating efficacy of anti-aging therapies, and reduce and not exacerbate health disparities. PMID: 32814128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moffitt TE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inflammaging, hormesis and the rationale for anti-aging strategies.
Abstract We propose in this review that hormesis, a concept profoundly and systematically addressed by Mark Mattson, has to be considered a sort of comprehensive "contact point" capable of unifying several conceptualizations of the aging process, including those focused on the stress response, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation/inflammaging. A major strength of hormesis and inflammaging is that both have a strong evolutionary basis. Moreover, both hormesis and inflammaging frame the aging process within a lifelong perspective of adaptation to different types of stresses. Such adaptation perspectiv...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Santoro A, Martucci M, Conte M, Capri M, Franceschi C, Salvioli S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nutraceuticals-Based Immunotherapeutic Concepts and Opportunities for the Mitigation of Cellular Senescence and Aging: A Narrative Review.
Abstract The role of increased tissue senescent cell (SC) burden in driving the process of ageing and associated disorders is rapidly gaining attention. Amongst various plausible factors, impairment in immune functions is emerging as a critical regulator of known age-associated accumulation of SC. Immune cells dysfunctions with age are multi-faceted and are uniquely attributed to the independent processes of immunosenescence and cellular senescence which may collectively impair immune system mediated clearance of SC. Moreover, being functionally and phenotypically heterogenic, immune cells are also liable to be af...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 14, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sharma R, Padwad Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging and Immunometabolic Adaptations to Thermogenesis.
Abstract Brown and subcutaneous adipose tissues play a key role in non-shivering thermogenesis both in mice and human, and their activation by adrenergic stimuli promotes energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and protects against age-related metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance characterize T2D. Even though the decline of thermogenic adipose tissues is well-established during ageing, the mechanisms by which this event affects immune system and contributes to the development of T2D is still poorly defined. It is emerging that activation of thermogenic adip...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 14, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lettieri-Barbato D, Aquilano K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ozone: a natural bioactive molecule with antioxidant property as potential new strategy in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders.
Abstract Systems medicine is founded on a mechanism-based approach and identifies in this way specific therapeutic targets. This approach has been applied for the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 plays a central role in different pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders (NDs), which are characterized by common pathogenetic features. We here present wide scientific background indicating how a natural bioactive molecule with antioxidant/anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagy properties such as the ozone (O3) can represent a potential new strategy to delay neurodegenera...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 14, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Scassellati C, Galoforo AC, Bonvicini C, Esposito C, Ricevuti G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Estimates of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition among the elderly ( ≥60 years) in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of malnutrition was not considerably higher among the elderly population but about half of the elderly population were at risk of malnutrition. This trend differs with the gender, study setting, study area and study region. Additional study using other nutritional assessment tools were needed. Intervention studies among the elderly were recommended. PMID: 32805453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 13, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kushwaha S, Kiran T, Srivastava R, Jain R, Khanna P, Singh T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Social hallmarks of aging: Suggestions for geroscience research.
Abstract This paper focuses on the idea that there are clear social hallmarks of aging including low lifetime socioeconomic status, adversity in childhood and adulthood, being a member of a minority group, adverse health behaviors, and adverse psychological states. The "Social Hallmarks of Aging" are analogous to the "Geroscience Hallmarks of Aging" in reflecting a set of underlying and interrelated social causes of multiple agerelated health outcomes. This paper presents empirical work incorporating the social hallmarks of aging with indicators of multiple biological hallmarks of aging as well...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 12, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Crimmins E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Structure-functional implications of longevity protein p66Shc in health and disease.
Abstract ShcA (Src homologous- collagen homologue), family of adapter proteins, consists of three isoforms which integrate and transduce external stimuli to different signaling networks. ShcA family consists of p46Shc, p52Shc and p66Shc isoforms, characterized by having multiple protein-lipid and protein-protein interaction domains implying their functional diversity. Among the three, p66Shc is structurally different containing an additional CH2 domain which attributes to its dual functionality in cell growth, mediating both cell proliferation and apoptosis. Besides, p66Shc is also involved in different biological...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mir HA, Ali R, Mushtaq U, Khanday FA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Epigenetic alterations in aging tooth and the reprogramming potential.
Abstract Tooth compartments and associated supportive tissues exhibit significant alterations during aging, leading to their impaired functioning. Aging not only affects the structure and function of dental tissue but also reduces its capacity to maintain physiological homeostasis and the healing process. Decreased cementocyte viability; diminished regenerative potential of stem cells residing in the pulp, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament; and impaired osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation capacity of progenitor cells are among the cellular impacts associated with oral aging. Various physiological and p...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 10, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hodjat M, Khan F, Saadat KASM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of exergames and cognitive-motor dual-task training on cognitive, physical and dual-task functions in cognitively healthy older adults: an overview.
Abstract This overview aims to summarize the effectiveness of cognitive-motor dual-task and exergame interventions on cognitive, physical and dual-task functions in healthy older adults, as well as the feasibility, safety, adherence, transfer and retention of benefits of these interventions. We searched for systematic reviews or meta-analyses assessing the effects of cognitive-motor dual-task and exergame interventions on cognitive, physical and dual-task functions in cognitively healthy older adults through eight databases (CDSR (Cochrane), MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and SportDis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 4, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gallou-Guyot M, Mandigout S, Bherer L, Perrochon A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A hierarchical model for the control of epigenetic aging in mammals.
A HIERARCHICAL MODEL FOR THE CONTROL OF EPIGENETIC AGING IN MAMMALS. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Jul 30;:101134 Authors: Lehmann M, Canatelli-Mallat M, Chiavellini P, Goya RG Abstract Regulatory mechanisms range from a single level of control in simple metazoans to multi-level hierarchical control networks in higher animals. Organismal regulation encompasses homeostatic and circadian networks that are interconnected, with no documented exceptions. The epigenetic clock is a highly accurate biomarker of age in humans, defined by a mathematical algorithm based on the methylation of a subset of age-related CpG s...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 29, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lehmann M, Canatelli-Mallat M, Chiavellini P, Goya RG Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Skin photo-protection with phytochemicals against photo-oxidative stress, photo-carcinogenesis, signal transduction pathways and extracellular matrix remodeling-An overview.
Abstract Excessive exposure of skin to UV radiation triggers the generation of oxidative stress, inflammation, immunosuppression, apoptosis, matrix-metalloproteases production, and DNA mutations leading to the onset of photo ageing and photo-carcinogenesis. At the molecular level, these changes occur via activation of several protein kinases as well as transcription pathways, formation of reactive oxygen species, and release of cytokines, interleukins and prostaglandins together. Current therapies available on the market only provide limited solutions and exhibit several side effects. The present paper provides in...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 24, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Garg C, Sharma H, Garg M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Risk for Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Long-term Episodic Memory Encoding and Retrieval fMRI Studies.
Abstract Many risk factors have been identified that predict future progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, clear links have yet to be made between these risk factors and how they affect brain functioning in early stages of AD. We conducted a narrative review and a quantitative analysis to better understand the relationship between nine categories of AD risk (i.e., brain pathology, genetics/family history, vascular health, head trauma, cognitive decline, engagement in daily life, late-life depression, sex/gender, and ethnoracial group) and task-evoked fMRI activity during episodic memory in cognitively-n...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 23, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: McDonough IM, Festini SB, Wood MM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Dehydroepiandrosterone and age-related musculoskeletal diseases: Connections and therapeutic implications.
Abstract Musculoskeletal disorders related to ageing are one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity among elderly individuals worldwide. The typical constitutive components of the musculoskeletal system, including bone, muscle, and joints, gradually undergo a process of tissue loss and degeneration as a result of life-long mechanical and biological stress, ultimately leading to the onset of a series of age-related musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis (OP), sarcopenia, and osteoarthritis (OA). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a precursor of androgen secreted mainly by the adrenal gland, has ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Huang K, Cai HL, Bao JP, Wu LD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Inter and Intracellular mitochondrial trafficking in health and disease.
Abstract Neurons and glia maintain central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis through diverse mechanisms of intra- and intercellular signaling. Some of these interactions include the exchange of soluble factors between cells via direct cell-to-cell contact for both short and long-distance transfer of biological materials. Transcellular transfer of mitochondria has emerged as a key example of this communication. This transcellular transfer of mitochondria are dynamically involved in the cellular and tissue response to CNS injury and play beneficial roles in recovery. This review highlights recent research addressing ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shanmughapriya S, Langford D, Natarajaseenivasan K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Neutrophil activation in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of protein markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.
er W Abstract Inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with multiple inflammatory processes implicated in its risk and progression. This review included original peer-reviewed studies measuring the cerebrospinal fluid or peripheral blood concentrations of protein markers specifically related to neutrophil activity in healthy controls (HC) and in patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 35 studies (NHC = 3095, NAD = 2596, NMCI = 1203) were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate between-groups s...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 22, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wu CY, Bawa KK, Ouk M, Leung N, Yu D, Lanctôt KL, Herrmann N, Pakosh M, Swardfager W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mitophagy Receptors and Mediators: Therapeutic Targets in the Management of Cardiovascular Ageing.
Abstract Mitophagy serves as a cardinal regulator in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, function, and cardiovascular homeostasis, through the fine control and governance of cellular metabolism, ATP production, redox balance, and mitochondrial quality and quantity control. As a unique form of selective autophagy, mitophagy specifically recognizes and engulfs long-lived or damaged (depolarized) mitochondria through formation of the double-membraned intracellular organelles - mitophagosomes, ultimately resulting in lysosomal degradation. Levels of mitophagy are reported to be altered in pathological settings...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ajoolabady A, Aslkhodapasandhokmabad H, Aghanejad A, Zhang Y, Ren J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

N1-Methylnicotinamide: An Anti-Ovarian Aging Hormetin?
Abstract Ovarian aging occurs due to the reduction of the quality and quantity of the oocytes, and is regulated by mitochondrial survival and apoptotic signals. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are one of those signals considered detrimental to cellular homeostasis. Nowadays, ROS are regarded as a regulatory factor at low levels as it induces the stress resistance which in turn increases the longevity. It is believed that the main mechanism for the life-promoting role of the ROS mediated by the 5' Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK). N1-Methylnicotinamide (MNAM) is well known for its anti-diabetic...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 21, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nejabati HR, Schmeisser K, Shahnazi V, Samimifar D, Faridvand Y, Bahrami-Asl Z, Fathi-Maroufi N, Nikanfar S, Nouri M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

DNA damage repair response in mesenchymal stromal cells: from cellular senescence and aging to apoptosis and differentiation ability.
Abstract Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous and contain several populations, including stem cells. MSCs' secretome has the ability to induce proliferation, differentiation, chemo-attraction, anti-apoptosis, and immunomodulation activities in stem cells. Moreover, these cells recognize tissue damage caused by drugs, radiation (e.g., Ultraviolet, infra-red) and oxidative stress, and respond in two ways: either MSCs differentiate into particular cell lineages to preserve tissue homeostasis, or they release a regenerative secretome to activate tissue repairing mechanisms. The maintenance of MSCs in qui...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Banimohamad-Shotorbani B, Kahroba H, Sadeghzadeh H, Wilson DM, Maadi H, Samadi N, Hejazi MS, Farajpour H, Onari BN, Sadeghi MR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

ACE2 imbalance as a key player for the poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with age-related comorbidities - Role of gut microbiota dysbiosis.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a pandemic condition caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The typical symptoms are fever, cough, shortness of breath, evolving to a clinical picture of pneumonia and, ultimately, death. Nausea and diarrhea are equally frequent, suggesting viral infection or transmission via the gastrointestinal-enteric system. SARS-CoV-2 infects human cells by using angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor, which is cleaved by transmembrane proteases during host cells infection, thus reducing its activities. ACE2 is a relevant player in the renin-angiotensin system (RA...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Viana SD, Nunes S, Reis F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of influenza vaccination on the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and all-cause mortality.
CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccine is associated with a significant risk reduction of cardiovascular and respiratory adverse outcomes as well as all-cause mortality. Such a preventative measure can benefit the general population as well as those in old age and with specific diseases. PMID: 32683040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cheng Y, Cao X, Cao Z, Xu C, Sun L, Gao Y, Wang Y, Li S, Wu C, Li X, Wang Y, Leng SX Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

From beta amyloid to altered proteostasis in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age related neurodegenerative disorder causing severe disability and important socio-economic burden, but with no cure available to date. To disentangle this puzzling disease genetic studies represented an important way for the comprehension of pathogenic mechanisms. Abnormal processing and accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) has been considered the main cause and trigger factor of the disease. The amyloid cascade theory has fallen into crisis because the failure of several anti-amyloid drugs trials and because of the simple equation AD = abnormal ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bruni AC, Bernardi L, Gabelli C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Living alone and risk of dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Social isolation is a more important risk factor for dementia than previously identified, with living alone associated with greater population risk than physical inactivity, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. PMID: 32659336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Desai R, John A, Stott J, Charlesworth G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Breaking Down Silos to Improve the Health of Older Adults: The Case for Medicare to Cover Home Safety Renovations.
Abstract The ageing population is increasing the financial strain on the United States health care system, and society may be underinvesting in the place-based determinants of elderly health. The leading cause of injury for older Americans is falls in the home, resulting in more deaths than any other injury, as well as a significant portion of Medicare spending. While medical interventions have yielded mixed results, home safety renovations have been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to enable senior citizens to "age in place" safely, with the health care savings outweighing the upfront investment. C...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 9, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Green RK, Harris PF, Orlando AW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Omics-based exploration and functional validation of neurotrophic factors and histamine as therapeutic targets in als.
OMICS-BASED EXPLORATION AND FUNCTIONAL VALIDATION OF NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS AND HISTAMINE AS THERAPEUTIC TARGETS IN ALS. Ageing Res Rev. 2020 Jul 09;:101121 Authors: Volonté C, Morello G, Spampinato AG, Amadio S, Apolloni S, D'Agata V, Cavallaro S Abstract A plethora of genetic and molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the heterogeneous and multifactorial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease, and hence the conventional "one target-one drug" paradigm has failed so far to provide effective therapeutic solutions, precisely because of the complex nature ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 8, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Volonté C, Morello G, Spampinato AG, Amadio S, Apolloni S, D'Agata V, Cavallaro S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does proteostasis get lost in translation? Implications for protein aggregation across the lifespan.
Abstract Protein aggregation is a phenomenon of major relevance in neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders, cataracts, diabetes and many other diseases. Research has unveiled that proteins also aggregate in multiple tissues during healthy aging yet, the biological and biomedical relevance of this apparently asymptomatic phenomenon remains to be understood. It is known that proteome homeostasis (proteostasis) is maintained by a balanced protein synthesis rate, high protein synthesis accuracy, efficient protein folding and continual tagging of damaged proteins for degradation, suggesting that protein aggregati...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 26, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Francisco S, Ferreira M, Moura G, Soares AR, S Santos MA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Selective neuronal vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by a deficiency in specific behavioural and/or cognitive domains, pointing to selective vulnerabilities of specific neurons from different brain regions. These vulnerabilities can be compared across neuron subgroups to identify the most vulnerable neuronal types, regions, and time points for further investigation. Thus, the relevant organizational frameworks for brain subgroups will hold great values for a clear understanding of the progression in AD. Presently, the neuronal vulnerability has yet urgently required to be elucidated as not yet been clearly defined. It is ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 18, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang ZT, Zhang C, Wang YJ, Dong Q, Tan L, Yu JT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Center of pressure displacement characteristics differentiate fall risk in older people: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
In this study, identification of older people with a high fall risk was demonstrated using quiet-standing recordings. Such screening would also be useful for routine follow-up of balance changes in older fallers in clinical practice. PMID: 32565327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 17, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Quijoux F, Vienne-Jumeau A, Bertin-Hugault F, Zawieja P, Lefevre M, Vidal PP, Ricard D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination in older people: an umbrella review of evidence from meta-analyses of both observational and randomized controlled studies.
In conclusion, influenza vaccination in older people seems safe and effective. Further, the evidence on safety and efficacy of vaccines in this population might benefit by an extension of the follow-up period both in RCTs and in longitudinal studies, beyond the usual 6-month period, in order to be able to evaluate the impact of vaccination on long term outcomes. PMID: 32565328 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 17, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Demurtas J, Celotto S, Beaudart C, Sanchez-Rodriguez D, Balci C, Soysal P, Solmi M, Celotto D, Righi E, Smith L, Lopalco PL, Noventa V, Michel JP, Torbahn G, Di Gennaro F, Pizzol D, Veronese N, Maggi S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle-based therapies protect against coupled degeneration of the central nervous and vascular systems in stroke.
Abstract Stem cell-based treatments have been suggested as promising candidates for stroke. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported as potential therapeutics for a wide range of diseases. In particular, clinical trial studies have suggested MSCs for stroke therapy. The focus of MSC treatments has been directed towards cell replacement. However, recent research has lately highlighted their paracrine actions. The secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is offered to be the main therapeutic mechanism of MSC therapy. However, EV-based treatments may provide a wider therapeutic window compared to t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 17, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rahmani A, Saleki K, Javanmehr N, Khodaparast J, Saadat P, Nouri HR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomere transcription in Ageing.
Abstract Telomeres, the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, play a central role in the control of cellular senescence and organismal ageing and need to be protected in order to avoid being recognised as damaged DNA and activate DNA damage response pathways. Dysfunctional telomeres arise from critically short telomeres or altered telomere structures, which ultimately lead to replicative cellular senescence and chromosome instability: both hallmarks of ageing. The observation that telomeres are transcribed led to the discovery that telomeric transcripts play important roles in chromosome end protection and genome stabil...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 17, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Aguado J, d'Adda di Fagagna F, Wolvetang E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Exercise benefits on Alzheimer's disease: state-of-the-science.
cia A Abstract Although there is no unanimity, growing evidence supports the value of regular physical exercise to prevent Alzheimer's disease as well as cognitive decline in affected patients. Together with an introductory summary on epidemiological evidence, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the potential biological mechanisms underlying exercise benefits in this condition. Regular physical exercise has proven to be beneficial for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., reduced vascular flow, diabetes) involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Exercise also promote...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 15, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Valenzuela PL, Castillo-García A, Morales JS, la Villa P, Hampel H, Emanuele E, Lista S, Lucia A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research