The operationalization of fatigue in frailty scales: a systematic review.
Abstract PURPOSE: To identify the different fatigue items in existing frailty scales. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were systematically screened for frailty scales. 133 articles were included, describing 158 frailty scales. Fatigue items were extracted and categorized in 4 fatigue constructs: "mood state related tiredness", "general feeling of tiredness", "activity based feeling of tiredness" and "resistance to physical tiredness". RESULTS: 120 fatigue items were identified, of which 100 belonged to the construct "general feeling of tiredness&...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Knoop V, Costenoble A, Vella Azzopardi R, Vermeiren S, Debain A, Jansen B, Scafoglieri A, Bautmans I, Gerontopole Brussels Study group Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Degenerative protein modifications in the aging vasculature and central nervous system: a problem shared is not always halved.
Abstract Aging influences the pathogenesis and progression of several major diseases affecting both the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS). Defining the common molecular features that underpin these disorders in these crucial body systems will likely lead to increased quality of life and improved 'health-span' in the global aging population. Degenerative protein modifications (DPMs) have been strongly implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of several age-related diseases affecting the CVS and CNS, including atherosclerosis, heart disease, dementia syndromes, and stroke. However, these i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gallart-Palau X, Tan LM, Serra A, Gao Y, Ho HH, Richards AM, Kandiah N, Chen CP, Kalaria RN, Kwan Sze S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Influence of Fasting and Energy Restricting Diets on IGF-1 Levels in Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSION: This study uncovered that fasting significantly reduced levels of IGF-1, while energy restriction diets were successful only when intake was reduced by 50% or more. PMID: 31116995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rahmani J, Kord Varkaneh H, Clark C, Zand H, Bawadi H, Ryand PM, Fatahi S, Zhang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Physiological functions of CKIP-1: from molecular mechanisms to therapy implications.
Abstract The casein kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (CKIP-1, also known as PLEKHO1) is initially identified as a specific CK2α subunit-interacting protein. Subsequently, various proteins, including CPα, PAK1, Arp2/3, HDAC1, c-Jun, ATM, Smurf1, Rpt6, Akt, IFP35, TRAF6, REGγ and CARMA1, were reported to interact with CKIP-1. Owing to the great diversity of interacted proteins, CKIP-1 exhibits multiple biologic functions in cell morphology, cell differentiation and cell apoptosis. Besides, these functions are subcellular localization, cell type, and regulatory signaling dependent. CKIP-1 is involved ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fu L, Zhang L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Arterial Stiffness and Brain Integrity: A review of MRI findings.
CONCLUSION: Considering the established relationship between arterial stiffness, brain and cognition, this review highlights the need for future studies of brain structure and function in aging to implement measurements of arterial stiffness in parallel with quantitative imaging. PMID: 31063866 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Badji A, Sabra D, Bherer L, Cohen-Adad J, Girouard H, Gauthier CJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A systematic review of existing peripheral biomarkers of cognitive aging: Is there enough evidence for biomarker proxies in behavioral modification interventions?: An initiative in association with the Nutrition, Exercise and Lifestyle Team of the Canadian Consortium of Neurodegeneration in Aging.
Abstract Peripheral biomarkers have shown significant value in predicting brain health and may be serve as useful proxy measurements in the assessment of evidence-based lifestyle behavior modifications, including physical activity and a healthy diet patterns, that aim to maintain cognitive function in late life. The aim of this systematic review was to elucidate which peripheral biomarkers are robustly associated with cognitive function in late life, among relatively healthy non-demented older adults. Following the standards for systematic reviews (PICO, PRIMSA), and employing Medline and Scopus search engines, 22...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 3, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fiocco AJ, Krieger L, D'Amico D, Parrott MD, Laurin D, Gaudreau P, Greenwood C, Ferland G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Professor Dr. Mark Mattson's Special Contributions to Ageing Research and Neuroscience.
PMID: 31048030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brosh RM, Franceschi C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The functional changes of the circadian system organization in aging.
Abstract The circadian clock drives periodic oscillations at different levels of an organism from genes to behavior. This timing system is highly conserved across species from insects to mammals and human beings. The question of how the circadian clock is involved in the aging process continues to attract more attention. We aim to characterize the detrimental impact of aging on the circadian clock organization. We review studies on different components of the circadian clock at the central and peripheral levels, and their changes in aged rodents and humans, and the fruit fly Drosophila. Intracellular signaling, ce...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhao J, Warman GR, Cheeseman JF Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Multimorbidity and quality of life: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
This study aims to: 1. understand the relationship between multimorbidity and QoL or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through systematic literature review; 2. explore the strength of this association by conducting the first meta-analysis on the subject. Following PRISMA, Medline/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched for studies published through September 1st, 2018. Original studies with clear operationalization of multimorbidity and validated QoL (or HRQoL) measurement were retained. For random-effect meta-analysis, a minimum of three studies with the same multimorbidity tool (e.g. number of diseases or ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Makovski TT, Schmitz S, Zeegers MP, Stranges S, van den Akker M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The y682enpty687 motif of app: progress and insights toward a targeted therapy for alzheimer's disease patients.
THE Y682ENPTY687 MOTIF OF APP: PROGRESS AND INSIGHTS TOWARD A TARGETED THERAPY FOR ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE PATIENTS. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Apr 27;: Authors: Matrone C, Annunziato L, Iannuzzi F Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder for which no curative treatments, disease modifying strategies or effective symptomatic therapies exist. Current pharmacologic treatments for AD can only decelerate the progression of the disease for a short time, often at the cost of severe side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for biomarkers able to diagnose AD at its earliest ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 27, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Matrone C, Annunziato L, Iannuzzi F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Primary cilium and brain aging: role in neural stem cells, neurodegenerative diseases and glioblastoma.
heu A Abstract Brain aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue integrity and function as a consequence of impaired homeostasis and regeneration capacities. The primary cilium is a highly conserved organelle that projects from the cell surface in a single copy in virtually all mammalian cell types including neural stem/progenitors cells and neurons. Increasing evidence in the last decade points out that primary cilium could be a relevant mediator of neural stem cell activity, neurogenesis, neuronal maturation and maintenance, and brain tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 17, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Álvarez-Satta M, Moreno-Cugnon L, Matheu A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The impact of behavioral interventions on cognitive function in healthy older adults: A systematic review.
PMID: 31002885 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 16, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sprague BN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

LncRNA: Shedding light on mechanisms and opportunities in fibrosis and aging.
Abstract Fibrosis is universally observed in multiple aging-related diseases and progressions and is characterized by excess accumulation of the extracellular matrix. Fibrosis occurs in various human organs and eventually results in organ failure. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators of cellular signaling and relevant human diseases. In particular, the enigmatic class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is a kind of noncoding RNA that is longer than 200 nucleotides and does not possess protein coding ability. LncRNAs have been identified to exert both promotive and inhibitory effects on the mu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang Z, Jiang S, Shang J, Jiang Y, Dai Y, Xu B, Yu Y, Liang Z, Yang Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Frailty for predicting all-cause mortality in elderly acute coronary syndrome patients: A meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates that frailty independently predicts all-cause mortality in elderly ACS patients. Elderly ACS patients should be assessed the frailty status for improving risk stratification. PMID: 30930229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Man C, Xiang S, Fan Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does loneliness contribute to mild cognitive impairment and dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
A, Miret M Abstract There is growing evidence that loneliness is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, the extent of this association remains unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies examining this association was conducted. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to November 15th 2018. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to obtain pooled estimates and 95% CIs. Studies were also assessed for heterogeneity, methodological quality and publication bias. A total of 4270 hits were retrieved based on the initial search strategy and te...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lara E, Martín-María N, De la Torre-Luque A, Koyanagi A, Vancampfort D, Izquierdo A, Miret M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Where are we now in relation to determining the prevalence of ageism in this era of escalating population ageing?
Abstract Population ageing is escalating rapidly now worldwide. This is an important time to determine if ageism or discrimination against older people is of concern, such as it being prevalent and/or increasing in prevalence. Over the years, many ageism measurement tools have been developed, with research findings from their use of prime consideration then for determining the prevalence of ageism and any prevalence trends. All print and open access English-language research articles published in 1953+ that used one or more ageism measurement tools in a study were sought using the Directory of Open Access Journals...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 8, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wilson DM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effect of nutritional supplementations on physical performance and muscle strength parameters in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
In conclusion, nutritional supplementation can improve a number of physical performance outcomes in older people, particularly when they include multi-nutrients and in people already affected by specific medical conditions, or by frailty/sarcopenia. PMID: 30826500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Veronese N, Stubbs B, Punzi L, Soysal P, Incalzi RA, Saller A, Maggi S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Hyperhomocysteinemia and risk of incident cognitive outcomes: an updated dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Every 5 μmol/L increase in blood homocysteine is linearly associated with a 15% increase in relative risk of Alzheimer-type dementia. This meta-analysis provides further evidence that a higher concentration of blood homocysteine is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer-type dementia. PMID: 30826501 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhou F, Chen S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of Sustained Cognitive Activity on White Matter Microstructure and Cognitive Outcomes in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review.
Abstract Adults who remain cognitively active may be protected from age-associated changes in white matter (WM) and cognitive decline. To determine if cognitive activity is a precursor for WM plasticity, the available literature was systematically searched for Region of Interest (ROI) and whole-brain studies assessing the efficacy of cognitive training (CT) on WM microstructure using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in healthy adults (> 40 years). Seven studies were identified and included in this review. Results suggest there are beneficial effects to WM microstructure after CT in frontal and medial brain region...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: McPhee GM, Downey LA, Stough C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomere length and health outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies.
TELOMERE LENGTH AND HEALTH OUTCOMES: AN UMBRELLA REVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES OF OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Feb 15;: Authors: Smith L, Luchini C, Demurtas J, Soysal P, Stubbs B, Hamer M, Nottegar A, Lawlor RT, Lopez-Sanchez GF, Firth J, Koyanagi A, Roberts J, Willeit P, Waldhoer T, Loosemore M, Abbs AD, Johnstone J, Yang L, Veronese N Abstract The aim of the present study was to map and grade evidence for the relationships between telomere length with a diverse range of health outcomes, using an umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses. We searched fo...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Smith L, Luchini C, Demurtas J, Soysal P, Stubbs B, Hamer M, Nottegar A, Lawlor RT, Lopez-Sanchez GF, Firth J, Koyanagi A, Roberts J, Willeit P, Waldhoer T, Loosemore M, Abbs AD, Johnstone J, Yang L, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The peculiar aging of human liver: A geroscience perspective within transplant context.
Abstract An appraisal of recent data highlighting aspects inspired by the new Geroscience perspective are here discussed. The main findings are summarized as follows: i) liver has to be considered an immunological organ, and new studies suggest a role for the recently described cells named telocytes; ii) the liver-gut axis represents a crucial connection with environment and life style habits and may influence liver diseases onset; iii) the physiological aging of liver shows relatively modest alterations. Nevertheless, several molecular changes appear to be relevant: a) an increase of microRNA-31-5p; -141-3p; -200...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 14, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Morsiani C, Bacalini MG, Santoro A, Garagnani P, Collura S, D'Errico A, de Eguileor M, Grazi GL, Cescon M, Franceschi C, Capri M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in immunosenescence.
Abstract A healthy functioning immune system is critical to stave off infectious diseases, but as humans and other organisms age, their immune systems decline. As a result, diseases that were readily thwarted in early life pose nontrivial harm and can even be deadly in late life. Immunosenescence is defined as the general deterioration of the immune system with age, and it is characterized by functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and specific blood cell types as well as changes in levels of numerous factors, particularly those involved in inflammation. Potential mechanisms underlying immunosenescen...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Johnson ND, Conneely KN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Unravelling Protein Aggregation as an Ageing Related Process or a Neuropathological Response.
Abstract Protein aggregation is normally associated with amyloidosis, namely motor neurone, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or prion diseases. However, recent results have unveiled a concept of gradual increase of protein aggregation associated with the ageing process, apparently not necessarily associated with pathological conditions. Given that protein aggregation is sufficient to activate stress-response and inflammation, impairing protein synthesis and quality control mechanisms, the former is assumed to negatively affect cellular metabolism and behaviour. In this review the state of the art in protein aggregation re...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Trigo D, Nadais A, da Cruz E Silva OAB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Post stroke depression and risk of stroke recurrence and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Post stroke depression is associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality in stroke survivors. More researches are required on the association with stroke recurrence. PMID: 30711712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 31, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cai W, Mueller C, Li YJ, Shen WD, Stewart R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis of Real-World Interventions for Cognitive Ageing in Healthy Older Adults.
Abstract Activities running in community-based-settings offer a method of delivering multimodal interventions to older adults beyond cognitive training programmes. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the impact of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'real-world' interventions on the cognitive abilities of healthy older adults. Database searches were performed between October 2016 and September 2018. Forty-three RCTs were eligible for inclusion with 2,826 intervention participants and 2,234 controls. Interventions to enhance cognitive ability consisted of participation in activities that were p...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vaportzis E, Niechcial MA, Gow AJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The prion-like spreading of α-synuclein: From in vitro to in vivo models of Parkinson's disease.
The prion-like spreading of α-synuclein: From in vitro to in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Jan 25;: Authors: Vargas JY, Grudina C, Zurzolo C Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, primarily in brain regions that control motor functions, thereby leading to motor impairments in the patients. Pathological aggregated forms of the synaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), are involved in the generation and progression of PD. In PD brai...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vargas JY, Grudina C, Zurzolo C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The optimal treatment for improving the cognitive function in elder people diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment incorporating Bayesian network meta-analysis and systematic review.
This study focuses on three cognitive interventions referred from Clare and Woods, that is, Cognitive stimulation(CS), Cognitive training(CT) and Cognitive rehabilitation(CR). Our Network meta-analysis(NMA) is aimed at comparing them with each other for evaluating the optimal cognitive intervention to help elderly adults with MCI to improve their cognitive function. We applied extensive strategies on preliminary literature collection to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which scrupulously compare any of these cognitive interventions with each other or instead with control groups such as with placebo or ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 22, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liang JH, Shen WT, Li JY, Qu XY, Li J, Jia RX, Wang YQ, Wang S, Wu RK, Zhang HB, Hang L, Xu Y, Lin L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Transitions between frailty states among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Frailty is a well-established risk factor for adverse health outcomes. However, little is known about the dynamic nature of frailty and the extent it can improve. The purposes of this study were to systematically search for studies examining frailty transitions over time among community-dwelling older people, and to synthesise pooled frailty transitions rates. Four electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL) were searched in July 2018. Inclusion criteria were: prospective design, community-dwelling older people with mean age>60, using 5-item frailty phenotype criteria to define three st...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 16, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kojima G, Taniguchi Y, Iliffe S, Jivraj S, Walters K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effect of soluble cleavage products of important receptors/ligands on efferocytosis: Their role in inflammatory, autoimmune and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract Efferocytosis, the clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs), is a physiologic, multifaceted and dynamic process and a fundamental mechanism for the preservation of tissue homeostasis by avoiding unwanted inflammation and autoimmune responses through special phagocytic receptors. Defective efferocytosis is associated with several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and impaired immune surveillance, as occurs in cancer and autoimmune disease. A major cause of defective efferocytosis is non-functionality of surface receptors on either the phagocytic cells or the ACs, such as TAM family tyrosine kinas...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tajbakhsh A, Gheibi Hayat SM, Butler AE, Sahebkar A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does senescence promote fitness in Caenorhabditis elegans by causing death?
Abstract A widely appreciated conclusion from evolutionary theory is that senescence (aging) is of no adaptive value to the individual that it afflicts. Yet studies of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are increasingly revealing the presence of processes which actively cause senescence and death, leading some biogerontologists to wonder about the established theory. Here we argue that programmed death that increases fitness could occur in C. elegans and S. cerevisiae, and that this is consistent with the classic evolutionary theory of aging. This is because of the special conditions under which t...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 9, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lohr JN, Galimov ER, Gems D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Survival time and differences between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease following diagnosis: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the evidence across longitudinal studies comparing survival in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing survival in clinically diagnosed DLB to AD. Longitudinal cohort studies were identified through a systematic search of major electronic databases from inception to May 2018. A random effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate survival time and relative risk of death. RESULTS: Overall, 11 studies were identified including 22,952 patients with dementia: 2,029 with ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mueller C, Soysal P, Rongve A, Isik AT, Thompson T, Maggi S, Smith L, Basso C, Stewart R, Ballard C, O'Brien JT, Aarsland D, Stubbs B, Veronese N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Exploring the relationship between physical activity, beta-amyloid and tau: A narrative review.
Abstract Several prospective cohort studies have reported an association between higher levels of physical activity and decreased risk of cognitive decline and dementia, years later. To support physical activity as a preventative measure against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD; the most common form of dementia), evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms is vital. Here, we review previous work examining the role of physical activity in modulating levels of AD pathological hallmarks, beta-amyloid (Aβ) and tau (in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and blood). Robust evidence from transgenic animal st...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brown BM, Peiffer J, Rainey-Smith SR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The telomere world and aging: analytical challenges and future perspectives.
Olivieri F Abstract Telomeres, the terminal nucleoprotein structures of eukaryotic chromosomes, play pleiotropic functions in cellular and organismal aging. Telomere length (TL) varies throughout life due to the influence of genetic factors and to a complex balancing between "shortening" and "elongation" signals. Telomerase, the only enzyme that can elongate a telomeric DNA chain, and telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a long non-coding RNA involved in looping maintenance, play key roles in TL during life. Despite recent advances in the knowledge of TL, TERRA and telomerase activity (TA)...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mensà E, Latini S, Ramini D, Storci G, Bonafè M, Olivieri F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the association of increased neuroinflammation during the progression of MCI and AD, relative to HCs. PMID: 30610927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bradburn S, Murgatroyd C, Ray N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder and represents the most common form of senile dementia. The pathogenesis of AD is not yet completely understood and no curative treatment is currently available. With the recent advancement in transcriptome-wide profiling approach, several non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified. Among them, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are long transcripts without apparent protein-coding capacity, have received increasing interest for their involvement in a wide range of biological processes as regulatory molecules. Recent studies have ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 2, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cortini F, Roma F, Villa C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Reversibility of irreversible aging.
Abstract Most multicellular organisms are known to age, due to accumulation of damage and other deleterious changes over time. These changes are often irreversible as organisms, humans included, evolved fully differentiated, irreplaceable cells (e.g. neurons) and structures (e.g. skeleton). Hence, deterioration or loss of at least some cells and structures should lead to inevitable aging of these organisms. Yet, some cells may escape this fate: adult somatic cells may be converted to partially reprogrammed cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). By their nature, iPSCs are the cells representing the early ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Galkin F, Zhang B, Dmitriev SE, Gladyshev VN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) processing as a biological link between Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer.
ra IR Abstract Aging is a risk factor for several illnesses, such as Alzheimer's Disease and various cancers. However, an inverse correlation between malignancies and Alzheimer's Disease has been suggested. This review addressed the potential role of non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic pathways of amyloid precursor protein processing as a relevant biochemical mechanism to clarify this association. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways have been related to Alzheimer's Disease and certain malignancies, respectively. Several known molecules involved in APP processing, including its regulation and final product...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Galvão F, Grokoski KC, da Silva BB, Lamers ML, Siqueira IR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MRI-based Evaluation of Structural Degeneration in the Ageing Brain: Pathophysiology and Assessment.
Abstract Advances in MRI technology have significantly contributed to our ability to understand the process of brain ageing, allowing us to track and assess changes that occur during normal ageing and neurological conditions. This paper focuses on reviewing structural changes of the ageing brain that are commonly seen using MRI, summarizing the pathophysiology, prevalence, and neuroanatomical distribution of changes including atrophy, lacunes, white matter lesions, and dilated perivascular spaces. We also review the clinically accessible methodology for assessing these MRI-based changes, covering visual rating sca...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Grajauskas LA, Siu W, Medvedev G, Guo H, D'Arcy RC, Song X Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence for Aging and Longevity Research: Recent Advances and Perspectives.
Abstract The applications of modern artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms within the field of aging research offer tremendous opportunities. Aging is an almost universal unifying feature possessed by all living organisms, tissues, and cells. Modern deep learning techniques used to develop age predictors offer new possibilities for formerly incompatible dynamic and static data types. AI biomarkers of aging enable a holistic view of biological processes and allow for novel methods for building causal models-extracting the most important features and identifying biological targets and mechanisms. Recent development...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhavoronkov A, Mamoshina P, Vanhaelen Q, Scheibye-Knudsen M, Moskalev A, Aliper A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MicroRNAs and Mild Cognitive Impairment: a systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review is to summarize available evidence on the use of miRNAs as biomarkers in subjects with MCI. METHODS: Relevant literature published up to June 2018 was retrieved searching the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Database. Only studies considering miRNAs and a diagnosis of MCI were included. Data were extracted using a specifically-designed standardized form, and their methodological quality was assessed using QUADAS-2 and QUIPS. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies of 153 retrieved articles met the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Studies included a number...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Piscopo P, Lacorte E, Feligioni M, Mayer F, Crestini A, Piccolo L, Bacigalupo I, Filareti M, Ficulle E, Confaloni A, Vanacore N, Corbo M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Age-related diseases as vicious cycles.
Abstract The mortality rates of age-related diseases (ARDs) increase exponentially with age. Processes described by the exponential growth function typically involve a branching chain reaction or, more generally, a positive feedback loop. Here I propose that each ARD is mediated by one or several positive feedback loops (vicious cycles). I then identify critical vicious cycles in five major ARDs: atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. I also propose that the progression of ARDs can be halted by selectively interrupting the vicious cycles and suggest the most promising targets. P...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 17, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Belikov AV Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The potential nutrigeroprotective role of Mediterranean diet and its functional components on telomere length dynamics.
Abstract The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a gold standard for nutrition and the most evidence-based diet to delay the onset of age-associated pathologies. Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered a reliable hallmark of biological ageing. Telomere shortening is, at least in part, a modifiable factor and there is evidence that adherence to the MD is associated with longer telomeres. Data from several studies indicate an association between "inflammatory/oxidative status" and telomere length (TL). The MD, as a complex exposome wit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 15, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Davinelli S, Trichopoulou A, Corbi G, De Vivo I, Scapagnini G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

microRNA diagnostic panel for Alzheimer's disease and epigenetic trade-off between neurodegeneration and cancer.
Abstract microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Their profiles have been analyzed in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue. However, due to the high variability between the reported data, stemming from the lack of methodological standardization and the heterogeneity of AD, the most promising miRNA biomarker candidates have not been selected. Our literature review shows that out of 137 miRNAs found to be altered in AD blood, 36 have been replicated in at least one independent study, and out of 166 miRNAs reported as differential in AD CSF, ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nagaraj S, Zoltowska KM, Laskowska-Kaszub K, Wojda U Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Homocysteine and age-associated disorders.
Abstract There are numerous theories of aging, a process which still seems inevitable. Aging leads to cancer and multi-systemic disorders as well as chronic diseases including those that impair the functions of endothelial cells, kidney and lung. Decline in age- associated cellular functions leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline that affect the quality of life. Accumulation of damage, mutations, metabolic changes, failure in cellular energy production and clearance of altered proteins over the lifetime, and hyperhomocysteinemia, ultimately result in tissue degeneration. Moreover, approximately 50% of pe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ostrakhovitch EA, Tabibzadeh S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to treat malnutrition in older persons: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The SENATOR project ONTOP series and MaNuEL Knowledge Hub project.
CONCLUSIONS: This review has highlighted the lack of high quality evidence to indicate which interventions are effective in treating malnutrition in older people. High quality research studies are urgently needed in this area. PMID: 30391755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 1, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Correa-Pérez A, Abraha I, Cherubini A, Collinson A, Dardevet D, de Groot LC, de van der Schueren MAE, Hebestreit A, Hickson M, Jaramillo-Hidalgo J, Lozano-Montoya I, O'Mahony D, Soiza RL, Visser M, Volkert D, Wolters M, Jentoft AJC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Association between human herpes virus seropositivity and frailty in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ho PR Abstract Frailty is an emerging geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiologic reserve and increased vulnerability to environmental factors. Several studies have examined the association between persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and poor clinical outcomes in the elderly, but the results are often contradictory. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the association between human herpesvirus seropositivity [CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), and Herpes simplex virus (HSV)] and frailty in elderly people. Searches were performed in PubMe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 31, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Araújo Carvalho AC, Tavares Mendes ML, Santos VS, Tanajura DM, Prado Nunes MA, Saquete Martins-Filho PR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Orthostatic hypotension and physical functioning in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: OH was associated with impaired balance, ADL performance and HY/UPDRS III performance, but not with other physical functioning categories. The results suggest that OH interventions could potentially improve some aspects of physical functioning. PMID: 30394339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 27, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mol A, Reijnierse EM, Bui Hoang PTS, van Wezel RJA, Meskers CGM, Maier AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Overview of Oral Antithrombotic Treatment in Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an age-related arrhythmia, particularly affecting elderly patients. The ultimate goals in the treatment of AF are to improve prognosis and quality of life. Anticoagulants are effective for stroke prevention in AF patients, however, managing anticoagulation in elderly patients is especially challenging; requiring a comprehensive assessment of the patient and deep understanding of available therapies and doses to maximize the net benefit. This review summarizes available evidence on the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation therapy, and provides contemporary updates on the manag...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 22, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kato ET, Goto S, Giugliano RP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Postmenopausal health interventions: time to move on from the women's health initiative?
POSTMENOPAUSAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: TIME TO MOVE ON FROM THE WOMEN'S HEALTH INITIATIVE? Ageing Res Rev. 2018 Oct 21;: Authors: Thaung Zaw JJ, Howe PRC, Wong RHX Abstract Menopause is a critical period during which, without timely interventions, increased risks of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction and premature cognitive decline will contribute to diminished quality-of-life in women. Hormone therapy (HT) used to be the standard of care for managing vasomotor symptoms and prevention of chronic diseases until publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 200...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thaung Zaw JJ, Howe PRC, Wong RHX Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Genetic modifiers of age-at-onset in polyglutamine diseases.
Abstract Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases. Expansion size correlates with age-at-onset (AO) and severity, and shows a critical threshold for each polyQ disease. Although an expanded CAG tract is sufficient to trigger disease, not all variation in AO is explained by (CAG)n length, which suggests the contribution of other modifying factors. Methods used to identify genetic modifiers in polyQ diseases have progressed from candidate genes to unbiased genome-wide searches. Inconsistency of results from candidate-genes studies are partly ex...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 21, 2018 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chen Z, Sequeiros J, Tang B, Jiang H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research