Roles of the tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine in oxidative stress.
Abstract The damage to cellular components by reactive oxygen species, termed oxidative stress, both increases with age and likely contributes to age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cataract formation. In the setting of oxidative stress, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize the benzyl ring of the amino acid phenylalanine, which then produces the abnormal tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine or ortho-tyrosine. While elevations in m-tyrosine and o-tyrosine concentrations have been used as a biological marker of oxidative stress, there is emerging evidence from bacterial, plant, and ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 30, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ipson BR, Fisher AL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Noradrenergic modulation of emotional memory in aging.
This study briefly reviews this timely line of research with a specific focus on aging. After having identified surprisingly few studies that investigated emotional memory in older adults from a neurobiological perspective, we found a significant interaction between noradrenergic activity and emotional memory enhancement in older adults. This pattern of data are explained both in terms of a top-down modulation of behavioral processes (e.g., changes in priority and individual goals) and in terms of greater activity of noradrenergic system during aging. Altogether, both behavioral and genetic variations studies (e.g., Alpha ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 17, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mammarella N, Domenico AD, Palumbo R, Fairfield B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Werner Syndrome: Clinical Features, Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Interventions.
Abstract Werner syndrome (WS) is a prototypical segmental progeroid syndrome characterized by multiple features consistent with accelerated aging. It is caused by null mutations of the WRN gene, which encodes a member of the RECQ family of DNA helicases. A unique feature of the WRN helicase is the presence of an exonuclease domain in its N-terminal region. Biochemical and cell biological studies during the past decade have demonstrated involvements of the WRN protein in multiple DNA transactions, including DNA repair, recombination, replication and transcription. A role of the WRN protein in telomere maintenance c...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 15, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Oshima J, Sidorova JM, Monnat RJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging in Two Languages: Implications for Public Health.
Abstract With the population aging and a dramatic increase in the number of senior citizens, public health systems will be increasingly burdened with the need to deal with the care and treatment of individuals with dementia. We review evidence demonstrating how a particular experience, bilingualism, has been shown to protect cognitive function in older age and delay onset of symptoms of dementia. This paper describes behavioral and brain studies that have compared monolingual and bilingual older adults on measures of cognitive function or brain structure and reviews evidence demonstrating a protective effect of bi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 15, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bialystok E, Abutalebi J, Bak TH, Burke DM, Kroll JF Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Functional neuroimaging of normal aging: declining brain, adapting brain.
Abstract Early functional neuroimaging research on normal aging brain has been dominated by the interest in cognitive decline. In this framework the age-related compensatory recruitment of prefrontal cortex, in terms of executive system or reduced lateralization, has been established. Further details on these compensatory mechanisms and the findings reflecting cognitive decline, however, remain the matter of intensive investigations. Studies in another framework where age-related neural alteration is considered adaptation to the environmental change are recently burgeoning and appear largely categorized into three...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 14, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sugiura M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Introduction and overview of the special issue "Brain imaging and aging": The new era of neuroimaging in aging research.
Introduction and overview of the special issue "Brain imaging and aging": The new era of neuroimaging in aging research. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Mar 11; Authors: Furukawa K, Ishiki A, Tomita N, Onaka Y, Saito H, Nakamichi T, Hara K, Kusano Y, Ebara M, Arata Y, Sakota M, Miyazawa I, Totsune T, Okinaga S, Okamura N, Kudo Y, Arai H Abstract It is well known that the brain is one of the organs particularly affected by aging in terms of function, relative to the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which exhibit less functional decline. There is also a wide range of age-related neurological disorders s...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Furukawa K, Ishiki A, Tomita N, Onaka Y, Saito H, Nakamichi T, Hara K, Kusano Y, Ebara M, Arata Y, Sakota M, Miyazawa I, Totsune T, Okinaga S, Okamura N, Kudo Y, Arai H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Periodic acid-Schiff granules in the brain of aged mice: from amyloid aggregates to degenerative structures containing neo-epitopes.
e; C, Vilaplana J Abstract Brain ageing in mice leads to the progressive appearance and expansion of degenerative granular structures frequently referred as "PAS granules" because of their positive staining with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). PAS granules are present mainly in the hippocampus, although they have also been described in other brain areas such as piriform and entorhinal cortices, and have been observed in other mammals than mice, like rats and monkeys. PAS granules have been identified as a wide range of brain deposits related to numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyloid deposits, n...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 9, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Manich G, Cabezón I, Augé E, Pelegrí C, Vilaplana J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Lysosomal cell death mechanisms in aging.
oya P Abstract Lysosomes are degradative organelles essential for cell homeostasis that regulate a variety of processes, from calcium signaling and nutrient responses to autophagic degradation of intracellular components. Lysosomal cell death is mediated by the lethal effects of cathepsins, which are released into the cytoplasm following lysosomal damage. This process of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin release is observed in several physiopathological conditions and plays a role in tissue remodeling, the immune response to intracellular pathogens and neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences ind...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gómez-Sintes R, Ledesma MD, Boya P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

What lysosomes actually tell us about Parkinson's disease?
Abstract Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown origin mainly characterized by the loss of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusions called Lewy bodies. Lysosomes are dynamic organelles that degrade, in a controlled manner, cellular components delivered via the secretory, endocytic, autophagic and phagocytic membrane-trafficking pathways. Increasing amounts of evidence suggest a central role of lysosomal impairment in PD aetiology. This review provides an update on how genetic evidence...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 3, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bourdenx M, Dehay B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

iPSCs-based anti-aging therapies: Recent discoveries and future challenges.
z BG, Gallardo ME Abstract The main biological hallmarks of the aging process include stem cell exhaustion and cellular senescence. Consequently, research efforts to treat age-related diseases as well as anti-aging therapies in general have recently focused on potential 'reprogramming' regenerative therapies. These new approaches are based on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), including potential in vivo reprogramming for tissue repair. Another possibility is targeting pathways of cellular senescence, eg, through modulation of p16INK4a signaling and especially inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chai...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 24, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pareja-Galeano H, Sanchis-Gomar F, Pérez LM, Emanuele E, Lucía A, Gálvez BG, Gallardo ME Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Regulatory development of geriatric medicines: To GIP or not to GIP?
Abstract Geriatric patients represent the main users of medicines, but are historically often minimally included in clinical trials, resulting in a gap in the knowledge of the benefit/risk balance of medicines in this heterogeneous population. As the worldwide population is aging, the need for safe and effective medicines for older patients is proportionally increasing. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current regulatory status of the development of geriatric medicines, the encountered challenges and the view of the involved stakeholders, coming to the conclusion whether it is necessary or n...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 17, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: De Spiegeleer B, Wynendaele E, Bracke N, Veryser L, Taevernier L, Degroote A, Stalmans S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Brain Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in dementia.
Abstract The purpose of this article is to present a selective and concise summary of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in dementia imaging. FDG PET is used to visualize a downstream topographical marker that indicates the distribution of neural injury or synaptic dysfunction, and can identify distinct phenotypes of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. AD dementia shows hypometabolism in the parietotemporal association area, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. Hypometabolism in the inferior parietal lobe and posterior cingulate/prec...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 11, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kato T, Inui Y, Nakamura A, Ito K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and episodic memory decline in Alzheimer's disease: A review.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and episodic memory decline in Alzheimer's disease: A review. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Feb 10; Authors: Mohamad EH, Antoine P, Amouyel P, Lambert JC, Pasquier F, Kapogiannis D Abstract A growing body of research has examined the relationship between episodic memory decline, the cognitive hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the presence of Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele, a major genetic risk factor for the disease. Our review attempts to summarize and critically evaluate this literature. We performed a systematic search for studies assessing ep...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 10, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mohamad EH, Antoine P, Amouyel P, Lambert JC, Pasquier F, Kapogiannis D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Walking ability to predict future cognitive decline in old adults: a scoping review.
th CJ Abstract Early identification of individuals at risk for cognitive decline may facilitate the selection of those who benefit most from interventions. Current models predicting cognitive decline include neuropsychological and/or biological markers. Additional markers based on walking ability might improve accuracy and specificity of these models because motor and cognitive functions share neuroanatomical structures and psychological processes. We reviewed the relationship between walking ability at one point of (mid)life and cognitive changes at follow-up. A systematic literature search identified 20 longitud...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kikkert LH, Vuillerme N, Campen JP, Hortobágyi T, Lamoth CJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Brain imaging in Aging Special Issue of Ageing Research Reviews (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy in α-synucleinopathies.
Brain imaging in Aging Special Issue of Ageing Research Reviews (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy in α-synucleinopathies. Ageing Res Rev. 2016 Jan 30; Authors: Orimo S, Yogo M, Nakamura T, Suzuki M, Watanabe H Abstract Cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake on (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy is reduced in patients with Lewy body disease such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and pure autonomic failure, and has been reported to be useful for differentiating PD from other parkinsonian syndromes, as well as DLB from Alzheimer disease (A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 30, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Orimo S, Yogo M, Nakamura T, Suzuki M, Watanabe H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Hypertension and Aging.
The objective of the present review is to highlight the multi-dimensional risks of hypertension among older adults and discuss potential strategies for treatment and future areas of research for improving overall care for older adults with hypertension. PMID: 26835847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 30, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Buford TW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Opportunities and challenges in developing relevant animal models for Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract A major impediment to the development of safe and effective therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease (AD) lies in difficulties in translating research findings across species: therapies that work in rodents often do not translate to humans. A route to bridge the gap between promising rodent research and the human clinical condition consists in using non-human primates (NHPs), which are phylogenetically much closer to humans. In this article, we discuss the importance of investigating disease mechanisms from cell culture, through different animal models of disease. We highlight that developing a viable, validat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 29, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: De Felice FG, Munoz DP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Amyloid imaging: Past, Present and Future Perspectives.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the gradual onset of dementia. The pathological hallmarks of the disease are Aβ amyloid plaques, and tau neurofibrillary tangles, along dendritic and synaptic loss and reactive gliosis. Functional and molecular neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) using functional and molecular tracers, in conjuction with other Aβ and tau biomarkers in CSF, are proving valuable in the differential diagnosis of AD, as well as in establishing disease prognosis. With the advent of new therapeutic stra...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 28, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Villemagne VL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Neuroimaging biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.
lat G Abstract In vivo imaging of β-amyloid (Aβ) has transformed the assessment of Aβ pathology and its changes over time, extending our insight into Aβ deposition in the brain by providing highly accurate, reliable, and reproducible quantitative statements of regional or global Aβ burden in the brain. This knowledge is essential for therapeutic trial recruitment and for the evaluation of anti-Aβ treatments. Although cross sectional evaluation of Aβ burden does not strongly correlate with cognitive impairment, it does correlate with cognitive (especially memory) decline and with ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 28, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Villemagne VL, Chételat G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Brain atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease and aging.
Abstract Thanks to its safety and accessibility, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extensively used in clinical routine and research field, largely contributing to our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the main findings in AD and normal aging over the past twenty years, focusing on the patterns of gray and white matter changes assessed in vivo using MRI. Major progresses in the field concern the segmentation of the hippocampus with novel manual and automatic segmentation approaches, which m...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 28, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pini L, Pievani M, Bocchetta M, Altomare D, Bosco P, Cavedo E, Galluzzi S, Marizzoni M, Frisoni GB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MRI morphometry in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract MRI based evaluation of brain atrophy is regarded as a valid method to stage the disease and to assess progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Volumetric software programs have made it possible to quantify gray matter in the human brain in an automated fashion. At present, voxel based morphometry (VBM) is easily applicable to the routine clinical procedure with a short execution time. The importance of the VBM approach is that it is not biased to one particular structure and is able to assess anatomical differences throughout the brain. Stand-alone VBM software running on Windows, Voxel-based Specific Re...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 23, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Matsuda H Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging of Dopamine Transporters.
Abstract The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for clearance of dopamine from the synaptic cleft after its release. Imaging DAT availability provides a measure of dopamine terminal function and a method for detecting the striatal dopamine terminal dysfunction present in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). DAT imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to support or refute...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 20, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brooks DJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Advances in the Development of Tau PET Radiotracers and Their Clinical Applications.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative dementias belong to the family of tauopathies. These diseases are characterized by the deposition of insoluble tau aggregates possessing an enriched β-sheet structure. In vivo imaging of the tau deposits by positron emission tomography (PET) will facilitate the early and accurate diagnosis of these diseases, tracking of disease progression, assessment of disease severity, and prediction of disease prognosis. Furthermore, this technology is expected to play a vital role in the monitoring of treatment outcomes and in the selection of patients for the ther...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 20, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Okamura N, Harada R, Furukawa K, Furumoto S, Tago T, Yanai K, Arai H, Kudo Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Amyloid imaging using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging ((19)F-MRI).
Abstract The formation of senile plaques followed by the deposition of amyloid-β is the earliest pathological change in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the detection of senile plaques remains the most important early diagnostic indicator of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid imaging is a noninvasive technique for visualizing senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients using positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fluorine-19 ((19)F) displays an intense nuclear magnetic resonance signal and is almost non-existent in the body, targets are detected with a higher signal-to-noise rati...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 6, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tooyama I, Yanagisawa D, Taguchi H, Kato T, Hirao K, Shirai N, Sogabe T, Ibrahim NF, Inubushi T, Morikawa S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Systematic review of the association between chronic social stress and telomere length: A life course perspective.
Abstract Our aim was to examine whether chronic social stress is associated with telomere length throughout the life course, following our protocol published in 2014. Structured searches were conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and grey from their start date onwards. Reference lists of retrieved citations were hand searched for relevant studies. Eighteen studies published until May 1, 2015 investigating the association between chronic social stress (as defined by poverty, exposure to violence, or family caregiving) and telomere length in healthy or di...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 28, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Oliveira BS, Zunzunegui MV, Quinlan J, Fahmi H, Tu MT, Guerra RO Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Molecular aging of the mammalian vestibular system.
Abstract Dizziness and imbalance frequently affect the elderly and contribute to falls and frailty. In many geriatric patients, clinical testing uncovers a dysfunction of the vestibular system, but no specific etiology can be identified. Neuropathological studies have demonstrated age-related degeneration of peripheral and central vestibular neurons, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In contrast, recent studies into age-related hearing loss strongly implicate mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death of cochlear hair cells. While some data suggest that analogous biologi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 28, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brosel S, Laub C, Averdam A, Bender A, Elstner M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Nrf2 signaling and redox homeostasis in the aging heart: A potential target to prevent cardiovascular diseases?
a C Abstract Aging process is often accompanied with a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) due to the synergistic effects of age-related changes in heart morphology/function and prolonged exposure to injurious effects of CVD risk factors. Oxidative stress, considered a hallmark of aging, is also an important feature in pathologies that predispose to CVD development, like hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Approaches directed to prevent the occurrence of CVD during aging have been explored both in experimental models and in controlled clinical trials, in order to improve health span, reduce hospitaliza...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 27, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Silva-Palacios A, Königsberg M, Zazueta C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Lysines, Achilles' heel in alpha-synuclein conversion to a deadly neuronal endotoxin.
Abstract Alpha-synuclein aggregation is associated with Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders termed synucleinopathies. The sequence of alpha-synuclein has a remarkable amount of lysines, which may be a target for modifications by several aldehydes found at increased concentration in parkinsonian brains. The involved aldehydes are the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, the lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxynonenal, acrolein and malondialdehyde, and advanced glycation end-products. Moreover, both relative expression levels and enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases, w...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 9, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Plotegher N, Bubacco L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle regeneration and impact of aging and nutrition.
Abstract After skeletal muscle injury a regeneration process takes place to repair muscle. Skeletal muscle recovery is a highly coordinated process involving cross-talk between immune and muscle cells. It is well known that the physiological activities of both immune cells and muscle stem cells decline with advancing age, thereby blunting the capacity of skeletal muscle to regenerate. The age-related reduction in muscle repair efficiency contributes to the development of sarcopenia, one of the most important factors of disability in elderly people. Preserving muscle regeneration capacity may slow the development o...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 9, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Domingues-Faria C, Vasson MP, Goncalves-Mendes N, Boirie Y, Walrand S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Frailty Assessment Instruments: Identification and Systematic Characterization of the Uses and Contexts of Highly-Cited Instruments.
This study reviewed the frailty-related research literature by a) comprehensively cataloging the wide array of instruments that have been utilized to measure frailty, and b) systematically categorizing the different purposes and contexts of use for frailty instruments frequently cited in the research literature. We identified 67 frailty instruments total; of these, nine were highly-cited (≥200 citations). We randomly sampled and reviewed 545 English-language articles citing at least one highly-cited instrument. We estimated the total number of uses, and classified use into eight categories: risk assessment for adverse h...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 7, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Buta BJ, Walston JD, Godino JG, Park M, Kalyani RR, Xue QL, Bandeen-Roche K, Varadhan R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNAs in aging and age-related diseases.
Abstract Aging is the universal, intrinsic, genetically-controlled, evolutionarily-conserved and time-dependent intricate biological process characterised by the cumulative decline in the physiological functions and their coordination in an organism after the attainment of adulthood resulting in the imbalance of neurological, immunological and metabolic functions of the body. Various biological processes and mechanisms along with altered levels of mRNAs and proteins have been reported to be involved in the progression of aging. It is one of the major risk factors in the patho-physiology of various diseases and dis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 3, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kour S, Rath PC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing and the telomere connection: An intimate relationship with inflammation.
Abstract Telomeres are the heterochromatic repeat regions at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, whose length is considered to be a determinant of biological ageing. Normal ageing itself is associated with telomere shortening. Here, critically short telomeres trigger senescence and eventually cell death. This shortening rate may be further increased by inflammation and oxidative stress and thus affect the ageing process. Apart from shortened or dysfunctional telomeres, cells undergoing senescence are also associated with hyperactivity of the transcription factor NF-κB and overexpression of inflammatory cytok...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 23, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang J, Rane G, Dai X, Shanmugam MK, Arfuso F, Samy RP, Peng Lai MK, Kappei D, Kumar AP, Sethi G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Effect of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Patients with Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials.
Abstract Non-pharmacological therapies, such as physical activity interventions, are an appealing alternative or add-on to current pharmacological treatment of cognitive symptoms in patients with dementia. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the effect of physical activity interventions on cognitive function in dementia patients, by synthesizing data from 802 patients included in 18 randomized control trials that applied a physical activity intervention with cognitive function as an outcome measure. Post-intervention standardized mean difference (SMD) scores were computed for each study, and combined into poole...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Groot C, Hooghiemstra AM, Raijmakers PG, Berckel BN, Scheltens P, Scherder EJ, Flieram WM, Ossenkoppele R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Does Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhance Cognitive and Motor Functions in the Ageing Brain? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract The use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive and motor functions has enjoyed a massive increase in popularity. Modifying neuroplasticity via non-invasive cortical stimulation has enormous potential to slow or even reverse declines in functions associated with ageing. The current meta-analysis evaluated the effects of tDCS on cognitive and motor performance in healthy older adults. Of the 81 studies identified, 25 qualified for inclusion. A random effects model meta-analysis revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference equal to 0.53 (SE = 0.09; medium hetero...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Summers JJ, Kang N, Cauraugh JH Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical implications.
en A Abstract Association of common aging signs (i.e. male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e. arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation with inc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 15, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Christoffersen M, Tybjærg-Hansen A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Efficacy of lifestyle interventions on clinical and neuroimaging outcomes in elderly.
Abstract The prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is constantly growing worldwide in absence of any effective treatment. Methodology and technique advancements facilitated the early diagnosis of AD leading to a shift toward preclinical AD stages investigation in order to delay the disease onset in individuals at risk for AD. Recent evidence demonstrating the aging related multifactorial nature of AD supported the hypothesis that modifiable environmental factors can accelerate or delay the disease onset. In particular, healthy dietary habits, constant physical and cognitive activities are associated with reduced ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 14, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rolandi E, Frisoni GV, Cavedo E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Is the Mediterranean diet a feasible approach to preserving cognitive function and reducing risk of dementia for older adults in Western countries? New insights and future directions.
Abstract The rise in the ageing population has resulted in increased incident rates of cognitive impairment and dementia. The subsequent financial and societal burden placed on an already strained public health care system is of increasing concern. Evidence from recent studies has revealed modification of lifestyle and dietary behaviours is, at present, the best means of prevention. Some of the most important findings, in relation to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the contemporary Western diet, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of these two diets on age-related cognitive function, are...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 2, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Knight A, Bryan J, Murphy K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The zebrafish as a gerontology model in nervous system aging, disease, and repair.
Abstract Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 29, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Van Houcke J, Groef L, Dekeyster E, Moons L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Immunesenescence and inflammaging: A contributory factor in the poor outcome of the geriatric trauma patient.
Abstract Compared to younger patients, traumatic injury in older patients is associated with increased mortality and a range of adverse outcomes such as higher rates of infectious episodes, longer length of hospital stay and poor functional outcome at follow up. Data emerging from human and murine-based studies suggest age-related changes in immune function, collectively termed immunesenescence, and the chronic sub-clinical systemic inflammatory state of older adults, termed inflammaging, may contribute to these poor outcomes. Here, we review the findings of these studies, whose results demonstrate that the geriat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 17, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hazeldine J, Lord JM, Hampson P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Emerging Role of P2X7 Receptors in CNS Health and Disease.
Abstract Purinergic signalling in the brain is becoming an important focus in the study of CNS health and disease. Various purinergic receptors are found to be present in different brain cells in varying extent, which get activated upon binding of ATP or its analogues. Conventionally, ATP was considered only as a major metabolic fuel of the cell but its recognition as a neurotransmitter in early 1970s, brought meaningful insights in neuron glia crosstalk, participating in various physiological functions in the brain. P2X7R, a member of ligand gated purinergic receptor (P2X) family, is gaining attention in the fiel...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 15, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tewari M, Seth P Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Pluripotent stem cells to model Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS): Current trends and future perspectives for drug discovery.
Abstract Progeria, also known as HGPS, is a rare, fatal genetic disease characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. This syndrome is typically caused by mutations in codon 608 (p.G608G) of the LMNA, leading to the production of a mutated form of lamin A precursor called progerin. In HGPS, progerin accumulates in cells causing progressive molecular defects, including nuclear shape abnormalities, chromatin disorganization, damage to DNA and delays in cell proliferation. Here we report how, over the past five years, pluripotent stem cells have provided new insights into the study of HGPS and how ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 13, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cicero AL, Nissan X Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.
Mutchie HL, Perri MG, Ranka S, Rashidi P, Sandesara B, Scarpace PJ, Sibille KT, Solberg LM, Someya S, Uphold C, Wohlgemuth S, Wu SS, Pahor M Abstract The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The doma...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Anton SD, Woods AJ, Ashizawa T, Barb D, Buford TW, Carter CS, Clark DJ, Cohen RA, Corbett DB, Cruz-Almeida Y, Dotson V, Ebner N, Efron PA, Fillingim RB, Foster TC, Gundermann DM, Joseph AM, Karabetian C, Leeuwenburgh C, Manini TM, Marsiske M, Mankowski RT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Air Pollution modifies the association between successful and pathological aging throughout the frailty condition.
ari M Abstract The rapid growth in the number of older adults has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures. Aging leads to a decline and deterioration of functional properties at the cellular, tissue and organ level. This loss of functional properties yields to a loss of homeostasis and decreased adaptability to internal and external stress. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by weakness, weight loss, and low activity that is associated with adverse health outcomes. Frailty manifests as an age-related, biological vulnerabilit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fougère B, Vellas B, Billet S, Martin PJ, Gallucci M, Cesari M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Controversies looming over Alzheimer's research: Do we have consensus over the path to follow?
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a personal tragedy of enormous magnitude, which imposes a daunting worldwide challenge for health-care providers and society as well. In last five decades, global research in clinics and laboratories has illuminated many features of this sinister and eventually fatal disease. Notwithstanding this development, the Alzheimer's research apparently has come across a phase of disappointment and a little reservation about the direction to follow. Persistently distressing controversies and a significant number of missing facts shed further uncertainty about the path forward. A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Amtul Z Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Exercise training for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms in people with dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
In conclusion, exercise reduces depression levels in PWD. Future studies should examine whether exercise reduces the use (and doses) of antipsychotics and other drugs often used to manage BPSD. PMID: 26369357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 11, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Barreto PS, Demougeot L, Pillard F, Lapeyre-Mestre M, Rolland Y Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

RPE Necroptosis in Response to Oxidative Stress and in AMD.
Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly. The underlying mechanism of non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD), also named geographic atrophy (GA) remains unclear and the mechanism of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell death in AMD is controversial. We review the history and recent progress in understanding the mechanism of RPE cell death induced by oxidative stress, in AMD mouse models, and in AMD patients. Due to the limitation of toolsets to distinguish between apoptosis and necroptosis (or necrosis), most previous research concludes that apoptosis is...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 11, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hanus J, Anderson C, Wang S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

microRNAs: modulators of the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia?
Abstract Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on an intricate balance between muscle hypertrophy, atrophy and regeneration. As we age, maintenance of muscle homeostasis is perturbed, resulting in a loss of muscle mass and function, termed sarcopenia. Individuals with sarcopenia exhibit impaired balance, increased falls (leading to subsequent injury) and an overall decline in quality of life. The mechanisms mediating sarcopenia are still not fully understood but clarity in our understanding of the precise pathophysiological changes occurring during skeletal muscle ageing has improved dramatically. Advances in transc...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 2, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brown DM, Goljanek-Whysall K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Quality control systems in aging.
PMID: 26099809 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 26, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Osiewacz HD Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging: A deficiency state involving declining angiogenic factors.
Abstract This essay begins by proposing that muscle weakness of old age from sarcopenia is due in large part to reduced capillary density in the muscles, as documented in 9 reports of aged persons and animals. Capillary density (CD) is determined by local levels of various angiogenic factors, which also decline in muscles with aging, as reported in 7 studies of old persons and animals. There are also numerous reports of reduced CD in the aged brain and other studies showing reduced CD in the kidney and heart of aged animals. Thus a waning angiogenesis throughout the body may be a natural occurrence in later years ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 17, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ambrose C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sarcopenia - The search for emerging biomarkers.
Abstract Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function, dramatically affects the life quality of elder people. In view of increasing life expectancy, sarcopenia renders a heavy burden on the health care system. However, although there is a consensus that sarcopenia is a multifactorial syndrome, its etiology, underlying mechanisms, and even definition remain poorly delineated, thus, preventing development of a precise treatment strategy. The main aim of our review is to critically analyze potential sarcopenia biomarkers in light of the molecular mechanisms of their involvement in sarcopeni...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - May 8, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kalinkovich A, Livshits G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research