Does the brain shrink as the waist expands?
Abstract Recent studies suggest that being overweight or obese is related to worse cognitive performance, particularly executive function. Obesity may also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in whether adiposity is related to gray or white matter (GM, WM) atrophy. In this review, we identified and critically evaluated studies assessing obesity and GM or WM volumes either globally or in specific regions of interest (ROIs). Across all ages, higher adiposity was consistently associated with frontal GM atrophy, particularly in prefrontal cortex. In children and adults
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 22, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Willette AA, Kapogiannis D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Genetic variants and animal models in SNCA and Parkinson disease.
Abstract Parkinson disease (PD; MIM 168600) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a variety of motor and non-motor features. To date, at least 20 loci and 15 disease-causing genes for parkinsonism have been identified. Among them, the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene was associated with PARK1/PARK4. Point mutations, duplications and triplications in the SNCA gene cause a rare dominant form of PD in familial and sporadic PD cases. The α-synuclein protein, a member of the synuclein family, is abundantly expressed in the brain. The protein is the major component of Lewy ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 21, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Deng H, Yuan L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

miRNAs and aging: A genetic perspective.
Abstract A growing body of evidence shows that microRNA expression changes with age in animals ranging from nematode to human. Genetic studies of microRNA function in vivo provide the means to move beyond correlation and to explore cause-effect relationships. Genetic studies in C. elegans and Drosophila have identified cellular pathways involved in organismal aging. Here, we review the evidence that microRNAs act in vivo as regulators of aging pathways, with emphasis on Drosophila. PMID: 24755363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Garg D, Cohen SM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Glycation: The angiogenic paradox in aging and age-related disorders and diseases.
Abstract Angiogenesis is generally a quiescent process which, however, may be modified by different physiological and pathological conditions. The "angiogenic paradox" has been described in diabetes because this disease impairs the angiogenic response in a manner that differs depending on the organs involved and disease evolution. Aging is also associated with pro- and antiangiogenic processes. Glycation, the post-translational modification of proteins, increases with aging and the progression of diabetes. The effect of glycation on angiogenesis depends on the type of glycated proteins and cells involved...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 15, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Roca F, Grossin N, Chassagne P, Puisieux F, Boulanger E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.
Abstract The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present pap...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 15, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Akhalaya MY, Maksimov GV, Rubin AB, Lademann J, Darvin ME Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Alzheimer's disease, enzyme targets and drug discovery struggles: from natural products to drug prototypes.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incapacitating neurodegenerative disease that slowly destroys brain cells. This disease progressively compromises both memory and cognition, culminating in a state of full dependence and dementia. Currently, AD is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and its prevalence in the developed world is increasing rapidly. Classic drugs, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), fail to decline disease progression and display several side effects that reduce patient's adhesion to pharmacotherapy. The past decade has witnessed an increasing focus on the search for novel A...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - April 9, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Silva T, Reis J, Teixeira J, Borges F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Non-coding RNA regulation of synaptic plasticity and memory: Implications for aging.
Abstract Advancing age is associated with the loss of cognitive ability and vulnerability to debilitating mental diseases. Although much is known about the development of cognitive processes in the brain, the study of the molecular mechanisms governing memory decline with aging is still in its infancy. Recently, it has become apparent that most of the human genome is transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) rather than protein-coding mRNAs. Multiple types of ncRNAs are enriched in the central nervous system, and this large group of molecules may regulate the molecular complexity of the brain, its neurons, and syn...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 27, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Earls LR, Westmoreland JJ, Zakharenko SS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in vascular aging and atherosclerosis.
i M Abstract Lipid dysfunction, inflammation, immune response and advanced aging are major factors involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression that post transcriptionally modify cellular responses and function. MiRNA's are crucially involved in several vascular pathologies which show a clear association with increasing age (Dimmeler and Nicotera, 2013). Several studies have demonstrated that miRNA dysregulation has a in atherosclerotic disease, encompassing every step from plaque formation to destabilization and rupture. ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 27, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Menghini R, Stöhr R, Federici M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Geriatric dyspnea: doing worse, feeling better.
Abstract Older age is associated with a decline in physical fitness and reduced efficiency of the respiratory system. Paradoxically, it is also related to reduced report of dyspnea, that is, the experience of difficult and uncomfortable breathing. Reduced symptom reporting contributes to misdiagnosis or late diagnosis of underlying disease, suboptimal treatment, faster disease progression, shorter life expectancy, lower quality of life for patients, and considerably increased costs for the health care system in an aging society. However, pathways in the complex relationship between dyspnea and age are not well exp...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Petersen S, von Leupoldt A, van den Bergh O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Multivariate models of subjective caregiver burden in dementia; a systematic review.
RM Abstract BACKGROUND: Burden in dementia caregivers is a complex and multidimensional construct. Several models of burden and other representations of burden like depression or mental health are described in literature. To clarify the state of science, we systematically reviewed complex models that include both patient and caregiver determinants of caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: A review of determinant models of caregiver burden. DESIGN: Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo and EMbase were searched in December 2013. STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: Research studies wit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van der Lee J, Bakker TJ, Duivenvoorden HJ, Dröes RM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Active Ingredients against Human Epidermal Aging.
This study reviews active ingredients capable of counteracting symptoms of epidermal aging, organized according to the regulation of specific age-affected epidermal functions: 1) several compounds, other than retinoids and derivatives, act on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, supporting the protective barrier against mechanical and chemical insults; 2) natural lipidic compounds, as well as glycerol and urea, are described as agents for maintaining water-ion balance; 3) regulation of immunological pathogen defense can be reinforced by natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and 4) antioxid...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lorencini M, Brohem CA, Dieamant GC, Zanchin NI, Maibach HI Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

miRNAs in lung cancer: A link to aging.
Abstract Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Development of lung cancer is associated with exposure to carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and some environmental factors. The incidence of lung cancer increases with age, particularly after age 60. It was estimated that less than 2% of all lung cancer cases occurred in patients younger than 45; therefore, this type of tumor can be considered as an aging-related disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules capable of regulating expression of over 50% of protein-coding genes. miRNAs were shown to play an extremely important role ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zagryazhskaya A, Zhivotovsky B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Interrelationship among muscle, fat, and bone: Connecting the dots on cellular, hormonal, and whole body levels.
Abstract While sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have been recognized in the last decade, a combined concept to include decreased muscle mass and strength, as well as decreased bone mass with coexistence of adiposity is discussed here. We introduce a new term, osteopenic obesity, and operationalize its meaning within the context of osteopenia and obesity. Next, we consolidate osteopenic obesity with the already existing and more familiar term, sarcopenic obesity, and delineate the resulting combined condition assigning it the term osteosarcopenic obesity. Identification and possible diagnosis of each condition are...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Inglis JE, Panton LB, Duque G, Ormsbee MJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effects of combined cognitive and exercise interventions on cognition in older adults with and without cognitive impairment: A Systematic Review.
Abstract Global concern on the potential impact of dementia is mounting. There are emerging calls for studies in older populations to investigate the potential benefits of combining cognitive and exercise interventions for cognitive functions. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the efficacy of combined cognitive and exercise training in older adults with or without cognitive impairment and evaluate the methodological quality of the intervention studies. A systematic search of Cinahl, Medline, PsycINFO, ProQuest, EMBASE databases and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Manual searches of the refere...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 11, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Law LL, Barnett F, Yau MK, Gray MA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The Impact of Cognitive Training and Mental Stimulation on Cognitive and Everyday Functioning of Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the impact of cognitive training and general mental stimulation on the cognitive and everyday functioning of older adults without known cognitive impairment. We examine transfer and maintenance of intervention effects, and the impact of training in group versus individual settings. Thirty-one randomised controlled trials were included, with 1,806 participants in cognitive training groups and 386 in general mental stimulation groups. Meta-analysis results revealed that compared to active controls, cognitive training improved performance on measures of e...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 4, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kelly ME, Loughrey D, Lawlor BA, Robertson IH, Walsh C, Brennan S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Circulating Small Noncoding RNAs as Biomarkers of Aging.
Abstract Small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) mediate a variety of cellular functions in animals and plants. Deep sequencing has made it possible to obtain highly detailed information on the types and abundance of sncRNAs in biological specimens, leading to the discovery that sncRNAs circulate in the blood of humans and mammals. The most abundant types of circulating sncRNAs are microRNAs (miRNAs), 5' transfer RNA (tRNA) halves, and YRNA fragments, with minute amounts of other types that may nevertheless be significant. Of the more abundant circulating sncRNAs only miRNAs have well described functions, but characteristi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 4, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Dhahbi JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Variance in the identification of microRNAs deregulated in Alzheimer's disease and possible role of lincRNAs in the pathology: the need of larger datasets.
Abstract Non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, represent the next major step in understanding the complexity of gene regulation and expression. In the past decade, tremendous efforts have been put mainly into identifying microRNAs that are changed in Alzheimer's disease, with the goal to provide biomarkers of the disease and to better characterize molecular pathways that are deregulated concomitantly to the formation of Tau and amyloid aggregates. This review underlines the importance of correctly defining, in a deluge of high-throughput data, which microRNAs are abnormally expressed in Alzh...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 4, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lau P, Frigerio CS, De Strooper B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The role of inflammasome in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease with clinical characteristics of memory loss, dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism is not fully understood, inflammation has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by the activation of glial cells and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that inflammasomes, which cleaves precursors of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 to generate...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu L, Chan C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Telomerase activation: a potential key modulator for human healthspan and longevity.
Abstract The elderly population is increasing progressively. Along with this increase the number of age related diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic impairment and cancer, is also on the rise thereby negatively impacting the burden on health care systems. Telomere shortening and dysfunction results in cellular senescence, an irreversible proliferative arrest that has been suggested to promote organismal aging and disabling age-related diseases. Given that telomerase, the enzyme responsible for maintaining telomere lengths, is not expressed at levels sufficient to prevent telomere...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Boccardi V, Poalisso G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Arterial stiffness, the brain and cognition: a systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness is associated with cerebral small vessel disease and decreased cognitive function. However methodological limitations such as differing covariates between studies and an over-reliance on the MMSE to measure cognition are a concern across much of the literature. PMID: 24548924 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 15, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Singer J, Trollor JN, Baune BT, Sachdev PS, Smith E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A quantitative neural network approach to understanding aging phenotypes.
Abstract Basic research on neurocognitive aging has traditionally adopted a reductionist approach in the search for the basis of cognitive preservation versus decline. However, increasing evidence suggests that a network level understanding of the brain can provide additional novel insight into the structural and functional organization from which complex behavior and dysfunction emerge. Using graph theory as a mathematical framework to characterize neural networks, recent data suggest that alterations in structural and functional networks may contribute to individual differences in cognitive phenotypes in advance...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 15, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ash JA, Rapp PR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The aging kidney revisited: a systematic review.
THE AGING KIDNEY REVISITED: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Ageing Res Rev. 2014 Feb 15; Authors: Bolignano D, Mattace-Raso F, Sijbrands EJ, Zoccali C Abstract As for the whole human body, the kidney undergoes age-related changes which translate in an inexorable and progressive decline in renal function. Renal aging is a multifactorial process where gender, race and genetic background and several key-mediators such as chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system, impairment in kidney repair capacities and background cardiovascular disease play a significant role. Features of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 15, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bolignano D, Mattace-Raso F, Sijbrands EJ, Zoccali C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: a systematic review.
Abstract This systematic review aims to integrate the evidence on indications, efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of medical cannabinoids in older subjects. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. We selected controlled trials including solely older subjects (≥ 65 years) or reporting data on older subgroups. 105 (74%) papers, on controlled intervention trials, reported the inclusion of older subjects. Five studies reported data on older persons separately. These were randomized controlled trials, including in total 267 participants (mean age 47-78 years). Interv...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 5, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: van den Elsen GA, Ahmed AI, Lammers M, Kramers C, Verkes RJ, van der Marck MA, Rikkert MG Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists in a battle against the aging kidney.
Abstract As aging is a complex phenomenon characterized by intraindividual and interindividual diversities in the maintenance of the homeostatic condition of cells and tissues, changes in renal function are not uniform and depend on associated diseases and environmental factors. Multiple studies have investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of age-related decline in kidney function. Evolutionary, molecular, cellular and systemic theories have been postulated to explain the primary disease independent age-related changes and adaptive responses. As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are invol...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Speeckaert MM, Vanfraechem C, Speeckaert R, Delanghe JR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing and Parkinson's disease: Why is advancing age the biggest risk factor?
Abstract As the second most common age related neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, the health, social and economic impact resulting from Parkinson's disease will continue to increase alongside the longevity of the population. Ageing remains the biggest risk factor for developing idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Although research into the mechanisms leading to cell death in Parkinson's disease has shed light on many aspects of the pathogenesis of this disorder, we still cannot answer the fundamental question, what specific age related factors predispose some individuals to develop this common neurod...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Reeve A, Simcox E, Turnbull D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Communication Breakdown: The Impact of Ageing on Synapse Structure.
Abstract Impaired synaptic plasticity is implicated in the functional decline of the nervous system associated with ageing. Understanding the structure of ageing synapses is essential to understanding the functions of these synapses and their role in the ageing nervous system. In this review, we summarize studies on ageing synapses in vertebrates and invertebrates, focusing on changes in morphology and ultrastructure. We cover different parts of the nervous system, including the brain, the retina, the cochlea, and the neuromuscular junction. The morphological characteristics of aged synapses could shed light on th...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Petralia RS, Mattson MP, Yao PJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging related changes in determinants of muscle force generating capacity: A comparison of muscle aging in men and male rodents.
Abstract Human aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and force generating capacity, however the exact mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. Rodents models have often been used to enhance our understanding of mechanisms of age-related changes in human skeletal muscle. However, to what extent age-related alterations in determinants of muscle force generating capacity observed in rodents resemble those in humans has not been considered thoroughly. This review compares the effect of aging on muscle force generating determinants (muscle mass, fiber size, fiber nu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ballak S, Degens H, de Haan A, Jaspers RT Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular ageing.
Abstract The increasing burden of ageing populations and their healthcare expenditure is a major challenge worldwide. Ageing is a complex disorder and can be defined as progressive decline in function with time leading to increased incidence of various cardiovascular, neurological and immunological diseases. The human genome comprises of many protein coding and even more non-coding RNA genes. MicroRNAs, a class of non-coding RNA, regulate the expression of multiple messenger RNAs post-transcriptionally and are reported to be involved in crucial aspects of cell biology encompassing ageing. Recently, several studies...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 31, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gupta SK, Piccoli MT, Thum T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Vitamin E-gene interactions in ageing and inflammatory age-related diseases: implications for treatment. A systematic review.
Abstract Aging is a complex biological phenomenon in which the deficiency of the nutritional state combined with the presence of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to the development of many age-related diseases. Under this profile, the free radicals produced by the oxidative stress lead to a damage of DNA, lipids and proteins with subsequent altered cellular homeostasis and integrity. In young-adult age, the cell has an complex efficient system to maintain a proper balance between the levels of free radicals and antioxidants ensuring the integrity of cellular components. In contrast, in old age ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 10, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mocchegiani E, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Malavolta M, Basso A, Piacenza F, Ostan R, Cevenini E, Gonos ES, Franceschi C, Monti D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Are dopamine derivatives implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease?
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common motor system disorder affecting 1-2% of people over the age of sixty-five. Although PD is generally a sporadic neurological disorder, the discovery of monogenic, hereditable forms of the disease, representing 5-10% of all cases, has been very important in helping to partially delineate the molecular pathways that lead to this pathology. These mechanisms include impairment of the intracellular protein-degradation pathways, protein aggregation, mitochondria dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Some of these features are also supported by post-morte...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bisaglia M, Filograna R, Beltramini M, Bubacco L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of translation initiation factor 4G in lifespan regulation and age-related health.
Abstract Inhibiting expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) arrests normal development but extends lifespan when suppressed during adulthood. In addition to reducing overall translation, inhibition alters the stoichiometry of mRNA translation in favor of genes important for responding to stress and against those associated with growth and reproduction in C. elegans. In humans, aberrant expression of eIF4G is associated with certain forms of cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review what is known about the roles of eIF4G in molecular, cellular, and organismal contexts. Also discussed ar...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Howard A, Rogers AN Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Effect of ageing on tactile transduction processes.
Abstract With advancing age, a decline in the main sensory modalities including touch sensation and perception is well reported to occur. This review mainly outlines the peripheral components of touch perception highlighting ageing influences on morphological and functional features of cutaneous mechanical transducers and mechanosensitive ion channels, sensory innervation, neurotransmitters and even vascular system required to ensure efferent function of the afferent nerve fibres in the skin. This, in conjunction with effect of ageing on the skin per se and central nervous system, could explain the tactile deficit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 26, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Decorps J, Saumet JL, Sommer P, Sigaudo-Roussel D, Fromy B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Redox proteomics and the dynamic molecular landscape of the aging brain.
Abstract It is well established that the risk to develop neurodegenerative disorders increases with chronological aging. Accumulating studies contributed to characterize the age-dependent changes either at gene and protein expression level which, taken together, show that aging of the human brain results from the combination of the normal decline of multiple biological functions with environmental factors that contribute to defining disease risk of late-life brain disorders. Finding the "way out" of the labyrinth of such complex molecular interactions may help to fill the gap between "normal" b...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 25, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Perluigi M, Swomley AM, Butterfield DA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Oncogenic somatic events in tissue-specificstem cells: A role in cancer recurrence?
JE Abstract Tissue-specific stem cells (TSSCs) are a very unique cell type, with critical and well-defined roles for the homeostasis of high turnover tissues (such as the blood and the skin). Emerging evidence suggests that TSSCs are implicated in malignancies, with several theories being proposed and tested, including many attempts to identify the cells of origin and studies deigned to understand how TSSCs participate in age-related increase in cancer risk. A currently unexplored possibility in this respect is the plausible theory that an oncogenic event that arises at a TSSCwould promote tissue replenishment by...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 24, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hartwig F, Collares T, Nedel F, Tarquinio S, Demarco F, Nör JE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes and their naturally derived inhibitors: Novel targets in photocarcinoma therapy.
Abstract The continuous exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiations generates reactive oxygen species leading to photoaging in which degradation of dermal collagen and degeneration of elastic fibers occurs. Matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] enzymes are the proteolytic enzymes which have significant potentiality of cleaving extracellular matrix [ECM] against Ultraviolet [UV] radiation. The important MMPs are MMP1, MMP2 and MMP7 which promote skin cancer when irradiated by UV rays. In lieu of this, the investigation of MMPs and their inhibitors are constantly being studied for successive results. Recent researches have ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 16, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Saraf S, Saraf S, Kaur CD, Gupta A, Jangdey M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Role of SIRT1 and AMPK in mesenchymal stem cells differentiation.
Abstract The differentiation capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) compromise with age and with in vitro passages which could impair the efficacy of cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, how to maintain these capabilities is not fully understood. Calorie restriction (CR, decreasing caloric intake by 30-40%) could extend longevity and reduce ageing-related diseases. Recent studies revealed that CR could influence the lineage determination of stem cells including MSCs. Two important mediators of CR might be silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase,...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 11, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chen H, Liu X, Chen H, Cao J, Zhang L, Hu X, Wang J Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?
Abstract Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 27, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rizza W, Veronese N, Fontana L Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The behavioral, pathological and therapeutic features of the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 strain as an Alzheimer's disease animal model.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a widespread and devastating progressive neurodegenerative disease. Disease-modifying treatments remain beyond reach, and the etiology of the disease is uncertain. Animal model are essential for identifying disease mechanisms and developing effective therapeutic strategies. Research on AD is currently being carried out in rodent models. The most common transgenic mouse model mimics familial AD, which accounts for a small percentage of cases. The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain is a spontaneous animal model of accelerated aging. Many studies indicate that SAM...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 21, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Cheng XR, Zhou WX, Zhang YX Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A genetic program theory of aging using an RNA population model.
Abstract Aging is a common characteristic of multicellular eukaryotes. Copious hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of aging, but no single theory is generally acceptable. In this review, we refine the RNA population gene activating model (Lv et al., 2003) based on existing reports as well as on our own latest findings. We propose the RNA population model as a genetic theory of aging. The new model can also be applied to differentiation and tumorigenesis and could explain the biological significance of non-coding DNA, RNA, and repetitive sequence DNA. We provide evidence from the literature as w...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 18, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wang X, Ma Z, Cheng J, Lv Z Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

On the origin of Alzheimer's disease. Trials and tribulations of the amyloid hypothesis.
Abstract The amyloid cascade hypothesis, which implicates the amyloid Aβ peptide as the pathological initiator of both familial and sporadic, late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), continues to guide the majority of research. We believe that current evidence does not support the amyloid cascade hypothesis for late onset AD. Instead, we propose that Aβ is a key regulator of brain homeostasis. During AD, while Aβ accumulation may occur in the long term in parallel with disease progression, it does not contribute to primary pathogenesis. This view predicts that amyloid-centric therapies will continue to ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 16, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Castello MA, Soriano S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The heritability of volumes of brain structures and its relationship to age: A review of twin and family studies.
Abstract Total brain volume (BV) and the volumes of brain substructures are influenced by genes, the magnitude of which changes with age. One approach to the examination of genetic influences on the volumes of brain structures is to determine their heritability using twin and family studies. We reviewed published cross-sectional studies which examined heritability in healthy subjects at different ages. We identified 32 studies, which examined a total of 77 brain volumetric measures. The findings of our review showed that BVs are under significant genetic influence at all ages, although different brain regions show...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 7, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Batouli SA, Trollor JN, Wen W, Sachdev PS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Acute Stroke and the Role of Inflammasomes.
Abstract Inflammation is an innate immune response to infection or tissue damage that is designed to limit harm to the host, but contributes significantly to ischemic brain injury following stroke. The inflammatory response is initiated by the detection of acute damage via extracellular and intracellular pattern recognition receptors, which respond to conserved microbial structures, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns or host-derived danger signals termed damage-associated molecular patterns. Multi-protein complexes known as inflammasomes (e.g. containing NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRP3, NLRP6, NLRP7, NLRP12, NLRC4,...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 5, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Fann DY, Lee SY, Manzanero S, Chunduri P, Sobey CG, Arumugam TV Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Current methods in quantifying ROS and oxidative damage in Caenorhabditis elegans and other model organism of ageing.
Abstract Accumulation of oxidative damage has been proposed to be causal to ageing as defined by the Free radical Theory of Ageing, which has been subject to recent debate. However, a major hurdle in understanding the biological roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and their oxidative damage has been the widely recognized methodological difficulties to measure oxidative damage and ROS in vivo. In this review we describe the various novel approaches that have recently been developed to overcome this challenge in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is a paradigm invertebrate model organism for stu...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 27, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Labuschagne CF, Brenkman AB Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Circadian Aspects of Energy Metabolism and Aging.
Abstract Life span extension has been a goal of research for several decades. Resetting circadian rhythms leads to well being and increased life span, while clock disruption is associated with increased morbidity accelerated aging. Increased longevity and improved health can be achieved by different feeding regimens that reset circadian rhythms and may lead to better synchrony in metabolism and physiology. This review focuses on the circadian aspects of energy metabolism and their relationship with aging in mammals. PMID: 24075855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 25, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Froy O Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Actions of 17β-Estradiol and Testosterone in the Mitochondria and their Implications in Aging.
Actions of 17β-Estradiol and Testosterone in the Mitochondria and their Implications in Aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2013 Sep 13; Authors: Vasconsuelo A, Milanesi L, Boland R Abstract A decline in the mitochondrial functions and aging are two closely related processes. The presence of estrogen and androgen receptors and hormone-responsive elements in the mitochondria represents the starting point for the investigation of the effects of 17β-estradiol and testosterone on the mitochondrial functions and their relationships with aging. Both steroids trigger a complex molecular mechanism that involves cross...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 13, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vasconsuelo A, Milanesi L, Boland R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle atrophy during short-term disuse: Implications for age-related sarcopenia.
Abstract Situations such as the recovery from injury and illness can lead to enforced periods of muscle disuse or unloading. Such circumstances lead to rapid skeletal muscle atrophy, loss of functional strength and a multitude of related negative health consequences. The elderly population is particularly vulnerable to the acute challenges of muscle disuse atrophy. Any loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a chronic imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. It is recognized that muscle atrophy during prolonged (>10 days) disuse is brought about primarily by declines in post-a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 12, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wall BT, Dirks ML, van Loon LJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of oral nutritional supplements on hospital readmissions.
Abstract The adverse effects of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) on health care use and costs are well substantiated. However, the impact of managing DRM with nutritional support on health care use, including hospital (re)admissions requires exploration. This systematic review (9 RCT, n=1190) examined the effects of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) on hospital (re)admissions. Meta-analysis of 6 RCT (n=852) with data on the proportion of patients (re)admitted to hospital showed significant reductions with ONS vs. routine care (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.80, P=0.001), including 5 RCT (n=826) that recorded readmis...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 24, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Stratton RJ, Hebuterne X, Elia M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing of Trees: Application of General Ageing Theories.
ron;ička J, Mičieta K Abstract The main questions posed in ageing theories are how ageing evolved and whether or not it is programmed. While these questions have not yet been clearly resolved, several groups of possible theories have been published on this topic. However, most of these theories do not consider plants, and the specific traits involved in their ageing mechanisms. The first trait covers clonality and sectoriality and the second concerns the lack of a differentiated germ line. The lack of a germ line prevents telomere shortening which can lead to the transfer of somatic mutations into sexual offspri...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 17, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Brutovská E, Sámelová A, Dušička J, Mičieta K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Commentary to the recently published review "Drug pipeline in neurodegeneration based on transgenic mice models of Alzheimer's disease" by Li, Evrahimi and Schluesener. Ageing Res Rev. 2013 Jan;12(1):116-40.
Commentary to the recently published review "Drug pipeline in neurodegeneration based on transgenic mice models of Alzheimer's disease" by Li, Evrahimi and Schluesener. Ageing Res Rev. 2013 Jan;12(1):116-40. Ageing Res Rev. 2013 Jul 10; Authors: Windisch M, Flunkert S, Havas D, Hutter-Paier B Abstract Li and colleagues summarized the most frequently used Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models available for drug testing and the mediating effects of the different compounds. With almost 300 cited publications, authors present the research community's effort of the last 10 years in finding a new drug ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 10, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Windisch M, Flunkert S, Havas D, Hutter-Paier B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Using memories to understand others: The role of Episodic Memory in Theory of Mind impairment in Alzheimer disease.
Abstract Theory of mind (TOM) refers to the ability to infer one's own and other's mental states. Growing evidence highlighted the presence of impairment on the most complex TOM tasks in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, how TOM deficit is related to other cognitive dysfunctions and more specifically to episodic memory impairment - the prominent feature of this disease - is still under debate. Recent neuroanatomical findings have shown that remembering past events andinferring others' states of mind share the same cerebral network suggesting the two abilities share a common process .This paper proposes to review em...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 6, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moreau N, Viallet F, Champagne-Lavau M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research