DAMPs activating innate immune responses in sepsis.
Abstract Sepsis refers to the deleterious and non-resolving systemic inflammatory response of the host to microbial infection and is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. The pathogenesis of sepsis is highly complex. It is principally attributable to dysregulation of the innate immune system. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are actively secreted by innate immune cells and/or released passively by injured or damaged cells in response to infection or injury. In the present review, we highlight emerging evidence that supports the notion that extracellular DAMPs act as crucial proinflammator...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 25, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kang JW, Kim SJ, Cho HI, Lee SM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues.
Abstract As bones are levers for skeletal muscle to exert forces, both are complementary and essential for locomotion and individual autonomy. In the past decades, the idea of a bone-muscle unit has emerged. Numerous studies have confirmed this hypothesis from in utero to aging works. Space flight, bed rest as well as osteoporosis and sarcopenia experimentations have allowed to accumulate considerable evidence. Mechanical loading is a key mechanism linking both tissues with a central promoting role of physical activity. Moreover, the skeletal muscle secretome accounts various molecules that affect bone including i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 21, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tagliaferri C, Wittrant Y, Davicco MJ, Walrand S, Coxam V Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

siRNA as a tool to improve the treatment of brain diseases: Mechanism, targets and delivery.
Abstract As the population ages, brain pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancer increase their incidence, being the need to find successful treatments of upmost importance. Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) is required in order to reach diseases causes and treat them. However, biological barriers, mainly blood-brain barrier (BBB), are the key obstacles that prevent the effectiveness of possible treatments due to their ability to strongly limit the perfusion of compounds into the brain. Over the past decades, new approaches towards overcoming BBB and its efflux transporters ha...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 18, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gomes MJ, Martins S, Sarmento B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Energy metabolism and the brain: A bidirectional relationship.
PMID: 25728594 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - March 1, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kapogiannis D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Innate immune perturbations, accumulating DAMPs and inflammasome dysregulation: a ticking time bomb in ageing.
Abstract Ageing has pronounced effects on the immune system, including on innate immune cells. Whilst most studies suggest that total numbers of different innate immune cell populations do not change dramatically during ageing, many of their functions such as phagocytosis, antigen presentation and inflammatory molecule secretion decline. In contrast, many endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) accumulate during ageing. These include reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from damaged mitochondria, extracellular nucleotides like ATP, high mobility group box (HMGB) 1 protein, oxidized low density li...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 25, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kapetanovic R, Bokil NJ, Sweet MJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Quality Control Systems in Cardiac Aging.
Abstract Cardiac aging is an intrinsic process that results in impaired cardiac function, along with cellular and molecular changes. These degenerative changes are intimately associated with quality control mechanisms. This review provides a general overview of the clinical and cellular changes which manifest in cardiac aging, and the quality control mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis and retarding aging. These mechanisms include autophagy, ubiquitin-mediated turnover, apoptosis, mitochondrial quality control and cardiac matrix homeostasis. Finally, we discuss aging interventions that have been observe...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Quarles EK, Dai DF, Tocchi A, Basisty N, Gitari L, Rabinovitch PS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing and Inflammation - a central role for mitochondria in Brain Health and Disease.
Abstract To develop successful therapies that prevent or treat neurodegenerative diseases requires an understanding of the upstream events. Ageing is by far the greatest risk factor for most of these diseases, and to clarify their causes will require an understanding of the process of ageing itself. Starting with the question Why do we age as individual organisms, but the line of pluripotent embryonic stem cells and germ cells carried by individuals and transmitted to descendants is immortal? this review discusses how the process of cellular differentiation leads to the accumulation of biological imperfections wit...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Currais A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

As we age: Does slippage of quality control in the immune system lead to collateral damage?
c G Abstract The vertebrate adaptive immune system is remarkable for its possession of a very broad range of antigen receptors imbuing the system with exquisite specificity, in addition to the phagocytic and inflammatory cells of the innate system shared with invertebrates. This system requires strict control both at the level of the generation the cells carrying these receptors and at the level of their activation and effector function mediation in order to avoid autoimmunity and mitigate immune pathology. Thus, quality control checkpoints are built into the system at multiple nodes in the response, relying on cl...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 9, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Müller L, Pawelec G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Genome instability of ageing stem cells-induction and defence mechanisms.
Abstract The mammalian organism is comprised of tissue types with varying degrees of self-renewal and regenerative capacity. In most organs self-renewing tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells contribute to organ maintenance, and it is vital to maintain a functional stem cell pool to preserve organ homeostasis. Various conditions like tissue injury, stress responses, and regeneration challenge the stem cell pool to re-establish homeostasis (Figure 1). However, with increasing age the functionality of adult stem cells declines and genomic mutations accumulate. These defects affect different cellular response pat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - February 7, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Burkhalter MD, Rudolph KL, Sperka T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Oxidation events and skin aging.
Abstract The rate of skin aging, or that of tissue in general, is determined by a variable predominance of tissue degeneration over tissue regeneration. This review discusses the role of oxidative events of tissue degeneration and aging in general, and for the skin in particular. The mechanisms involved in intrinsic and extrinsic (photo-) aging are described. Since photoaging is recognized as an important extrinsic aging factor, we put special emphasize on the effects of UV exposure on aging, and its variable influence according to global location and skin type. We here summarise direct photochemical effects of UV...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 31, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kammeyer A, Luiten RM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

DAMPs as mediators of sterile inflammation in aging-related pathologies.
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that aging is associated with a chronic low-level inflammation, termed sterile-inflammation. Sterile-inflammation is a form of pathogen-free inflammation caused by mechanical trauma, ischemia, stress or environmental conditions such as ultra-violet radiation. These damage-related stimuli induce the secretion of molecular agents collectively termed danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs are recognized by virtue of specialized innate immune receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). These re...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 29, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Feldman N, Rotter A, Okun E Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Resveratrol supplementation, where are we now and where should we go?
Abstract Pre-clinical findings have provided mounting evidence that resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol, may confer health benefits and protect against a variety of medical conditions and age-related complications. However, there is no consistent evidence of an increased protection against metabolic disorders and other ailments when comparing studies in laboratory animals and humans. A number of extraneous and potential confounding variables can affect the outcome of clinical research. To date, most of the studies that have investigated the effect of resveratrol administration on patient outcomes have been limited b...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 24, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Novelle MG, Wahl D, Dieguez C, Bernier M, de Cabo R Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mitochondrial proteases and protein quality control in ageing and longevity.
Abstract Mitochondria have been implicated in the ageing process and the lifespan modulation of model organisms. Mitochondria are the main providers of energy in eukaryotic cells but also represent both a major source of reactive oxygen species and targets for protein oxidative damage. Since protein damage can impair mitochondrial function, mitochondrial proteases are critically important for protein maintenance and elimination of oxidized protein. In the mitochondrial matrix, protein quality control is mainly achieved by the Lon and Clp proteases which are also key players in damaged mitochondrial proteins degrad...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 8, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hamon MP, Bulteau AL, Friguet B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Acquiring visual information for locomotion by older adults: A systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review is to provide a critical evaluation of available evidence and to explore the role of gaze behavior among older adults during different forms of locomotion. Database searches were conducted to identify research papers that met the inclusion criteria of (1) study variables that included direct measurement of gaze and at least one form of locomotion, (2) participants who were older adults aged 60 years and above, and (3) reporting original research. Twenty-five papers related to walking on a straight path and turning (n=4), stair navigation (n=3), target negotiation and obstacle circumv...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 7, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Uiga L, Cheng KK, Wilson M, Masters RS, Capio CM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Lifelong brain health is a lifelong challenge: From evolutionary principles to empirical evidence.
Abstract Although the human brain is exceptional in size and information processing capabilities, it is similar to other mammals with regard to the factors that promote its optimal performance. Three such factors are the challenges of physical exercise, food deprivation/fasting, and social/intellectual engagement. Because it evolved, in part, for success in seeking and acquiring food, the brain functions best when the individual is hungry and physically active, as typified by the hungry lion stalking and chasing its prey. Indeed, studies of animal models and human subjects demonstrate robust beneficial effects of ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 7, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Mattson MP Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Quality control mechanisms in cellular and systemic DNA damage responses.
Abstract The maintenance of the genome is of pivotal importance for the functional integrity of cells and tissues. The gradual accumulation of DNA damage is thought to contribute to the functional decline of tissues and organs with ageing. Defects in multiple genome maintenance systems cause human disorders characterized by cancer susceptibility, developmental failure, and premature ageing. The complex pathological consequences of genome instability are insufficiently explained by cell-autonomous DNA damage responses (DDR) alone. Quality control pathways play an important role in DNA repair and cellular DDR pathwa...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - January 3, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ermolaeva MA, Dakhovnik A, Schumacher B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Mitochondria to nucleus signaling and the role of ceramide in its integration into the suite of cell quality control processes during aging.
Abstract Mitochondria to nucleus signaling have been the most extensively studied mode of inter-organelle communication. The first signaling pathway in this category of information transfer to be discovered was the retrograde response, with its own set of signal transduction proteins. The finding that this pathway compensates for mitochondrial dysfunction to extend the replicative lifespan of yeast cells has generated additional impetus for its study. This research has demonstrated crosstalk between the retrograde response and the target of rapamycin (TOR), small GTPase RAS, and high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) path...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 31, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jazwinski SM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cognitive frailty, a novel target for the prevention of elderly dependency.
In this study, we refine the definition of cognitive frailty based on existing reports about frailty and the latest progress in cognition research. We obtain evidence from the literature regarding the role of pre-physical frailty in pathological aging. We propose that cognitive impairment of cognitive frailty results from physical or pre-physical frailty and comprises two subtypes: the reversible and the potentially reversible. Reversible cognitive impairment is indicated by SCD and/or positive fluid and imaging biomarkers of amyloid-β accumulation and neurodegeneration. Potentially reversible cognitive impairment is ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 30, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ruan Q, Yu Z, Chen M, Bao Z, Li J, He W Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

RecQ helicases and PARP1 team up in maintaining genome integrity.
Abstract Genome instability represents a primary hallmark of aging and cancer. RecQL helicases (i.e., RECQL1, WRN, BLM, RECQL4, RECQL5) as well as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs, in particular PARP1) represent two central quality control systems to preserve genome integrity in mammalian cells. Consistently, both enzymatic families have been linked to mechanisms of aging and carcinogenesis in mice and humans. This is in accordance with clinical and epidemiological findings demonstrating that defects in three RecQL helicases, i.e., WRN, BLM, RECQL4, are related to human progeroid and cancer predisposition syndr...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 30, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Veith S, Mangerich A Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Protein synthesis as an integral quality control mechanism during ageing.
Abstract Ageing is manifested as functional and structural deterioration that affects cell and tissue physiology. mRNA translation is a central cellular process, supplying cells with newly synthesized proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in protein synthesis are not merely a corollary but rather a critical factor for the progression of ageing. Here, we survey protein synthesis regulatory mechanisms and focus on the pre-translational regulation of the process exerted by non-coding RNA species, RNA binding proteins and alterations of intrinsic RNA properties. In addition, we discuss the tight re...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 30, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Charmpilas N, Daskalaki I, Papandreou ME, Tavernarakis N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Proteasome activation: An innovative promising approach for delaying aging and retarding age-related diseases.
Abstract Aging is a natural process accompanied by a progressive accumulation of damage in all constituent macromolecules (nucleic acids, lipids and proteins). Accumulation of damage in proteins leads to failure of proteostasis (or vice versa) due to increased levels of unfolded, misfolded or aggregated proteins and, in turn, to aging and/or age-related diseases. The major cellular proteolytic machineries, namely the proteasome and the lysosome, have been shown to dysfunction during aging and age-related diseases. Regarding proteasome it is well established that it can be activated either through genetic manipulat...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 23, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chondrogianni N, Voutetakis K, Kapetanou M, Delitsikou V, Papaevgeniou N, Sakellari M, Lefaki M, Filippopoulou K, Gonos ES Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Calorie restriction mimetics: Can you have your cake and eat it, too?
Abstract Strong consensus exists regarding the most robust environmental intervention for attenuating aging processes and increasing healthspan and lifespan: calorie restriction (CR). Over several decades, this paradigm has been replicated in numerous nonhuman models, and has been expanded over the last decade to formal, controlled human studies of CR. Given that long-term CR can create heavy challenges to compliance in human diets, the concept of a calorie restriction mimetic (CRM) has emerged as an active research area within gerontology. In past presentations on this subject, we have proposed that a CRM is a co...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ingram DK, Roth GS Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A review of the Equine Age-related Changes in the Immune System: Comparisons between Human and Equine Aging, with Focus on Lung Specific Immune-aging.
Abstract The equine aging process involves many changes to the immune system that may be related to genetics, the level of nutrition, the environment and/or an underlying subclinical disease. Geriatric horses defined as horses above the age of 20, exhibit a decline in body condition, muscle tone and general well-being. It is not known whether these changes contribute to decreased immune function or are the result of declining immune function. Geriatric years are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections and a reduced antibody response to vaccination as a result of changes in the immune system. Humans...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 9, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hansen S, Baptiste KE, Fjeldborg J, Horohov DW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing and Dyslipidemia: A review of potential mechanisms.
Abstract Elderly adults constitute a rapidly growing part of the global population, thus resulting in an increase in morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), which remains the major cause of death in elderly population, including men and women. Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for CVD and is estimated to account for more than half of the worldwide cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many studies have shown a strong correlation between serum cholesterol levels and risk of developing CAD. In this paper, we review the changes of plasma lipids that occur in men and women durin...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 8, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu HH, Li JJ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The systemic milieu as a mediator of dietary influence on stem cell function during ageing.
Abstract The regenerative decline of organisms during ageing is linked to the reduced proliferative activity, impaired function and exhaustion of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells. Studies using heterochronic parabiosis, involving the surgical attachment of young and old organisms so that they share a common vascular system, have revealed that the systemic environment has a profound effect on stem cell function. In particular, specific youthful rejuvenating circulatory factors reverse age-related declines in stem cell function, whereas the old milieu contains inhibitory factors that impede stem cell functi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - December 4, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Murphy T, Thuret S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

DAMPs and Neurodegeneration.
Abstract The concept of neuroinflammation has come a full circle; from being initially regarded as a controversial viewpoint to its present day acceptance as an integral component of neurodegenerative processes. A closer look at the etiopathogenesis of many neurodegenerative conditions will reveal a patho-symbiotic relationship between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, where the two liaise with each other to form a self-sustaining vicious cycle that facilitates neuronal demise. Here, we focus on Damage Associated Molecular Patterns or DAMPs as a potentially important nexus in the context of this lethal neur...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thundyil J, Lim KL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

ShcC proteins: Brain aging and beyond.
Abstract To date, most studies of Shc family of signaling adaptor proteins have been focused on the near-ubiquitously expressed ShcA, indicating its relevance to age-related diseases and longevity. Although the role of the neuronal ShcC protein is much less investigated, accumulated evidence suggests its importance for neuroprotection against such aging-associated conditions as brain ischemia and oxidative stress. Here, we summarize more than decade of studies on the ShcC expression and function in normal brain, age-related brain pathologies and immune disorders with a focus on the interactions of ShcC with signal...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 24, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sagi O, Budovsky A, Wolfson M, Fraifeld VE Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Sleep disorders, obesity, and aging: the role of orexin.
Abstract The hypothalamic neuropeptides orexin A and B (hypocretin 1 and 2) are important homeostatic mediators of central control of energy metabolism and maintenance of sleep/wake states. Dysregulation or loss of orexin signaling has been linked to narcolepsy, obesity, and age-related disorders. In this review, we present an overview of our current understanding of orexin function, focusing on sleep disorders, energy balance, and aging, in both rodents and humans. We first discuss animal models used in studies of obesity and sleep, including loss of function using transgenic or viral-mediated approaches, gain of...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 22, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nixon JP, Mavanji V, Butterick TA, Billington CJ, Kotz CM, Teske JA Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Consistent age-dependent declines in human semen quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Reduced fertility typically occurs among women in their late 30s, but increasing evidence indicates that advanced paternal age is associated with changes in reproduction as well. Numerous studies have investigated age-based declines in semen traits, but the impact of paternal age on sperm parameter values remains inconclusive. Using data from 90 studies (93,839 subjects), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effect of male age on seven ejaculate traits (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, morphology, total motility, progressive motility and DNA fragmentation...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 21, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Johnson SL, Dunleavy J, Gemmell NJ, Nakagawa S Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Stem cells and aberrant signaling of molecular systems in skin aging.
Abstract The skin is the body's largest organ and it is able to self-repair throughout an individual's life. With advanced age, skin is prone to degenerate in response to damage. Although cosmetic surgery has been widely adopted to rejuvinate skin, we are far from a clear understanding of the mechanisms responsible for skin aging. Recently, adult skin-resident stem/progenitor cells, growth arrest, senescence or apoptotic death and dysfunction caused by alterations in key signaling genes, such as Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt-kinases, Wnt, p21 and p53, have been shown to play a vital role in skin regeneration. Simultan...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 7, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Peng Y, Xuan M, Leung VY, Cheng B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Genetic factors associated with longevity: A review of recent findings.
Abstract Given the rising rate of survival into advanced old age in the United States, achieving longevity and healthy aging is becoming increasingly important. Besides maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviors, positive aging outcomes may also be heritable, with estimates ranging from 20% to 35%. In this qualitative review, we summarize recent findings on genetic factors linked to longevity across different populations and study designs. Recent studies not only confirm the association of APOE with longevity in different populations, but also implicate several other pathways that may influence longevity including ni...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - November 5, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Shadyab AH, LaCroix AZ Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

DAMPs, ageing, and cancer: The 'DAMP Hypothesis'
Abstract Ageing is a complex and multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of many forms of damage at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level with advancing age. Ageing increases the risk of the onset of chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as cancer, diabetes, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease. In particular, ageing and cancer share some common origins and hallmarks such as genomic instability, epigenetic alteration, aberrant telomeres, inflammation and immune injury, reprogrammed metabolism, and degradation system impairment (including within the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 30, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Huang J, Xie Y, Sun X, Zeh HJ, Kang R, Lotze MT, Tang D Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cognitive health and Mediterranean: Just diet or lifestyle pattern?
Abstract Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 18, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yannakoulia M, Kontogianni M, Scarmeas N Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Food and addiction among the ageing population.
Abstract Obesity among the elderly is a growing public health concern. Among the various factors that may contribute to the current rates of obesity is the rewarding aspect of highly palatable foods and beverages, which may lead to overconsumption and excess caloric intake. The present review describes recent research supporting the hypothesis that, for some individuals, the consumption these highly palatable foods and beverages may lead to the development of addictive-like behaviors. In particular, the authors consider the relevance of this hypothesis to the ageing population. PMID: 25449527 [PubMed - as sup...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 17, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Murray S, Kroll C, Avena NM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Aging in Blood Vessels. medicinal agents FOR systemic Arterial Hypertension in the elderly.
G, Lans VG Abstract Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: 1) Oxidative stress enhancement. 2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. 3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. 4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. 5) Impaired angiogenesis. 5) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is charact...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 10, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rubio-Ruiz ME, Pérez-Torres I, Soto ME, Pastelín G, Lans VG Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Involvement of oxysterols in age-related diseases and ageing processes.
Abstract Ageing is accompanied by increasing vulnerability to major pathologies (atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and osteoporosis) which can have similar underlying pathoetiologies. All of these diseases involve oxidative stress, inflammation and/or cell death processes, which are triggered by cholesterol oxide derivatives, also named oxysterols. These oxidized lipids result either from spontaneous and/or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol on the steroid nucleus or on the side chain. The ability of oxysterols to induce severe dysfunctions in organelles (especially ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 8, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zarrouk A, Vejux A, Mackrill J, O'Callaghan Y, Hammami M, O'Brien N, Lizard G Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The measurement of Protein Synthesis for Assessing Proteostasis in Studies of Slowed Aging.
Abstract Slowing the aging process can reduce the risk for multiple chronic diseases simultaneously. It is increasingly recognized that maintaining protein homeostasis (or proteostasis) is important for slowing the aging process. Since proteostasis is a dynamic process, monitoring it is not a simple task and requires use of appropriate methods. This review will introduce methods to assess protein and DNA synthesis using deuterium oxide (D2O), and how protein and DNA synthesis outcomes provide insight into proteostatic mechanisms. Finally, we provide a discussion on how these assessments of protein and DNA synthesi...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - October 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Miller BF, Drake JC, Naylor B, Price JC, Hamilton KL Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

BioAge: Toward a multi-determined, mechanistic account of cognitive aging.
Abstract The search for reliable early indicators of age-related cognitive decline represents a critical avenue for progress in aging research. Chronological age is a commonly used developmental index; however, it offers little insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline. In contrast, biological age (BioAge), reflecting the vitality of essential biological systems, represents a promising operationalization of developmental time. Current BioAge models have successfully predicted age-related cognitive deficits. Research on aging-related cognitive function indicates that the interaction of multiple risk ...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 30, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: DeCarlo CA, Tuokko HA, Williams D, Dixon RA, MacDonald SW Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

A framework to understand the variations of PSD-95 expression in brain aging and in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 is a major element of synapses. PSD-95 is involved in aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and numerous psychiatric disorders. However, contradictory data about PSD-95 expression in aging and AD have been reported. Indeed in AD versus control brains PSD-95 varies according to regions, increasing in the frontal cortex, at least in a primary stage, and decreasing in the temporal cortex. In contrast, in transgenic mouse models of aging and AD PSD-95 expression is decreased, in behaviorally aged impaired versus unimpaired rodents it can decrease or increase and finally, it i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 25, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Savioz A, Leuba G, Vallet PG Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Determinants of protein-energy malnutrition in community dwelling older adults: A systematic review of observational studies.
Abstract Protein Energy Malnutrition is associated with numerous poor health outcomes, including high health care costs, mortality rates and poor physical functioning in older adults. This systematic literature review aims to identify and provide an evidence based overview of potential determinants of protein-energy malnutrition in community dwelling older adults. A systematic search was conducted in PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and COCHRANE from the earliest possible date through January 2013. Observational studies that examined determinants of protein-energy malnutrition were selected and a best evidence synthesis was...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vijlbrief RV, Wijnhoven HA, Schaap LA, Terwee CB, Visser M Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Proteome analysis in the assessment of ageing.
r B Abstract Based on demographic trends, the societies in many developed countries are facing an increasing number and proportion of people over the age of 65. The raise in elderly populations along with improved health-care will be concomitant with an increased prevalence of ageing-associated chronic conditions like cardiovascular, renal, and respiratory diseases, arthritis, dementia, and diabetes mellitus. This is expected to pose unprecedented challenges both for individuals and societies and their health care systems. An ultimate goal of ageing research is therefore the understanding of physiological ageing a...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - September 22, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nkuipou-Kenfack E, Koeck T, Mischak H, Pich A, Schanstra JP, Zürbig P, Schumacher B Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Non-coding RNAs in ageing.
PMID: 25152449 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Ageing Research Reviews)
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 31, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thum T Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Ageing and cardiovascular diseases: the role of gene-diet interactions.
;s JM Abstract In the study of longevity, increasing importance is being placed on the concept of healthy ageing rather than considering the total number of years lived. Although the concept of healthy lifespan needs to be defined better, we know that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main age-related diseases. Thus, controlling risk factors will contribute to reducing their incidence, leading to healthy lifespan. CVDs are complex diseases influenced by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Numerous gene variants that are associated with a greater or lesser risk of the different types of CVD and of inte...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 23, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Corella D, Ordovás JM Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. A heart-brain continuum hypothesis.
Abstract The ageing population is increasing and, therefore, a higher prevalence of cardiac disease is emerging; including hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure. Large cohort studies have revealed a relationship among increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in cardiovascular diseases probably due to embolic stroke or chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thus, the aim of the present review is to overview the studies that investigate the presence and/or the development of cognitive impairments and dementia in patients with varied types of cardiovascular disease....
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - August 5, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Abete P, Della-Morte D, Gargiulo G, Basile C, Langellotto A, Galizia G, Testa G, Vincenzo C, Bonaduce D, Cacciatore F Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

When astrocytes become harmful: functional and inflammatory responses that contribute to alzheimer's disease.
WHEN ASTROCYTES BECOME HARMFUL: FUNCTIONAL AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. Ageing Res Rev. 2014 Jul 28; Authors: Avila-Muñoz E, Arias C Abstract A growing body of research suggests that astrocytes play roles as contributors to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several lines of evidence suggest that activated astrocytes produce and release proinflammatory molecules that may be critical for the generation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, accumulating evidence indicates that Aβ may activate astrocytes, which leads to an increase i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 28, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Avila-Muñoz E, Arias C Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Clearance of misfolded and aggregated proteins by aggrephagy and implications for aggregation diseases.
Abstract Processing of misfolded proteins is important in order for the cell to maintain its normal functioning and homeostasis. Three systems control the quality of proteins: chaperone-mediated refolding, proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, and finally, when the two others fail, aggrephagy, as selective form of autophagy, degrades ubiquitin-labelled aggregated cargos. In this route misfolded proteins gradually form larger aggregates, aggresomes and they eventually become double membrane-wrapped organelles called autophagosomes, which become degraded when they fuse to lysosomes, for reuse by the cel...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 22, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hyttinen JM, Amadio M, Viiri J, Pascale A, Salminen A, Kaarniranta K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

The mitochondrial genome in aging and senescence.
Abstract Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in organism functions due to the impairment of all organs. The deterioration of both proliferative tissues in liver, skin and the vascular system, as well as of largely post-mitotic organs, such as the heart and brain could be attributed at least in part to cell senescence. In this review we examine the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and mtDNA mutations in cell aging and senescence. Specifically, we address how p53 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) activity switch their roles from cytoprotective to detrimental and also examine the role of microR...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - July 17, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lauri A, Pompilio G, Capogrossi MC Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Cholinesterase inhibitors and add-on nutritional supplements in Alzheimer's disease A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract To date, single drug and nutrient-based interventions have failed to show a clinically relevant effect on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multidomain interventions may alleviate symptoms and alter the disease course in a synergistic manner. This systematic review examines the effect of adding nutritional supplementation to cholinesterase inhibitors. A systematic PubMed and Cochrane search resulted in nine high quality studies. The studies had low to moderate risk of bias and focused on oxidative stress, homocysteine levels, membrane fluidity, inflammation and acetylcholine levels. Only the use of vitamin E supp...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 27, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Rijpma A, Meulenbroek O, Rikkert MG Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Single and dual task tests of gait speed are equivalent in the prediction of falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Although simple assessments of gait speed have been shown to predict falls as well as hospitalisation, functional decline and mortality in older people, dual task gait speed paradigms have been increasingly evaluated with respect to fall prediction. Some studies have found that dual task walking paradigms can predict falls in older people. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether dual task walking paradigms involving a secondary cognitive task have greater ability to predict falls than single walking tasks. The meta-analytic findings indicate single and dual task tests of g...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 7, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Menant JC, Schoene D, Lord SR Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research

Krebs cycle intermediates regulate DNA and histone methylation: Epigenetic impact on the aging process.
Abstract Many aging theories have proposed that mitochondria and energy metabolism have a major role in the aging process. There are recent studies indicating that Krebs cycle intermediates can shape the epigenetic landscape of chromatin by regulating DNA and histone methylation. A growing evidence indicates that epigenetics plays an important role in the regulation of healthspan but also is involved in the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) is a key metabolite in the Krebs cycle but it is also an obligatory substrate for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO). The 2-OGDO enzyme family i...
Source: Ageing Research Reviews - June 5, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Salminen A, Kauppinen A, Hiltunen M, Kaarniranta K Tags: Ageing Res Rev Source Type: research