Enkephalins and ACTH in the mammalian nervous system.

Enkephalins and ACTH in the mammalian nervous system. Vitam Horm. 2019;111:147-193 Authors: Duque-Díaz E, Alvarez-Ojeda O, Coveñas R Abstract The pentapeptides methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin belong to the opioid family of peptides, and the non-opiate peptide adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) to the melanocortin peptide family. Enkephalins/ACTH are derived from pro-enkephalin, pro-dynorphin or pro-opiomelanocortin precursors and, via opioid and melanocortin receptors, are responsible for many biological activities. Enkephalins exhibit the highest affinity for the δ receptor, followed by the μ and κ receptors, whereas ACTH binds to the five subtypes of melanocortin receptor, and is the only member of the melanocortin family of peptides that binds to the melanocortin-receptor 2 (ACTH receptor). Enkephalins/ACTH and their receptors exhibit a widespread anatomical distribution. Enkephalins are involved in analgesia, angiogenesis, blood pressure, embryonic development, emotional behavior, feeding, hypoxia, limbic system modulation, neuroprotection, peristalsis, and wound repair; as well as in hepatoprotective, motor, neuroendocrine and respiratory mechanisms. ACTH plays a role in acetylcholine release, aggressive behavior, blood pressure, bone maintenance, hyperalgesia, feeding, fever, grooming, learning, lipolysis, memory, nerve injury repair, neuroprotection, sexual behavior, sleep, social behavior, tissue growth a...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

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Abstract Despite the success of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers, current therapies for hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases are still inadequate. Identification of additional components of the RAS and associated vasoactive pathways, as well as new structural and functional insights into established targets, have led to novel therapeutic approaches with the potential to provide improved cardiovascular protection and better blood pressure control and/or reduced adverse side effects. The simultaneo...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research
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Source: Ecancermedicalscience - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research
Authors: Li X, Wu N, Ji H, Huang Y, Hu H, Li J, Mi S, Duan S, Chen X Abstract The AGTR1 gene encodes angiotensin II receptor type 1, which is involved in cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD). In the current study, we analyzed AGTR1 methylation level in a Han Chinese population by SYBR green-based quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP). We collected blood samples from 761 CHD patients and 398 non-CHD controls at the Ningbo First Hospital. A data mining analysis was also performed to explore the association between AGTR1 methylation and AGTR1 gene expression, using datasets from the cBio...
Source: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Bosn J Basic Med Sci Source Type: research
This study provides valuable experimental evidence for clinical MM therapy. PMID: 31538911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Bosn J Basic Med Sci Source Type: research
Many radiologists are concerned that mammography information provided by referring physicians is confusing for patients, and they want to be more involved in screening-related discussions, according to a  studyrecently published in theJournal of Breast Imaging. The group of researchers led by Shadi Aminololama-Shakeri, MD,Chief of Breast Imaging Section at theUniversity of California Davis in Sacramento, California found thatthere is a wide variety of breast cancer screening guidelines across professional societies, and the lack of uniformity makes understanding the purpose of mammography confusing and frustratin...
Source: radRounds - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
ConclusionMR Esophagography might become a non-invasive, non-irradiating technique of choice following diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy for the assessment of esophageal diseases.
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn breast cancer, D and f values show significant differences according to TSR, and D value is lower in collagen dominant type than in fibroblast dominant or lymphocyte dominant types.
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
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Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
Abstract Regulatory policy toward tobacco significantly affects oral health because tobacco use is a driver of diseases that manifest themselves in or near the oral cavity. Tobacco use in the United States has been associated with millions of cases of periodontal disease. Researchers have identified the role of combusted and noncombusted tobacco products in promoting cancers of the head and neck, leading to disease and premature death. Tobacco companies have moved increasingly toward so-called next-generation products (NGPs)-products that may emit fewer toxins than combustible forms of tobacco. Although NGPs may n...
Source: Adv Dent Res - Category: Dentistry Authors: Tags: Adv Dent Res Source Type: research
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