Evolution of proopiomelanocortin.
er JM Abstract Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) belongs to the opioid/orphanin gene family whose peptide precursors include either opioid (YGGF) or the orphanin/nociceptin core sequences (FGGF). In addition to POMC the family includes the proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and nociceptin/proorphanin (PNOC) precursors. The opioid core sequence in POMC is incorporated by the β-endorphin that occupies the C-terminal region but this propeptide also exhibits at least two "alien" melanocortin core sequences (HFRW). An ACTH/MSH fragment merged into the opioid fragment not earlier than the two tetraploidi...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rocha A, Godino-Gimeno A, Cerdá-Reverter JM Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Enkephalinase regulation.
Banegas I, de Gasparo M Abstract After millennia of knowledge of opium, it was only recently that endogenous substances called opioids with similar properties to opium and derivatives were discovered. The first to be discovered were enkephalins. In addition to the regulation of their synthesis and expression of receptors, an important mechanism for the regulation of their functions carried out by multiple proteolytic enzymes acting at all levels of their structure is described. The action of such enzymes, known as enkephalinases, is also regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors which ultimately affect the con...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ramírez-Sánchez M, Prieto I, Segarra AB, Martínez-Cañamero M, Banegas I, de Gasparo M Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Limbic circuit connectivity and the stress response: New insights into the mammalian nociceptin peptide system.
Abstract Considerable progress has been made in understanding the neurobehavioral effects of nociceptin peptide (N/OFQ) and its NOP receptor. Recent interest has focused on its role in stress and cognition, with consideration of therapeutic potential in regard to anxiety and mood disorders. Research has interrogated the mechanisms of action of N/OFQ peptide in the context of stress-related behavior. We are interested in the endogenous role of N/OFQ and NOP receptor in terms of adaptation to chronic stress. Our research has highlighted the importance of associated limbic regions including the bed nucleus, extended ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fulford AJ, Keskes S Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Enkephalins and ACTH in the mammalian nervous system.
ntilde;as R Abstract The pentapeptides methionine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalin belong to the opioid family of peptides, and the non-opiate peptide adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) to the melanocortin peptide family. Enkephalins/ACTH are derived from pro-enkephalin, pro-dynorphin or pro-opiomelanocortin precursors and, via opioid and melanocortin receptors, are responsible for many biological activities. Enkephalins exhibit the highest affinity for the δ receptor, followed by the μ and κ receptors, whereas ACTH binds to the five subtypes of melanocortin receptor, and is the only member of the ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Duque-Díaz E, Alvarez-Ojeda O, Coveñas R Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Structure and dynamics of dynorphin peptide and its receptor.
lon A Abstract Dynorphin is a neuropeptide involved in pain, addiction and mood regulation. It exerts its activity by binding to the kappa opioid receptor (KOP) which belongs to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors. The dynorphin peptide was discovered in 1975, while its receptor was cloned in 1993. This review will describe: (a) the activities and physiological functions of dynorphin and its receptor, (b) early structure-activity relationship studies performed before cloning of the receptor (mostly pharmacological and biophysical studies of peptide analogues), (c) structure-activity relationship studie...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ferré G, Czaplicki G, Demange P, Milon A Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Opioids and the hormone oxytocin.
Abstract The neuropeptide Oxytocin (ΟΤ) is involved as a neurohormone, a neurotransmitter, or a neuromodulator in an extensive range of central and peripheral effects, complex emotional and social human behaviors, memory and learning processes. It is implicated in homeostatic, neuroadaptive processes associated with stress responses and substance use via interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the dopamine mesolimbic reward stress system. This chapter reviews the preclinical and clinical literature on the complicated relationships between endogenous and exogenous opioids and...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kovatsi L, Nikolaou K Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Estrogens as arbiters of sex-specific and reproductive cycle-dependent opioid analgesic mechanisms.
Abstract The organization of estrogenic signaling in the CNS is exceedingly complex. It is comprised of peripherally and centrally synthesized estrogens, and a plethora of types of estrogen receptor that can localize to both the nucleus and the plasma membrane. Moreover, CNS estrogen receptors can exist independent of aromatase (aka estrogen synthase) as well as oligomerize with it, along with a host of other membrane signaling proteins. This ability of CNS estrogen receptors to either to physically pair or exist separately enables locally produced estrogens to act on multiple spatial levels, with a high degree of...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gintzler AR, Storman EM, Liu NJ Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Opioids and reproduction.
t L Abstract More than 40years ago, the endogenous opioids were first described. Their role as important neuromodulators of pain and their influence on a variety of neuroendocrine control systems within the central nervous system has been recognized. More recently, endogenous opioids and their receptor have been identified in a variety of reproductive and non-reproductive tissues outside the central nervous system. What role the opioid system plays in these peripheral tissues and organs is not completely understood and thus the subjects of current research. In the central nervous system, endogenous opioids inhibit...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Seeber B, Böttcher B, D'Costa E, Wildt L Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Kappa opioid receptor and oligodendrocyte remyelination.
Abstract Adult oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) maintain the abilities to differentiate and myelinate denuded axons in demyelinating diseases, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), albert often inefficiently. Remyelination therapies seek to enhance endogenous remyelination and represent a promising approach to achieve functional and cellular architectural recovery against neuronal deficits. Recent findings indicate that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), plays an important role in regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. In this chapter, we reviewed (1) curren...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wang F, Mei F Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Inhibitory role of Gi-coupled receptors on cAMP-driven cancers with focus on opioid receptors in lung adenocarcinoma and its stem cells.
Abstract The development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance of the most common human cancers are driven by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-Ars) coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gs. Receptors coupled to the inhibitory G-protein Gi inhibit this signaling cascade by blocking the activation of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase that catalyzes the formation of cAMP and function as the physiological inhibitors of this signaling cascade. Members of the Gi-coupled receptor family widely expressed in the mammalian organism are GABA B receptors (GABAB-Rs...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Schuller HM Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Prenatal ethanol exposure and enkephalinergic neurotransmission.
K, Abate P Abstract Endogenous opioids (enkephalins, endorphins and dynorphins) are small peptides that play a main role in pain perception and analgesia, as well as in alcohol (ethanol) reinforcement and reward. Alcohol reinforcement involves the ethanol-induced activation of the endogenous opioid system, a process that may augment the hedonic value and the reinforcing properties of the drug, which in turn increases substance consumption. Changes in opioidergic transmission may contribute to alcohol intoxication and to the neuroadaptive responses produced by the long-lasting exposure to ethanol. Opioidergic tran...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Méndez M, Hernández-Fonseca K, Abate P Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Molecular aspects of delta opioid receptors.
yro G Abstract The delta opioid receptor (DOP) belongs to the Class A, rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors. Although this receptor has a high level of similarity with the other opioid receptors, it displays unique aspects and functions. Indeed, as opposed to most membrane receptors, DOP is poorly addressed to the plasma membrane. In this chapter, we first review the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating the expression and the cellular trafficking/sorting of DOP. We then summarize the structural insights of this receptor through the analysis of the existing crystal structures, with a particu...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gendron L, Nagi K, Zeghal M, Giguère PM, Pineyro G Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

The role of heat shock protein 90 in regulating pain, opioid signaling, and opioid antinociception.
Abstract Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is one of the central signal transduction regulators of the cell. Via client interactions with hundreds of proteins, including receptors, receptor regulatory kinases, and downstream signaling regulators, Hsp90 has a crucial and wide-ranging impact on signaling in response to numerous drugs with impacts on resultant physiology and behavior. Despite this importance, however, Hsp90 has barely been studied in the context of pain and the opioid receptor system, leaving open the possibility that Hsp90 could be manipulated to improve pain therapeutic outcomes, a current area of mass...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Streicher JM Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 31421709 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Vitamins and Hormones)
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - August 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Litwack G Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hepcidin cDNA evolution in vertebrates.
Abstract Hepcidin, belonging to the β-defensin family, was isolated for the first time from plasma and human urine. It is a cationic peptide, rich in cysteine bound with four disulfide bridges, which plays a major role in innate immunity and iron homeostasis. Some vertebrate species have multiple hepcidin homolog genes and each contains only one copy that functions as an iron regulator except hepcidin sequences in the pigeon (Columba livia). The aim of this chapter is to investigate the molecular evolution of several hepcidin gene from searches of the literature and public genomic databases from 17 different ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Boumaiza M, Abidi S Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Regulators of hepcidin expression.
Abstract Iron, an essential nutrient, is required for many biological processes but is also toxic in excess. The lack of a mechanism to excrete excess iron makes it crucial for the body to regulate the amount of iron absorbed from the diet. This regulation is mediated by the hepatic hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin also controls iron release from macrophages that recycle iron and from hepatocytes that store iron. Hepcidin binds to the only known iron export protein, ferroportin, inducing its internalization and degradation and thus limiting the amount of iron released into the plasma. Important regulators of hepcidin, a...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Roth MP, Meynard D, Coppin H Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Splicing variant of hepcidin mRNA.
In this study, we firstly revealed that a new alternative HAMP transcript was found in hepatoma-derived cell line HLF, which was identical to the wild-type preprohepcidin sequence except lacking of an internal 60 bases. In addition to HLF, most of hepatoma-derived cell lines have significant copy numbers of variant-type hepcidin mRNA by a copy-based-digital PCR. Furthermore, the copy number of hepcidin mRNA variant was significantly higher in serum exosomes of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The quantification of exosomal hepcidin mRNA variant may serve as a potential new biomarker for HCC diagnosis. PMID: 30798808...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sasaki K, Kohgo Y, Ohtake T Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hepcidin and IL-1 β.
Hepcidin and IL-1β. Vitam Horm. 2019;110:143-156 Authors: Kanamori Y, Murakami M, Sugiyama M, Hashimoto O, Matsui T, Funaba M Abstract Hepcidin expression is determined through transcriptional regulation by systemic iron status. However, acute or chronic inflammation also increases the expression of hepcidin, which is associated with the dysregulation of iron metabolism in pathological conditions. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been suggested to be a principal molecule to confer inflammation-related hepcidin transcription, which is mediated via signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-bind...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kanamori Y, Murakami M, Sugiyama M, Hashimoto O, Matsui T, Funaba M Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

The role of heparin, heparanase and heparan sulfates in hepcidin regulation.
Abstract Hepcidin is considered the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis in human and mice, and its expression in the liver is mainly regulated at a transcriptional level. Central to its regulation are the bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP6, that are heparin binding proteins. Heparin was found to inhibit hepcidin expression and BMP6 activity in hepatic cell lines and in mice, suggesting that endogenous heparan sulfates are involved in the pathway of hepcidin expression. This was confirmed by the study of cells and mice overexpressing heparanase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes heparan sulfates, and ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Asperti M, Denardo A, Gryzik M, Arosio P, Poli M Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hepcidin-ferroportin axis in health and disease.
Abstract Hepcidin is central to regulation of iron metabolism. Its effect on a cellular level involves binding ferroportin, the main iron export protein, resulting in its internalization and degradation and leading to iron sequestration within ferroportin-expressing cells. Aberrantly increased hepcidin leads to systemic iron deficiency and/or iron restricted erythropoiesis. Furthermore, insufficiently elevated hepcidin occurs in multiple diseases associated with iron overload. Abnormal iron metabolism as a consequence of hepcidin dysregulation is an underlying factor resulting in pathophysiology of multiple diseas...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ginzburg YZ Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Cardiomyocyte hepcidin: From intracellular iron homeostasis to physiological function.
Abstract Cellular iron is required for the utilization of oxygen in the cell. Iron in iron-sulfur and heme groups is required for electron transfer and oxygen activation in oxidative phosphorylation, while labile free iron is required for oxygen activation by dioxygenases, and as a catalyst for redox signaling. At the same time, this reactivity with oxygen underpins the production of cell-damaging free radicals in the presence of excess iron. Because the cardiac cell is a major site of oxygen flux, it requires tight control of intracellular iron levels. Until recently, such control was thought to be mediated predo...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lakhal-Littleton S Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hemochromatosis: Hereditary hemochromatosis and HFE gene.
Abstract Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease, characterized by an excessively increased absorption of dietary iron. Excess iron can be accumulated because of the lack of an effective excretory mechanism leading to toxic effects. HH is one of the most common genetic disorders in individuals of European descent. Genetic polymorphisms of the HFE gene (rs1800562, rs1799945 and rs1800730) also affect the normal activity of another protein, hepcidin, a negative regulator of iron homeostasis. If left untreated, hereditary hemochromatosis can lead to morbidity and eventually death. Cl...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Katsarou MS, Papasavva M, Latsi R, Drakoulis N Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hepcidin, iron, and bacterial infection.
Abstract Hepcidin, an oligopeptide, has two major functions in mammals. Hepcidin regulates iron homeostasis by controlling iron export from absorptive enterocytes, hepatocytes, and macrophages into the circulation via ferroportin inactivation. Hepcidin is also an innate antimicrobial agent that is induced by invasive bacteria, limits bacterial proliferation by reducing iron in plasma and extracellular fluids, and kills bacteria. Herein, we review hepcidin and hepcidin genes, iron acquisition by bacteria, hepcidin actions in mice infected with selected extracellular and intracellular bacteria, and reports of corres...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Barton JC, Acton RT Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hepcidin in chronic kidney disease anemia.
Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several complications that worsen with progression of disease; anemia, disturbances in iron metabolism and inflammation are common features. Inflammatory response starts early, releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and hepcidin. Hepcidin production is modulated by several factors, as hypoxia/anemia, erythropoietin and erythropoiesis products, transferrin saturation (TSAT) and liver iron levels, which are altered in CKD. Treatment of CKD anemia is based on pharmaceutical intervention, with erythropoietic stimulating agents and/or iron su...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Santos-Silva A, Ribeiro S, Reis F, Belo L Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Signaling pathways regulating hepcidin.
Abstract Since its discovery in 2001, there have been a number of important discoveries and findings that have increased our knowledge about the functioning of hepcidin. Hepcidin, the master iron regulator has been shown to be regulated by a number of physiological stimuli and their associated signaling pathways. This chapter will summarize our current understanding of how these physiological stimuli and downstream signaling molecules are involved in hepcidin modulation and ultimately contribute to the regulation of systemic or local iron homeostasis. The signaling pathways and molecules described here have been s...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rishi G, Subramaniam VN Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Hepcidin and the BMP-SMAD pathway: An unexpected liaison.
Abstract Hepcidin, the main regulator of iron metabolism, is synthesized and released by hepatocytes in response to increased body iron concentration and inflammation. Deregulation of hepcidin expression is a common feature of genetic and acquired iron disorders: in Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) and iron-loading anemias low hepcidin causes iron overload, while in Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia (IRIDA) and anemia of inflammation (AI), high hepcidin levels induce iron-restricted erythropoiesis. Hepcidin expression in the liver is mainly controlled by the BMP-SMAD pathway, activated in a paracrine manner by...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Silvestri L, Nai A, Dulja A, Pagani A Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 30798818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Vitamins and Hormones)
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Litwack G Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Aldosterone Research: 65 Years, and Counting.
Abstract Aldosterone was characterized as the major mineralocorticoid hormone 65 years ago, and since then its physiologic role in epidural electrolyte homeostasis the province of nephrologists. In epithelia it acts via the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to retain Na+ and excrete K+; MRs, however, are widely expressed in organs not known to be aldosterone target tissues. MRs are not merely "aldosterone receptors," as they have equivalently high affinity for the physiologic glucocorticoids, and for progesterone. In epithelia (plus in the blood vessel wall and in the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brai...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Funder JW Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Aldosterone and Ion Channels.
Abstract Since its discovery, aldosterone and ion modulation have been entwined. While scientific investigations throughout the decades have emphasized aldosterone's connection to Na+, K+, and H+ homeostasis, more recent research has demonstrated a relationship between aldosterone and Mg2+, Ca2+, and Cl- homeostasis. The mechanisms connecting aldosterone to ion regulation frequently involve ion channels; the membrane localized proteins containing at least one aqueous pore for ion conduction. In order to precisely control intracellular or intraorganelle ion concentrations, ion channels have evolved highly specific ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Valinsky WC, Touyz RM, Shrier A Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Non-Genomic Effects of Aldosterone.
Abstract Encouraging changes in the steroid hormone receptor field from initially questioning the role of non-genomic actions of steroid hormones to acceptance of the concept that the acute, membrane-centric actions are linked and/or regulate the nuclear actions. The focus of this chapter is how the non-genomic effects are linked to the longer lasting, genomic actions of aldosterone. By non-genomic we refer to the rapid actions that occur within minutes do not require transcription or translation and occur in both classical MR target organs (kidney and colon) and non-epithelial tissues (blood vessels, heart, and a...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mihailidou AS, Tzakos AG, Ashton AW Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists.
Abstract Two mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, are currently approved by the FDA. Several non-steroid based ligands are in clinical trials for indications including heart failure, hypertension and diabetic kidney disease, and even more structurally distinct chemical series are reported in the literature with preclinical data from animal models. Design of new ligands that are both selective over the other oxosteroid receptors (GR, PR and AR) and possess properties compatible with oral dosing, despite the overall lipophilic binding pocket of MR, remains a challenge. High-throughp...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nordqvist A, Granberg KL Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Evolution of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor.
Abstract The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and its kin, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) evolved from an ancestral corticoid receptor (CR) in a cyclostome (jawless fish) through gene duplication and divergence. Distinct MR and GR orthologs first appear in cartilaginous fishes, such as sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras. Although aldosterone, the main physiological mineralocorticoid in humans and other terrestrial vertebrates, is not synthesized by cyclostomes or cartilaginous fishes, cyclostome CR and cartilaginous fish MR and GR are activated by aldosterone. Aldosterone first appears in lungfish, lobe-finned fi...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baker ME, Katsu Y Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Adipocyte Mineralocorticoid Receptor.
Abstract Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been recently identified in adipose tissue, where its excessive activation contributes to several metabolic derangements often observed in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings support the existence of a bidirectional cross-talk between adipose tissue and adrenal glands, contributing to obesity-related hyperaldosteronism and subsequent adipocyte MR excessive activation. In this regard, MR pharmacological blockade has led to prevention of weight gain and metabolic benefits in murine models of genetic or diet-induced obesity. However, there is still a lack of kn...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Infante M, Armani A, Marzolla V, Fabbri A, Caprio M Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Inhibitors of Aldosterone Synthase.
Abstract The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is an important regulator of blood pressure and electrolyte balance. However, excess aldosterone can be deleterious as a driver of inflammation, vascular remodeling and tissue fibrosis associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) antagonists are current clinical therapies used to antagonize deleterious effects of aldosterone in patients. MRAs compete with aldosterone for binding at its cognate receptor thereby limiting its effect while RAS antagonists reduce aldosterone levels indire...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Weldon SM, Brown NF Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion.
Abstract Secretion of the major mineralocorticoid aldosterone from the adrenal cortex is a tightly-regulated process enabling this hormone to regulate sodium homeostasis and thereby contribute to blood pressure control. The circulating level of aldosterone is the result of various regulatory mechanisms, the most significant being those controlled by the renin-angiotensin system and plasma potassium levels. The importance of maintaining tight control over aldosterone secretion is demonstrated by cases of dysregulation, which can result in severe hypertension and significantly increased cardiovascular risk. In this ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: MacKenzie SM, van Kralingen JC, Davies E Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Leptin and Aldosterone.
le EJ Abstract The prominence of obesity in the clinical population as well as the strong association of cardiovascular risk factors with obesity has prompted the investigation of the adipose tissue and its physiological contribution to cardiovascular health. A notable finding in these investigations was the discovery of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Leptin is secreted from the adipose tissue, increases in linear fashion in the circulation with increased body mass and is implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity, notably via pro-hypertensive mechanisms. Leptin stimulates the activa...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Faulkner JL, Belin de Chantemèle EJ Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Primary Aldosteronism: Present and Future.
Abstract Primary aldosteronism (PA), currently recognized to be 5-10% of hypertension, has a cardiovascular risk profile double that in age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched essential hypertensives. Screening for PA is by determining the plasma aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR), followed by one of half a dozen confirmatory/exclusion tests. Unilateral hyperaldosteronism normally reflects an aldosterone producing adenoma; bilateral disease is the more common form, and termed idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Subjects confirmed undergo imaging, followed by adrenal venous sampling (AVS) for lateralization. Unilater...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Funder JW Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Paracrine Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions.
Abstract Aldosterone secretion by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex is controlled by circulating factors including the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and potassium. Mineralocorticoid production is also regulated through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by a wide variety of bioactive signals released in the vicinity of adrenocortical cells by chromaffin cells, nerve endings, cells of the immune system, endothelial cells and adipocytes. These regulatory factors include conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Their physiological role in the control of aldosterone secretion is not fully understood, ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lefebvre H, Duparc C, Naccache A, Lopez AG, Castanet M, Louiset E Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Brain Mineralocorticoid Receptors and Resilience to Stress.
Abstract Exposure to stressful experiences triggers the release of-among others-glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. These hormones, cortisol and corticosterone in humans and rodents respectively, activate mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) that regulate neuronal activity and behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences. This review discusses molecular properties of MRs, the role of MRs in regulating neuronal function and behavior and, ultimately, evidence that enhanced MR function may confer resilience to stressful experiences. PMID: 30678862 [PubMed - in process] (Sou...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kanatsou S, Joels M, Krugers H Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Aldosterone, the Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Disease.
Abstract The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and aldosterone play a critical role in the regulation of plasma volume homeostasis and are critical for the control of normal physiological regulation blood pressure (BP) and organ perfusion and as a potent mediator of hypertension. Aldosterone and the MR also play a key role in regulating tissue volume expansion in many tissues, via the regulation of hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of cardiac or vascular smooth muscle cells and through regulation of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) and tissue fibrosis. Over the last two decades since the Randomized ALdactone Evaluation ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Young MJ, Adler GK Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling.
Abstract The cellular response to aldosterone is mediated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). This response is best characterized in the renal epithelia with control of sodium and water homeostasis. However, the MR binds more than one ligand and has wide tissue distribution with multiple roles in cardiovascular function, immune cell signaling, neuronal fate and adipocyte differentiation. This chapter will provide a review of MR structure and function, and an analysis of the critical interactions involved in MR-mediated signal transduction, which contribute to ligand- and tissue-specificity. MR signal-transduct...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fuller PJ, Yang J, Young MJ Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Aldosterone and Myocardial Pathology.
Abstract Aldosterone (Aldo) has been intensively studied for years since its isolation by Simpson and Tait in the 1950s. Interestingly, although most early research around Aldo's actions focused primarily on its interaction with the kidney, it was soon evident that this hormone is able to exert unexplained extra-renal effects, on various target organs including the heart. Importantly, over the course of the last decade a number of studies in pre-clinical models (in vitro and in vivo) and in humans have clearly demonstrated that Aldo, following the interaction with its receptor, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR),...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Cannavo A, Elia A, Liccardo D, Rengo G, Koch WJ Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas.
ström T Abstract Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) are more common than initially anticipated. APA cause primary aldosteronism (PA), which affect 3-10% of the hypertensive population. Research during recent years has led to an increased knowledge of the background dysregulation of the increased aldosterone release, where mutation in the gene encoding the potassium channel GIRK4-KCNJ5-is the most common. Moreover, the discovery of aldosterone-producing cell clusters in apparently normal adenomas has also led to increased understanding of the development of PA, and presumably also APA. A continuum ranging fr...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hellman P, Björklund P, Åkerström T Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Regulation of Aldosterone Signaling by MicroRNAs.
Abstract The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone is released by the adrenal glands in a homeostatic mechanism to regulate blood volume. Several cues elicit aldosterone release, and the long-term action of the hormone is to restore blood pressure and/or increase the retrieval of sodium from filtered plasma in the kidney. While the signaling cascade that results in aldosterone release is well studied, the impact of this hormone on tissues and cells in various organ systems is pleotropic. Emerging evidence indicates aldosterone may alter non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) to integrate the hormonal response, and these ncRNAs ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Butterworth MB, Alvarez de la Rosa D Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 30678868 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Vitamins and Hormones)
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - January 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Litwack G Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Dehydroepiandrosterone Research: Past, Current, and Future.
Abstract The discovery of "oestrus-producing" hormones was a major research breakthrough in biochemistry and pharmacology during the early part of the 20th century. The elucidation of the molecular weight and chemical structure of major oxidative metabolites of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) led to the award of the Nobel Prize in 1939 to Adolf Frederick Johann Butenandt and Leopold Ruzicka. Considered a bulk androgen in the circulation, DHEA and its sulfated metabolite DHEA-S can be taken up by most tissues where the sterols are metabolized to active androgenic and estrogenic compounds needed for growth a...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - July 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Klinge CM, Clark BJ, Prough RA Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

DHEA Modulates Immune Function: A Review of Evidence.
Abstract DHEA and DHEA-S have numerous associations with multiple aspects of immune function and are often characterized as beneficial and supportive of immunocompetence. However, closer inspection of these studies reveals confusion regarding the immunological components modified, the mechanisms of action, and degree of impact, and even whether these hormones even have direct action or are mediated by metabolites and interactions with other hormones and hormone receptors. Additionally, much of the research is conducted on rodent models using very high concentrations of hormone supplements, which may not be represe...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - July 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Prall SP, Muehlenbein MP Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

DHEA in Prenatal and Postnatal Life: Implications for Brain and Behavior.
Abstract Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated congener (DHEAS) are the principal C19 steroid produced by the adrenal gland in many mammals, including humans. It is secreted in high concentrations during fetal life, but synthesis decreases after birth until, in humans and some other primates, there is a prepubertal surge of DHEA production by the adrenal gland-a phenomenon known as adrenarche. There remains considerable uncertainty about the physiological role of DHEA and DHEAS. Moreover, the origin of the trophic drives that determine the waxing and waning of DHEA synthesis are poorly understood. These g...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - July 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Quinn T, Greaves R, Badoer E, Walker D Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

Astrocyte Neuroprotection and Dehydroepiandrosterone.
Abstract Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS) are the most abundant steroid hormones in the systemic circulation of humans. Due to their abundance and reduced production during aging, these hormones have been suggested to play a role in many aspects of health and have been used as drugs for a multiple range of therapeutic actions, including hormonal replacement and the improvement of aging-related diseases. In addition, several studies have shown that DHEA and DHEAS are neuroprotective under different experimental conditions, including models of ischemia, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord ...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - July 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Arbo BD, Ribeiro FS, Ribeiro MF Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research

The Role of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in Skeletal Muscle.
Abstract Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a precursor of sex steroid hormones and is converted to testosterone and estradiol. Normally, androgens and estrogens produced adrenal cortex, testis, and ovary; however, recent studies revealed androgens and estrogens are synthesized by peripheral tissues such as brain, skin, liver, kidney, bone, etc. We found skeletal muscles are also capable of synthesizing androgens and estrogens from DHEA. Circulating DHEA provides substrates required for conversion into potent androgens and estrogens in peripheral tissues. Sex steroid hormone administration has important roles: one i...
Source: Vitamins and Hormones - July 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sato K, Iemitsu M Tags: Vitam Horm Source Type: research