UCLA researchers unlock protein key to harnessing regenerative power of blood stem cells

In this study, the authors showed that a cell surface protein called protein tyrosine phosphatase-sigma (PTP-sigma) regulates the critical process called engraftment, which is how HSCs start to grow and make healthy blood cells after transplantation. Mamle Quarmyne, a graduate student Chute’s lab and first author of the study, demonstrated that PTP-sigma is produced (expressed) on a high percentage of mouse and human HSCs. She showed further that genetic deletion of PTP-sigma in mice markedly increased the ability of HSCs to engraft in transplanted mice.  In a complementary study, Quarmyne demonstrated that selection of human blood HSCs which did not express PTP-sigma led to a 15-fold increase in HSC engraftment in transplanted immune-deficient mice. Taken together, these studies showed that PTP-sigma suppresses normal HSC engraftment capacity and targeted blocking of PTP-sigma can substantially improve mouse and human HSC engraftment after transplantation. Chute and colleagues showed further that PTP-sigma regulates HSC function by suppressing a protein, RAC1, which is known to promote HSC engraftment after transplantation.    “These findings have tremendous therapeutic potential since we have identified a new receptor on HSCs, PTP-sigma, which can be specifically targeted as a means to potently increase the engraftment of transplanted HSCs in patients,” said Chute, senior author of the study and professor of hematology/oncology and...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Conclusion: Since free radicals contribute to several pathological conditions and antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative stress, evaluating the oxidant-antioxidant balance is very important. Although the results of this study showed that the quality of the defense mechanism against free radicals was not significantly different between the IVF-conceived and naturally conceived mice, other parameters of metabolic dysfunction need to be measured. PMID: 29984208 [PubMed]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine - Category: Reproduction Medicine Tags: Clin Exp Reprod Med Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes, Volume 39Author(s): Jie Yang, Yi Chen, Zhi Yu, Hui Ding, Zhongfu MaAbstractLong-term exposure to traffic-related pollutants can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including inflammation, asthma, and lung cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. We focused on the effects of exposure to different air pollutants on the expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer. In order to understand the cellular responses induced by exposure to different traff...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 4Author(s): Parvaze Ahmad Wani, Javid Ahmad Wani, Shazia WahidAbstractChromium has different oxidation states which ranges between −2 to +6. Among all these oxidation states, Cr (VI) and Cr (III) are stable but vary in biological, geochemical and toxicological properties. Cr (VI) is more toxic than Cr (III), causes allergies, irritation and respiratory disorders. When Cr (VI) is taken up by the cell, its interaction with DNA-protein complex results in the formation of DNA-DNA cross links, and thus ultimately may cause ...
Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 10 September 2018Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 159Author(s): Xixiao Wang, Jie Ren, Shixing Zhu, Guoqing Ren, Lei Wang, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhixia Qiu, Chaofeng ZhangAbstractEupatilin, a major pharmacologically active ingredient in StillenTM, has been known to possess anti-peptic, anti-cancer and anti-allergy activities. A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of eupatilin and its main metabolite (eupatilin-7β-O-glucuronide, E-7-G) in rat plasma and tissu...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary FibreAuthor(s): Hong-Mei Yin, Su-Nan Wang, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong XieAbstractCoix (Coix lachryma-jobi L.), commonly known as adlay or Job's tears, is a minor cereal grown in most areas of Asia. It has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years, used as a stomachic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory agent. It contains a range of bioactive components including polysaccharides, lipids, polyphenols, phytosterols, carotenoids, spiroenone and lactams. The bioactive constituents contribut...
Source: Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Conclusion: Awareness about protective spectrum of sunscreens, their correct method of application, and misconceptions need to be focused on. Better product development keeping in mind the Indian conditions would help in increasing the usage of sunscreens.
Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2018Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 4Author(s): Parvaze Ahmad Wani, Javid Ahmad Wani, Shazia WahidAbstractChromium has different oxidation states which ranges between −2 to +6. Among all these oxidation states, Cr (VI) and Cr (III) are stable but vary in biological, geochemical and toxicological properties. Cr (VI) is more toxic than Cr (III), causes allergies, irritation and respiratory disorders. When Cr (VI) is taken up by the cell, its interaction with DNA-protein complex results in the formation of DNA-DNA cross links, and thus ultimately may cause ...
Source: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 10 September 2018Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 159Author(s): Xixiao Wang, Jie Ren, Shixing Zhu, Guoqing Ren, Lei Wang, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhixia Qiu, Chaofeng ZhangAbstractEupatilin, a major pharmacologically active ingredient in StillenTM, has been known to possess anti-peptic, anti-cancer and anti-allergy activities. A rapid, simple, sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of eupatilin and its main metabolite (eupatilin-7β-O-glucuronide, E-7-G) in rat plasma and tissu...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary FibreAuthor(s): Hong-Mei Yin, Su-Nan Wang, Shao-Ping Nie, Ming-Yong XieAbstractCoix (Coix lachryma-jobi L.), commonly known as adlay or Job's tears, is a minor cereal grown in most areas of Asia. It has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years, used as a stomachic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory agent. It contains a range of bioactive components including polysaccharides, lipids, polyphenols, phytosterols, carotenoids, spiroenone and lactams. The bioactive constituents contribut...
Source: Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes, Volume 39Author(s): Jie Yang, Yi Chen, Zhi Yu, Hui Ding, Zhongfu MaAbstractLong-term exposure to traffic-related pollutants can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including inflammation, asthma, and lung cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. We focused on the effects of exposure to different air pollutants on the expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer. In order to understand the cellular responses induced by exposure to different traff...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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