UCLA researchers unlock protein key to harnessing regenerative power of blood stem cells

In this study, the authors showed that a cell surface protein called protein tyrosine phosphatase-sigma (PTP-sigma) regulates the critical process called engraftment, which is how HSCs start to grow and make healthy blood cells after transplantation. Mamle Quarmyne, a graduate student Chute’s lab and first author of the study, demonstrated that PTP-sigma is produced (expressed) on a high percentage of mouse and human HSCs. She showed further that genetic deletion of PTP-sigma in mice markedly increased the ability of HSCs to engraft in transplanted mice.  In a complementary study, Quarmyne demonstrated that selection of human blood HSCs which did not express PTP-sigma led to a 15-fold increase in HSC engraftment in transplanted immune-deficient mice. Taken together, these studies showed that PTP-sigma suppresses normal HSC engraftment capacity and targeted blocking of PTP-sigma can substantially improve mouse and human HSC engraftment after transplantation. Chute and colleagues showed further that PTP-sigma regulates HSC function by suppressing a protein, RAC1, which is known to promote HSC engraftment after transplantation.    “These findings have tremendous therapeutic potential since we have identified a new receptor on HSCs, PTP-sigma, which can be specifically targeted as a means to potently increase the engraftment of transplanted HSCs in patients,” said Chute, senior author of the study and professor of hematology/oncology and...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Purpose of review The risk of cancer is higher, and its outcome is worse in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) than in members of the general population. Thus, the inter-relationship of malignant diseases with PIDs requires more study. Recent findings Large genetic screens identified a vast number of germline mutations in childhood cancer patient samples. Although TP53 was the most frequent single gene identified as mutated, many PID disorders like DNA repair defects are among the inborn causes of childhood cancer. We provide a comprehensive analysis of compiled data from seven recent studies that focused on...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: ALLERGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Henry H. Bernstein Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
By Dr. Binita Ashar, director of the division of surgical devices in the FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health Choosing to obtain a breast implant, whether for augmentation or reconstruction, is a deeply personal choice, from the initial decision to undergo breast implant surgery to the size, material and surface texture. These types of decisions should be discussed between a patient and their provider in a transparent and balanced way with clear information about the benefits and risks of the breast implants and the procedure. As a public health agency, we play an important role in ensuring that patients ...
Source: Mass Device - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Blog FDA Voice Source Type: news
The benefits of breastfeeding are well established for both lactating mothers and their children. Breast milk has been shown to improve infant health outcomes across a number of different measures, including respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, allergies, obesity, and mortality [1], while breastfeeding has been demonstrated to improve health outcomes for mothers, including decreasing the risk for type 2 diabetes and breast and ovarian cancer [1,2]. Given these significant benefits, the American Academy of Pediatrics, World Health Organization, and Institute of Medicine all recommend breastfeedin...
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Case studies in training and education Source Type: research
Authors: Liu Y, Shao Z, Shangguan G, Bie Q, Zhang B Abstract The interleukin- (IL-) 17 superfamily, a T cell-derived cytokine, consists of 6 ligands (IL-17A-IL-17F) and 5 receptors (IL-17RA-IL-17RE). IL-17A, a prototype member of this family, is involved in the pathogenesis of allergies, autoimmune diseases, allograft transplantations, and malignancies. By contrast, IL-17B is reported to be closely related to certain diseases, particularly tumors such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Recently, the biological function of IL-17E (also called IL-25) in disease, particularly airway diseases, has...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
(La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology) Researchers at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) and UC San Diego have been awarded $ 4.5 million as part of the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Moonshot initiative. The funding will support research to develop new and improved immunotherapeutic treatment options for patients with head and neck cancer.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
PTEN loss by tumor immunohistochemistry (IHC) predicts prostate-cancer outcomes after radical prostatectomy as well as a commercial multigene panel does.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Allergy Headlines - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news
ConclusionsUse of flavonoids mixture (diosmin, troxerutin, rutin, hesperidin, quercetin) is a safe and effective mean of managing bleeding from hemorrhoidal disease and minimal adverse events are reported.
Source: International Journal of Colorectal Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web gathered by the MedPage Today staff
Source: MedPage Today Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: news
(University of California - Irvine) In a UCI-led study, researchers found evidence that mast cells, an important group of immune cells typically associated with allergies, actually enable the body to survive fasting or intense exercise. The study was published today in Cell Metabolism.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
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