‘Smart’ insulin could prevent hypoglycemia during diabetes treatment

UCLA bioengineers and their colleagues have developed a new type of insulin that could help prevent hypoglycemia in people who use the drug to manage diabetes.The treatment is being evaluated for potential clinical trials and, if successful, could change diabetes care. Thestudy   was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.Insulin is a hormone naturally produced in the pancreas. It helps the body regulate glucose, which is consumed through food and provides the body with energy.Diabetes occurs when a person ’s body does not naturally produce insulin (Type 1 diabetes), or does not efficiently use the insulin that is produced (Type 2). In either case, a regular dosage of insulin is prescribed to manage the disease, which affects more than 400 million people worldwide.Generally, people who need to use insulin monitor their blood sugar levels with a glucose meter or continuous glucose monitoring system and then calculate their insulin dose accordingly. In addition, a regular carbohydrate intake is important to keep the blood sugar levels normal. Both of these requirements are necessarily subject to human error, which can have potentially devastating consequences.An overdose of insulin can cause hypoglycemia, when blood sugar is too low. That could lead to seizures, coma, and in extreme cases, death.As a safety check, the UCLA-led team has developed a type of “smart” insulin, called i-insulin, that can prevent blood sugar levels from...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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In this study, we found that TLR1/TLR2 expression predicted favorable prognosis of lung cancer patients. In the related mice tumor model, TLR1/TLR2 activation by synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/2 agonist, greatly inhibited tumor growth and selectively decreased monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Furthermore, BLP treatment redirected M-MDSC differentiation towards M1 macrophage through JNK pathway, and thus blocked the suppressive activity of M-MDSCs in a TLR2-dependent manner. Therefore, our data demonstrated that TLR2 could be a promising biomarker and a potential immunotherapeutic target for lung cancer.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Yang Xiong, Ying Wang, Karthik TiruthaniAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is predicted to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death in United States in 2019. Immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors have proven efficacy in patients with high level of microsatellite instability and refractory to routine chemotherapy. Despite this, immunotherapy-based treatment is seriously limited by cancer immunogenicity which are evolved to evade immune surveillance in many circumstances. Efforts are made by resear...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Nano TodayAuthor(s): Weijing Yang, Zijian Zhou, Joseph Lau, Shuo Hu, Xiaoyuan ChenAbstractImmunotherapy (e.g., checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy, cancer vaccine) has emerged as one of the most important treatment modalities for cancer in the past two decades. While these approaches are promising, the response rates observed in clinical trials are less than 30% due to tumor heterogeneity and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. Smart nanosystems have the potential to address some of the limitations associated with immunotherapy. Herein, we review applica...
Source: Nano Today - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 495Author(s): Yujia He, Abidali Mohamedali, Canhua Huang, Mark S. Baker, Edouard C. NiceAbstractOncoproteomics is the systematic study of cancer samples using omics technologies to detect changes implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent progress in oncoproteomics is already opening new avenues for the identification of novel biomarkers for early clinical stage cancer detection, targeted molecular therapies, disease monitoring, and drug development. Such information will lead to new understandings of cancer biology and impact dramatically on the future care of can...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Base excision DNA repair (BER) is a vitally important pathway that protects the cell genome from many kinds of DNA damage, including oxidation, deamination, and hydrolysis. It involves several tightly coordinated steps, starting from damaged base excision and followed by nicking one DNA strand, incorporating an undamaged nucleotide, and DNA ligation. Deficiencies in BER are often embryonic lethal or cause morbid diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, or severe immune pathologies. Starting from the early 1980s, when the first mammalian cell lines lacking BER were produced by spontaneous mutagenesis, s...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Abstract From the viewpoint of the general pathology, most of the human diseases are associated with a limited number of pathogenic processes such as inflammation, tumor growth, thrombosis, necrosis, fibrosis, atrophy, pathological hypertrophy, dysplasia and metaplasia. The phenomenon of chronic low-grade inflammation could be attributed to non-classical forms of inflammation, which include many neurodegenerative processes, pathological variants of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and other manifestations of the endothelial dysfunction. Individual and universal manifestations of cellular stress could be consid...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
This study demonstrates that NSCLC cells resistant to gefitinib (GR cells) displayed a significantly higher microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression and activity than parental cells. Overexpression of mPGES-1/prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) signaling in GR cells was associated with acquisition of mesenchymal and stem-like cell properties, nuclear EGFR translocation and tolerance to cisplatin. mPGES-1 inhibition reduced mesenchymal and stem-like properties, and nuclear EGFR translocation in GR cells. Consistently, inhibition of mPGES-1 activity enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and responsiveness to gefitinib in...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study showed that periodontal diseases were associated with increased risk of several cancers. Besides other wellknown benefits for health, the provision of oral/dental health should be considered and employed as a cancer prevention measure. PMID: 31195790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Yıldız Çeltek N, Süren M, Demir O, Okan İ Abstract Background/aim: Validated measures in palliative cancer patients are very important in the evaluation and management of the disease. The Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) has been used for many years to assess the performance status of cancer patients. The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the KPS in cancer patients receiving palliative care in Turkey. Materials and methods: Eighty patients with a cancer diagnosis who were admitted to Gaziosmanpaşa University Medical Faculty Hospital Palliative Care Unit ...
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
This study aimed to clarify whether CT-histogram analysis of tumors can be used to classify patients with clinical stage 0-IA non-small cell lung cancer (c0-IA NSCLC) according to pathological lymph node (pN) status.MethodsPredictive factors associated with pN metastasis (pNM) were identified from the derivation dataset including 629 patients with c0-IA NSCLC who underwent complete resection with lymph node dissection (surgeries between 2008 and 2013). The validation dataset including 238 patients (surgeries between 2014 and 2015) were subsequently re-evaluated. Clinico-surgical factors, including CT-histogram parameters o...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
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