Is AI the Key to Diving Deeper into Images and Pathology?

In a tale of two studies, it appears artificial intelligence is helping researchers analyze cells in ways that weren't possible before. In one study, published this week in Nature Methods, scientists at the Allen Institute in Seattle, WA used machine learning to train computers to see parts of the cell that the human eye cannot easily distinguish. Using 3D images of fluorescently labeled cells, the team taught computers to find structures inside living cells without fluorescent labels, using only black and white images generated by an inexpensive technique known as brightfield microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy, which uses glowing molecular labels to pinpoint specific parts of cells, is very precise but only allows scientists to see a few structures in the cell at a time, the researchers explained. Human cells have upwards of 20,000 different proteins that, if viewed together, could reveal important information about both healthy and diseased cells. "This technology lets us view a larger set of those structures than was possible before," said Greg Johnson, PhD, a scientist at the Allen Institute for Cell Science, a division of the Allen Institute, and senior author on the study. "This means that we can explore the organization of the cell in ways that nobody has been able to do, especially in live cells." According to Rick Horwitz, PhD, executive director of the Allen Institute for Cell Science, the prediction tool could also help ...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Imaging Source Type: news

Related Links:

Authors: Okimoto T, Tsubata Y, Hotta T, Hamaguchi M, Nakao M, Hamaguchi SI, Hamada A, Isobe T Abstract The central nervous system is a common site of relapse in patients receiving crizotinib, which is presumed to be associated with the low concentration of crizotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our patient received surgical treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive stage IIA lung adenocarcinoma. His cancer recurred with brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis. We started whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and subsequently administered crizotinib. The concentration of crizotinib on day 15 in th...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis case emphasizes the uncommon adverse effect of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase-targeted therapy alectinib causing acute renal failure manifesting as acute tubular necrosis. Recognition of alectinib nephropathy requires a thorough drug history and knowledge of risk factors that lessen its margin of safety at therapeutic ingestions. Frequent monitoring of renal functions and early nephrology referral significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of these patients.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
OBJECTIVES: Cancer in young adults represents a great challenge, both biologically and socially, and understanding the unique characteristics of neoplasms in this age group is important to improving care. We aimed to evaluate the most common carcinomas and their characteristics, such as histological type and clinical stage, in young adults in the largest cancer hospital in Latin America. METHODS: The hospital registry was consulted for the period between 2008 and 2014. Young adults were defined as individuals aged 18 to 39 years, and older adults were defined as individuals aged 40 years and older. Differences between age ...
Source: Clinics - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Sorcin (Soluble resistance related calcium binding protein) is a small soluble penta EF family (PEF) of calcium (Ca2+) binding protein (22,000 Da). It has been reported to play crucial roles in the regulation of calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, cancer development, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Overexpression of sorcin has been reported to be associated with different cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, ovarian cancer, etc. Essentially, expression of sorcin has been found to be elevated in cancer cells as comp...
Source: Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research
A 28-year-old woman who was 34 weeks pregnant was admitted with complaints of cough and blood-stained sputum. After delivery of the baby at 37 weeks gestation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the right lung and a 15-mm brain metastasis. A diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was made, cT4N3M1b (stage IV disease) by pleural fluid cytology. Additional testing for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein showed a strongly positive result, which was then confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patient was started on treatment with alectinib, and the tumor and brain metasta...
Source: In Vivo - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research
Conclusions: Exact incidence of T790M mutations after progression on TKI s in Asian population is not exactly known and requires large data, as incidence may be different than reported in the Western population. Rebiopsy and ddPCR help to determine the most common type of resistance after progression on TKI, for which effective targeted therapy is available.
Source: Lung India - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: Current trial eligibility criteria are often strict and limit the enrolment of patients in clinical trials. Our results suggest that, depending on the chosen drug, its toxicities and tolerability, eligibility criteria could be carefully reviewed and relaxed. PMID: 30111974 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Current Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research
Authors: Shibata N, Matsumoto K, Kitamura S, Sakashita A, Kizawa Y, Hirata KI Abstract A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to an acute onset of consciousness disturbance, aphasia and left hemiplegia. Computed tomography revealed multiple systemic infarctions, including brain, kidney and spleen. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetations attached to the mitral valve leaflets, which was suspected to be the embolic source. Repeated blood cultures were negative, and advanced lung cancer was incidentally revealed by computed tomography. She was then diagnosed with nonbacterial thrombotic endo...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
We report here the first patient with co-existing ROS1 fusion and de-novo MET amplification to receive crizotinib in China. Treatment of our patient was effective with targeted therapy based on a precise diagnosis. Advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients with co-existing ROS1 fusion and de-novo MET amplification are sensitive to crizotinib. These uncommon driver gene mutations may be missed using the current first-generation detection assay. We must be aware of the incidence of concomitant ROS1 fusion and de-novo MET amplification because NSCLC patients could benefit from targeted therapy. PMID: 30095326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research
Abstract Central nervous system metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer remains a therapeutic challenge and confers a poor prognosis. Here we describe a patient with lung adenocarcinoma, parenchymal brain metastases, and leptomeningeal carcinomatosis who demonstrated a sustained response to programmed death 1 inhibition combined with stereotactic radiosurgery. PMID: 30072392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
More News: Adenocarcinoma | Biology | Brain | Brain Cancers | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Computers | Eyes | Genetics | Learning | Lung Cancer | Lung Transplant | Medical Devices | Mitochondria | Molecular Biology | Neurology | Neuroscience | New York University | Pathology | Research | Science | Study | Universities & Medical Training