Is AI the Key to Diving Deeper into Images and Pathology?

In a tale of two studies, it appears artificial intelligence is helping researchers analyze cells in ways that weren't possible before. In one study, published this week in Nature Methods, scientists at the Allen Institute in Seattle, WA used machine learning to train computers to see parts of the cell that the human eye cannot easily distinguish. Using 3D images of fluorescently labeled cells, the team taught computers to find structures inside living cells without fluorescent labels, using only black and white images generated by an inexpensive technique known as brightfield microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy, which uses glowing molecular labels to pinpoint specific parts of cells, is very precise but only allows scientists to see a few structures in the cell at a time, the researchers explained. Human cells have upwards of 20,000 different proteins that, if viewed together, could reveal important information about both healthy and diseased cells. "This technology lets us view a larger set of those structures than was possible before," said Greg Johnson, PhD, a scientist at the Allen Institute for Cell Science, a division of the Allen Institute, and senior author on the study. "This means that we can explore the organization of the cell in ways that nobody has been able to do, especially in live cells." According to Rick Horwitz, PhD, executive director of the Allen Institute for Cell Science, the prediction tool could also help ...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Imaging Source Type: news

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Rationale: About 50% of patients with a diagnosis of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma exhibit metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. The preferential sites of extrapulmonary spread are the lymph nodes, liver, brain, adrenal glands, and bones; gastrointestinal tract perforation secondary to metastatic lung cancer is extremely rare. Patient concerns: A 60-year-old male nonsmoker patient presented with a 20-day history of facial, neck, and right upper limb edema. Physical examination revealed a 3.5 cm mass in his right chest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 4 cm mass near the right lung hilum. Diagnosis: Bio...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Discussion:The case clearly demonstrates poor prognostic indicators with hypercalcemia and severe leukocytosis in the setting of end stage lung adenosquamous carcinoma. Classically, paraneoplastic hypercalcemia is associated with PTHrP production in Squamous Cell carcinoma. Overall incidence of hypercalcemia in lung cancer ranges from to 8%-12% with median survival time (MST) of 3.8 months (1,2).Paraneoplastic Leukocytosis meanwhile is most often associated with adenocarcinoma (42%) and squamous cell carcinoma (36%) with incidence ranging between 16 and 30% and MST of 1.9 months (1,2). Nonetheless, the combination of these...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 203. Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, and Immunodeficiency, including HIV and Other Infections Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe disclosed the histologic transformation of NSCLC in BM at a frequency not as low as expected, and speculated it as an evolution promoted by intratumor heterogeneity, though it warrants further prospective multi-institution investigations with comprehensive molecular analysis. Our findings provided further impetus for surgery when the metastatic or recurrent lesion is resectable, and repeated pathologic evaluation to help tailor individualized treatment.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractTo describe autoantibodies (Abs) against tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) protein 9 and 67 in two patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Abs were characterized using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, cultures of murine cortical, and hippocampal neurons, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, knockout mice forTrim9 and67, and cell-based assay. Control samples included sera from 63 patients with small cell lung cancer without any paraneoplastic neurological syndrome, 36 patients with lung adenocarcinoma and PNS, CSF from 100 patients with autoimmune en...
Source: The Cerebellum - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Honnorat J Abstract To describe autoantibodies (Abs) against tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) protein 9 and 67 in two patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Abs were characterized using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, cultures of murine cortical, and hippocampal neurons, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, knockout mice for Trim9 and 67, and cell-based assay. Control samples included sera from 63 patients with small cell lung cancer without any paraneoplastic neurological syndrome, 36 patients with lung adenocarcinoma and PNS, CSF from 100 pat...
Source: Cerebellum - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cerebellum Source Type: research
Authors: Okimoto T, Tsubata Y, Hotta T, Hamaguchi M, Nakao M, Hamaguchi SI, Hamada A, Isobe T Abstract The central nervous system is a common site of relapse in patients receiving crizotinib, which is presumed to be associated with the low concentration of crizotinib in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our patient received surgical treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive stage IIA lung adenocarcinoma. His cancer recurred with brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis. We started whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and subsequently administered crizotinib. The concentration of crizotinib on day 15 in th...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis case emphasizes the uncommon adverse effect of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase-targeted therapy alectinib causing acute renal failure manifesting as acute tubular necrosis. Recognition of alectinib nephropathy requires a thorough drug history and knowledge of risk factors that lessen its margin of safety at therapeutic ingestions. Frequent monitoring of renal functions and early nephrology referral significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity of these patients.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
OBJECTIVES: Cancer in young adults represents a great challenge, both biologically and socially, and understanding the unique characteristics of neoplasms in this age group is important to improving care. We aimed to evaluate the most common carcinomas and their characteristics, such as histological type and clinical stage, in young adults in the largest cancer hospital in Latin America. METHODS: The hospital registry was consulted for the period between 2008 and 2014. Young adults were defined as individuals aged 18 to 39 years, and older adults were defined as individuals aged 40 years and older. Differences between age ...
Source: Clinics - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Sorcin (Soluble resistance related calcium binding protein) is a small soluble penta EF family (PEF) of calcium (Ca2+) binding protein (22,000 Da). It has been reported to play crucial roles in the regulation of calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, cancer development, and multidrug resistance (MDR). Overexpression of sorcin has been reported to be associated with different cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, ovarian cancer, etc. Essentially, expression of sorcin has been found to be elevated in cancer cells as comp...
Source: Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research
A 28-year-old woman who was 34 weeks pregnant was admitted with complaints of cough and blood-stained sputum. After delivery of the baby at 37 weeks gestation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor in the right lung and a 15-mm brain metastasis. A diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was made, cT4N3M1b (stage IV disease) by pleural fluid cytology. Additional testing for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein showed a strongly positive result, which was then confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patient was started on treatment with alectinib, and the tumor and brain metasta...
Source: In Vivo - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research
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