Why Are We Seeing an Explosion of New Viruses Like Zika?

Zika virus, Ebola, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, bird flu, swine flu -- these viruses have all grabbed international attention in recent years. In the past few decades the world has witnessed an alarming surge in emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Since 1980, new pathogens have emerged in the human population at a rate of about three each year. Why are we seeing such a surge in new pathogens? One could argue that some of the pathogens may not be new at all; they could have circulated among humans for centuries and are just being identified for the first time because of increased surveillance and reporting. While this is true in a small number of cases, a study found that even after controlling for increased surveillance, there has still been a surge in EIDs in recent times. In other words, the rise of new pathogens is very real. So let's look at the major reasons why we are seeing this rise: First: human overpopulation. I think we need to change the phrase "breed like rabbits" to "breed like humans," as no other species on this planet even comes close to the human reproduction rate. As our population grows, available land shrinks and more and more people are forced to live in crowded, urbanized environments, a situation ripe for the easy spread and emergence of infectious agents. Second: increased travel. Our travels significantly increase our chan...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Trends in Food Science &TechnologyAuthor(s): Heera Jayan, Hongbin Pu, Da-Wen SunAbstractBackgroundMicrobial contamination is an increasing concern in the food industry. In order to understand the effect of microorganisms, the study of their characteristics and behavior in various platforms is of prime importance. Over the years, time-consuming and labor-intensive, culture-based enumeration techniques have become obsolete for real-time applications, and increasing concerns on foodborne outbreaks necessitate rapid, on-site and sensitive methods for the detection ...
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pulsed light (PL) treatment, a novel antimicrobial (LAPEN) wash and combinations thereof in inactivating Salmonella on stem scars of cherry tomato. The treatment effects on background microbiota and sensory quality was also investigated while in storage for 21 days at 10 °C. Three serotypes of Salmonella enterica were chosen to prepare inoculum for the current investigation for their link with tomato and produce outbreaks. Stem scars of tomato were spot inoculated before being treated with PL (1–63 J/cm2), LAPEN sanitizer (2 min) or combinatio...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Authors: Gatti M, Raschi E, De Ponti F Abstract BACKGROUND: The management of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing (KPC) infections represents a major challenge. Several safety and efficacy concerns are shared by available antibiotics used in KPC infections, leading to the occurrence of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs), with ceftazidime-avibactam possibly showing a more favourable risk-benefit profile. We investigated the potential impact of resistance on ADR reports in countries with different prevalence of KPC isolates (Italy vs. United Kingdom [UK]), and described safety profile of newer and older ...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Marla I Hertz, Philip M Glaessner, Amy Rush, Philip J BudgeAbstractGalectins are among the most abundant excretory/secretory (ES) products of filarial worms, but their role in filarial biology is poorly understood. Galectin-2 (Lec-2), a major component of Brugia malayi extracellular vesicles, is released by filarial worms, and was recently identified in the serum of persons with loiasis. We therefore sought to clone and characterize Lec-2, and to develop reagents to examine its potential as a biomarker and its role i...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
This study not only determined the primary reason for the atypical IBD epidemic, but also remind us of the urgency for developing new vaccines against novel variant IBDV.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Xian-Wei Wang, Mi Wang, Jing Zhan, Qian-Yu Liu, Lin-lin Fang, Chen-yao Zhao, Ping Jiang, Yu-Feng Li, Juan BaiAbstractSince late 2010, highly virulent PEDV G2-genotype strains have emerged globally extracting heavy losses on the pork industries of numerous countries. We investigated the characteristics of a field strain of PEDV (PEDV strain SH) isolated from a piglet with severe diarrhea on a farm in Shanghai China. Whole genome sequencing and analysis revealed that the SH strain belonged to subtype G2a and has a unique 12-aa deleti...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 7Author(s): Mohamed A. Dkhil, Mona F. Khalil, Marwa S.M. Diab, Amira A. Bauomy, Simeon Santourlidis, Esam M. Al-Shaebi, Saleh Al-QuraishyAbstractNanomedicine is one of the most important methods used to treat human diseases including parasitic diseases. Schistosomiasis is a major parasitic disease that affects human health in tropical regions. Whilst Praziquantel is the main classic antischistosomal drug, new drugs are required due to the poor effect of the drug on the parasite juveniles and immature worms, and the emergence of dr...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, promising nonchemical (plant extracts) are innocuous to adult bees. So, we strongly believed that this effort was made to evaluate the status of medicinal plants researches globally.
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Paula Roberta da Silva, Jamerson Ferreira de Oliveira, Anekécia Lauro da Silva, Camila Marques Queiroz, Ana Paula Sampaio Feitosa, Denise Maria Figueiredo Araújo Duarte, Aline Caroline da Silva, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz de Castro, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos Alves, Fábio André Brayner dos Santos, Maria do Carmo Alves de LimaAbstractParasitic diseases still represent serious public health problems, since the high and steady emergence of...
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
In this study, we designed a simple strategy to achieve the co-delivery of a DNA vaccine and hydrophobic immune adjuvant (R848) and to enhance the adjuvanticity of R848 via the synergistic effect of GO and R848. Thiolated low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (TPEI1.8) was crosslinked with 4-aminothiophenol-modified GO (TGO) via the formation of disulfide bonds. Thus, TGO with its assembled TPEI1.8 could not only load R848 but also electrostatically interact with the DNA vaccine. Owing to the reducibility of the disulfide bond in the cellular environment, the DNA vaccine could be readily released. This system can significa...
Source: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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