Progesterone or progestin as menopausal ovarian hormone therapy: recent physiology-based clinical evidence

Purpose of review: Provide evidence-based recent data on oral micronized progesterone (OMP) and progestins in menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT). Recent findings: Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases breast cancer acting through the glucocorticoid receptor; progestins in MHT increase thrombosis more than oral estrogens; MPA, but not OMP or other progestins, increase monocyte cell endothelium adhesion; MPA and estradiol (E2)/MPA have negative brain effects, whereas E2/progesterone (P4) has neuroregenerative brain effects. The ‘window of opportunity’ cardiovascular disease hypothesis is not supported by a randomized controlled trial showing that transdermal estradiol with sequential OMP in early menopause does not prevent increased carotid intimal media thickness; P4 in the cardiac electrical system opposes E2 effects and prevents sudden death/long QT syndrome; transdermal estradiol/OMP does not increase venous thromboembolism in observational data. P4 decreases breast cell proliferation and improves prognosis through P4 receptor alteration of estrogen receptor α genetic effects; OMP with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE)/estrogen (E)/E2 does not increase breast cancer in two prospective cohorts, one population-based. Endometrial cancer is increased in MHT of CEE/E/E2+cyclic OMP at 200 mg/day. Summary: New data show CEE/E/E2+MPA/P mechanisms for negative breast cancer, venous thromboembolism, cardiovascular system, and brain effects. OMP/P4 counterbalan...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Reproductive Endocrinology Source Type: research

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In conclusion, this review reported that IL-37 has a crucial role in reducing infection-associated inflammation and has a good impact on inflammation-induced pathology. However, tight regulation that achieved balance between effector immune responses that required for pathogen elimination and limited tissue damage that resulted from excessive inflammation should be existed in the potential IL-37 therapy to prevent clinical complications of a disease. PMID: 31633447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research
Date: Monday, 10 28, 2019; Speaker: Xiangbo Ruan, Regulation of systemic lipid metabolism by human lncRNAs, The Cao group, CB, NHLBI; Ranganath Muniyappa, Hyperuricemia in insulin resistance, DEOB, NIDDK; Building: Building 10 (Clinical Center); Solarium Conference Room 9S233 (old Bunim Room)
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Date: Tuesday, 11 12, 2019; Speaker: Meira Epplein, PhD, Associate Professor in Population Health Sciences, Associate Prof in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine ; http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/events/infectious-age
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Autoimmunity ReviewsAuthor(s): Hagit Peleg, Yaakov Naparstek, Francesca Regola, Angela Tincani, Vittorio Pengo, Gentian DenasAbstractSecondary thromboprophylaxis with low molecular heparin or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) is recommended in patients with definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Direct oral anticoagulant (DOACs) have been approved in different prothrombotic conditions and have numerous advantages compared to VKAs. Whether DOACs can be used for secondary prophylaxis in APS is an open question. Data from the TRAPS randomized controlled Trial, meta-analy...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Patients with clinical signs of inflammation and acute PVT have a low risk of malignancy in contrast to patients without signs of inflammation and acute PVT, which have a high risk of oncologic or hemato-oncologic disease. Patients with negative hemato-oncologic screening should be carefully observed over time because we expect they are at higher risk for the development of hemato-oncologic disease, independent from the presence and number of procoagulation risk factors. PMID: 31630579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results indicate that a possible mechanism behind an anastomotic leakage is an impaired circulation and thus insufficient saturation to the small intestine peroperatively. This develops into an inflammation both intraperitoneally and intravenously, which, if not reversed, spread within the gastrointestinal tract .The colorectal anastomosis is the most vulnerable part of the gastrointestinal tract postoperatively and hypoxia and inflammation may occur there, and an anastomosis leakage will be the consequence. PMID: 31630578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
This article highlights the role of nuclear medicine in standardizing the diagnostic approach in patients with infectious/inflammatory diseases, in particular in peripheral osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, prosthetic joint infections, infected diabetic foot and spinal infections. The authors reveal the role of the most common radionuclides tests, with their advantages and clinical indications, to achieve an adequate diagnosis of infection and inflammation.ResumenLas enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciosas osteoarticulares pueden tener graves consecuencias para el paciente si no se diagnostican a tiempo. En las últi...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Muhammad Younis, Wang Faming, Zhao Hongyan, Tan Mengmeng, Song Hang, Yuan LiudiAbstractGlioma is the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system, with the highest mortality rate. The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic effect of Iguratimod (IGU) encapsulated- poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (IGU-PLGA-NPs), which showed inhibition of glioma cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. IGU was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm w...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Duo Lin, Qiong Wu, Sufang Qiu, Guannan Chen, Shangyuan Feng, Rong Chen, Haishan ZengAbstractDevelopment of a sensitive, rapid and easy-to-use liquid biopsy method is of imperative clinical value for point-of-care caner diagnostics. Here, a label-free and modification-free nanotechnology based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was employed for DNA analysis. Using the SERS signals of phosphate backbone as internal standard, quantitative detection for nucleobases was achieved even at single base l...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of MutagenesisAuthor(s): Mohammad-Taghi Bahreyni-Toossi, Elham Dolat, Hashem Khanbabaei, Navid Zafari, Hosein AzimianAbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal type of primary brain tumor. Currently, even with optimal and multimodal cancer therapies, the survival rate of GBM patients remains poor. One reason for inadequate response of GBM tumors to radiotherapy is radioresistance (RR). Thus, there is a critical need for new insights about GBM treatment to increase the chance of treatment. microRNAs (miRNAs) a...
Source: Mutation Research Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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