Controversy over the atherogenicity of lipoprotein-X
Purpose of review Lipoprotein-X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein containing abundant free cholesterol and phospholipids, as well as some apolipoprotein E (apoE). Serum Lp-X increases in patients with cholestasis and lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, as well as in those receiving intravenous lipid emulsion. Lp-X is often associated with skin xanthomas in cholestatic patients. However, earlier studies showed that Lp-X is not taken up by murine macrophages, but exerts antiatherogenic actions. In this review, we discuss the heterogeneity of Lp-X and its potential atherogenicity. Recent findings Mass ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the development and progression of atherosclerosis
Purpose of review In this review, we intend to show the heterogenicity of the triglyceride group, including the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and its subparticles, apolipoproteins, and its role in atherogenesis through epidemiological and genetic studies, observing the association of these various components and subclasses with subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Also, we reevaluated the moment of blood collection for the triglyceride measurement and its repercussion in atherosclerosis. Finally, we present the current scenario and new insights about the pharmacologic treatment of hypertriglyceridemia....
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Dyslipidemia in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review To summarize recent findings regarding the characterization of lipoprotein disturbances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their relationship with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and make recommendations for the management of this situation. Recent findings Advanced lipoprotein profile (using NMR spectroscopy) has shown profound lipoprotein derangements which are overlooked with conventional analyses: increased number and size of very low-density lipoproteins particles, increased number of low-density lipoprotein particles (especially small sized), smaller high-density lipoprotein particles...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Risk factors for valvular calcification
Purpose of review Recent literature is examined to identify established and emerging risk factors for valvular calcification, specifically calcific aortic valve disease and mitral annular calcification. Recent findings Strong evidence implicates older age, male sex, cigarette smoking, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, adiposity, and mineral metabolism as risk factors for calcific aortic valve disease. Emerging evidence suggests family history and lipoprotein(a) are additional risk factors. Recently, large-scale genome-wide analyses have identified robust associations for LPA, PALMD, and TEX41 with aortic stenosi...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Rationally designed small molecules to prevent type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review To review the recent findings that small ‘drug-like’ compounds block disease-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recent findings The predominant genetic risk for developing T1D, the immune-mediated form of diabetes, is conferred through HLA genes. One such gene, termed HLA-DQ8, is present in 50–60% of patients with T1D and those at-risk. DQ8 presents disease-relevant peptides to T cells, which mediate tissue-specific destruction of pancreatic islets. Using a structure-based approach to evaluate the ‘druggability’ of the DQ8 molecule...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS I: Edited by David M. Harlan Source Type: research

Technological advances shaping diabetes care
Purpose of review To emphasize the current unmet needs for patients with diabetes and evaluate the recent technological advances in the diabetes field and summarize upcoming technologies in diabetes care. This review highlights emerging diabetes technologies and patient-centered diabetes management. Recent findings A review of the literature showed that there is a clear benefit of using diabetes technologies in diabetes care. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created a new category of Class II integrated continuous glucose monitoring (iCGM) devices and announced new guidelines to accelerate the appro...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS I: Edited by David M. Harlan Source Type: research

Are newer insulins always the better option?
Purpose of review Since its discovery almost a century ago, there have been numerous advancements in the formulations of insulin. The newer insulin analogs have structural modifications with the goal of altering pharmacokinetics to achieve either quick onset and offset of action (mealtime bolus analogs), or a prolonged steady action (basal analogs). These analogs offer many advantages over older human insulins but are several-fold more expensive. The aim of this review is to evaluate reasons for the exorbitant price of the newer insulins, to examine the evidence regarding their clinical advantages and to make value-based...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS I: Edited by David M. Harlan Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Tumor risk and surveillance for children with hereditary disorders affecting growth
Purpose of review Hereditary disorders affecting growth (both overgrowth and growth retardation) are frequently associated with heightened risk of neoplastic disease. This review summarizes the tumor spectra associated with these conditions and identifies disease-specific screening approaches. Recent findings An understanding of the molecular events underlying many of these growth disorders has evolved significantly over the past several years. Recognition of genotype–phenotype associations, in many cases, informs the cancer risk profile. Additionally, accumulating data suggest a benefit of rational presymptomat...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Endocrine aspects of Klinefelter syndrome
Purpose of review Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in men. Hypogonadism and testicular degeneration are almost universal. Truncal adiposity, metabolic syndrome and low bone mass occur frequently. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the pathogenesis and management of the endocrine abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome. It is expected that optimal endocrine management will improve outcomes and quality of life in Klinefelter syndrome. Recent findings In Klinefelter syndrome, testosterone replacement is routinely prescribed despite lack of evidence on the optimal dose and t...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Genetic evaluation of disorders of sex development: current practice and novel gene discovery
Purpose of review As the pace of genetic discovery accelerates, genetic sequencing is increasingly applied to rare disease such as DSD (differences or disorders of sex development,) which has led to an increase in the number of novel variant-containing candidate genes identified. In this review, we will discuss several candidate genes which have recently been proposed as causative of DSD, as well as novel work in understanding gene regulation in the mouse gonad that may have implications for the DSD phenotype in humans. Recent findings We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed through August 2018 to identify relev...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Ethical issues with early genitoplasty in children with disorders of sex development
This article reviews these arguments using an ethical framework and discusses the application and challenges of recent disorders of sex development research. Recent findings Recent ethics literature and advocacy groups have argued for deferring genitoplasty until a child reaches decisional maturity. As a counterpoint, urological societies have published arguments supporting the practice of early genitoplasty. Data from DSD research lends some guidance but also has a wide range of outcomes, which makes generalizability difficult. A retrospective, multicenter study of 21 individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia who...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Growth, pubertal development, and skeletal health in boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Purpose of review Glucocorticoid therapy is currently the most widely used treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), having consistently shown to prolong ambulation by 2 years, reduce the frequency of scoliosis, and improve cardiorespiratory function. Among the most frequent side effects of glucocorticoids are fractures due to osteoporosis, linear growth retardation or arrest, and pubertal delay, the subjects of this review. Recent findings The diagnosis of osteoporosis has shifted in recent years away from a bone mineral density-centric to a fracture-focused approach, with particular emphasis on early vertebra...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Undernutrition and growth in the developing world
Purpose of review Despite targeted interventions, an estimated 150.8 million children under 5 years globally are still stunted, of which more than half live in Asia and more than one-third live in Africa. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding how longitudinal bone growth is regulated by nutritional intake in the developing world. Dietary macronutrients and micronutrients necessary for growth are also briefly reviewed. Recent findings Recent advances include investigations of nutritionally sensitive regulators of growth as well as prospective evaluations of the role of specific dietary components on gr...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Physical activity in adolescents and children and relationship to metabolic health
Purpose of review To summarize the recent developments relating to the role of physical activity in improving insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Recent findings The current literature strengthens previous findings on the relationship between physical activity and metabolic health in children; suggests a protective role for physical activity in the setting of obesity; examines population-specific findings; addresses specific effects of different modalities of physical activity in improving health; reveals potential mediators in the relationship between physical activity and metabolic...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Weight stigma and its impact on paediatric care
Purpose of review This review aims to evaluate current research findings relevant to weight stigmatization, to acknowledge the deleterious impact it has on the health of the paediatric population and to provide insight to optimize future guidelines for the treatment of individuals with overweight and obesity. Recent findings Obesity prevalence continues to rise in the USA with estimates in children from ages 2–19 years of 18.5%, an all-time high. With the increase in obesity, there has been a concomitant increase in weight stigma, which affects both youth and general population across varied levels of socioecono...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Editorial: Converting organized knowledge to wisdom
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Edited by Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Central control of gastrointestinal motility
Purpose of review This review summarizes the organization and structure of vagal neurocircuits controlling the upper gastrointestinal tract, and more recent studies investigating their role in the regulation of gastric motility under physiological, as well as pathophysiological, conditions. Recent findings Vagal neurocircuits regulating gastric functions are highly plastic, and open to modulation by a variety of inputs, both peripheral and central. Recent research in the fields of obesity, development, stress, and neurological disorders highlight the importance of central inputs onto these brainstem neurocircuits in t...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal hormones and regulation of gastric emptying
Purpose of review This review examines the hormonal regulation of gastric emptying, a topic of increasing relevance, given the fact that medications that are analogs of some of these hormones or act as agonists at the hormonal receptors, are used in clinical practice for optimizing metabolic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and in obesity. Recent findings The major effects on gastric emptying result from actions of incretins, particularly gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide tyrosine–tyrosine, the duodenal and pancreatic hormones, motilin, glucagon, and amylin, and the ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Editorial overview: gastrointestinal regulatory peptides
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Müllerian inhibiting substance/anti-Müllerian hormone as a fertility preservation agent
Purpose of review The nascent field of oncofertility is quickly gaining traction as novel experimental treatments are being developed, driving a renewed interest in Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) as an ovarian fertoprotectant. Recent findings MIS is unique in its mechanisms of ovarian protection by virtue of acting directly on granulosa cells of primordial follicles and for being a benign reproductive hormone, with few side effects. We will explore in this review how it may be utilized to protect the ovary from chemotherapy, or to enhance ovarian tissue cryopreservation therapy. We will also examine potenti...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

The role of antimullerian hormone in assessing ovarian damage from chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery
Purpose of review Iatrogenic ovarian damage can occur after chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for cancer as well as for non-malignant conditions. This review describes the effects of such treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) and the implications of the fall in AMH in relation to ovarian function and fertility, especially in the era of improved fertility preservation strategies. Recent findings The risk of gonadotoxicity differs between chemotherapy regimens. There is growing evidence that pretreatment AMH has prognostic significance for the degree of fall in AMH after treatment, the reversibility of ovarian d...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

Anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of reproductive potential
Purpose of review Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, declines over a woman's reproductive lifespan. AMH is highly correlated with a woman's age and number of primordial ovarian follicles, and has been shown to predict time to menopause in women in their 40s. For these reasons, it was assumed that AMH levels could predict a woman's reproductive potential or serve as a ‘fertility test’. Recently, studies have sought to determine the association between AMH and fertility. Recent findings Although a small, prospective, time-to-pregnancy study of 98 women suggested that an AMH level...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

Anti-müllerian hormone in the pathophysiology and diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome
Purpose of review Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism in young women and represents a true public health concern and an economic burden. Recent findings The pathophysiology of PCOS is still not fully understood, but progresses have been made and the relationships between anti mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, E2 and androgens have been explored. The follicle excess plays a central role in the syndrome and AMH is definitively a major component of this phenomena. Summary The aim of this chapter is to present ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

Current clinical applications of antimullerian hormone
Purpose of review Determine if literature supports the use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a useful biomarker of reproductive potential when cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) per retrieval are used as the outcome variable. Recent findings Advances in technology used in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) permit the use of single embryo transfer to achieve expected pregnancy success rates. Many IVF cycles result in the creation of more than a single embryo suitable for transfer per oocyte retrieval. Cryopreservation permits subsequent use of other embryos with no loss in total reproductive potential from single retr...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

Use of bone turnover markers in the management of osteoporosis
Purpose of review Osteoporosis is a common public health problem that is often undertreated and underdiagnosed. The clinical management of osteoporosis is often reactionary to devastating fracture events. Bone turnover markers may improve the ease and rapidity at which osteoporosis is monitored and treated. Bone turnover markers are biochemical byproducts of bone formation or bone resorption. The clinical use of bone turnover markers is limited by significant preanalytical variability. Effective interpretation of bone turnover markers requires a detailed understanding of the variables that can affect their responses to o...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Vin Tangpricha Source Type: research

Updates in vitamin D therapy in cystic fibrosis
Purpose of review To summarize recent developments the role of vitamin D and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in cystic fibrosis. Recent findings Although treatment of low vitamin D levels continues to be important for optimizing bone health in cystic fibrosis, increasing data on the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D are becoming available. Exploratory studies of vitamin D in modulation of respiratory and intestinal microbiomes, and the influence of vitamin D on the metabolomic signature of cystic fibrosis, suggest expanded roles for vitamin D in cystic fibrosis disease and treatment. Summary Emerging development...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Vin Tangpricha Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Evolving management considerations in active surveillance for micropapillary thyroid carcinoma
Purpose of review To summarize developments on active surveillance for micropapillary thyroid cancers, with a focus on strategies for optimal risk stratification and caveats that currently limit adoption. Recent findings Observational trials encompassing thousands of active surveillance patients worldwide have increasingly demonstrated the viability of active surveillance for small, low-risk thyroid cancers. Collectively, these data have established that with proper patient selection and strict monitoring, more than 85% of such cases remain indolent no meaningful clinical growth over at least 10 years. Moreover, to da...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Lewis E. Braverman and Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

The catalytic role of iodine excess in loss of homeostasis in autoimmune thyroiditis
Purpose of review To review the latest developments concerning the role of iodine in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent findings Recent studies have provided evidence that in areas with excess iodine intake, increased incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis marked by high titers of thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies has occurred. Investigations in the NOD.H2h4 mouse, a strain prone to AIT, showed that they are better adapted to the Wolff–Chaikoff effect. Summary To provide an overview of the studies conducted during the last few years implicating iodine in the development and manif...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Lewis E. Braverman and Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Pathophysiological relevance of deiodinase polymorphism
Purpose of review To assess new findings and clinical implications of deiodinase gene polymorphism. Deiodinases are enzymes that can activate or inactivate thyroid hormone molecules. Whereas the types 1 and 2 deiodinase (D1 and D2) activate thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) via deiodination of T4's outer ring, D1 and D3 inactivate both T4 and T3 and terminate thyroid hormone action via deiodination of T4's inner molecular ring. A number of polymorphisms have been identified in the three deiodinase genes; the most investigated and likely to have clinical relevance is the Thr92 substitution for Ala subst...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Lewis E. Braverman and Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Research ethics dilemmas in thyroid disease
Purpose of review Since research ethics dilemmas frequently fall outside the purview of the Institutional Review Board (IRB), we present three unique recent research ethics cases in thyroidology that demonstrate research ethics dilemmas. Recent findings The cases presented raise questions surrounding epistemic/scientific integrity, publication ethics, and professional, and personal integrity. Summary Research ethics dilemmas that fall outside the purview of the IRB are appropriate for a Research Ethics Consultation, a common service in many large academic medical centers. (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Lewis E. Braverman and Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

The impact of age on thyroid cancer staging
Purpose of review Patient age at diagnosis is a well established prognostic factor for thyroid cancer survival; it is included in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) thyroid cancer-staging system. This review provides an update on the epidemiology, risk stratification, and staging of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), in the context of patient age. Recent findings In the eighth edition AJCC staging system for DTC, the age cut-point was increased from 45 to 55 years. The appropriate age-cut point remains a subject of debate, as some studies have found a linear association of age and survival, and therefore,...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Lewis E. Braverman and Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Pregnancy as a risk factor for thyroid cancer progression
Purpose of review The current review evaluates the impact of pregnancy on women with thyroid cancer in three different clinical situations: those with newly diagnosed differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), those under active surveillance for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PMCs), and those with previously treated DTC. Recent findings Recent pregnancy is not associated with high-risk pathological features of DTC. In women with known PMCs under active surveillance, pregnancy does not increase the risk of disease progression. Thus, deferring surgery for newly diagnosed DTC or known PMCs until after delivery is safe for ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Lewis E. Braverman and Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

An update on research examining the implications of stigma for access to and utilization of bariatric surgery
Purpose of review To summarize recent literature examining the relationship between stigma and utilization of surgical treatments for obesity. Recent findings The stigma of obesity and stigma associated with surgical treatments for obesity can affect both healthcare providers’ recommendations of these options and patients’ likelihood of considering and choosing these treatments. Presurgical requirements of healthcare and insurance organizations and a lack of postsurgical support reflect the stigmatizing attitudes that bariatric/metabolic surgery is an ‘easy fix’ and ‘last resort’ fo...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, and cardiac dysfunction
Purpose of review Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are epidemiologically and pathophysiologically linked disorders. Here, we summarize the effect of obesity on NASH and how it has a cascading effect on cardiovascular dysfunction. We also review the current and emerging treatment options for NASH. Recent findings The link between NASH and cardiac dysfunction has been further delineated in recent studies demonstrating endothelial dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and increased coronary artery calcification in patients with known NASH. Standard treatment of obesity with lifestyle interventions including ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

Physical activity and weight maintenance: the utility of wearable devices and mobile health technology in research and clinical settings
Purpose of review The integration of wearable devices and mobile health (mHealth) technology to facilitate behavior change has the potential to transform the efficacy of interventions and implementation programs for weight maintenance. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall utility of wearable devices for assessing and promoting weight maintenance in research and clinical settings. Recent findings Recent intervention trials using wearable devices have been successful in increasing physical activity and decreasing or maintaining body weight, but complex study designs involving...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

The sliding set-point: how insulin and diet interact to explain the obesity epidemic (and how to fix it)
Purpose of review The current approach to weight loss (intentional energy deficit) is difficult to implement and sustain, and rarely leads to successful long-term weight loss maintenance. The aim of this article is to review recent literature on the role of insulin in obesity propensity, and by extension, the effectiveness of carbohydrate restriction in facilitating weight loss, with particular attention to individual variability in patient response. Recent findings A genetic signature for insulin secretion predisposes to elevated BMI. A genetic signature for insulin resistance is a marker for impaired fat storage, is...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

Food cravings and body weight: a conditioning response
Purpose of review To provide current information on interventions that alter food cravings. Specifically, dietary, physical activity, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery interventions are examined. Lastly, the effects of social determinants and current controversies on food cravings are outlined. Recent findings Dietary, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery weight loss interventions decrease food cravings. Physical activity interventions also decrease cravings. There is potential to see differential responses in food cravings in different demographic and socioeconomic groups, but more research is needed. Summary F...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

Updates on the neurobiology of food reward and their relation to the obesogenic environment
Purpose of review To summarize recent findings about the neurobiological control of food reward and discuss their relevance for hedonic food intake and obesity in our current obesogenic environment. Recent findings Recent data show new roles for circuits involving neuronal subpopulations within the central amyglada (CeA) and lateral hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and reward in rodents under free and operant conditions and also in restrain from reward consumption. Recent work also shows that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) codes for subjective perception of food features during reward assessment of individual...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

Editorial 2018 Current Opinion in Endocrinology
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: OBESITY AND NUTRITION: Edited by Caroline M. Apovian Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Structural brain abnormalities in Cushing's syndrome
Purpose of review Alongside various physical symptoms, patients with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome display a wide variety of neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms, which are indicative of involvement of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the structural brain abnormalities that are associated with Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome and their relation to behavioral and cognitive symptomatology. Recent findings In this review, we discuss the gray matter structural abnormalities found in patients with active Cushing's disease and Cushing's syndrome, the rever...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Whitney W. Woodmansee Source Type: research

Utility of optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of sellar and parasellar mass lesions
Purpose of review Anterior visual pathway compression is a common feature of sellar region masses. We review the visual pathway neuroanatomy pertaining to sellar and parasellar lesions and describe recent advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging that have provided a novel quantitative perspective in the evaluation and management of such patients. Recent findings Ultrastructural measurements of optic nerve integrity using OCT, namely peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses, have been shown to correlate with visual acuity and visua...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Whitney W. Woodmansee Source Type: research

The current state of long-acting growth hormone preparations for growth hormone therapy
Purpose of review To discuss the rationale of developing long-acting growth hormone (LAGH) preparations, to describe the technologies designed to prolong GH action, and to address key issues regarding efficacy, safety, and monitoring while on treatment. Review findings Recombinant human GH is currently approved for daily use and has been shown to restore longitudinal growth, and improve body composition with relatively few side-effects in children and adults with GH deficiency, respectively. However, daily injections can be inconvenient, painful and distressing for some patients, resulting in decreased adherence and e...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Whitney W. Woodmansee Source Type: research

Chelation therapy to prevent diabetes-associated cardiovascular events
Purpose of review For over 60 years, chelation therapy with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, edetate) had been used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite lack of scientific evidence for efficacy and safety. The Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT) was developed and received funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to ascertain the safety and efficacy of chelation therapy in patients with CVD. Recent findings This pivotal trial demonstrated an improvement in outcomes in postmyocardial infarction (MI) patients. Interestingly, it also showed a particularly large reduct...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

β Cell replacement: improving on the design
Purpose of review Here we summarize recent advancements in β cell replacement as a therapy for type 1 diabetes. Recent findings β cell replacement therapy has been proposed as a cure for type 1 diabetes with the introduction of the Edmonton protocol for cadaveric islet transplantation. To allow widespread use of this approach, efforts have focused on establishing an abundant source of insulin-producing β cells, protecting transplanted cells from ischemia-mediated death, immune rejection, and re-occurring autoimmunity. Recent developments addressing these issues include generation of insulin-producing ce...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

SGLT inhibition: a possible adjunctive treatment for type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review To identify and evaluate the recent trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2, respectively) inhibitor use in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). SGLT-2 inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are effectively used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, many studies (phase I–III) have validated their effects beyond improving glycemic control and have shown potential adjunctive use in adult patients with T1D treated with insulin therapy alone. Recent findings A review of the literature showed that there is a potential adjunct...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

MicroRNAs: markers of β-cell stress and autoimmunity
We describe: the role of cellular miRNAs in regulating immune functions and pathways impacting insulin secretion and β-cell survival; circulating miRNAs as disease biomarkers. Recent findings Studies examined miRNAs in experimental models and patients, including analysis of tissues from organ donors, peripheral blood cells, and circulating miRNAs in serum, plasma, and exosomes. Studies employed diverse designs and methodologies to detect miRNAs and measure their levels. Selected miRNAs have been linked to the regulation of key biological pathways and disease pathogenesis; several circulating miRNAs are associated w...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research