The emerging role of dyslipidemia in diabetic microvascular complications
Purpose of review To summarize recent advancements in our understanding of the impact of dyslipidemia on microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), with an emphasis on peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy. Recent findings Mounting evidence suggests that rigorous glycemic control only mitigates certain microvascular complications in T2D patients. Particularly, well regulated blood glucose levels only marginally improve peripheral neuropathy in the T2D setting. Dyslipidemia, an abnormal lipid profile, is emerging as a key factor in peripheral neuropathy. Furthermore, although glycemic control may prevent or ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal taste receptors: could tastants become drugs?
Purpose of review Numerous studies have pointed to profound nongustatory roles of tastants and the corresponding taste receptors expressed in the alimentary canal in the modulation of digestive and metabolic functions. Already in early reports, the intriguing possibility to use tastants as drug-like effectors for the treatment of metabolic diseases was raised. With this review, focusing on the most recent literature, we intend to question how close we meanwhile came to the initial promise – the use of tastants as medicines. Recent findings Although the enormous complexity and experimental variability of studies ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Lipoprotein removal mechanisms and aging: implications for the cardiovascular health of the elderly
Purpose of review The speed of removal from the plasma of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, for example, chylomicrons, VLDL and LDL is determinant of the plasma concentration of these lipoproteins, is influenced by genetic features and ambient factors, and has implications in atherogenesis. As aging increases the clinical complications of atherosclerosis, it is important to appraise the status of the removal mechanisms in elderly individuals. Recent findings Removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins remnants is delayed but the triglyceride breakdown is unchanged in elderly individuals. The discovery of PCSK9, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Triglycerides and residual risk
Purpose of review To review the recent evidence from observational/genetic/interventional studies addressing triglycerides and residual cardiovascular risk (CVRisk). Recent findings Large population-based and secondary prevention studies consistently show an association of higher triglycerides with increased CVRisk. This is compounded by genetic studies demonstrating an independent relationship between triglyceride raising or lowering genetic variants affecting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) metabolism and CVRisk. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests the benefit of genetic lowering of triglycerides and LDL-...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Risk factors for myocardial infarction in very young South Asians
Purpose of review It is only over the last few decades that the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young South Asian population has been recognized. There has been a tremendous interest in elucidating the causes behind this phenomenon and these efforts have uncovered several mechanisms that might explain the early onset of CAD in this population. The complete risk profile of very young South Asians being affected by premature CAD still remains unknown. Recent findings The existing data fail to completely explain the burden of premature occurrence of CAD in South Asians especially in very young individuals...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Update on methods to enhance growth
Purpose of review To discuss treatments used to enhance growth in pediatric patients with short stature. Recent findings New data confirm the known efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature. The latest data from the Safety and Appropriateness of Growth hormone Treatment in Europe cohort did not indicate a long-term risk of malignancy in those treated for isolated GHD, but possibly increased risk in those with other diagnoses. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 is effective in treating patients with pregnancy-associated plasma protein...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Recent developments in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Purpose of review To highlight research, publications, and medical advancements in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) over the past 18 months. Recent findings Prevalence numbers have been updated, allowing for a more accurate account of the societal impact. Further work on diagnostic techniques and the underlying mechanisms will allow us to better understand the pathophysiology of FASD and could translate into treatments for the condition. Continued research on new treatments and interventions is needed to improve the affected individual's health care and quality of life. Measurable outcomes allow us to tangibly m...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Update on pediatric hyperthyroidism
Purpose of review This review is intended to highlight recent studies which provide new data on the epidemiology and management of children with hyperthyroidism, including neonates. Recent findings A French study demonstrates differences in age-related trends in incidence of hyperthyroidism in males versus females and suggests the overall incidence may be increasing. New studies confirm the effectiveness and safety of long-term medical therapy (up to 10 years), including from the first randomized trial of short-term versus long-term therapy. Radioiodine ablation (RAI) is the main alternative therapy, though surgery ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Update on congenital hypothyroidism
Purpose of review The present review summarizes recent advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Recent findings Although most newborn screening strategies are designed to detect severe primary hypothyroidism that presents shortly after birth, some infants display a pattern of delayed TSH rise despite normal initial newborn screening. Recent studies suggest that delayed TSH rise may be more common and more severe than previously recognized. Although much less common than primary hypothyroidism, central congenital hypothyroidism is as likely to be of moderate or severe degree,...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Prader Willi syndrome: endocrine updates and new medical therapies
This article reviews the most recent literature regarding possible causes of hyperphagia and the nature of endocrinopathies seen in Prader Willi syndrome, as well as current research into possible therapies. Recent findings Investigation into neurologic, metabolic and hormonal drivers of hyperphagia and obesity has revealed new insights and clarified underlying pathophysiology. Additional studies continue to elucidate the hormonal deficiencies seen in the syndrome, allowing for improvements in clinical care. Summary The underlying causes of the hyperphagia and progressive obesity frequently seen in Prader Willi Syndr...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Adrenoleukodystrophy in the era of newborn screening
Purpose of review Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder with varying clinical presentations, including adrenal insufficiency, neurologic disease, and testicular dysfunction. The present review is intended to describe the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of ALD and provide an update regarding newborn screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. Recent findings New York State initiated newborn screening for ALD on December 30, 2013. Successful ALD newborn screening has led to its addition on other state newborn screens and recommendations for universal screening. Initial incidence reports, bas...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Somatic growth in cystic fibrosis
Purpose of review Cystic fibrosis (CF) is commonly associated with compromised growth especially in severe cases when the pulmonary function (PFT) deteriorates. As growth optimization is an important aspect of CF management, this review will summarize the current knowledge on the prevalence of growth failure in CF patients, and focus on the mechanisms leading to poor growth, on the association of poor linear growth with reduced PFT and on recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in CF patients. Recent findings Despite the improvement in CF care in the last 2 decades, compromised linear growth is still quite pre...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Editorial: Are we there yet? Progress in understanding and treatment of disorders of growth and development
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Irritable bowel syndrome and gut microbiota
Purpose of review To provide an overview of recent studies exploring the gut microbiota in pathogenesis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent findings Primary bacterial gut disturbances have been linked to the development and severity of IBS. Dysbiosis, or alteration in the normal intestinal flora, modulates intestinal permeability, inflammation, gut motility and likely quality of life. These biomechanical changes are associated with enteric and central nervous system processing as well. When compared to healthy controls, IBS patients display poor quality of life measures and are at increased risk of...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Peptide-based therapy in portal hypertension
Purpose of review To summarize the use of gastrointestinal peptides in the management of portal hypertension. Recent findings Vasoactive peptides are commonly used in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage and hepatorenal syndrome, which are portal hypertensive complications of cirrhosis. The main vasoactive peptides that are used are somatostatin and its long-acting analogue octreotide, and vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin. Early initiation of vasoactive peptides in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage and hepatorenal syndrome is associated with improved outcomes. Octreotide is the available vaso...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors
Purpose of review Neuroendocrine tumors are heterogeneous neoplasms with variable prognoses and clinical behaviors. The majority of well differentiated NETs express somatostatin receptors. Identification of these receptors has contributed to advancements in molecular and targeted radiotherapies. Recent findings Molecular scans provide important diagnostic, staging, and prognostic data. Somatostatin-receptor imaging aids in selection of patients who are eligible for somatostatin-receptor-targeting therapies. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy has recently demonstrated robust efficacy in a phase III study of progress...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal peptides and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review In this review, authors have selected from literature the most recent and suggestive studies on therapy of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The selected interventions regulate the action of gastrointestinal peptides, such as gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), nesfatin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). These hormones have been found frequently modified in obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, morbidities mostly associated with NAFLD. This disease has a very high prevalence worldwide and could evolve in a more severe form, that is, nonalcoholic steatohepatit...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Incretin therapy for diabetes mellitus type 2
Purpose of review Among the gastrointestinal hormones, the incretins: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 have attracted interest because of their importance for the development and therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity. New agonists and formulations of particularly the GLP-1 receptor have been developed recently showing great therapeutic efficacy for both diseases. Recent findings The status of the currently available GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) is described, and their strengths and weaknesses analyzed. Their ability to also reduce cardiovascular and renal risk is describe...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Editorial: Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Rare adverse effects of bisphosphonate therapy
Purpose of review To give an update on the latest developments regarding rare adverse effects of bisphosphonate therapy. Recent findings Recent studies covering osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) provided several updates to the literature. Identification of ONJ in large population databases is a challenge but based on one systematic review, the ICD-10 diagnosis code K10.2 (inflammatory conditions of the jaw) seems to be the most commonly used code for this condition. Duration of bisphosphonate therapy was determined to be an important predictor of AFFs. Appropriate duration of therapy...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTERIES Source Type: research

Paget's disease of bone: updates for clinicians
Purpose of review To provide clinicians an overview to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of Paget's disease, including recent guideline recommendations, with comparison of the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline (JCEM 2014) with the new Clinical Guideline review endorsed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, the European Calcified Tissues Society, and the United Kingdom Bone Research Society (JBMR 2019). Recent findings Radionuclide bone scans are recommended for assessing the extent of Paget's disease. Bisphosphonates remain the mainstay for ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTERIES Source Type: research

The inter-relationship between marginal vitamin D deficiency and muscle
Purpose of review We review the recent literature on the interplay between mild vitamin D deficiency and skeletal muscle strength and performance. Recent findings Preclinical studies indicate that vitamin D is important in muscle proliferation, differentiation and mitochondrial function, whereas some epidemiological studies demonstrate associations with muscle strength and low physical performance. Recent studies have implicated vitamin D deficiency in the development of frailty and sarcopenia in the older population. Some small studies have assessed its impact on muscle function in special circumstances such as elite...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTERIES Source Type: research

Impact of circadian rhythms on female reproduction and infertility treatment success
Purpose of review In recent years, new studies have investigated the role and influence of sleep on female fertility and early pregnancy outcomes, providing a growing body of knowledge demonstrating how regulation by sleep of hormones are important to reproduction, and how disruptions in sleep, circadian rhythms, and genes regulating circadian rhythmicity can negatively impact fertility and early pregnancy outcomes. This review aims to summarize the most recent research on the relationship among circadian rhythms, fertility, and early pregnancy outcomes in women, and to explore possible fertility interventions. Recent f...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

The role of circadian rhythm in male reproduction
Purpose of review To integrate evidence on the role of circadian rhythm in male reproduction. Several studies report on various aspects of the association between the circadian system and male reproductive function in animals and humans both in physiological condition as well as in the case of subfertility. Recent findings Epidemiological data demonstrate diurnal and seasonal changes as well as the effect of sleep/wake cycles on the quality of semen. Rare and common genetic variation in circadian clock genes in humans and animal models support the role of circadian rhythms in male fertility in humans. Summary Curre...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

Does night work affect age at which menopause occurs?
Purpose of review To delineate the current state of evidence on the impact of night shift work on age at natural menopause. Recent findings The only direct evidence is from a single observational study, which indicates that women who work night shifts are at moderately higher risk for earlier menopause and that this risk is more pronounced among younger women. Underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be sufficiently substantiated. A long-held line of inquiry, most strongly propagated by the observed link between night shift work and female breast cancer, is the ‘Light at Night’ hypothesis, which sugges...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

The ongoing D-lemma of vitamin D supplementation for nonskeletal health and bone health
Purpose of review The goal of this review is to give some perspective on the results and conclusions of three recent randomized controlled vitamin D intervention studies that have challenged the health benefit of vitamin D supplementation for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, all-cause mortality and type 2 diabetes and improving bone health. Recent findings Vitamin D supplementation to adults who were vitamin D sufficient or insufficient did not reduce risk for developing cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes nor increases bone mineral density (BMD). Patients who were vitamin D deficient with...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Bone health in adult trans persons: an update of the literature
Purpose of review Hormonal treatment in trans persons can affect bone health. In this review, recent studies published on this topic in adults are discussed. Recent findings Before starting hormonal treatment, trans women were found to have lower bone mineral density than cis men, which seems to be related to lower vitamin D concentrations and lower lean body mass, whereas this was not found in trans men. Short-term and long-term studies show that hormonal treatment does not have detrimental effects on bone mineral density in trans women and trans men. Low estradiol concentrations were associated with a decrease in bo...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Combination therapies in the treatment of osteoporosis
Purpose of review Osteoporotic fractures are common and can be devastating. Although multiple different medications with unique mechanisms of action are currently available in our arsenal to attempt to prevent fractures, an ideal opportunity in which to use these medications in combination remains elusive. New data has emerged over the past few years in regards to assessing which medication combinations may be productive and efficacious. Recent findings Previous studies performed using different medications to treat osteoporosis in combination proved either not overall beneficial or inconclusive. More recent studies s...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Detection and management of atypical femur fractures
This article summarizes the risk factors for atypical femur fractures (AFF), discusses current and emerging imaging modalities for early identification of AFF, and offers recommendations for prevention and management of AFFs based on the current concepts. Recent findings Antiresorptive therapies are widely recommended for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Despite their well established effectiveness to reduce fracture risk, emerging concerns related to potential adverse effects have led to a substantial decline in the use of bisphosphonates. Although, the pathogenesis of AFF has not yet been elucidated, the bulk...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNAs in thyroid cancer
Purpose of review Our understanding of the molecular pathology events involved in thyroid cancer initiation and progression and its subtypes has markedly improved as a result of multiomic studies. Recently, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) have been shown to have a role in cancer initiation and progression and have also been studied in thyroid cancer. Recent findings lncRNA are dysregulated in thyroid cancer. lncRNA have tumor suppressive and oncogenic function in thyroid cancer cells and play a role in some of the established genetic drivers of thyroid cancer initiation and progression. Lastly, some lncRNA are associated ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Thyroid nodules in children and adolescents
Purpose of review Compared with adults, there is a two-fold to three-fold increased risk of malignancy for a pediatric patient undergoing evaluation of a thyroid nodule. In 2015, the American Thyroid Association published guidelines on the evaluation and management of pediatric patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. The goal of this clinical update is to review recent additions to the literature and propose opportunities how to best incorporate these findings into clinical practice. Recent findings Recent additions to the literature include assessment of ultrasound-based scoring systems to im...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Thyroid disease and the metabolic syndrome
Purpose of review To summarize recent developments in the association of thyroid function with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Recent findings Although thyroid hormones even within low normal range are associated with various metabolic abnormalities, the risk of MetS remains a controversial issue. Hyperthyroid state might be associated only with insulin resistance and dysglycemia. Autoimmune thyroid diseases may be a potential risk factor for metabolic abnormalities even in those with low normal thyroid function. Summary The interrelation between thyroid stimulating hormone, free T3, freeT4 and metabolic parameters is c...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Immunotherapies for thyroid eye disease
Purpose of review Thyroid eye disease is a complex autoimmune disorder which causes substantial morbidity. It can result in orbital disfigurement, double vision, and visual loss. Consequently, it has a substantial negative effect on quality of life, mental health, and socioeconomic status. Most signs and symptoms of thyroid eye disease (TED) can be explained by the expansion of the orbital contents. Steroids are the mainstay of treatment in TED. However, recurrence may occur once steroids are withdrawn. Furthermore, in most cases, normal orbital anatomy is not restored, and skilled rehabilitative surgery is required to r...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Nonthyroidal illness in critically ill children
Purpose of review This review summarizes recent literature on nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTI) and outcome of pediatric critical illness, to provide insight in pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Recent findings NTI is typically characterized by lowered triiodothyronine levels without compensatory TSH rise. Although NTI severity is associated with poor outcome of pediatric critical illness, it remains unclear whether this association reflects an adaptive protective response or contributes to poor outcome. Recently, two metabolic interventions that improved outcome also altered NTI in critically ill childr...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy
Purpose of review Graves’ hyperthyroidism is associated with significant obstetric, maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications. Early diagnosis and an understanding of the management of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy can help to prevent these complications. Antithyroid drugs (ATD) should be avoided in early pregnancy, given their association with congenital malformations. Recent findings TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) are integral in the management of Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy and in the preconception period. TRAb are indicative of the current activity of Graves’ hyperthyroidi...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy
Purpose of review Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common diagnosis among women of reproductive age. The importance of sufficient maternal thyroid supply during pregnancy is well known. Nevertheless, the effects of SCH during pregnancy and the efficacy of its treatment on maternofetal outcomes are not well established. This review discusses the recent evidence on SCH in pregnancy and how this evidence is reflected in current clinical care. Recent findings Recent observational studies have found a positive association between SCH during pregnancy and adverse maternal, neonatal and offspring outcomes, mainly in thy...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Editorial: Greetings from the Editor
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: THYROID: Edited by Angela M. Leung Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - August 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Current status of dental implants survival and peri-implant bone loss in patients with uncontrolled type-2 diabetes mellitus
Purpose of review The current review summarizes recent evidence on the impact of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on implant dentistry, highlighting the behavior of peri-implant bone. Recent findings There is no definitive information on the development and course of peri-implant bone loss associated with T2DM; however, poorly controlled T2DM patients present worse outcomes. Nevertheless, dental implants may be a successful therapy for these patients in a manner similar to healthy individuals, when glycemic levels and oral hygiene are strictly maintained. Summary The most recent literature on the impact of T2DM on p...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Enforcing the checkpoints: harnessing T-cell exhaustion for therapy of T1D
Purpose of review Although checkpoint inhibitor blockade is now widely used clinically for cancer immunotherapy, the reverse process, (i.e. induction of checkpoints to slow autoimmunity) has not been extensively explored. CD8 T-cell exhaustion is a state of immune hyporesponsiveness that may be harnessed to treat autoimmunity. Recent findings We focus on the potential role of CD8 T-cell exhaustion as a mechanism of peripheral tolerance in T1D and its therapeutic implications. Summary CD8 T-cell exhaustion is a continuum in which cells change from precursor to terminally exhausted cells. Current thinking based on st...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

The gut microbiota in type 1 diabetes: friend or foe?
Purpose of review Evidence is mounting that disturbances in the gut microbiota play a role in the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and new technologies are expanding our ability to understand microbial function and host interactions. Longitudinal data from large cohorts of children at risk of T1D are nor solidifying our understanding of the function of the microbiota in this disease. Recent findings Although taxonomic changes in the gut microbiota associated with T1D are relatively modest, a functional defect in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) remains as a unifying feature across multiple studie...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Neutrophils and type 1 diabetes: current knowledge and suggested future directions
Purpose of review Purpose of this review is to describe the most recent human studies on neutrophils in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to focus on the key questions that still need to be addressed. Recent findings Recent evidences demonstrate that neutrophils have marked abnormalities in phenotype and function and play a central role in initiation and perpetuation of aberrant immune responses and organ damage in various systemic autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In T1D, we have recently demonstrated that reduced circulating neutrophil numbers precede and accompany the disease and tha...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Hybrid insulin peptides are neo-epitopes for CD4 T cells in autoimmune diabetes
Purpose of review The current review covers recent advances in our knowledge of the newest autoantigen neo-epitopes in type 1 diabetes (T1D): hybrid insulin peptides or HIPs. These ligands for autoreactive T cells are formed by peptide fusion, a novel posttranslational modification process that we first reported in 2016. Recent findings Two major HIPs in the nonobese diabetic mouse model, ligands for diabetogenic CD4 T-cell clones, have been incorporated into tetramers and used to track HIP-reactive T cells during progression of disease. HIPs have also been used in strategies for induction of antigen-specific toleranc...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Pleiotropic roles of the insulin-like growth factor axis in type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review We review studies demonstrating lowered levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and discuss their potential roles in the disorder's pathogenesis. Recent findings IGFs have long been recognized as a class of hormones that promote growth, development, and cellular metabolism throughout the human body. More recently, studies have noted an association between reduced pancreatic weight/volume and T1D. Thus, we believe it is important to understand pancreatic regulation of IGF expression and bioavailability, as well as the impact of IGFs on pancreati...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

New insights on the genetics of type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review The genetic risk for type 1 diabetes has been studied for over half a century, with the strong genetic associations of type 1 diabetes forming critical evidence for the role of the immune system in pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss some of the original research leading to recent developments in type 1 diabetes genetics. Recent findings We examine the translation of polygenic scores for type 1 diabetes into tools for prediction and diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, in particular, when used in combination with other biomarkers and clinical features, such as age and islet-specific autoantibodies. Fur...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCHRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Androgens and depression: a review and update
Purpose of review The aim of this study is to summarize recently published literature examining androgens and depression. Recent findings The impact of androgen levels, androgen replacement therapy and pharmacologic androgen deprivation on depression and depressive symptoms remain active areas of investigation. Recent publications support the finding that testosterone replacement therapy in men with low testosterone may improve depression, and that androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer may contribute to depression. Summary We review the recent literature on androgens and depression and highlight ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ANDROGENS: Edited by David Handelsman Source Type: research