Plant-based diets and bone health: sorting through the evidence
Purpose of review An increase in awareness of vegetarian and vegan (plant-based) diets has brought forth numerous studies on their effects on health. The study of nutrition-based factors affecting bone health is difficult, given the length of time before clinical effects are evident. Furthermore, population-based studies must account for strong confounding influences as effects may be because of association, not causality. Yet, it is highly plausible that dietary factors affect bone remodeling in multiple ways. Plant-based diets may alter macronutrient and micronutrient balance, may cause differences in prebiotic and pro...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Assessing effector T cells in type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review The role of T cells specific for islet autoantigens is proven in pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Recently, there has been rapid expansion in the number of T-cell subsets identified, this has coincided with an increase in the repertoire of reported islet antigens mainly through the discovery of novel epitopes. A discussion of how these marry together is now warranted and timely. Recent findings In this review, we will discuss the autoreactivity against neo-epitopes. We then explore the growing array of T-cell subsets for both CD4+ T cells, including follicular and peripheral T helper cells, and CD8+ ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Mass cytometry and type 1 diabetes research in the age of single-cell data science
Purpose of review New single-cell tec. hnologies developed over the past decade have considerably reshaped the biomedical research landscape, and more recently have found their way into studies probing the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this context, the emergence of mass cytometry in 2009 revolutionized immunological research in two fundamental ways that also affect the T1D world: first, its ready embrace by the community and rapid dissemination across academic and private science centers alike established a new standard of analytical complexity for the high-dimensional proteomic stratification of single-cell...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Endotypes in T1D: B lymphocytes and early onset
Purpose of review Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by destruction of the pancreatic beta cells by self-reactive T cells, it has become increasingly evident that B cells also play a major role in disease development, likely functioning as antigen-presenting cells. Here we review the biology of islet antigen-reactive B cells and their participation in autoimmune diabetes. Recent findings Relative to late onset, individuals who develop T1D at an early age display increased accumulation of insulin-reactive B cells in islets. This B-cell signature is also associated with rapid progression of disease and resp...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

The role of beta-cell dysfunction in early type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review Emerging data have suggested that β-cell dysfunction may exacerbate the development and progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this review, we highlight clinical and preclinical studies suggesting a role for β-cell dysfunction during the evolution of T1D and suggest agents that may promote β-cell health in T1D. Recent findings Metabolic abnormalities exist years before development of hyperglycemia and exhibit a reproducible pattern reflecting progressive deterioration of β-cell function and increases in β-cell stress and death. Preclinical studies indicate that T1D may be p...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Lipid management for cardiovascular risk reduction in type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review To review the recent evidence for lipid management in type 1 diabetes (T1D) for cardiovascular risk reduction. Recent findings Individuals with T1D are at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with atherosclerosis beginning as early as adolescence. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in T1D. Although high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in T1D is often normal or higher than in nondiabetic controls, HDL in T1D has structural alterations, which make it proatherogenic rathe...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Pharmacological therapies to address obesity in type 1 diabetes
Purpose of review Obesity is increasing in prevalence among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. The management of obesity in this population is complicated by defects in pancreatic islet hormone secretion and the effects of exogenous insulin treatment. Here, we review the effects of antiobesity medications and adjunct-to-insulin medications on body weight in T1D. Recent findings There is a profound evidence gap around the use of drugs for the treatment of obesity in T1D since systematic studies have not been performed in this population. Adju...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a new era in autoimmune diabetes
Purpose of review To summarize a new form of autoimmune diabetes as an adverse event of specific cancer immunotherapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are revolutionary treatments in advanced cancers; however, they can cause type 1 diabetes following treatment with these state-of-the-art therapies. Recent findings A review of the literature showed that this new form of autoimmune diabetes has significant similarities with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes but also some distinctions. It frequently presents with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and almost half of the patients have type 1 diabetes-associated antibodies at prese...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: DIABETES AND ENDOCRINE PANCREAS II: Edited by Peter A. Gottlieb Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Pediatric adrenocortical tumor – review and management update
Purpose of review Adrenocortical tumor (ACT) is a rare disease with an annual worldwide incidence of 0.3–0.38/million children below 15 years old, and Brazilian population presents the highest incidence because of germline mutation in the TP53. Pediatric ACT is associated with virilizing features and hypercortisolism in most cases. Malignancy is defined when local invasion or metastasis is found, and it is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the correct and early diagnosis and treatment may impact on overall and disease-free survival. Recent findings A complete understanding of the disease and its singula...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Update on in-vivo preclinical research models in adrenocortical carcinoma
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances on development of in vivo preclinical models of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Recent findings Significant progress has been achieved in the underlying molecular mechanisms of adrenocortical tumorigenesis over the last decade, and recent comprehensive profiling analysis of ACC tumors identified several genetic and molecular drivers of this disease. Therapeutic breakthroughs, however, have been limited because of the lack of preclinical models recapitulating the molecular features and heterogeneity of the tumors. Recent publications on geneticall...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

High-specific-activity iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine for the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma: a novel therapy for an orphan disease
Purpose of review Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas represent less than 1% of all endocrine tumors. Approximately 15–20% of these tumors are malignant. The definition of malignancy relies on the presence of metastasis. Metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are usually advanced, incurable tumors with limited therapeutic options. About 50–60% of these tumors express the noradrenaline transporter in their cell membranes. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved high-specific-activity iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (HSA-I-131-MIBG) for the treatment of metastatic pheochro...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Long-term cardio-metabolic outcomes in patients with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: is the risk real?
Purpose of review Data on the long-term cardio-metabolic outcomes classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients have been published with controversial results. Conventional treatment recommends hydrocortisone during childhood; and short and/or long-acting glucocorticoid during adulthood, associated or not with mineralocorticoid, in an attempt to simulate normal cortisol secretion and to normalize androgen excess. However, the balance between glucocorticoid over or undertreatment is very challenging, and patients frequently oscillate between hypercortisolism or hyperandrogenism. Considering these data, we review...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Functional imaging in ectopic Cushing syndrome
Purpose of review Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumors are commonly small, yet they often lead to fulminant forms of Cushing syndrome. High-resolution functional imaging modalities, such as [68Ga]-DOTATATE, have been recently introduced in clinical practice for the identification of neuroendocrine tumors. In this review, we focus on the performance of [68Ga]-DOTATATE as a tool for localizing primary and metastatic sources of ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). Recent findings Prompt surgical removal of ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors is the mainstay of therapy in patients with ECS. Detecting such tumo...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Glucose metabolism in Cushing's syndrome
Purpose of review Impairment of glucose metabolism is commonly encountered in Cushing's syndrome. It is the source of significant morbidity and mortality even after successful treatment of Cushing's. This review is to understand the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus from excess cortisol. Recent findings In-vitro studies have led to significant advancement in understanding the molecular effects of cortisol on glucose metabolism. Some of these findings have been translated with human data. There is marked reduction in insulin action and glucose disposal with a concomitant, insuffi...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Update on primary micronodular bilateral adrenocortical diseases
Purpose of review Primary micronodular bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias (MiBAH) are rare challenging diseases. Important progress in understanding its pathophysiology and genetics occurred in the last two decades. We summarize those progress and recent data on investigation and therapy of MiBAH focusing on primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Recent findings Larger recent cohorts of PPNAD patients from various countries have confirmed their variable Cushing's syndrome phenotypes. Age of onset is earlier than other ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome causes and the youngest case have now occur...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Approach to patients with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas
Purpose of review The current review provides a summary on the most recent developments regarding the cause, work-up and management of bilateral adrenal incidentalomas (BAI). Recent findings The recent ENS@T/ESE guidelines provide comprehensive directions on the evaluation and management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas with special focus on those with bilateral tumours. Intraadrenal ACTH synthesis that may locally stimulate cortisol secretion challenging the traditionally used term ‘ACTH-independent’. Inactivating mutations of a new tumour suppressor gene, armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5), are...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA: Edited by Irina Bancos Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

The emerging role of dyslipidemia in diabetic microvascular complications
Purpose of review To summarize recent advancements in our understanding of the impact of dyslipidemia on microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), with an emphasis on peripheral neuropathy and nephropathy. Recent findings Mounting evidence suggests that rigorous glycemic control only mitigates certain microvascular complications in T2D patients. Particularly, well regulated blood glucose levels only marginally improve peripheral neuropathy in the T2D setting. Dyslipidemia, an abnormal lipid profile, is emerging as a key factor in peripheral neuropathy. Furthermore, although glycemic control may prevent or ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal taste receptors: could tastants become drugs?
Purpose of review Numerous studies have pointed to profound nongustatory roles of tastants and the corresponding taste receptors expressed in the alimentary canal in the modulation of digestive and metabolic functions. Already in early reports, the intriguing possibility to use tastants as drug-like effectors for the treatment of metabolic diseases was raised. With this review, focusing on the most recent literature, we intend to question how close we meanwhile came to the initial promise – the use of tastants as medicines. Recent findings Although the enormous complexity and experimental variability of studies ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Lipoprotein removal mechanisms and aging: implications for the cardiovascular health of the elderly
Purpose of review The speed of removal from the plasma of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, for example, chylomicrons, VLDL and LDL is determinant of the plasma concentration of these lipoproteins, is influenced by genetic features and ambient factors, and has implications in atherogenesis. As aging increases the clinical complications of atherosclerosis, it is important to appraise the status of the removal mechanisms in elderly individuals. Recent findings Removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins remnants is delayed but the triglyceride breakdown is unchanged in elderly individuals. The discovery of PCSK9, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Triglycerides and residual risk
Purpose of review To review the recent evidence from observational/genetic/interventional studies addressing triglycerides and residual cardiovascular risk (CVRisk). Recent findings Large population-based and secondary prevention studies consistently show an association of higher triglycerides with increased CVRisk. This is compounded by genetic studies demonstrating an independent relationship between triglyceride raising or lowering genetic variants affecting triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) metabolism and CVRisk. Mendelian randomization analysis suggests the benefit of genetic lowering of triglycerides and LDL-...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Risk factors for myocardial infarction in very young South Asians
Purpose of review It is only over the last few decades that the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young South Asian population has been recognized. There has been a tremendous interest in elucidating the causes behind this phenomenon and these efforts have uncovered several mechanisms that might explain the early onset of CAD in this population. The complete risk profile of very young South Asians being affected by premature CAD still remains unknown. Recent findings The existing data fail to completely explain the burden of premature occurrence of CAD in South Asians especially in very young individuals...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Dan Streja Source Type: research

Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Source Type: research

Update on methods to enhance growth
Purpose of review To discuss treatments used to enhance growth in pediatric patients with short stature. Recent findings New data confirm the known efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature. The latest data from the Safety and Appropriateness of Growth hormone Treatment in Europe cohort did not indicate a long-term risk of malignancy in those treated for isolated GHD, but possibly increased risk in those with other diagnoses. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 is effective in treating patients with pregnancy-associated plasma protein...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Recent developments in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Purpose of review To highlight research, publications, and medical advancements in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) over the past 18 months. Recent findings Prevalence numbers have been updated, allowing for a more accurate account of the societal impact. Further work on diagnostic techniques and the underlying mechanisms will allow us to better understand the pathophysiology of FASD and could translate into treatments for the condition. Continued research on new treatments and interventions is needed to improve the affected individual's health care and quality of life. Measurable outcomes allow us to tangibly m...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Update on pediatric hyperthyroidism
Purpose of review This review is intended to highlight recent studies which provide new data on the epidemiology and management of children with hyperthyroidism, including neonates. Recent findings A French study demonstrates differences in age-related trends in incidence of hyperthyroidism in males versus females and suggests the overall incidence may be increasing. New studies confirm the effectiveness and safety of long-term medical therapy (up to 10 years), including from the first randomized trial of short-term versus long-term therapy. Radioiodine ablation (RAI) is the main alternative therapy, though surgery ma...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Update on congenital hypothyroidism
Purpose of review The present review summarizes recent advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Recent findings Although most newborn screening strategies are designed to detect severe primary hypothyroidism that presents shortly after birth, some infants display a pattern of delayed TSH rise despite normal initial newborn screening. Recent studies suggest that delayed TSH rise may be more common and more severe than previously recognized. Although much less common than primary hypothyroidism, central congenital hypothyroidism is as likely to be of moderate or severe degree,...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Prader Willi syndrome: endocrine updates and new medical therapies
This article reviews the most recent literature regarding possible causes of hyperphagia and the nature of endocrinopathies seen in Prader Willi syndrome, as well as current research into possible therapies. Recent findings Investigation into neurologic, metabolic and hormonal drivers of hyperphagia and obesity has revealed new insights and clarified underlying pathophysiology. Additional studies continue to elucidate the hormonal deficiencies seen in the syndrome, allowing for improvements in clinical care. Summary The underlying causes of the hyperphagia and progressive obesity frequently seen in Prader Willi Syndr...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Adrenoleukodystrophy in the era of newborn screening
Purpose of review Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder with varying clinical presentations, including adrenal insufficiency, neurologic disease, and testicular dysfunction. The present review is intended to describe the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of ALD and provide an update regarding newborn screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. Recent findings New York State initiated newborn screening for ALD on December 30, 2013. Successful ALD newborn screening has led to its addition on other state newborn screens and recommendations for universal screening. Initial incidence reports, bas...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Somatic growth in cystic fibrosis
Purpose of review Cystic fibrosis (CF) is commonly associated with compromised growth especially in severe cases when the pulmonary function (PFT) deteriorates. As growth optimization is an important aspect of CF management, this review will summarize the current knowledge on the prevalence of growth failure in CF patients, and focus on the mechanisms leading to poor growth, on the association of poor linear growth with reduced PFT and on recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in CF patients. Recent findings Despite the improvement in CF care in the last 2 decades, compromised linear growth is still quite pre...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Editorial: Are we there yet? Progress in understanding and treatment of disorders of growth and development
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Lynne L. Levitsky Source Type: research

Irritable bowel syndrome and gut microbiota
Purpose of review To provide an overview of recent studies exploring the gut microbiota in pathogenesis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent findings Primary bacterial gut disturbances have been linked to the development and severity of IBS. Dysbiosis, or alteration in the normal intestinal flora, modulates intestinal permeability, inflammation, gut motility and likely quality of life. These biomechanical changes are associated with enteric and central nervous system processing as well. When compared to healthy controls, IBS patients display poor quality of life measures and are at increased risk of...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Peptide-based therapy in portal hypertension
Purpose of review To summarize the use of gastrointestinal peptides in the management of portal hypertension. Recent findings Vasoactive peptides are commonly used in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage and hepatorenal syndrome, which are portal hypertensive complications of cirrhosis. The main vasoactive peptides that are used are somatostatin and its long-acting analogue octreotide, and vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin. Early initiation of vasoactive peptides in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage and hepatorenal syndrome is associated with improved outcomes. Octreotide is the available vaso...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors
Purpose of review Neuroendocrine tumors are heterogeneous neoplasms with variable prognoses and clinical behaviors. The majority of well differentiated NETs express somatostatin receptors. Identification of these receptors has contributed to advancements in molecular and targeted radiotherapies. Recent findings Molecular scans provide important diagnostic, staging, and prognostic data. Somatostatin-receptor imaging aids in selection of patients who are eligible for somatostatin-receptor-targeting therapies. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy has recently demonstrated robust efficacy in a phase III study of progress...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal peptides and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Purpose of review In this review, authors have selected from literature the most recent and suggestive studies on therapy of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The selected interventions regulate the action of gastrointestinal peptides, such as gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), nesfatin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). These hormones have been found frequently modified in obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, morbidities mostly associated with NAFLD. This disease has a very high prevalence worldwide and could evolve in a more severe form, that is, nonalcoholic steatohepatit...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Incretin therapy for diabetes mellitus type 2
Purpose of review Among the gastrointestinal hormones, the incretins: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 have attracted interest because of their importance for the development and therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity. New agonists and formulations of particularly the GLP-1 receptor have been developed recently showing great therapeutic efficacy for both diseases. Recent findings The status of the currently available GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) is described, and their strengths and weaknesses analyzed. Their ability to also reduce cardiovascular and renal risk is describe...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Editorial: Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - January 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Rare adverse effects of bisphosphonate therapy
Purpose of review To give an update on the latest developments regarding rare adverse effects of bisphosphonate therapy. Recent findings Recent studies covering osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) provided several updates to the literature. Identification of ONJ in large population databases is a challenge but based on one systematic review, the ICD-10 diagnosis code K10.2 (inflammatory conditions of the jaw) seems to be the most commonly used code for this condition. Duration of bisphosphonate therapy was determined to be an important predictor of AFFs. Appropriate duration of therapy...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTERIES Source Type: research

Paget's disease of bone: updates for clinicians
Purpose of review To provide clinicians an overview to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of Paget's disease, including recent guideline recommendations, with comparison of the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline (JCEM 2014) with the new Clinical Guideline review endorsed by the International Osteoporosis Foundation, the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research, the European Calcified Tissues Society, and the United Kingdom Bone Research Society (JBMR 2019). Recent findings Radionuclide bone scans are recommended for assessing the extent of Paget's disease. Bisphosphonates remain the mainstay for ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTERIES Source Type: research

The inter-relationship between marginal vitamin D deficiency and muscle
Purpose of review We review the recent literature on the interplay between mild vitamin D deficiency and skeletal muscle strength and performance. Recent findings Preclinical studies indicate that vitamin D is important in muscle proliferation, differentiation and mitochondrial function, whereas some epidemiological studies demonstrate associations with muscle strength and low physical performance. Recent studies have implicated vitamin D deficiency in the development of frailty and sarcopenia in the older population. Some small studies have assessed its impact on muscle function in special circumstances such as elite...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTERIES Source Type: research

Impact of circadian rhythms on female reproduction and infertility treatment success
Purpose of review In recent years, new studies have investigated the role and influence of sleep on female fertility and early pregnancy outcomes, providing a growing body of knowledge demonstrating how regulation by sleep of hormones are important to reproduction, and how disruptions in sleep, circadian rhythms, and genes regulating circadian rhythmicity can negatively impact fertility and early pregnancy outcomes. This review aims to summarize the most recent research on the relationship among circadian rhythms, fertility, and early pregnancy outcomes in women, and to explore possible fertility interventions. Recent f...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

The role of circadian rhythm in male reproduction
Purpose of review To integrate evidence on the role of circadian rhythm in male reproduction. Several studies report on various aspects of the association between the circadian system and male reproductive function in animals and humans both in physiological condition as well as in the case of subfertility. Recent findings Epidemiological data demonstrate diurnal and seasonal changes as well as the effect of sleep/wake cycles on the quality of semen. Rare and common genetic variation in circadian clock genes in humans and animal models support the role of circadian rhythms in male fertility in humans. Summary Curre...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

Does night work affect age at which menopause occurs?
Purpose of review To delineate the current state of evidence on the impact of night shift work on age at natural menopause. Recent findings The only direct evidence is from a single observational study, which indicates that women who work night shifts are at moderately higher risk for earlier menopause and that this risk is more pronounced among younger women. Underlying biological mechanisms have yet to be sufficiently substantiated. A long-held line of inquiry, most strongly propagated by the observed link between night shift work and female breast cancer, is the ‘Light at Night’ hypothesis, which sugges...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY: Edited by Wendy Kuohung Source Type: research

The ongoing D-lemma of vitamin D supplementation for nonskeletal health and bone health
Purpose of review The goal of this review is to give some perspective on the results and conclusions of three recent randomized controlled vitamin D intervention studies that have challenged the health benefit of vitamin D supplementation for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, all-cause mortality and type 2 diabetes and improving bone health. Recent findings Vitamin D supplementation to adults who were vitamin D sufficient or insufficient did not reduce risk for developing cardiovascular disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes nor increases bone mineral density (BMD). Patients who were vitamin D deficient with...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Bone health in adult trans persons: an update of the literature
Purpose of review Hormonal treatment in trans persons can affect bone health. In this review, recent studies published on this topic in adults are discussed. Recent findings Before starting hormonal treatment, trans women were found to have lower bone mineral density than cis men, which seems to be related to lower vitamin D concentrations and lower lean body mass, whereas this was not found in trans men. Short-term and long-term studies show that hormonal treatment does not have detrimental effects on bone mineral density in trans women and trans men. Low estradiol concentrations were associated with a decrease in bo...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Combination therapies in the treatment of osteoporosis
Purpose of review Osteoporotic fractures are common and can be devastating. Although multiple different medications with unique mechanisms of action are currently available in our arsenal to attempt to prevent fractures, an ideal opportunity in which to use these medications in combination remains elusive. New data has emerged over the past few years in regards to assessing which medication combinations may be productive and efficacious. Recent findings Previous studies performed using different medications to treat osteoporosis in combination proved either not overall beneficial or inconclusive. More recent studies s...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Detection and management of atypical femur fractures
This article summarizes the risk factors for atypical femur fractures (AFF), discusses current and emerging imaging modalities for early identification of AFF, and offers recommendations for prevention and management of AFFs based on the current concepts. Recent findings Antiresorptive therapies are widely recommended for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Despite their well established effectiveness to reduce fracture risk, emerging concerns related to potential adverse effects have led to a substantial decline in the use of bisphosphonates. Although, the pathogenesis of AFF has not yet been elucidated, the bulk...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: PARATHYROIDS, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM: Edited by Seth M. Arum Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - November 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research