Calcitonin gene-related peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in migraine treatment
Purpose of review To review the latest advances in migraine management with a focus on medications specifically developed for the treatment of migraine. Recent findings Randomized clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) mAbs for the preventive treatment of migraine and the small molecule CGRP receptor antagonist gepants for acute abortion and prevention of migraine attacks. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is another signaling molecule of interest and represents a potential new drug class of mechanism-based migraine medications. Drugs targetin...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Medical management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors
Purpose of review To summarize the recent developments in the medical treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms. Recent findings The medical management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) continues to evolve with advances in the management of symptoms related to hormone hypersecretion and therapeutic control of disease progression. Systemic therapy options include somatostatin analogs (SSAs), radiolabeled SSAs, molecularly targeted agents, and cytotoxic therapy. Recent progress has focused on new targeted therapies, the sequencing of therapy and the role of immunotherapy. Summary ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Enterohormone therapy for short bowel syndrome
Purpose of review Short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients are at risk to develop intestinal failure when the decreased absorption of macronutrients, water, and electrolytes necessitates parenteral support for survival. The adverse effects of SBS and parenteral support negatively affect the quality of life (QoL) of SBS-intestinal failure patients. However, spontaneous intestinal adaptation along with disease-modifying therapies allow reducing parenteral support, thereby improving QoL. Recent findings During the first years following extensive surgery, spontaneous structural and functional intestinal changes take plac...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Irritable bowel syndrome and diet
Purpose of review Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) characterized by chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. The diagnosis of IBS is based on the presence of defined clinical Rome IV criteria in the absence of alarm features. The majority of patients with IBS report of food triggers eliciting typical IBS symptoms and trying to modify their dietary intake. Recent findings FGID including IBS are defined as disorders of the gut-brain interaction. A large proportion of individuals with IBS link their symptoms to dietary factors, and recent clini...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal hormones and regulation of gastric emptying
Purpose of review In this review, we evaluate recent findings related to the association between gastrointestinal hormones and regulation of gastric emptying. Recent findings Motilin and ghrelin, which act during fasting, promote gastric motility, whereas most of the hormones secreted after a meal inhibit gastric motility. Serotonin has different progastric or antigastric motility effects depending on the receptor subtype. Serotonin receptor agonists have been used clinically to treat dyspepsia symptoms but other hormone receptor agonists or antagonists are still under development. Glucagon-like peptide 1 agonis...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Long-acting amylin analogues for the management of obesity
Purpose of review To summarize recent developments of long-acting amylin analogues for the treatment of obesity and to outline their mode of action. Recent findings Amylin is a pancreatic hormone acting to control energy homeostasis and body weight. Activity at the calcitonin and amylin receptors in the area postrema seems to – at least partly – be responsible for these effects of amylin. Both preclinical and early-stage clinical studies investigating long-acting amylin receptor analogues demonstrate beneficial effects on body weight in obesity. Cagrilintide, a novel amylin analogue suitable for once-weekly ...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Gut-derived serotonin and its emerging roles in immune function, inflammation, metabolism and the gut–brain axis
Purpose of review To shed light on the recently uncovered diverse role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the regulation of immune functions, inflammation, metabolism, and gut–brain axis. Recent findings Peripheral 5-HT which accounts for approximately 95% of the total is largely synthesized in the gut by enterochromaffin cells. Enterochromaffin cells release 5-HT in response to various stimuli including microbial products. Released 5-HT influences secretomotor, sensory and immune functions as well as inflammatory processes in the gut. 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells enters circulation and i...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Enteroendocrine cell differentiation and function in the intestine
Purpose of review The intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are specialized hormone-secreting cells that respond to both circulating and luminal cues. Collectively, EECs constitute the largest endocrine organ of the body and signal to a multitude of targets including locally to neighboring intestinal cells, enteric neurons, as well as systemically to other organs, such as the pancreas and brain. To accomplish their wide range of downstream signaling effects, EECs secrete multiple hormones; however, the mechanisms that influence EEC development in the embryo and differentiation in adults are not well defined. Recen...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES: Edited by H. Christian Weber Source Type: research

New insights into the role of bempedoic acid and ezetimibe in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia
Purpose of review A number of new cholesterol-lowering drugs have been recently developed and approved, enriching the pharmacological armamentarium beyond and above statins. Ezetimibe, available since two decades, and bempedoic acid, a new drug inhibiting the same biosynthetic pathway targeted by statins but at an early step, represent valuable tools for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, particularly in specific groups of patients. Recent findings Bempedoic acid, either alone or in combination with ezetimibe, appears to reduce significantly LDL-C levels, an effect that has been observed also in patients wit...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Advances in the care of lipodystrophies
Purpose of review Lipodystrophies are a group of rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by a lack or maldistribution of adipose tissue. Treatment focusses on the management of complications, including hypertriglyceridemia, which can be severe. Patients are predisposed to early atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and acute pancreatitis. This review summarizes the recent advances in the treatment of lipodystrophies, with a particular focus on the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD). Recent findings Treatment of dyslipidemia in FPLD requires management of secondary exa...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Applying implementation science to improve care for familial hypercholesterolemia
This study identifies potential areas for the development of implementation strategies to target unaddressed aspects of FH care. (Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity)
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Hypertriglyceridemia: rationale, design and implementation of the Australian Hypertriglyceridemia Registry
Purpose of review Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), aortic stenosis, hepatic steatosis and pancreatitis. We briefly review the aetiology and treatment of HTG and familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS), as well as the implementation of a clinical quality registry for improving care, the Australian Hypertriglyceridemia (AUSTRIG) Registry. Recent findings There is a need to improve the detection of individuals with severe HTG and FCS, who could benefit from more intense and novel treatments to prevent end-organ damage. Patient registries provide valuabl...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

Lipidomics in diabetes
Purpose of review Multiple studies have shown a strong association between lipids and diabetes. These are usually described through the effects of cholesterol content of lipid particles and in particular low-density lipoprotein. However, lipoprotein particles contain other components, such as phospholipids and more complex lipid species, such as ceramides and sphingolipids. Ceramides, such as sphingolipids are also produced intracellularly and have signalling actions in regulating cell metabolism including effects on inflammation, and potentially have a mechanistic role in the development of insulin resistance. Rece...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research

HDL functionality in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: new insights
Purpose of review To critically appraise new insights into HDL structure and function in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Recent findings In young T1DM patients with early renal impairment and a high inflammatory score, both HDL antioxidative activity and endothelial vasodilatory function were impaired, revealing a critical link between HDL dysfunction, subclinical vascular damage, systemic inflammation and end organ damage. HDL may inhibit development of T2DM by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptotic loss of pancreatic β-cells, an effect due in part to ABC transporter-med...
Source: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity - February 24, 2022 Category: Endocrinology Tags: LIPIDS: Edited by Gerald F. Watts Source Type: research