Rotavirus reverse genetics: a tool for understanding virus biology
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 21:198576. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198576. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRotaviruses (RVs) are considered one of the most common causes of viral gastroenteritis in young children and infants worldwide. Before recent developments, studies on rotavirus biology have suffered from the lack of an effective reverse genetics (RG) system to generate recombinant rotaviruses and study the precise roles of the viral proteins in the context of RV infection. Lately a fully-tractable plasmid-only based RG system for rescuing recombinant rotaviruses has been developed leading to a breakthrough in the RV field. Si...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Guido Papa Oscar R Burrone Source Type: research

A simple pooling salivary test for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis: a Columbus' egg?
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 21:198575. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198575. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSaliva is an appropriate specimen for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. The possibility of pooling samples of saliva, using non-invasive bibula strips for sampling, was explored employing Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) spiked saliva. In laboratory, up to 30 saliva-soaked strips were pooled in a single tube with 2mL of medium. After quick adsorption with the medium and vortexing, the liquid was collected and tested with a quantitative molecular assay to quantify viral RNA genome copies. On testi...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Annamaria Pratelli Maria Stella Lucente Viviana Mari Marco Cordisco Alessio Sposato Paolo Capozza Gianvito Lanave Vito Martella Alessio Buonavoglia Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization and Antigenic analysis of reassortant H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses in Eastern China in 2016
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 21:198577. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198577. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTH9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can cause respiratory symptoms and decrease the egg production. Additionally, H9N2 AIVs can provide internal genes for reassortment with other subtypes. During the monitoring of live poultry markets in 2016, a total of 32 (32/179, 17.88%) H9N2 AIVs were isolated from poultry in Eastern China, and seven representative strains were selected based on the isolation time, isolation location and sequence homology for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidas...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Fan Yang Yixin Xiao Fumin Liu Hangping Yao Nanping Wu Haibo Wu Source Type: research

Does immune recognition of SARS-CoV2 epitopes vary between different ethnic groups?
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 21:198579. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198579. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe SARS-CoV2 mediated Covid-19 pandemic has impacted humankind at an unprecedented scale. While substantial research efforts have focused towards understanding the mechanisms of viral infection and developing vaccines/ therapeutics, factors affecting the susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection and manifestation of Covid-19 remain less explored. Given that the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system is known to vary among ethnic populations, it is likely to affect the recognition of the virus, and in turn, the susceptibility to Cov...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Tungadri Bose Namrata Pant Nishal Kumar Pinna Subhrajit Bhar Anirban Dutta Sharmila S Mande Source Type: research

Screening of a Plesiomonas shigelloides Phage and Study of the Activity of Its Lysis System
In conclusion, isolation and bacterial lysis investigations of phage PSP01 provide a new tool for the control of fish pathogens and possesses potential for aquaculture applications.PMID:34560184 | DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198581 (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jingdan Zhang Huizhong Xu Hu Yang Jia Li Shuai Xiao Shengbiao Hu Fu Yan Liqiu Xia Youming Zhang Source Type: research

Harnessing snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) for gene editing by installment of CRISPR/Cas9 in viral genome
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 21:198578. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198578. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAs there is no risk of viral genome integration into host chromosome, cytoplasmic RNA viruses can be a safer vehicle to deliver CRISPR/Cas system. Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is a piscine RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, and, in the present study, we evaluated the availability of SHRV as a tool for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in mammalian cells. SHRV was grown well in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells at 28 °C, and the replication ability was greatly reduced by temperature up-shift to 37 °C. We rescued a rec...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jun Soung Kwak Min Sun Kim Ki Hong Kim Source Type: research

Characteristics and genome analysis of a novel bacteriophage IME1323_01, the first temperate bacteriophage induced from Staphylococcus caprae
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198569. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198569. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTemperate phages play an important role in the evolution of bacteria. So far, lytic phages have been wildly reported, but there is still limited knowledge regarding temperate phages in the genome of pathogenic Staphylococcus caprae. Here we present the characteristics and genome analysis of a novel bacteriophage IME1323_01, which is the first isolated bacteriophage of S. caprae. The phage genome is a 44282-bp linear dsDNA molecule with a GC content of 34.18%, which is similar to its host. The genome of IME1323_01 is most close...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Fengjuan Tian Jing Li Fei Li Yigang Tong Source Type: research

Acyclovir inhibits white spot syndrome virus replication in crayfish Procambarus clarkii
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198570. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198570. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhite spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a fatal pathogen threatening global crustacean industry with no commercially available drugs to control WSSV. To address the urgent need for finding effective antiviral agents against WSSV, we examined the anti-WSSV activities of 11 common antiviral agents in crayfish Procambarus clarkia. The results showed that acyclovir displayed the highest inhibition on WSSV replication in vivo (92.59%, 50 mg/kg). Acyclovir repressed WSSV proliferation followed a dose-dependent fashion and pre- or post-t...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Chang-Shuai Liang Cheng Chen Zhi-Yang Lin Jing-Lei Shen Tao Wang Hai-Feng Jiang Gao-Xue Wang Source Type: research

Cellular hnRNPAB interacts with avian influenza viral protein PB2 and inhibits virus replication potentially by restricting PB2 mRNA nuclear export and PB2 protein level
In this study, we reported that chicken heterogenous nuclear riboncleoprotein AB (hnRNPAB) cooperated with avian influenza viral protein PB2 and inhibited the polymerase activity and virus replication. We found that hnRNPAB was associated with PB2 mRNA and overexpression of hnRNPAB reduced PB2 mRNA nuclear export and PB2 protein level, but had no influence on PB2 mRNA level. At the same time, overexpression of hnRNPAB also reduced protein levels rather than mRNA levels of PA, PB1 and NP. In addition, overexpression of hnRNPAB restricted the polymerase activity and virus replication, while knockdown of hnRNPAB resulted in e...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Hongliu Ye Zhenwei Bi Wentao Fan Suquan Song Liping Yan Source Type: research

Acetophenone 4-nitrophenylhydrazone inhibits Hepatitis B virus replication by modulating capsid assembly
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198565. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198565. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHepatitis B virus (HBV) is the causative agent of chronic liver disease and is correlated with the development of subsequent hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogs is effective in suppressing viral replication and interrupting disease progression, but HBV is rarely cured completely. Thus, there remains an unmet need for the development of novel anti-HBV drugs. Here, we report the identification of N-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1-phenylethanone hydrazone (ANPH) as a novel struc...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Manabu Yamasaki Norie Matsuda Kazuaki Matoba Saki Kondo Yumi Kanegae Izumu Saito Akio Nomoto Source Type: research

Nucleotide sequences of the infectious DNA clones of two mink enteritis virus isolates exhibit the diversity of the terminal palindromic sequences and predicted secondary structures
In this study, the infectious RF-DNA clones of two mink enteritis viruses, MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7, were constructed, which generated progeny virions and seemed to contain an almost or completely full-length genome. The genomes of MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7 were 5162 bp and 5113 bp in length, respectively. The genomic organizations of MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7 were similar to that of the other carnivore parvoviruses. The 3'-UTR of the virion strand of MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7 were 311 bp and 313 bp in length, respectively, containing a 208 bp palindromic sequence assuming Y-shaped configurations. Interestingly, the difference of the 3' palindro...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Zhu Qian Yuan Peng Li Zhi-Juan Diao Fei-Fei Kang Shun Li Li-Juan Shijin Jiang Xie Zhi-Jing Source Type: research

MiR-BART2-3p targets Unc-51-like kinase 1 and inhibits cell autophagy and migration in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198567. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198567. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTULK1 (Unc-51-like kinase 1) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in the regulation of autophagy. ULK1 is associated with prognosis for metastasis and survival in several tumors. However, its relationship with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has not been studied. We found that the expression of ULK1 in EBV-associated gastric cancer cells was lower than that in EBV-negative gastric cancer cells. Further, a luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-BART2-3p directly targets ULK1. EBV-miR-...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Duo Shi Yan Zhang Tao Mao Dandan Liu Wen Liu Bing Luo Source Type: research

Antiviral effect of a bacteriophage on murine norovirus replication via modulation of the innate immune response
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the Staphylococcus aureus phage vB_SauM_JS25 on murine norovirus (MNV) replication. Experiments were performed using the RAW 264.7 cell line. After phage treatment, MNV multiplication was significantly inhibited, as indicated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, western blotting, the 50% tissue culture infectious dose and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, we revealed transcriptional changes in phage/MNV co-incubated RAW 264.7 cells through RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatic analysis. Our subsequent analyses revealed that...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lili Zhang Chang Ma Jie Liu Khashayar Shahin Xiang Hou Lichang Sun Heye Wang Ran Wang Source Type: research

Isolation, Characterization, and Comparative Genomic Analysis of vB_PlaP_SV21, New Bacteriophage of Paenibacillus larvae
In this study, we analysed the genomes of all of the currently sequenced P. larvae phage genomes and classified them into five clusters and a singleton. According to molecular, morphological, and bioinformatics results, ıt was observed that API480 (podovirus), which was reported as a singleton in previous studies and public databases, and Paenibacillus phage SV21 phage could form a new cluster together.PMID:34555441 | DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198571 (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Arif Bozdeveci Rah şan Akpınar Şengül Alpay Karaoğlu Source Type: research

Visual detection of human metapneumovirus using CRISPR-Cas12a diagnostics
This study aimed to develop a detection technique by combining reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) with CRISPR-Cas12a (RT-RPA-Cas12a) for clinical diagnosis of HmPV. Herein, four primer pairs targeting partial nucleoprotein (N) gene of HmPV were designed and evaluated. Then, the products amplified by RT-RPA were detected using CRISPR-Cas12a combined with fluorescence or lateral flow (LF). RT-RPA-Cas12a-based fluorescence or LF assay can be completed within 35 min or 45 min, and the detection limit was up to 6.97 × 102 copies/mL. And there was no cross reaction with human bocavirus, res...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Weidong Qian Jie Huang Ting Wang Xiaoxian He Guozhang Xu Yongdong Li Source Type: research

Characteristics and genome analysis of a novel bacteriophage IME1323_01, the first temperate bacteriophage induced from Staphylococcus caprae
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198569. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198569. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTemperate phages play an important role in the evolution of bacteria. So far, lytic phages have been wildly reported, but there is still limited knowledge regarding temperate phages in the genome of pathogenic Staphylococcus caprae. Here we present the characteristics and genome analysis of a novel bacteriophage IME1323_01, which is the first isolated bacteriophage of S. caprae. The phage genome is a 44282-bp linear dsDNA molecule with a GC content of 34.18%, which is similar to its host. The genome of IME1323_01 is most close...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Fengjuan Tian Jing Li Fei Li Yigang Tong Source Type: research

Acyclovir inhibits white spot syndrome virus replication in crayfish Procambarus clarkii
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198570. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198570. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhite spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a fatal pathogen threatening global crustacean industry with no commercially available drugs to control WSSV. To address the urgent need for finding effective antiviral agents against WSSV, we examined the anti-WSSV activities of 11 common antiviral agents in crayfish Procambarus clarkia. The results showed that acyclovir displayed the highest inhibition on WSSV replication in vivo (92.59%, 50 mg/kg). Acyclovir repressed WSSV proliferation followed a dose-dependent fashion and pre- or post-t...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Chang-Shuai Liang Cheng Chen Zhi-Yang Lin Jing-Lei Shen Tao Wang Hai-Feng Jiang Gao-Xue Wang Source Type: research

Cellular hnRNPAB interacts with avian influenza viral protein PB2 and inhibits virus replication potentially by restricting PB2 mRNA nuclear export and PB2 protein level
In this study, we reported that chicken heterogenous nuclear riboncleoprotein AB (hnRNPAB) cooperated with avian influenza viral protein PB2 and inhibited the polymerase activity and virus replication. We found that hnRNPAB was associated with PB2 mRNA and overexpression of hnRNPAB reduced PB2 mRNA nuclear export and PB2 protein level, but had no influence on PB2 mRNA level. At the same time, overexpression of hnRNPAB also reduced protein levels rather than mRNA levels of PA, PB1 and NP. In addition, overexpression of hnRNPAB restricted the polymerase activity and virus replication, while knockdown of hnRNPAB resulted in e...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Hongliu Ye Zhenwei Bi Wentao Fan Suquan Song Liping Yan Source Type: research

Acetophenone 4-nitrophenylhydrazone inhibits Hepatitis B virus replication by modulating capsid assembly
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198565. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198565. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHepatitis B virus (HBV) is the causative agent of chronic liver disease and is correlated with the development of subsequent hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogs is effective in suppressing viral replication and interrupting disease progression, but HBV is rarely cured completely. Thus, there remains an unmet need for the development of novel anti-HBV drugs. Here, we report the identification of N-(4-Nitrophenyl)-1-phenylethanone hydrazone (ANPH) as a novel struc...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Manabu Yamasaki Norie Matsuda Kazuaki Matoba Saki Kondo Yumi Kanegae Izumu Saito Akio Nomoto Source Type: research

Nucleotide sequences of the infectious DNA clones of two mink enteritis virus isolates exhibit the diversity of the terminal palindromic sequences and predicted secondary structures
In this study, the infectious RF-DNA clones of two mink enteritis viruses, MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7, were constructed, which generated progeny virions and seemed to contain an almost or completely full-length genome. The genomes of MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7 were 5162 bp and 5113 bp in length, respectively. The genomic organizations of MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7 were similar to that of the other carnivore parvoviruses. The 3'-UTR of the virion strand of MEV-SD1 and MEV-SD7 were 311 bp and 313 bp in length, respectively, containing a 208 bp palindromic sequence assuming Y-shaped configurations. Interestingly, the difference of the 3' palindro...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Zhu Qian Yuan Peng Li Zhi-Juan Diao Fei-Fei Kang Shun Li Li-Juan Shijin Jiang Xie Zhi-Jing Source Type: research

MiR-BART2-3p targets Unc-51-like kinase 1 and inhibits cell autophagy and migration in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 20:198567. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198567. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTULK1 (Unc-51-like kinase 1) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in the regulation of autophagy. ULK1 is associated with prognosis for metastasis and survival in several tumors. However, its relationship with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has not been studied. We found that the expression of ULK1 in EBV-associated gastric cancer cells was lower than that in EBV-negative gastric cancer cells. Further, a luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-BART2-3p directly targets ULK1. EBV-miR-...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Duo Shi Yan Zhang Tao Mao Dandan Liu Wen Liu Bing Luo Source Type: research

Antiviral effect of a bacteriophage on murine norovirus replication via modulation of the innate immune response
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the Staphylococcus aureus phage vB_SauM_JS25 on murine norovirus (MNV) replication. Experiments were performed using the RAW 264.7 cell line. After phage treatment, MNV multiplication was significantly inhibited, as indicated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, western blotting, the 50% tissue culture infectious dose and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, we revealed transcriptional changes in phage/MNV co-incubated RAW 264.7 cells through RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatic analysis. Our subsequent analyses revealed that...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Lili Zhang Chang Ma Jie Liu Khashayar Shahin Xiang Hou Lichang Sun Heye Wang Ran Wang Source Type: research

Isolation, Characterization, and Comparative Genomic Analysis of vB_PlaP_SV21, New Bacteriophage of Paenibacillus larvae
In this study, we analysed the genomes of all of the currently sequenced P. larvae phage genomes and classified them into five clusters and a singleton. According to molecular, morphological, and bioinformatics results, ıt was observed that API480 (podovirus), which was reported as a singleton in previous studies and public databases, and Paenibacillus phage SV21 phage could form a new cluster together.PMID:34555441 | DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198571 (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Arif Bozdeveci Rah şan Akpınar Şengül Alpay Karaoğlu Source Type: research

Visual detection of human metapneumovirus using CRISPR-Cas12a diagnostics
This study aimed to develop a detection technique by combining reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) with CRISPR-Cas12a (RT-RPA-Cas12a) for clinical diagnosis of HmPV. Herein, four primer pairs targeting partial nucleoprotein (N) gene of HmPV were designed and evaluated. Then, the products amplified by RT-RPA were detected using CRISPR-Cas12a combined with fluorescence or lateral flow (LF). RT-RPA-Cas12a-based fluorescence or LF assay can be completed within 35 min or 45 min, and the detection limit was up to 6.97 × 102 copies/mL. And there was no cross reaction with human bocavirus, res...
Source: Virus Research - September 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Weidong Qian Jie Huang Ting Wang Xiaoxian He Guozhang Xu Yongdong Li Source Type: research

Myxovirus resistance protein A activates type I IFN signaling pathway to inhibit zika virus replication
In this study, we aimed to explore the role of MxA in ZIKV infection and its potential mechanisms. MxA overexpression was achieved by transfection with plasmid. The levels of MxA expression and ZIKV replication were assayed by both qRT-PCR and western blot. The activation status of Jak/STAT signaling pathway was evaluated at three levels: phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2(p-STAT1, p-STAT2) (western blot), activity of interferon sensitive response element (ISRE) (dual luciferase reporter gene assay), and the expression levels of ISGs (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that MxA overexpression inhibited ZIKV replication with no e...
Source: Virus Research - September 19, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kai Ren Honggang Sun Limin Chen Ningning Chen Lu Yu Source Type: research

Myxovirus resistance protein A activates type I IFN signaling pathway to inhibit zika virus replication
In this study, we aimed to explore the role of MxA in ZIKV infection and its potential mechanisms. MxA overexpression was achieved by transfection with plasmid. The levels of MxA expression and ZIKV replication were assayed by both qRT-PCR and western blot. The activation status of Jak/STAT signaling pathway was evaluated at three levels: phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2(p-STAT1, p-STAT2) (western blot), activity of interferon sensitive response element (ISRE) (dual luciferase reporter gene assay), and the expression levels of ISGs (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that MxA overexpression inhibited ZIKV replication with no e...
Source: Virus Research - September 19, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kai Ren Honggang Sun Limin Chen Ningning Chen Lu Yu Source Type: research

Myxovirus resistance protein A activates type I IFN signaling pathway to inhibit zika virus replication
In this study, we aimed to explore the role of MxA in ZIKV infection and its potential mechanisms. MxA overexpression was achieved by transfection with plasmid. The levels of MxA expression and ZIKV replication were assayed by both qRT-PCR and western blot. The activation status of Jak/STAT signaling pathway was evaluated at three levels: phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT2(p-STAT1, p-STAT2) (western blot), activity of interferon sensitive response element (ISRE) (dual luciferase reporter gene assay), and the expression levels of ISGs (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that MxA overexpression inhibited ZIKV replication with no e...
Source: Virus Research - September 19, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Kai Ren Honggang Sun Limin Chen Ningning Chen Lu Yu Source Type: research

Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 variant lethality in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgenic mice
This study compared the lethality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants belonging to the S, V, L, G, GH, and GR clades using K18-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 heterozygous mice. To estimate the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of each variant, increasing viral loads (100-104 plaque-forming units [PFU]) were administered intranasally. Mouse weight and survival were monitored for 14 days. The LD50 of the GH and GR clades was significantly lower than that of other clades at 50 PFU. These findings suggest that the GH and GR clades, which are prevalent worldwide, are more virulent than the other clades.PMID:...
Source: Virus Research - September 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Tae-Young Lee Hansaem Lee Nayoung Kim Pyeonghwa Jeon Jun-Won Kim Hee-Young Lim Jeong-Sun Yang Kyung-Chang Kim Joo-Yeon Lee Source Type: research

Determination of genetic characterization and circulation pattern of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in children with a respiratory infection, Tehran, Iran, during 2018-2019
In this study, nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from 206 children who presented with respiratory infection symptoms, were admitted to the referral pediatric ward of Bahrami children's hospital in Tehran, Iran. RSV-positive samples were detected via Nested RT-PCR. The glycoprotein gene was sequenced, and virus genotypes were confirmed through phylogenetic analysis by the MEGA X program. A total of 74 (35.92%) samples tested positive for RSV. Among them, sequencing was done in 10 specimens from 2018 (RSV-A: RSV-B =4:6) and 19 specimens from 2019 (RSV-A: RSV-B =16:3). According to phylogenetic analysis, all RSV-A strains we...
Source: Virus Research - September 16, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Forough Tavakoli Anahita Izadi Jila Yavarian Ali Sharifi-Zarchi Vahid Salimi Talat Mokhtari-Azad Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Quercetin as an antiviral agent inhibits the Pseudorabies virus in vitro and in vivo
This study involved quercetin for studying the anti-PRV function in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin was found to significantly decrease the PRV virulent strain HNX at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.618 μM and selectivity index 229. This anti-PRV activity of quercetin was found to be dose-dependent. Furthermore, quercetin also inhibited a wide the infections by a spectrum of PRV strains like HNX, Ea, Bartha and Fa strain. These virucidal effects of quercetin suggest the interaction between these molecules and viral particles, and quercetin is responsible for inhibiting the adsorption of PRV infections. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 7, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yumei Sun Chang Li Zhonghua Li Aishao Shangguan Jinhe Jiang Wei Zeng Shujun Zhang Qigai He Source Type: research

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by β-propiolactone Causes Aggregation of Viral Particles and Loss of Antigenic Potential
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 3:198555. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198555. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInactivated viral preparations are important resources in vaccine and antisera industry. Of the many vaccines that are being developed against COVID-19, inactivated whole-virus vaccines are also considered effective. β-propiolactone (BPL) is a widely used chemical inactivator of several viruses. Here, we analyze various concentrations of BPL to effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and their effects on the biochemical properties of the virion particles. BPL at 1:2000 (v/v) concentrations effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2. How...
Source: Virus Research - September 6, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Divya Gupta Haripriya Parthasarathy Vishal Sah Dixit Tandel Dhiviya Vedagiri Shashikala Reddy Krishnan H Harshan Source Type: research

The dominant strain of SARS-CoV-2 is a mosaicism
In this study, by comparing the entire genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolates from Asia, Europe and America, and analyzing their phylogenetic histories, we found a lineage derived from a recombination event that likely occurred before March 2020. More importantly, the recombinant offspring has become the dominant strain responsible for more than one-third of the global cases in the pandemic. These results indicated that the recombination might have played a key role in the pandemic of the virus.PMID:34487767 | PMC:PMC8416297 | DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198553 (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 6, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Wei Wang Cheng-Peng Li Mei He Sheng-Wen Li Lin Cao Nai-Zheng Ding Cheng-Qiang He Source Type: research

Genome sequence and geographic distribution of a new nepovirus infecting Stenotaphrum secundatum in Australia
Virus Res. 2021 Sep 3:198554. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198554. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe genome sequence of a new subgroup C nepovirus from Stenotaphrum secundatum in Australia is described. This virus, tentatively named Stenotaphrum nepovirus (SteNV), was present in separate plants as a mixed infection with either sugarcane mosaic virus or Panicum mosaic virus. The virus genome was divided between two RNA segments, 7,824 and 7,104 nucleotides (nt) in length, which each encode a single long polyprotein with putative 3C-like cysteine protease sites of the type H/G, H/S or L/S. The 3' untranslated region of RNA2,...
Source: Virus Research - September 6, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Nga T Tran Ai Chin Teo Kathleen S Crew Paul R Campbell John E Thomas Andrew D W Geering Source Type: research

Development of a subunit vaccine based on fiber2 and hexon against fowl adenovirus serotype 4
In this study, a truncated region of the FAdV-4 fiber 2 fused with coding sequence of one epitope of hexon was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system, and the immune protective effects of different doses of recombinant fiber 2 subunit vaccine on SPF chickens were compared. The recombinant fiber2 (Gly275- Pro479 aa)-hexon (Met21-Val51 aa) protein (rFH) obtained in Escherichia coli showed good solubility. The chicken survival rate at the lowest dose (2.5 μg/bird) was 75% (6/8), and at higher doses (≥5 μg/bird) was 100% (8/8) in challenge experiment. Two chickens in the 2.5 μg/bird treatment showed severe le...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jixiong Hu Guopan Li Wang Xi Lianshen Cai Mingxuan Rong Huan Li Ming Xie Zhixiang Zhang Jun Rong Source Type: research

Phylogenetic reconstruction of the initial stages of the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the Eurasian and American continents by analyzing genomic data
Virus Res. 2021 Aug 26;305:198551. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198551. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSamples from complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated during the first wave (December 2019-July 2020) of the global COVID-19 pandemic from 21 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East and America) around the world, were analyzed using the phylogenetic method with molecular clock dating. Results showed that the first cases of COVID-19 in the human population appeared in the period between July and November 2019 in China. The spread of the virus into other countries of the world began in the autumn of 2019. In mid-February 2020, t...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yu S Bukin A N Bondaryuk N V Kulakova S V Balakhonov Y P Dzhioev V I Zlobin Source Type: research

Epstein-Barr virus noncoding small RNA (EBER1) induces cell proliferation by up-regulating cellular mitochondrial activity and calcium influx
Virus Res. 2021 Aug 27;305:198550. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198550. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBER1 and EBER2) are two non-polyadenylated, non-protein coding small RNAs expressed at high levels in all forms of EBV latent infections. Although not directly involved in cell transformation, a number of studies have reported that these RNAs may be involved in cell proliferation. However, which of the two EBERs play a major role in this process and the mechanisms involved remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of EBER1-induced cell proliferation. ...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Waqar Ahmed Zubaida Hassan Yasmeen A A Abdelmowla Pretty S Philip Anatoliy Shmygol Gulfaraz Khan Source Type: research

Development of a subunit vaccine based on fiber2 and hexon against fowl adenovirus serotype 4
In this study, a truncated region of the FAdV-4 fiber 2 fused with coding sequence of one epitope of hexon was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system, and the immune protective effects of different doses of recombinant fiber 2 subunit vaccine on SPF chickens were compared. The recombinant fiber2 (Gly275- Pro479 aa)-hexon (Met21-Val51 aa) protein (rFH) obtained in Escherichia coli showed good solubility. The chicken survival rate at the lowest dose (2.5 μg/bird) was 75% (6/8), and at higher doses (≥5 μg/bird) was 100% (8/8) in challenge experiment. Two chickens in the 2.5 μg/bird treatment showed severe le...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Jixiong Hu Guopan Li Wang Xi Lianshen Cai Mingxuan Rong Huan Li Ming Xie Zhixiang Zhang Jun Rong Source Type: research

Phylogenetic reconstruction of the initial stages of the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the Eurasian and American continents by analysing genomic data
Virus Res. 2021 Aug 26:198551. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198551. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSamples from complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated during the first wave (December 2019 - July 2020) of the global COVID-19 pandemic from 21 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East and America) around the world, were analysed using the phylogenetic method with molecular clock dating. Results showed that the first cases of COVID-19 in the human population appeared in the period between July and November 2019 in China. The spread of the virus into other countries of the world began in the autumn of 2019. In mid-February 2020, the...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Yu S Bukin A N Bondaryuk N V Kulakova S V Balakhonov Y P Dzhioev V I Zlobin Source Type: research

Epstein-Barr virus noncoding small RNA (EBER1) induces cell proliferation by up-regulating cellular mitochondrial activity and calcium influx
Virus Res. 2021 Aug 26:198550. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198550. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBER1 and EBER2) are two non-polyadenylated, non-protein coding small RNAs expressed at high levels in all forms of EBV latent infections. Although not directly involved in cell transformation, a number of studies have reported that these RNAs may be involved in cell proliferation. However, which of the two EBERs play a major role in this process and the mechanisms involved remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of EBER1-induced cell proliferation. Usin...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Waqar Ahmed Zubaida Hassan Yasmeen A A Abdelmowla Pretty S Philip Anatoliy Shmygol Gulfaraz Khan Source Type: research

The proton ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A < sub > 1 < /sub > reduces the release of rhinovirus C and cytokines from primary cultures of human nasal epithelial cells
Virus Res. 2021 Aug 20:198548. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198548. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRhinovirus species C (RV-C) causes more severe asthma attacks than other rhinovirus species. However, the modulation of RV-C replication by drugs has not been well studied. Primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells cultured on filter membranes with air-liquid interface methods were infected with RV-C03, and the levels of RV-C03 RNA collected from the airway surface liquid (ASL) of HNE cells were measured with a SYBR Green assay. Pretreatment of HNE cells with the specific vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 reduced th...
Source: Virus Research - August 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Mutsuo Yamaya Xue Deng Akiko Kikuchi Mitsuru Sugawara Natsumi Saito Toru Kubo Haruki Momma Tetsuaki Kawase Kazuyuki Nakagome Yoshitaka Shimotai Hidekazu Nishimura Source Type: research

Host protein, HSP90 β, antagonizes IFN-β signaling pathway and facilitates the proliferation of encephalomyocarditis virus in vitro
This study demonstrates the firsthand information that HSP90β plays a positive role in viral proliferation by inhibiting EMCV induced IFN-β production. Collectively, the results reveal new insights into HSP90β-assisted progression of EMCV infection.PMID:34425163 | DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198547 (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - August 23, 2021 Category: Virology Authors: Qian Li Xiangrong Li Bei Wu Yuhui Niu Ruixian Ma Jingying Xie Amjad Ali Ruofei Feng Source Type: research