Host antiviral protein IFITM2 restricts pseudorabies virus replication.
In this study, we show that IFITM is crucial for controlling PRV infection and that IFITM proteins can interfere with PRV cell binding and entry. Furthermore, we showed that IFITM2-mediated inhibition of PRV entry requires the cholesterol pathway. Collectively, these results provide insight into the anti-PRV role of IFITM proteins and this inhibition possible associated with the change of cholesterol in the endosome, further underlying the importance of cholesterol in virus infection. PMID: 32745511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Xie J, Bi Y, Xu S, Han Y, Idris A, Zhang H, Li X, Bai J, Zhang Y, Feng R Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel Picorna-like Virus in Coconut Rhinoceros Beetles (Oryctes rhinoceros).
Abstract A novel Picorna-like virus, tentatively named Oryctes rhinoceros Picorna-like virus 1 (OrPV1), was identified in coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) larvae in Taiwan. The complete genome sequence consisted of 9,665 nucleotides with a polyA tail and included one open reading frame. Conserved structural domains such as Picornavirus capsid protein, RNA helicase, Peptidase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were identified through Pfam domain searches. The genome shares approximately 27-28% identity with other unclassified Picornavirales that infect honey bees (Darwin bee virus 2, Bundaberg be...
Source: Virus Research - July 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Etebari K, Shelomi M, Furlong MJ Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Interferon stimulated gene 15 promotes Zika virus replication through regulating Jak/STAT and ISGylation pathways.
In this study, we try to clarify the effect of ISG15 on ZIKV replication and to further dissect the underlying mechanism. Our results indicated that ZIKV infection led to the increased expression of ISG15 in A549, 2fTGH, U5A cells. Overexpression of ISG15 stimulated ZIKV replication although ISG15 did not affect the viral entry. Further studies showed that this proviral effect was mediated through Jak/STAT signaling pathway and was ISGylation-dependent. Taken together, our work demonstrates that ISG15 is an important host factor exploited by ZIKV to facilitate its replication and might serve as a potential target for the d...
Source: Virus Research - July 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Wang Y, Ren K, Li S, Yang C, Chen L Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Identification, molecular characterization and prevalence of a novel cytorhabdovirus infecting zucchini crops in Greece.
Abstract A new cytorhabdovirus was identified in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) in Greece with the aid of high-throughput sequencing technology. The negative-sense, single-stranded genomic RNA of the new virus was determined and includes seven open reading frames in the order 3'-N-P-P3-P4-M-G-L-5' in the antigenomic orientation. Typical rhabdovirus-like particles were observed in infected leaf material. Comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstructions suggested that the described virus is a new member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, and it was tentatively named cucurbit cytorhabdovirus 1 (CuCV1). To our kno...
Source: Virus Research - July 28, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Orfanidou CG, Beta C, Reynard JS, Tsiolakis G, Katis NI, Maliogka VI Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

100 Days of Solitude: The spring of COVID-19 through the eyes of 15 young virologists of the INITIATE program.
PMID: 32730780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Keszei Z, Vendrell XM, Soultsioti M, Molina PR, Wirth L, Weiss H, Alexandridi M, Aloise C, Susma B, Guy C, Loverre A, Martinez SM, Mazej J, Spahn A, Sularea M, Hiscott J, Hoogen BVD Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Immunometabolism pathways as the basis for innovative anti-viral strategies (INITIATE): A Marie Sklodowska-Curie innovative training network.
ott J Abstract The past century has witnessed major advances in the control of many infectious diseases, yet outbreaks and epidemics caused by (re-) emerging RNA viruses continue to pose a global threat to human health. As illustrated by the global COVID19 pandemic, high healthcare costs, economic disruption and loss of productivity reinforce the unmet medical need to develop new antiviral strategies to combat not only the current pandemic but also future viral outbreaks. Pivotal for effective anti-viral defense is the innate immune system, a first line host response that senses and responds to virus infection. Wh...
Source: Virus Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: van den Hoogen B, Santoni A, Sciumé G, Bowie A, O'Farrelly C, O'Neill L, Anthonsen M, Pardalli K, Young S, Bergthaler A, Manel N, Zahn R, Kikkert M, Snijder E, van Kuppeveld F, Fouchier R, Hiscott J Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Immunological co-ordination between gut and lungs in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a major pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has created unprecedented global health emergencies and emerged as a serious threat due to its strong ability for human-to-human transmission. The reports indicate the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to affect almost any organ due to the presence of a receptor known as angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) across the body. ACE2 receptor is majorly expressed in brush border of gut enterocytes along with the ciliated cells and alveolar epithelial type II cells in lungs. The a...
Source: Virus Research - July 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ahlawat S, Asha, Sharma KK Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Identification of high-affinity inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease: Towards the development of effective COVID-19 therapy.
In this study, we utilized the structural information of co-crystallized SARS-CoV-2 Mpro for the structure-guided drug discovery approach to finding high-affinity inhibitors from the PubChem database. The screened compounds were selected on the basis of their physicochemical properties, drug-likeliness, and strength of affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Finally, we have identified 6-Deaminosinefungin (PubChem ID: 10428963) and UNII-O9H5KY11SV (PubChem ID: 71481120) as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro which may be further exploited in drug development to address SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. Both compounds are structural an...
Source: Virus Research - July 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mohammad T, Shamsi A, Anwar S, Hussain A, Rehman MT, AlAjmi MF, Islam A, Hassan MI Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Viruses in the reproductive tract: On their way to the germ line?
Abstract Studies of vertebrate genomes have indicated that all species contain in their chromosomes stretches of DNA with sequence similarity to viral genomes. How such 'endogenous' viral elements (EVEs) ended up in host genomes is usually explained in general terms such as 'they entered the germ line at some point during evolution'. This seems a correct statement, but is also rather imprecise. The vast number of endogenous viral sequences suggest that common routes to the 'germ line' may exist, as relying on chance alone may not easily explain the abundance of EVEs in modern mammalian genomes. An increasing numbe...
Source: Virus Research - July 22, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: van der Kuyl AC, Berkhout B Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses of SARS-CoV-2.
Abstract To investigate the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of the current COVID-19 outbreak, a total of 112 genomes of SARS-CoV-2 strains sampled from China and 12 other countries with sampling dates between 24 December 2019 and 9 February 2020 were analyzed. We performed phylogenetic, split network, likelihood-mapping, model comparison, and phylodynamic analyses of the genomes. Based on Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis with the best-fitting combination models, we estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2 to be 12 November 2019 (95% BCI: ...
Source: Virus Research - July 17, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nie Q, Li X, Chen W, Liu D, Chen Y, Li H, Li D, Tian M, Tan W, Zai J Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

On the correct interpretation of similarity index in codon usage studies: comparison with four other metrics and implications for Zika and West Nile virus.
Abstract Viruses can modify the usage of their synonymous codons to mimic that of their hosts: investigation of codon usage may therefore help increase our understanding of virus biology. The similarity index (SiD or (D(A,B)) is a recent method for estimating the resemblance of the overall codon usage of the hosts to that of a certain virus. Here we report that this index has been systematically misinterpreted in the literature. We first review its mathematical meaning to show that a high value of SiD indicates low codon usage similarity, and not the opposite as frequently reported. We further compared SiD with fo...
Source: Virus Research - July 17, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Silverj A, Rota-Stabelli O Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for the Pseudorabies Virus nuclear egress complex.
BG Abstract During herpesvirus replication, newly synthesized nucleocapsids exit the nucleus by a vesicle-mediated transport, which requires the nuclear egress complex (NEC), composed of the conserved viral proteins designated as pUL31 and pUL34 in the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabies virus (PrV) and herpes simplex viruses. Oligomerization of the heterodimeric NEC at the inner nuclear membrane (INM) results in membrane bending and budding of virus particles into the perinuclear space. The INM-derived primary envelope then fuses with the outer nuclear membrane to release nucleocapsids into the cytoplasm. The two NE...
Source: Virus Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Hölper JE, Reiche S, Franzke K, Mettenleiter TC, Klupp BG Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Occurrence, genetic diversity, and recombination of maize lethal necrosis disease-causing viruses in Kenya.
In this study, a country-wide survey was carried out to assess the MLN causing viruses in Kenya, their distribution, genetic diversity, and recombination. The causative viruses of MLN were determined by RT-PCR using virus-specific primers and DAS-ELISA. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was generated, viral sequences identified, genetic diversity of MLN viruses was determined, and recombination was evaluated. MCMV and SCMV were detected in all the maize growing regions at varying levels of incidence, and severity while MaYMV, a polerovirus was detected in some samples through NGS. However, there were some samples in th...
Source: Virus Research - July 11, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mwatuni FM, Nyende AB, Njuguna J, Zhonguo X, Machuka E, Stomeo F Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Comparative pathogenicity of two closely related Newcastle disease virus isolates from chicken and pigeon respectively.
This study laid the foundation to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying difference in pathogenicity of PPMV-1 and chicken-origin NDV in chickens. PMID: 32659306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - July 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Zhan T, Hu S, Chen Y, Lu X, Liao T, Guo L, Gao X, Xu X, Hu Z, Liu X, Wang X, Liu X Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel Host Protein interacting with the Structural Protein VP2 of Deformed Wing Virus by Yeast Two-Hybrid Screening.
Abstract Deformed wing virus (DWV) interacting with Varroa destructor is a possible cause of honeybee colony mortality. VP2 is the structural protein of DWV but its function remains unknown. To clarify the function of VP2 and screen for novel binding proteins that interact with VP2, we carried out a membrane protein yeast two-hybrid screening using VP2 as bait. Subsequently, the interaction between VP2 and the host interacting protein [heat shock protein 10 (Hsp10)] was further verified using glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation assay in cells. Furthermore, fluorescence con...
Source: Virus Research - July 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Huang S, Fei D, Ma Y, Wang C, Shi D, Liu K, Li M, Ma M Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of covert mortality nodavirus from farming shrimp: evidence for a new species within the family Nodaviridae.
This study reported the first genome sequence of CMNV and it would be helpful for further studies of CMNV in relation to its evolution, diagnostic technique and control strategy. PMID: 32659308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - July 10, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Xu T, Liu S, Li X, Zhang Q Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Differences in gene expression profiles at the early stage of Solanum lycopersicum infection with mild and severe variants of potato spindle tuber viroid.
-Sochacka A Abstract Viroids with small, non-coding circular RNA genome can induce diseases in many plant species. The extend of infection symptoms depends on environmental conditions, viroid strain, and host plant species and cultivar. Pathogen recognition leads to massive transcriptional reprogramming to favor defense responses over normal cellular functions. To better understand the interaction between plant host and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) variants that differ in their virulence, comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed by an RNA-seq approach. The changes of gene expression were analyzed a...
Source: Virus Research - July 4, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Więsyk A, Lirski M, Fogtman A, Zagórski-Ostoja W, Góra-Sochacka A Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Pyruvate Affects Inflammatory Responses of Macrophages During Influenza A Virus Infection.
Abstract Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis and transported into the mitochondria for use in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It is also a common additive in cell culture media. We discovered that inclusion of sodium pyruvate in culture media during infection of mouse bone marrow derived macrophages with influenza A virus impaired cytokine production (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α). Sodium pyruvate did not inhibit viral RNA replication. Instead, the addition of sodium pyruvate alters cellular metabolism and diminished mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lowered immune signaling...
Source: Virus Research - July 4, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Abusalamah H, Reel JM, Lupfer CR Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

The peripheral lymphocyte count as a predictor of severe COVID-19 and the effect of treatment with ciclesonide.
Abstract We investigated whether reduced lymphocyte count, could predict the development of severe COVID-19. We also examined whether ciclesonide could prevent the development of severe COVID-19 among patients with the predictors. This was a retrospective cohort study. Of the 30 included patients, 12, 14, and 4 were allocated to severe pneumonia, non-severe pneumonia, and non-pneumonia groups, respectively. The group of the low level of lymphocyte counts of the sixth day after onset was significantly intubated approximately three days later. The incidence of the severe pneumoniae requiring intubation are significa...
Source: Virus Research - July 3, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Yamasaki Y, Ooka S, Tsuchida T, Nakamura Y, Hagiwara Y, Naitou Y, Ishibashi Y, Ikeda H, Sakurada T, Handa H, Nishine H, Takita M, Morikawa D, Yoshida H, Fujii S, Morisawa K, Takemura H, Fujitani S, Kunishima H Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease rescues mice infected by double-stranded RNA-containing reovirus serotype 1.
Abstract Reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) are nonenveloped viruses with segmented dsRNA genome. Viruses in the family Reoviridae are quite stable in the environment. Recently, they have been identified with various pathologies and physiologic dysfunctions in a wide range of organs and tissues, including the hepatobiliary system, the myocardium, lungs, and endocrine tissues. Although most cases of reovirus infection are mild or subclinical diseases, the prevention measures are currently needed, especially for young children suffering from dehydrating gastroenteritis. To inhibit viral replication, dif...
Source: Virus Research - July 3, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Mahmud RS, Efimova M, Ulyanova V, Ravilov R, Shuralev E, Kolpakov A, Ilinskaya O Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Zika virus induces oxidative stress and decreases antioxidant enzyme activities in vitro and in vivo.
tilde;es CL Abstract The first outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the Americas, especially in Brazil, was reported in 2015. Fever, headache, rash, and conjunctivitis are the common symptoms of ZIKV infection. Unexpected clinical outcomes, such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, have also been reported. The recent spread of ZIKV and its association with severe illness has created an urgent need to understand its pathogenesis and find potential therapeutic targets. Studies show that some viruses, including Flavivirus, trigger oxidative stress, which affects cellular metabolism, viral cycle, ...
Source: Virus Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Almeida LT, Ferraz AC, da Silva Caetano CC, da Silva Menegatto MB, Dos Santos Pereira Andrade AC, Lima RLS, Camini FC, Pereira SH, da Silva Pereira KY, de Mello Silva B, Perucci LO, Talvani A, de Magalhães JC, de Brito Magalhães CL Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

NK cells contribute to hepatic CD8+ T cell failure in hepatitis B virus-carrier mice after alcohol consumption.
In conclusion, alcohol abuse induces CD8+ T cells failure after acute HBV infection, but depletion of NK cells could retore CD8+ T cell activity. Moreover, downregulation of energy metabolism and upregulation of oxidative stress may also contribute to CD8+ T cell failure. PMID: 32622853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - July 2, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Jiang S, Zhu Y, Cheng C, Li Y, Ma T, Peng Z, Li Q, Xu J, Xu L Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Epitope-based peptide vaccines predicted against novel coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.
Abstract The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people with a large number of deaths across the globe. The existing therapies are limited in dealing with SARS-CoV-2 due to the sudden appearance of the virus. Therefore, vaccines and antiviral medicines are in desperate need. We took immune-informatics approaches to identify B- and T-cell epitopes for surface glycoprotein (S), membrane glycoprotein (M) and nucleocapsid protein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, followed by estimating their antigenicity and interactions with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Allergenicity, toxicity,...
Source: Virus Research - July 1, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Lin L, Ting S, Yufei H, Wendong L, Yubo F, Jing Z Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA expression profile in extracellular vesicles derived from ALV-J infected chicken semen.
This study was to examine the miRNA expression profile in seminal EVs and inquire into the relation between it and the vertical transmission by performing gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis. Here, we first isolated and characterized seminal EVs by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis、Western Blot and Transmission electron microscopy experiments. By deep sequencing of each EVs miRNA library, 9 typical differentially expressed miRNA, including 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated, were identified. Gene target prediction, GO annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed possible function associated with th...
Source: Virus Research - July 1, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Chen S, Liao L, Zhao Q, Zhang X, Li H, Lin W, Chen F, Xie Q Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Analysis of codon usage bias in potato virus Y non-recombinant strains.
In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of codon usage and composition of PVY non-recombinant strains (PVYN-NA, PVYEu-N, PVYO, PVYO5, PVYC) based on 130 complete open reading frame sequences extracted from public databases. Furthermore, similarities between the synonymous codon usage of PVY and its main hosts were investigated. The results obtained in the current study suggest that the overall codon usage among PVY genotypes is similar and slightly biased. PVY codon usage is strongly influenced by mutational bias, but also by G + C compositional constraint and dinucleotide composition. Furthermor...
Source: Virus Research - June 30, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Gómez MM, de Mello Volotão E, Assandri IR, Peyrou M, Cristina J Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteriophage vB_VpaS_PG07.
Abstract A novel bacteriophage vB_VpaS_PG07 (hereafter designated PG07) that infects Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated. The bacteriophage was examined by transmission electron microscopy, and the result showed that PG07 belonged to family Siphoviridae, with an isometric polyhedral head (80 nm in diameter) and a long tail (175 nm in length). The one-step growth curve showed that the latent period and burst size were 10 min and 60 PFUs/infected cell, respectively. PG07 had double-stranded DNA genome of 112, 106 bp with 43.65 % G+C content. A total of 158 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the ...
Source: Virus Research - June 29, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ding T, Sun H, Pan Q, Zhao F, Zhang Z, Ren H Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

USP7 manipulation by viral proteins.
Abstract Ubiquitin Specific Protease 7 (USP7) is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB that plays critical roles in the regulation of many cellular processes including epigenetics, tumour suppression, oncogenesis, DNA damage response, immunity and viral infection. USP7 was the first DUB associated with viral infection. Since then other DUB:viral protein interactions have been discovered, however, USP7 continues to be the most targeted DUB interacting with many proteins from various viruses. The selective pressures of evolution have allowed viruses to develop mechanisms that subvert host cellular machinery, promoting surv...
Source: Virus Research - June 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Bojagora A, Saridakis V Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Identification and molecular characterization of a novel foveavirus from Rubus spp. in Turkey.
ğlayan K Abstract A novel plant virus was identified by high-throughput sequencing analysis from a raspberry plant showing slight mottling symptom. The complete genome sequence of this virus is 8,645 nucleotides long, including the 5' and 3' UTRs. Its genome contains five ORFs and is very close to members of the genus Foveavirus (Quinvirinae, Betaflexiviridae) in terms of genome organization, TGBs presence and the sizes of the RdRp and CP proteins. The novel virus shares 33.5-51.3% and 23.3-41.3% nucleotide identity to other genera of the Betaflexifiviridae family based on polymerase (RdRp) and CP genes, respecti...
Source: Virus Research - June 27, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Gazel M, Roumi V, Ördek K, Maclot F, Massart S, Çağlayan K Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Mixed infection by a partitivirus and a negative-sense RNA virus related to mymonaviruses in the polypore fungus Bondarzewia berkeleyi.
In this study, we detected two new viruses co-infecting an isolate of the polypore fungus Bondarzewia berkeleyi using high-throughput sequencing. One of them was a putative new partitivirus designated as Bondarzewia berkeleyi partitivirus 1 (BbPV1), with two linear dsRNA genome segments of 1928 and 1863 bp encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of 591 aa and a putative capsid protein of 538 aa. The other virus, designated as Bondarzewia berkeleyi negative-strand RNA virus 1 (BbNSRV1), had a non-segmented negative-sense RNA genome of 10,983 nt and was related to members of family Mymonaviridae. The B...
Source: Virus Research - June 26, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Vainio EJ, Sutela S Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a novel geminivirus from parsley.
Abstract Fresh leaf vegetables are a significant part of the Persian food. Following a survey for identification of nanoviruses and geminivirus infecting leaf vegetables, a novel geminivirus was identified in a diseased parsley sample showing upward marginal leaf curling, marginal leaf yellowing, dwarfing and reduced leaf size in south-eastern Iran. The genome was identified through combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA) and high throughput sequencing (HTS) approaches. The full-length genome (2779 nts) of the cloned geminivirus, parsley yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV), shares
Source: Virus Research - June 25, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Hasanvand V, Heydanejad J, Massumi H, Kleinow T, Jeske H, Varsani A Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Antiviral mechanisms of candidate chemical medicines and traditional Chinese medicines for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Abstract The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly become a global pandemic. Up to now, numerous medicines have been applied or approved for the prevention and control of the virus infection. However, the efficiency of each medicine or combination is completely different or still unknown. In this review, we discuss the types, characteristics, antiviral mechanisms, and shortcomings of recommended candidate medicines for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as perspectives of the drugs for the disease treatment, which may provide a theoretical...
Source: Virus Research - June 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Li C, Wang L, Ren L Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Generation of recombinant rotaviruses from just 11 cDNAs encoding a viral genome.
Abstract Reverse genetics technology allows one to engineer replication-competent viruses from cloned cDNAs at will. Since the establishment of the initial reverse genetics system for rotaviruses (RVAs) requiring a helper virus in 2006, attempts have been successfully made to improve this technology. Efficient generation of replication-competent RVAs is now possible from just 11 T7-driven plasmids encoding an RVA genome when the quantity ratio of the two rescue T7-driven plasmids for the NSP2 and NSP5 segments is increased by 3-fold in relation to that of the other nine plasmids (11 plasmid-only system). Further, ...
Source: Virus Research - June 24, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Komoto S, Fukuda S, Hatazawa R, Murata T, Taniguchi K Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

The ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 inhibit type I interferon signaling pathway.
In this study, we screened the viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and found that the viral ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins were potential inhibitors of type I interferon signaling pathway, a key component for antiviral response of host innate immune. All the three proteins showed strong inhibition on type I interferon (IFN-β) and NF-κB-responsive promoter, further examination revealed that these proteins were able to inhibit the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) after infection with Sendai virus, while only ORF6 and ORF8 proteins were able to inhibit the ISRE after treatment with interferon beta. Thes...
Source: Virus Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Li JY, Liao CH, Wang Q, Tan YJ, Luo R, Qiu Y, Ge XY Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Novel And Divergent Bipartite Mycoviruses Associated With The Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Sarcosphaera coronaria.
Abstract Members of the family Partitiviridae are reported from a variety of fungal and plant taxa. After dsRNA-preparation, deep sequencing, and bioinformatics, we here reveal the existence of various divergent partitiviruses co-infecting the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sarcosphaera coronaria, symbiotically associated with the pine species Pinus brutia in Turkey. A total of 75 complete or nearly complete sequences related to the members of Alphapartitivirus and Betapartitivirus, were detected from the ascocarp sample of the fungal isolate. Two of the identified partitivirus genome segments encoding for partitiviral ca...
Source: Virus Research - June 23, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sahin E, Akata I, Keskin E Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Ubiquitination of Zika Virus Precursor Membrane Protein Promotes the Release of Viral Proteins.
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important human pathogen associated with severe neurological disorders. Ubiquitination of viral proteins has diverse roles in viral life cycle and pathogenesis. Here, we found that perturbation of ubiquitin-proteasome system significantly suppressed production of infectious viral particles. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZIKV precursor membrane (prM) protein underwent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we showed that co-expression of E protein with ubiquitination-deficient prM-6 K/6R mutant protein did not affect translocation of viral proteins into end...
Source: Virus Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Nambala P, Yu WY, Lo YC, Lin CW, Su WC Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Virus-virus interactions in a plant host and in a hemipteran vector: Implications for vector fitness and virus epidemics.
Abstract Mixed virus infection in host plants can differentially alter the plant phenotype, influence vector fitness, and affect virus acquisition and inoculation by vectors than single-virus infection. Vector acquisition of multiple viruses from multiple host plants could also differentially affect vector fitness and virus inoculation than acquisition of one virus. Whitefly-virus pathosystems in the southern United States include both the above-stated facets. For the first facet, this study examined the effects of single and mixed infection of cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV, a begomovirus) and cucurbit yello...
Source: Virus Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Gautam S, Gadhave KR, Buck JW, Dutta B, Coolong T, Adkins S, Srinivasan R Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-4331-5p promotes FMDV replication through inhibiting interferon pathways in PK-15 cells.
Abstract MicroRNAs play vital roles in regulating the battle between pathogens and host cells during viral challenging. MiR-4331 aggravates transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) -induced mitochondrial damage, also suppresses transcription of TGEV gene 7 via targeting cellular CDCA7. Otherwise, miR-4331-5p affects H1N1/2009 influenza A virus replication by targeting viral HA and NS. However, whether microRNA ssc-miR-4331-5p (miR-4331-5p) regulates foot and mouth virus (FMDV) replication remains unclear. To explore the role of miR-4331-5p in FMDV infection, we detected the expression level of miR-4331-5p in por...
Source: Virus Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Ren T, Wang Y, Chen H, Wang K, Gao X, Liu L, Zhang Y, Sun Y Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

SRSF10 inhibits the polymerase activity and replication of avian influenza virus by regulating the alternative splicing of chicken ANP32A.
In this study, we found a splicing regulatory cis-element that affected the alternative splicing of 3' SSs by block-scanning mutagenesis. RNA affinity purification and mass spectrometry showed that the SRSF10 bound to the splicing cis-element and the binding was further identified and confirmed by RIP experiment. Overexpression of SRSF10 changed the ratio of the two chicken ANP32A transcripts with the increased ch-ANP32A-29 and the decreased ch-ANP32A-33. The knockdown of both of the ch-ANP32A-33 and ch-ANP32A-29 was harmful to avian influenza virus polymerase activity in DF-1 cells, but the restoration and increasement of...
Source: Virus Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Fang A, Bi Z, Ye H, Yan L Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

COVID-19: review on latest available drugs and therapies against SARS-CoV-2. Coagulation and inflammation cross-talking.
Abstract SARS-CoV-2 is the agent responsible for COVID-19. The infection can be dived into three phases: mild infection, the pulmonary phase and the inflammatory phase. Treatment options for the pulmonary phase include: Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir. The inflammatory phase includes therapeutic options like Tocilizumab, Anakinra, Baricitinib, Eculizumab, Emapalumab and Heparin. Human clinical trials are starting to show some results, in some cases like that of Remdesivir these are controversial. Coagulopathy is a common complication in severe cases, inflammation and coagulation are intertwined...
Source: Virus Research - June 19, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Magro G Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Increased serum levels of galectin-9 in patients with chikungunya fever.
INCREASED SERUM LEVELS OF GALECTIN-9 IN PATIENTS WITH CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER. Virus Res. 2020 Jun 18;:198062 Authors: Cavalcanti NG, Vilar KM, Pinto Duarte ALB, de Melo Rêgo MJB, Pereira MC, da Rocha Pitta I, Lopes Marques CD, da Rocha Pitta MG Abstract Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an arboviral disease that has caused an epidemic burst of chronic inflammatory joint disease in Latin America in the last few years. Efforts are being spent in understanding the mechanisms by which it may cause such articular damage and in determining possible biomarkers of the disease. Galectins (GAL) are a family of anim...
Source: Virus Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Cavalcanti NG, Vilar KM, Pinto Duarte ALB, de Melo Rêgo MJB, Pereira MC, da Rocha Pitta I, Lopes Marques CD, da Rocha Pitta MG Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein prefusion conformation: virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulations applied to the identification of potential fusion inhibitors.
Abstract The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a renewed interest in studying the role of the spike S glycoprotein in regulating coronavirus infections in the natural host. Taking advantage of the cryo-electron microscopy structure of SARS-CoV-2 S trimer in the prefusion conformation, we performed a virtual screening simulation with the aim to identify novel molecules that could be used as fusion inhibitors. The spike glycoprotein structure has been completed using modeling techniques and its inner cavity, needful for the postfusion transition of the trimer, h...
Source: Virus Research - June 18, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Romeo A, Iacovelli F, Falconi M Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Climate change and plant virus epidemiology.
Abstract Changes in global climate driven by anthropogenic activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation, have been progressively increasing and are projected to intensify. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and temperature will have significant consequences for future food production, quality, distribution and security. The epidemiology of plant viruses will be altered in the future as a result of climate change. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, increased temperature, changes to water availability and more frequent extreme weather events will have direct and indirec...
Source: Virus Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Trebicki P Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Prevalence of locally undetected acute infections of Flaviviruses in North-Eastern Nigeria.
llo A Abstract The burden of Arboviral infections is largely underestimated in Africa, particularly in North-Eastern Nigeria. A total of 200 serum samples were collected from patients exhibiting febrile illness who visited the State Specialist Hospital in Maiduguri for medical attention between March and April 2018. Sera were tested for Flavivirus RNA by a pan-flaviviral primer set using hemi-nested RT PCR. Twenty-six samples were positive for flaviviral RNA and sequence analysis indicated a high number of West Nile virus infections and one case of Zika virus. In-house recombinant NS1-based IgM ELISA indicated 47%...
Source: Virus Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Oderinde BS, Mora-Cárdenas E, Carletti T, Baba MM, Marcello A Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Anti-chicken type I IFN countermeasures by Major Avian RNA Viruses.
Abstract Chicken type I interferons (type I IFNs) are key antiviral players of the chicken innate immune system and are considered potent antiviral agents against avian viral pathogens. Chicken type I IFNs are divided into three subtypes namely, chIFN-α, chIFN-β, and chIFN-κ. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognized by their corresponding specific PRRs (pattern recognition receptors) induce the expression of chicken type I IFNs. Interaction of chicken type I IFNs with their subsequent IFN receptors results in the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway, which in turn activates hu...
Source: Virus Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Anjum FR, Anam S, Rahman SU, Ali S, Aslam MA, Rizvi F, Asif M, Abdullah RM, Abaidullah M, Shakir MZ, Goraya MU Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

p300 Promotes Cell Proliferation through Suppressing Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) Reactivation in the Infected B-Lymphoma Cells.
This study further provided evidence that p300 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BCBL1, which might lead to the oncogenesis of PEL caused by KSHV infection. PMID: 32553609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Sun C, Guo Y, Zhou W, Xia C, Xing X, Chen J, Li X, Zhu H, Lu J Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Muscle destruction caused by coxsackievirus A10 in gerbils: construction of a novel animal model for antiviral evaluation.
Abstract The morbidity and mortality of coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been increasing in recent years, while few studies on the vaccine and animal model of CVA10 have been reported. Here, we first established a CVA10-infected gerbil model and employed it to evaluate the immunoprotective effect of an inactivated CVA10 vaccine. The results showed that gerbils up to the age of 14 days were fully susceptible to CVA10, and all died within five days post-infection by intraperitoneal inoculation. Lethargy, wasting, hind-limb paralysis, and even death could be observed in ...
Source: Virus Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Chen C, Xia Y, Zhu S, Xu F, Sun Y, Lu H, Gao M, Yang Z, Mao Z, Ge Q, Miao Z, Zhu H, Yao P Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Role of the GTNGTKR motif in the N-terminal receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
In this report, we analyzed the structural characteristics of the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit (S1-NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in comparison to the SARS-CoV in particular, and to other viruses presenting similar characteristic in general. Given the severity and the wide and rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is very likely that the virus recognizes other receptors/co-receptors besides the ACE2. The NTD of the SARS-CoV-2 contains a receptor-binding motif different from that of SARS-CoV, with some insertions that could confer to the new coronavirus new receptor binding abilities. In particular, moti...
Source: Virus Research - June 9, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Behloul N, Baha S, Shi R, Meng J Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Potential drugs for the treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in China.
Abstract The fight against the novel coronavirus pneumonia (namely COVID-19) that seriously harms human health is a common task for all mankind. Currently, development of drugs against the novel coronavirus (namely SARS-CoV-2) is quite urgent. Chinese medical workers and scientific researchers have found some drugs to play potential therapeutic effects on COVID-19 at the cellular level or in preliminary clinical trials. However, more fundamental studies and large sample clinical trials need to be done to ensure the efficacy and safety of these drugs. The adoption of these drugs without further testing must be care...
Source: Virus Research - June 9, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Pan X, Dong L, Yang N, Chen D, Peng C Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Clinical features of discharged COVID-19 patients with an extended SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive signal in respiratory samples.
PMID: 32522535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - June 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Li J, Wei X, Tian W, Zou J, Wang Y, Xue W, Xiao Q, Huang W Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Host specific preference for low temperature in the multiplication of a tombusvirus, gentian virus A.
In this study, temperature was found to affect the efficient multiplication of GeVA in Japanese gentians. GeVA efficiently multiplied in inoculated leaves of gentians at 18 °C but not at 23 °C. This low-temperature (18 °C)-preferred GeVA multiplication was specifically observed in Japanese gentians and Arabidopsis thaliana but not in other experimental plants, including Nicotiana benthamiana. In A. thaliana, visible defense responses, including pathogenesis-related protein 1 expression, were not detected at 23 °C. Furthermore, several A. thaliana mutants, including those defectiv...
Source: Virus Research - June 6, 2020 Category: Virology Authors: Fujisaki K, Abe Y, Tateda C, Iwai M, Kaido M, Mise K Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research