Flavivirus Infection- A Review of Immunopathogenesis, Immunological Response, and Immunodiagnosis.
Abstract Flaviviruses are group of single stranded RNA viruses that cause severe endemic infection and epidemics on a global scale. It presents a significant health impact worldwide and the viruses have the potential to emerge and outbreak in a non-endemic geographical region. Effective vaccines for prophylaxis are only available for several flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus and there is no antiflaviviral agent being marketed. This review discusses the flavivirus genome, replication cycle, epidemiology, clinical presentation and pat...
Source: Virus Research - October 15, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Chong HY, Leow CY, Bakar AMA, Leow CH Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

The activity of aurora kinase b is required for dengue virus release.
THE ACTIVITY OF AURORA KINASE B IS REQUIRED FOR DENGUE VIRUS RELEASE. Virus Res. 2019 Oct 15;:197777 Authors: Perez-Olais JH, Ruiz-Jimenez F, Calderon-Garcia EJ, de Jesus-González LA, Hernández-Rivas R, Del Angel RM Abstract Flaviviruses, such as Dengue (DENV), Zika, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile are important pathogens with high morbidity and mortality. The last estimation indicates that ∼390 millions of people are infected by DENV per year. The DENV replicative cycle occurs mainly in the cytoplasm of the infected cells and different cytoplasmic, nuclear and mito...
Source: Virus Research - October 15, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Perez-Olais JH, Ruiz-Jimenez F, Calderon-Garcia EJ, de Jesus-González LA, Hernández-Rivas R, Del Angel RM Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel emaravrius infecting Actinidia spp. in China.
In this study, a novel emaravirus, provisionally named Actinidia emaravirus 2 (AcEV-2), was identified from a kiwifruit tree showing leaf mottle and chlorosis symptoms. The genome of AcEV-2 consisted of at least six RNAs (RNAs 1-6) with sizes of 7079, 2252, 1387, 1514, 1744 and 1233 nucleotides (nts), respectively. Proteins encoded by RNAs1-4 of AcEV-2 shared the highest amino acid (aa) sequence identities of 62.2%-77.3% with the corresponding proteins of fig mosaic emaravirues (FMV) and pigeonpea sterility mosaic emaravirus 2 (PPSMV-2). Whilst, the P5 and P6 encoded by AcEV-2 exhibited the highest identities of 44.2% and ...
Source: Virus Research - October 15, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Wang Y, Zhai L, Wen S, Yang Z, Wang G, Hong N Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Bile-Salt Stimulated Lipase Polymorphisms do not Associate with HCV Susceptibility.
Abstract Bile-salt stimulate lipase (BSSL) is a glycoprotein found in human milk and blood that can potently bind DC-SIGN. The BSSL gene is highly polymorphic with a variant number of O-linked glycosylated 11 amino acid repeats at the C-terminus of the protein, encoded in exon 11 of the gene. It has been shown that certain BSSL genotypes associate with decreased HIV-1 transmission in vitro and decreased HIV-1 disease progression. The protein forms dimers and individuals possessing one high (typically 14-21) and one low (typically 7-11) number of repeat domains has been shown to have stronger binding of BSSL to DC-...
Source: Virus Research - October 14, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Steba GS, Koekkoek SM, Prins M, Brinkman K, Kwa D, van der Meer JTM, van der Valk M, Molenkamp R, Pollakis G, Schinkel J, Paxton WA, MOSAIC (MSM observational Study of Acute infection with Hepatitis C) study group Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Fish herpesvirus protein (CaHV-138L) can  target to mitochondrial protein FoF1 ATPase.
This study have provided valuable information for better understanding of the links of herpesvirus proteins with aquaculture animal proteins. PMID: 31622636 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - October 14, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Zhao YH, Zeng XT, Zhang QY Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

A unique class of lignin derivatives displays broad anti-HIV activity by interacting with the viral envelope.
Abstract In Gordts et al. (2015), we have shown that lignosulfonic acid, a commercially available lignin derivative, possesses broad antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) by preventing viral entry into susceptible target cells. Because of the interesting safety profile as potential microbicide, we now determined the antiviral activity of a series of lignosulfonates in order to understand better which molecular features can contribute to their antiviral activity. Here, 24 structurally different lignosulfonates were evaluated for their capacity to inhibit HIV an...
Source: Virus Research - October 13, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Oeyen M, Noppen S, Vanhulle E, Claes S, Myrvold BO, Vermeire K, Schols D Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

A novel molecular mechanism to explain mutations of the HCV protease associated with resistance against covalently bound inhibitors.
otilde;es R Abstract NS3 is an important therapeutic target for direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs. However, many patients treated with DAAs have unsustained virologic response (UVR) due to the high mutation rate of HCV. The aim of this work was to shed some light on the puzzling molecular mechanisms of the virus's of patients who showed high viral loads even under treatment with DAA. Bioinformatics tools, molecular modelling analyses were employed to identify mutations associated with HCV resistance to boceprevir and possible structural features related to this phenomenon. We identified two mutations of NS3 that...
Source: Virus Research - October 13, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: de Moraes LN, Tommasini Grotto RM, Targino Valente G, de Carvalho Sampaio H, Magro AJ, Fogaça L, Wolf IR, Perahia D, Faria Silva G, Plana Simões R Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Bioinformatically-predicted varicella zoster virus small non-coding RNAs are expressed in lytically-infected epithelial cells and neurons.
Abstract Most herpesviruses use both host and viral small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), especially microRNA, to modulate infection. Bioinformatic analyses of NGS data obtained from Varicella Zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells predicted 24 VZVsncRNA, seven of which were confirmed to be expressed in infected fibroblasts and neurons using stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription PCR (SL-PCR). We here assayed for the expression of all 24 of the bioinformatically predicted VZVsncRNA in cells productively infected by VZV using SL-PCR. 23 of the 24 predicted sequences were detected in VZV-infected ARPE19 cells and 19 of t...
Source: Virus Research - October 12, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Golani-Zaidie L, Borodiansky-Shteinberg T, Bisht P, Das B, Kinchington PR, Goldstein RS Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Toward peste des petits virus (PPRV) eradication: diagnostic approaches, novel vaccines, and control strategies.
Abstract Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute transboundary infectious viral disease affecting domestic and wild small ruminants' species besides camels reared in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The virus is a serious paramount challenge to the sustainable agriculture advancement in the developing world. The disease outbreak was also detected for the first time in the European Union namely in Bulgaria at 2018. Therefore, the disease has lately been aimed for eradication with the purpose of worldwide clearance by 2030. Radically, the vaccines needed for effectively accomplishing this aim are presently con...
Source: Virus Research - October 10, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Kamel M, El-Sayed A Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Identification of Brevibacterium flavum genes related to receptors involved in bacteriophage BFK20 adsorption.
Abstract Phage infection of bacterial cells is a process requiring the interaction between phage receptor binding proteins and receptors on the bacterial cell surface. We prepared a Brevibacterium flavum CCM 251 EZ-Tn5 transposon insertional library and isolated phage-resistant mutants. Analysis of the DNA fragments produced by single-primer PCR was used to determine the EZ-Tn5 transposon insertion sites in the genomes of phage-resistant B. flavum mutants. Seven disrupted genes were identified in forty B. flavum mutants. The phage resistance of these mutants was demonstrated by cultivation analysis in the presence...
Source: Virus Research - October 7, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Tkacova A, Orieskova M, Halgasova N, Bocanova L, Bukovska G Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Use of live Variola virus to determine whether CAST/EiJ mice are a suitable surrogate animal model for human smallpox.
In this study, we inoculated CAST/EiJ mice with a range of VARV doses (102-106 plaque forming units). Some animals had detectable viable VARV from the oropharynx between days 3 and 12 post inoculation. Despite evidence of disease, the CAST/EiJ mouse does not provide a model for clinical smallpox due to mild signs of morbidity and limited skin lesions. However, in contrast to previous rodent models using VARV challenge (i.e. prairie dogs and SCID mice), a robust immune response was observed in the CAST/EiJ mice (measured by Immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). This is an advantage of this model for the study...
Source: Virus Research - October 5, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Gallardo-Romero NF, Hutson CL, Carroll D, Kondas AV, Salzer JS, Dietz-Ostergaard S, Smith S, Hudson P, Olson V, Damon I Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Biodistribution of Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 with Mutations in the Capsid that Contribute to Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Binding.
Abstract We compared the phenotypes of three mutant AAV2 viruses containing mutations in arginine amino acids (R585, R588 and R484) previously shown to be involved in AAV2 heparan sulfate binding. The transduction efficiencies of wild type and mutant viruses were determined in the eye, the brain and peripheral organs following subretinal, striatal and intravenous injection, respectively, in mice and rats. We found that each of the three mutants (the single mutant R585A; the double mutant R585, 588A; and the triple mutant R585, 588, 484A) had a unique phenotype compared to wt and each other. R585A was comple...
Source: Virus Research - September 29, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Gorbatyuk OS, Warrington KH, Gorbatyuk MS, Zolotukhin I, Lewin AS, Muzyczka N Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

In vivo models for studying Hepatitis E virus infection; Updates and Applications.
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis globally. HEV belongs to the Hepeviridae family and at least five genotypes (gt) infect humans. Several animal species are reservoirs for different HEV strains, and they are the source of infection for humans. Some HEV strains are species specific, but other strains could cross species and infect many hosts. The study of HEV infection and pathogenesis was hampered due to the lack of an in vitro and in vivo robust model system. The cell culture system has been established for certain HEV strains, especially gt3 and 4, but gt1 strains...
Source: Virus Research - September 26, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Sayed IM, Elkhawaga AA, El-Mokhtar MA Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

First report on the prevalence and genetic relatedness of Feline Foamy Virus (FFV) from Turkish domestic cats.
This study paves the way for studies on the pathogenicity of FFV. PMID: 31562905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Koç BT, Oğuzoğlu TÇ Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Antiviral activity of Sambucus Formosana Nakai ethanol extract and related phenolic acid constituents against human coronavirus NL63.
Abstract Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), one of the main circulating HCoVs worldwide, causes respiratory tract illnesses like runny nose, cough, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Recently, a severe respiratory illness outbreak of HCoV-NL63 has been reported in a long-term care facility. Sambucus Formosana Nakai, a species of elderberry, is a traditional medicinal herb with anti-inflammatory and antiviral potential. The study investigated the antiviral activity of Sambucus Formosana Nakai stem ethanol extract and some phenolic acid constituents against HCoV-NL63. The extract was less cytotoxic and concentrati...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Jing-Ru W, Chen-Sheng L, Hsueh-Chou L, Yu-Ping L, Ching-Ying W, Yu-Chi T, Kun-Chang W, Su-Hua H, Cheng-Wen L Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

A diverse assemblage of RNA and DNA viruses found in mosquitoes collected in southern Portugal.
Abstract This work describes the detection and partial characterization of mosquito-borne virus genomic sequences, based on the analysis of mosquitoes collected from the Spring to Fall of 2018 in the Algarve (southern Portugal). The viral survey that was carried out using multiple primer sets disclosed the presence of both RNA and DNA viral sequences in these mosquitoes, which were subsequently analysed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction methods. The obtained results brought to light three lineages of insect-specific flaviviruses, a monophyletic cluster of bunyaviruses from an unassi...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Silva M, Morais P, Maia C, de Sousa CB, de Almeida APG, Parreira R Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Construction and biological characterization of an Agrobacterium-mediated infectious cDNA of squash mosaic virus.
Abstract Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), a member of the species Squash mosaic virus in the genus Comovirus (family Comoviridae), is an important seed-borne virus that causes serious economic losses in cucurbit crops. Here, we constructed infectious cDNA clones of SqMV genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter by Gibson assembly. The infectious cDNA clones of SqMV could infect zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) plants systemically by agrobacterium-mediated inoculation. The virus progeny from the infectious clones showed no difference from the wild type in terms of...
Source: Virus Research - September 24, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Liu L, Xie K, Tsekpuia AR, Peng B, Liu M, Gu Q Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Effect of diversity in gp41 membrane proximal external region of primary HIV-1 Indian subtype C sequences on interaction with broadly neutralizing antibodies 4E10 and 10E8.
Abstract Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Clade C (HIV-1C) dominates the AIDS epidemic in India, afflicting 2.1 million individuals within the country and more than 15 million people worldwide. Membrane proximal external region (MPER) is an attractive target for broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) based therapies. However, information on MPER sequence diversity from India is meagre due to limited sampling of primary viral sequences. In the present study, we examined the variation in MPER of HIV-1C from 24 individuals in Mumbai, India by high throughput sequencing of uncultured viral sequences. Deep sequencing of MP...
Source: Virus Research - September 22, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Sutar J, Padwal V, Sonawani A, Nagar V, Patil P, Kulkarni B, Hingankar N, Deshpande S, Idicula-Thomas S, Jagtap D, Bhattacharya J, Bandivdekar A, Patel V Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of a novel virulent phage infecting the Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
This study could serve as a genomic reference of A. hydrophila phages and provide a potential agent for phage therapy. PMID: 31550486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 21, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Cao Y, Li S, Wang D, Zhao J, Xu L, Liu H, Lu T, Mou Z Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Characteristics and evolutionary history of hepatitis B virus quasi-subgenotype B3 in Southeast Asia.
Abstract To analyze the hepatitis B virus (HBV) quasi-subgenotype B3 characters and molecular evolution in Southeast Asia, 411 serum samples with HBsAg positive were collected from Xishuangbanna, China. After DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing, a total of 183 HBV full-length genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed 139 stains (76.0%) were genotype B, 41 strains were genotype C (22.4%) and 3 strains were genotype I (1.6%). Among genotype B, 34 sequences were identified as quasi-subgenotype B3. Quasi-subgenotype B3 sequences from this study and quasi-subgenotype B3 sequences from the GenBank...
Source: Virus Research - September 18, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Gao J, Zuo R, Wang J, Shen T Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Major Capsid Protein of Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Contributes to the Promoter Activity of the Very Late Viral Genes.
In this study, we found that knocking out vp39 from the AcMNPV genome resulted in decreased protein abundance of polyhedrin and P10. Further assays revealed that the mRNA transcripts and the promoter activities of polyhedrin and p10 were decreased in the absence of vp39, suggesting that VP39 contributes to the activity of the very late viral gene promoters and may represent a means of optimizing the current BEVS. PMID: 31541668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 18, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Bai H, Hu Y, Hu X, Li J, Mu J, Zhou Y, Chen X, Wang Y Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Resistance mechanisms adopted by a Salmonella Typhimurium mutant against bacteriophage.
Abstract Bacteriophages have key roles in regulating bacterial populations in most habitats. A Salmonella Typhimurium mutant (N18) with impaired sensitivity to phage fmb-p1 was obtained and examined, the adsorption efficiency of fmb-p1 to N18 was reduced to 6%, compared to more than 97% for wild type S. Typhimurium CMCC50115. Reduced adsorption was accompanied by a reduction of 90% in the LPS content compared to wild type. Electron microscopy showed phage scattered around N18 with minimal engagement, while the phage were efficiently adsorbed to the wild type with tails oriented towards the bacterial surface. Evide...
Source: Virus Research - September 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Wang C, Nie T, Lin F, Connerton IF, Lu Z, Zhou S, Hang H Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Characterization of a peribunyavirus isolated from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).
We report the complete genome sequencing of the first fish peribunyavirus determined using a next-generation sequencing approach. The virus was isolated during a routine health assessment of wild largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in Wisconsin in April of 2009. Further research is needed to determine the epidemiology and pathogenicity of the largemouth bass bunyavirus. PMID: 31539558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Waltzek TB, Subramaniam K, Leis E, Katona R, Fan Ng TF, Delwart E, Barbknecht M, Rock K, Hoffman MA Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Elucidating the functional aspects of different domains of bean common mosaic virus coat protein.
Abstract The coat protein (CP) is the only structural protein present in the polyprotein of bean common mosaic virus. The well known characteristics of the CP are self-oligomerization and nucleic acid binding activity. The studies of the coat protein mutants revealed that the oligomeric property of CP solely depends on the amino-terminal residues and the nucleic acid binding domain present at the 194-202 amino acids position in it. The 3'UTR RNA of the virus showed high binding affinity with the RNA binding domain in comparison to the 5'UTR RNA. Further, the intrinsic fluorescence study of the CP also suggested th...
Source: Virus Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Kumar S, Karmakar R, Garg DK, Gupta I, Patel AK Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

HIV-1 Tat protein inhibits the hematopoietic support function of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
In conclusion, Tat treatment reduced the function of BMSCs in hematopoietic support, likely by downregulating the expression of a series of hematopoietic cytokines. PMID: 31521762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - September 12, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yuan Y, Zhou C, Yang Q, Ma S, Wang X, Guo X, Ding Y, Tang J, Zeng Y, Li D Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

HHV-6B reduces autophagy and induces ER stress in primary monocytes impairing their survival and differentiation into dendritic cells.
In this study we found that HHV-6 B derived from patients affected by exanthema subitum impaired monocyte differentiation into DCs, as the infected cells acquired less CD1a DC marker and retained more CD14 monocyte marker. In agreement with the previous finding that HHV-6B dysregulated autophagy and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cells in which it replicated, here we found that these effects occurred also in differentiating monocytes and that ER stress relief, by using the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutirate (PBA), partially restored DC formation. This suggests that the induction of ER stress, likely e...
Source: Virus Research - September 12, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Romeo MA, Gilardini Montani MS, Falcinelli L, Gaeta A, Nazzari C, Faggioni A, Cirone M Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Impact of genetic diversity on biological characteristics of Usutu virus strains in Africa.
all G Abstract Usutu virus (USUV) previously restricted to Africa where it caused mild infections, emerged in 2001 in Europe and caused more severe infections among birds and humans with neurological forms, suggesting an adaptation and increasing virulence. This evolution suggests the need to better understand USUV transmission patterns for assessing risks and to develop control strategies. Phylogenetic analysis conducted in Africa showed low genetic diversity of African USUV strains except for one human and the USUV subtype (USUVsub) strains, which exhibited a deletion in the 3'UTR and nucleotide substitutions th...
Source: Virus Research - September 12, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ndione MHD, Ndiaye EH, Thiam MS, Weidmann M, Faye M, Yamar, Benkaroun J, Faye O, Loucoubar C, Sembène PM, Diallo M, Sall AA, Faye O, Fall G Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Neo-virology: The raison d'etre of viruses.
Abstract Given that approximately 1031 virus particles exist on Earth and all of them are parasitic in living organisms, it is not hard to imagine how virus infection might affect the physiology of hosts and their ecosystems. However, traditional virology research tends to focus on viral pathogenicity or the individual pathogenic viruses; hence, the significance of viruses and viral-mediated processes in the global ecosystem has been poorly understood. To identify the previously unrecognized "raison d'etre of viruses" in nature, we established a research community, designated as the 'Neo-virology' consor...
Source: Virus Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Watanabe T, Suzuki N, Tomonaga K, Sawa H, Matsuura Y, Kawaguchi Y, Takahashi H, Nagasaki K, Kawaoka Y Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Epitope mapping and cellular localization of swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein using a novel monoclonal antibody.
Abstract A swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) that causes severe diarrhea in suckling piglets was identified in Southern China in 2017. To develop an antigen that is specific, sensitive, and easy to prepare for serological diagnosis, antigenic sites in the SADS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein were screened. We generated and characterized an N-reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3E9 from mice immunized with recombinant N protein. Through fine epitope mapping of mAb 3E9 using a panel of eukaryotic-expressed polypeptides with GFP-tags, we identified the motif 343DAPVFTPAP351 as the minimal unit of the l...
Source: Virus Research - September 10, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Han Y, Zhang J, Shi H, Zhou L, Chen J, Zhang X, Liu J, Zhang J, Wang X, Ji Z, Jing Z, Cong G, Ma J, Shi D, Li F Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

In silico Epitope Prediction and Immunogenic Analysis for Penton base Epitope-focused Vaccine against Hydropericardium syndrome in chicken.
Abstract Certain strains of fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) of the family Adenoviridae are recognized to be the causative agents of Hydropericardium Syndrome (HPS) in broiler chicken. Despite the significantly spiking mortality in broilers due to HPS, not much effort has been made to design an effective vaccine against FAdV-4. The combination of immuno- and bio-informatics tools for immunogenic epitope prediction is the most recent concept of vaccine design. It reduces the time and effort required for hunting a potent vaccine candidate and is economical. Previously, we have reported the penton base protein of ...
Source: Virus Research - September 8, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Aziz F, Tufail S, Shah MA, Salahuddin Shah M, Habib M, Mirza O, Iqbal M, Rahman M Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Characterization of a Novel Rhabdovirus Isolated from a Stranded Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).
Abstract An adult male harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) stranded off the coast of Alaska displaying poor body condition, scattered mild ulcerative dermatitis, and necrotizing balanoposthitis. Necropsy findings included severe verminous panniculitis, pneumonia, hepatitis, and enteritis. Histopathological examination of skin lesions revealed a pustular epidermitis and dermatitis, with ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes and occasional eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. A swab sample collected from the ulcerative penile lesions was processed for virus isolation resulting in cytopathic effects ob...
Source: Virus Research - September 6, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Emelianchik A, Rodrigues TCS, Subramaniam K, Nielsen O, Burek-Huntington KA, Rotstein D, Popov VL, Stone D, Waltzek TB Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Ursolic acid from Prunella vulgaris L. efficiently inhibits IHNV infection in vito and in vivo.
Abstract Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a fish viral pathogen that causes severe disease and huge economic losses in the salmonid aquaculture industry. However, anti-IHNV drugs currently are scarce. For the purpose of seeking out anti-IHNV drugs, the anti-IHNV activities of 32 medicinal plants were investigated by using epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. Among these plants, Prunella vulgaris L. (PVL) showed the strongest inhibition on IHNV replication with an inhibitory percentage of 99.3% at the concentration 100 mg/L. Further studies demonstrated that ursolic acid (UA), a major ...
Source: Virus Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Li BY, Hu Y, Li J, Shi K, Shen YF, Zhu B, Wang GX Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Juvenile olive flounder immersed in live VHSV at 17  °C and 20 °C shows resistance against VHSV infection at 10 °C.
Juvenile olive flounder immersed in live VHSV at 17 °C and 20 °C shows resistance against VHSV infection at 10 °C. Virus Res. 2019 Sep 04;:197738 Authors: Kim SJ, Qadiri SSN, Oh MJ Abstract Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) causes serious economic loss in olive flounder aquaculture industry in Korea. Water temperature is known to play a critical role in VHS disease outbreak. Here, we assessed the potential efficacy of VHSV immersion treatment in relation to resistance conferred at differential water temperatures in olive flounder. VHSV acquired resistance was compared...
Source: Virus Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Kim SJ, Qadiri SSN, Oh MJ Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Attenuation of duck Tembusu virus ZJSBL01 strain following serial passage in BHK-21 cells supplied with 5-Fluorouracil.
In this study, a virulent strain of DTMUV, designated as ZJSBL01, was attenuated by serial passages in BHK-21 cells supplied with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) for 50 passages to induce mutation and attenuation. Growth kinetics of different passages of ZJSBL01 strain in BHK-21 cells show that these viruses have similar replication characteristics. The virus was highly attenuated after 40 passages in BHK-21 cells supplied with 5-FU, based on mortality, morbidity, and viral load in inoculated Sheldrake ducklings. In addition, all of the ducklings immunized with ZJSBL01-P40, the virus obtained at passage 40 of ZJSBL01, showed serocon...
Source: Virus Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Huang J, Shen H, Wang Z, Huang S, Li Q, Zhou Q, Qin J, Xie Q, Chen F Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Distribution of HPV 16 E6 gene variants in screening women and its associations with cervical lesions progression.
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 variants in screening healthy women and the potential association between HPV 16 variants and progression of cervical lesions. For this study a total of 2000 healthy women in Tianjin urban area and 212 patients who were HPV 16 positive and underwent colposcopy were analyzed for HPV 16 variants by pyrosequencing. The results show that the HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in Tianjin healthy women and five HPV 16 variant types were detected. The HPV 16 variants were determined by sequencing parital E6 region and the d...
Source: Virus Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Tan G, Duan M, Li Y, Zhang N, Zhang W, Li B, Qu P Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

The mycovirome of a fungal collection from the sea cucumber Holothuria polii.
Abstract Holothuria polii is a marine animal with an important ecological and economic impact. In the present study we analysed the presence of mycoviruses associated to fungi that were isolated from different H. polii tissues. Among the 48 fungal isolates analysed we identified 10 viruses in 8 strains belonging to 7 fungal species. Five out of nine viruses have a dsRNA genome: three of them belong to the Partitiviridae family, one belongs to a still undefined clade of bipartite viruses and the last one belongs to the Chrysoviridae family. We also identified two viruses belonging to a recently proposed new mycovir...
Source: Virus Research - August 31, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Nerva L, Forgia M, Ciuffo M, Chitarra W, Chiapello M, Vallino M, Varese GC, Turina M Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

EBV down-regulates COX-2 expression via TRAF2 and ERK signal pathway in EBV-associated gastric cancer.
Abstract Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) accounts for nearly 10% of gastric cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a crucial role in cancer progression. However, there is no experimental study on the regulation mechanism of EBV on COX-2 in EBVaGC. To understand more about the tumorigenic mechanism of EBVaGC, the study investigated the role of EBV encode latent membrane protein LMP1 and LMP2A in the regulation of COX-2. The expression of COX-2 was examined in EBVaGC and EBV negative gastric cancer (EBVnGC) cell lines. The plasmids were transfected in SGC7901 to overexpress LMP1/2A. Small inter...
Source: Virus Research - August 29, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Qi YF, Liu M, Zhang Y, Liu W, Xiao H, Luo B Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Efficacy of a phage cocktail in controlling phage resistance development in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
In this study, Acinetobacter baumannii phage vB_AbaS_D0 was isolated, characterized and used to control the phage resistance development in bacterial strains. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of vB_AbaS_D0 indicated it belonged to the Siphoviridae family with an icosahedral head. Its whole genome was 43, 051 bp in size, with a GC content of 45.48 % and 55 putative open reading frames. The data showed that vB_AbaS_D0 was a virulent phage. Although vB_AbaS_D0 had a very weak bactericidal activity, a wide range of Acinetobacter baumannii strains were sensitive to it. The results suggested that the cocktail of vB_AbaS...
Source: Virus Research - August 26, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yuan Y, Wang L, Li X, Tan D, Cong C, Xu Y Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

A sensitive and rapid RNA silencing suppressor activity assay based on alfalfa mosaic virus expression vector.
aacute;nchez-Navarro JA Abstract Plant viruses express RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins to counteract plant defence mechanisms. Here, we describe a method to assess the RSS activity based on an alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNA 3 expression vector and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants that express the P1 and P2 subunits of the AMV replicase (P12 plants). Inoculation of P12 plants with different AMV RNA 3 constructs expressing different HC-Pro mutants that differ in their RSS capabilities, revealed a perfect correlation between necrotic lesions on inoculated leaves and RSS activity. Protoplast analysis showed...
Source: Virus Research - August 25, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Martínez-Pérez M, Navarro JA, Pallás V, Sánchez-Navarro JA Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Characterization of three new viruses of the family Betaflexiviridae associated with camellia ringspot disease.
In this study, flexuous, filamentous virions of approximately 680-780 nm long were observed by electron microscopy in sap of camellia trees with chlorotic ringspots. Five large viral contigs were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology, and complete genome sequences of them were determined. Sequence analyses show that these five isolates represent three novel viruses, two in the genus Prunevirus, one in the genus Capillovirus. The genome organization of the two camellia pruneviruses resembles that of pruneviruses but does not contain the nucleic acid-binding protein (NABP) at the 3'-terminal region. They...
Source: Virus Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Liu H, Wu L, Zheng L, Cao M, Li R Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Proteases facilitate the endosomal escape of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus during entry into host cells.
Abstract Exogenous and endogenous proteases play important roles in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) entry and replication. The roles of proteases in the viral endosomal escape and replication using trypsin (KD) or elastase (AA)-adapted US PEDV strains were studied. While PEDV KD and AA require different exogenous protease for efficient replication in cells, PEDV KD was more dependent on the protease than PEDV AA. There was no marked difference in viral trafficking between them during the entry events. Both PEDV were observed in the endosomes with or without protease at 1 h after virus inoculation. Wi...
Source: Virus Research - August 21, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Oh C, Kim Y, Chang KO Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

The use of green fluorescent protein-tagged virus-like particles as a tracer in the early phase of chikungunya infection.
Abstract To visually examine the early phase of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in target cells, we constructed a virus-like particle (VLP) in which the envelope protein E1 is fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP). This chikungunya VLP-GFP (CHIK-VLP-EGFP), purified by density gradient fractionation, was observed as 60-70 nm-dia. particles and was detected as tiny puncta of fluorescence in the cells. CHIK-VLP-EGFP showed binding properties similar to those of the wild-type viruses. Most of the fluorescence signals that had bound on Vero cells disappeared within 30 min at 37 °C, but...
Source: Virus Research - August 21, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Tumkosit U, Maeda Y, Kishishita N, Siripanyaphinyo U, Omori H, Chetanachan P, Sittisaman P, Jityam C, Priengprom T, Mizushima H, Wongjaroen P, Mekada E, Tatsumi M, Takeda N, Tanaka A Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Domestic sheep and bighorn sheep carry distinct gammaherpesviruses belonging to the genus Macavirus.
In this study, we report the recognition of new MCFV carried by bighorn sheep. The virus was first identified in a bighorn sheep from Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Analysis of a conserved region of the viral DNA polymerase gene of the virus carried by this bighorn sheep showed 85.88% nucleotide identity to the MCFV carried by domestic sheep, ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). Further investigation of bighorn samples obtained from animals in the US and Canada showed 98.87-100% identity to the DNA polymerase sequence of the first bighorn in the study. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the MCFV carried by bighorn sheep ...
Source: Virus Research - August 21, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Cunha CW, Slater OM, Macbeth B, Duignan PJ, Warren A, Highland MA, Li H Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Amino acid changes in HA and determinants of pathogenicity associated with influenza virus A H1N1pdm09 during the winter seasons 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 in Mexico.
Berenice PM, Rogelio PP Abstract Biennial H1N1pdm09 influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics have been associated with major severity of respiratory disease in Mexico. Atypically and in contrast with what happened in USA, Canada and Europe during 2017, an increase of infections due to the H1N1pdm09 pandemic virus instead of H3N2 was observed. In order to determine the viral contribution to severe acute respiratory disease, we characterized the pathogenicity determinants of IAV in Mexico during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons. The RNA segments of 20 IAV samples were sequenced by NGS platform and phylogenetic analysis ...
Source: Virus Research - August 21, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Joel Armando VP, Daniela RZ, Emmanuel VÁ, Horacio GL, Norma Angélica TN, Fernando C, Cristóbal GP, Luis SJ, Manuel CL, Rodolfo Norberto JJ, José Luis SH, Brenda Berenice PM, Rogelio PP Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Development of Novel Subunit Vaccine based on truncated fiber protein of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus and its immunogenicity in chickens.
In this report, we engineered truncated fiber protein containing the entire knob domain and part of the shaft region as a vaccine candidate. The protein was obtained in the soluble fraction in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and expression level after nickel-affinity purification was 126 mg/L. By means of multiple characterization methods, it is demonstrated that the recombinant protein retains the native trimeric structure. A single inoculation with the structure-stabilized recombinant protein, even at the lowest dose of 2 µg, stimulated hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses in chickens, for ...
Source: Virus Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Song Y, Wei Q, Liu Y, Bai Y, Deng R, Xing G, Zhang G Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Investigating the distribution of HIV-1 Tat lengths present in the Drexel Medicine CARES cohort.
This study examines Sanger sequencing of HIV-1 subtype B Tat from 2006 to 2014 within the Drexel University College of Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES) Cohort to investigate Tat length in patients. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) database was used as a comparator. Miscoded stop codons were present in the CARES Cohort and LANL and protein variability was highly similar. Tat proteins in CARES and LANL were predominantly 101 residues. There was no observed correlation between Tat length and clinical parameters within the CARES Cohort. Unique Tat lengths found in the CARES Cohort and not in LA...
Source: Virus Research - August 19, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Link RW, Mele AR, Antell GC, Pirrone V, Zhong W, Kercher K, Passic S, Szep Z, Malone K, Jacobson JM, Dampier W, Wigdahl B, Nonnemacher MR Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Successful establishment of a reverse genetic system for QX-type infectious bronchitis virus and technical improvement of the rescue procedure.
In this study, a pathogenic avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) QX-type strain YN was successfully rescued by vaccinia virus based reverse genetic technology. Ten fragments contiguously spanning the complete IBV genome were amplified and cloned into the vaccinia virus genome by homologous recombination. The full-length genomic cDNA was transcribed in vitro, and its transcript was transfected into BHK-21/N cells that could stably express IBV N protein. At 48 h post transfection, the culture medium was harvested and inoculated into 10-day-old specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs to replicate the rescued...
Source: Virus Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Zhao Y, Cheng J, Xu G, Thiel V, Zhang G Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Lack of evidence for long term carriers of African swine fever virus - a systematic review.
is E Abstract African swine fever (ASF) was first described in 1921 as a highly fatal and contagious disease which caused severe outbreaks among settlers' pigs in British East Africa. Since then the disease has expanded its geographical distribution and is currently present in large parts of Africa, Europe and Asia and considered a global threat. Although ASF is typically associated with very high case fatality rates, a certain proportion of infected animals will recover from the infection and survive. Early on it was speculated that such survivors may act as carriers of the virus, and the importance of such carri...
Source: Virus Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Ståhl K, Sternberg-Lewerin S, Blome S, Viltrop A, Penrith ML, Chenais E Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Co-circulation of distinct shrew-borne hantaviruses in the far east of Russia.
Abstract Insectivores are the new emerging reservoir of hantaviruses. Here, we describe Lena virus (LENV), a novel hantavirus harbored by the Laxmann`s shrew (Sorex caecutiens), which is also the host of Artybash virus (ARTV). Genetic analysis of the complete genomic sequence shows that LENV is in distant relation to ARTV and other Sorex-borne hantaviruses, suggesting that LENV has emerged from cross-species transmission. Additionally, new genetic variant of ARTV, designated as ARTV-St, was identified in tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis). Finally, distinct insectivore-borne hantaviruses are co-circulating in the sa...
Source: Virus Research - August 15, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Yashina LN, Kartashov MY, Wang W, Li K, Zdanovskaya NI, Ivanov LI, Zhang YZ Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of novel Adeno-associated virus variants infecting human tissues.
Abstract Despite the many advantages with Adeno-associated virus (AAV) based vectors for gene therapy, certain barriers related to host permissivity and immune response precludes their widespread application in humans. A comprehensive study of the distribution and complexity of naturally occurring AAV in human tissues should facilitate their optimal utilization for gene therapy and tissue targeting in humans. A total of 205 samples, comprising 198 tissue samples from individuals of Indian origin and 7 different cell lines were investigated. A panel of 8 primate samples was used as controls. DNA from these samples ...
Source: Virus Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Virology Authors: Purohit N, Jain A, Mathews V, Jayandharan GR Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research