Cannabinoid tetrad effects of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in male and female rats: sex, dose-effects and time course evaluations
ConclusionsOral THC and CBD produced long lasting effects that differed in magnitude and time course when compared with other routes of administration. Examination of cannabinoid effects administered via different routes of administration, species, and in both males and females is critical to enhance translation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) anxiety test battery: comparison of behavioral responses in the novel tank diving and light –dark tasks following exposure to anxiogenic and anxiolytic compounds
ConclusionsOverall, our data supports the use of baseline behavior assessment using this anxiety test battery. However, when working with drug exposure, data analysis must carefully consider time-drug-response and data variability across behavioral tasks. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Additive roles of tobacco and cannabis co-use in relation to delay discounting in a sample of heavy drinkers
ConclusionsDelay discounting rates were significantly greater among subgroups reporting cannabis use providing partial support for an additive effect, while also highlighting the importance of co-use substance type. Both tri-use and delay discounting were associated with greater AUD severity, which may provide relevant intervention targets. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabinoid receptor GPR55 activation blocks nicotine use disorder by regulation of AMPAR phosphorylation
ConclusionOur findings showed that GPR55 in the NAc plays a specific role in blocking nicotine-CPP behavior and might be a potential target for the treatment of nicotine use disorder. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Animal models of chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline in preclinical drug development
ConclusionDyscognition exists as one of the serious side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Due to differing mechanisms of chemotherapeutic agents with differing tendencies to alter behavioral and biochemical parameters, chemotherapy may present a significant risk in resulting memory impairments in healthy as well as tumor-bearing animals. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cross-species evidence that nicotine widens the attentional window
ConclusionsThe findings represent cross-species evidence that nAChR agonism facilitates the ability to spread attention broadly. This suggests that nAChR hypofunction may be central to broad monitoring deficits as seen, for example, in schizophrenia. The homology of findings between the rodent and the human paradigm contributes to validating a translational strategy for treatment development. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cyclopropylfentanyl in male rats
ConclusionOur study shows that cyclopropylfentanyl produces typical opioid-like effects in male rats. Cyclopropylfentanyl displays much greater analgesic potency when compared to morphine, suggesting that cyclopropylfentanyl poses increased overdose risk for unsuspecting users. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Low doses of LSD reduce broadband oscillatory power and modulate event-related potentials in healthy adults
ConclusionsLow doses of LSD produced broadband cortical desynchronization over the DMN during resting state and reduced P300 and N170 amplitudes, patterns similar to those reported with higher doses of psychedelics. Notably, these neurophysiological effects raise the possibility that very low doses of LSD may produce subtle behavioral and perhaps therapeutic effects that do not rely on the full psychedelic experience. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Co-exposure of cannabinoids with amphetamines and biological, behavioural and health outcomes: a scoping review of animal and human studies
ConclusionsWhile human studies suggest cannabis use as an adverse risk factor among non-medical amphetamine users, pre-clinical studies suggest therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, especially cannabidiol, to alleviate amphetamine addiction and harms, including treatment outcomes. Given increasing psychostimulant harms but lack of care options, rigorous, high-quality design studies should aim to translate and investigate pre-clinical study results for potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for amphetamine use/abuse in human subjects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurochemical abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 7 Tesla
ConclusionsThe changes in glutathione and creatine are consistent with the presence of oxidative and energetic stress in CFS patients and are potentially remediable by nutritional intervention. A reduction inmyo-inositol would be consistent with glial dysfunction. However, the relationship of the neurochemical abnormalities to the causation of CFS remains to be established, and the current findings require prospective replication in a larger sample. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Attentional bias in individuals with depression and adverse childhood experiences: influence of the noradrenergic system?
ConclusionsOur results are consistent with the hypothesis of a negative attentional bias in MDD patients. However, as we found no effect of ACE or yohimbine, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which ACE increases the risk of MDD and to understand the biological basis of the MDD-related negative attentional bias. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Choosing between cocaine and sucrose under the influence: testing the effect of cocaine tolerance
ConclusionThus, other mechanisms must be invoked to explain the influence of cocaine intoxication on choice outcomes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to morphine impairs attention and impulsivity in adult rats
ConclusionThe current findings indicate a direct causal effect of prenatal morphine exposure on inhibitory control and task learning later in life, as well as deficits in attention following morphine exposure in adulthood. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nonclinical pharmacology of daridorexant: a new dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment of insomnia
AbstractDual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) represent a novel type of sleep medication that provide an alternative to the traditionally used positive allosteric gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor modulators. Daridorexant is a new DORA that exhibited in phase 3 trials in insomnia not only a beneficial effect on sleep variables, measured objectively and assessed subjectively, but also an improvement in daytime functioning. Daridorexant was discovered through a tailored research program aimed at identifying an optimized sleep-promoting molecule with pharmacokinetic properties appropriate for covering the whole nig...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Response to sertraline is associated with reduction in anxiety-potentiated startle in premenstrual dysphoric disorder
ConclusionThese data demonstrate elevated psychophysiologic arousal in the luteal phase among some women with PMDD, suggesting impaired ability to modulate arousal reactivity. Specifically, alterations in APS suggest potential GABA-A-R changes across the menstrual cycle and in response to sertraline among treatment responders. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

RGS14 modulates locomotor behavior and ERK signaling induced by environmental novelty and cocaine within discrete limbic structures
ConclusionsRGS14 KO mice exhibited anti-correlated locomotor responses to novelty and cocaine, but displayed increased thigmotaxis in response to either stimuli which was augmented by their combination. Our findings also suggest RGS14 may reduce neuronal activity in limbic subregions by inhibiting ERK-dependent signaling. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social disruption –induced stress pre-exposure aggravates, while the presence of conspecifics diminishes, acetic acid–induced writhing
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that social disruption –induced stress pre-exposure may upregulate accumbal TRPV1 receptor expression and consequently aggravate acid-induced writhing. Group testing prevents such stress pre-exposure escalation of acid-induced writhing most likely by strengthening the GABAergic inhibition on local neural activity in the medial septum. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Protective effects of crocin against endogenous A β-induced neurotoxicity in N2a/APP695swe cells
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Because of its complex pathogenesis, the prevention and therapies of AD still are a severe challenge. Evidence suggested that crocin, the major component of saffron, exhibited neuroprotective effects in AD. As such, in this stu dy, N2a/APP695swe cells were enrolled to investigate the effects of crocin on endogenous Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Crocin (100 and 200 μM) could ameliorate cytotoxicity according to CCK-8 assay and reduce apoptosis in line with Hoechst 33,342 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining in N...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: a narrative review
ConclusionsThere is substantial body of evidence to suggest that MPH is an effective and safe treatment option for adults with ADHD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical withdrawal symptom profile of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and comparison of effects with high potency cannabis
This study aimed to characterise the withdrawal symptom profile of SCRAs and compare their profile of effect with high-potency herbal cannabis. Global Drug Survey data (2015 and 2016) were used to access a clinically relevant sample of people reporting use of SCRAs>10 times in the past 12-months, a previous SCRA quit attempt, and lifetime use of high-potency herbal cannabis. Participants completed an 11-item SCRA withdrawal symptom checklist and compared SCRAs and high-potency herbal cannabis on their onset and duration of effects, speed of the development of tolerance, severity of withdrawal, and difficulty with dose t...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Safety pharmacology of acute LSD administration in healthy subjects
ConclusionsThe single-dose administration of LSD is safe in regard to acute psychological and physical harm in healthy subjects in a controlled research setting. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The importance of individual variation for the interpretation of behavioural studies: ethanol effects vary with basal activity level in zebrafish larvae
AbstractStandardization and reduction of variation is key to behavioural screening of animal models in toxicological and pharmacological studies. However, individual variation in behavioural and physiological phenotypes remains in each laboratory population and can undermine the understanding of toxicological and pharmaceutical effects and their underlying mechanisms. Here, we used zebrafish (ABTL-strain) larvae to explore individual consistency in activity level and emergence time, across subsequent days of early development (6 –8 dpf). We also explored the correlation between these two behavioural parameters. We fo...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Patterns of brain function associated with cannabis cue-reactivity in regular cannabis users: a systematic review of fMRI studies
Conclusions Exposure to cannabis-cues may elicit  greater brain function and thus trigger cravings in regular cannabis users and thus trigger cannabis craving. Standardised and longitudinal assessments of cannabis use and related problems are required to profile with greater precision the neurobiology of cannabis cue-reactivity, and i ts role in predicting  cravings and relapse. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Energizing effects of bupropion on effortful behaviors in mice under positive and negative test conditions: modulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation patterns
AbstractMotivational symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, and reduced exertion of effort are seen in depressed people. To model this, nucleus accumbens (Nacb) dopamine (DA) depletions are used to induce a low-effort bias in rodents tested on effort-based decision-making. We evaluated the effect of the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion on its own, and after administration of tetrabenazine (TBZ), which blocks vesicular storage, depletes DA, and induces depressive symptoms in humans. Male CD1 mice were tested on a 3-choice-T-maze task that assessed preference between a reinforcer involving voluntary physical activity (runn...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of aerosolized ( “vaped”) THC in adolescent male and female rats
ConclusionsThese results provide a benchmark for dosing adolescent rats with aerosolized (or “vaped”) THC, which could facilitate adoption by other labs of this potentially human-relevant THC exposure model to understand cannabis effects on the developing brain. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nicotine preference and affective behavior of Cd81 knockout mice
ConclusionsCd81 knockouts have a strongly increased nicotine preference, plus a proactive response to specific stressful situations. Together with reports of increased striatal dopamine content and anecdotal reports of increased aggressiveness, these provide intriguing parallels to some aspects of post-traumatic stress disorder. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances cocaine effects in the nucleus accumbens via a dopamine release –based mechanism
AbstractCocaine use disorder is associated with alterations in immune function including altered expression of multiple peripheral cytokines in humans —several of which correlate with drug use. Individuals suffering from cocaine use disorder show altered immune system responses to drug-associated cues, highlighting the interaction between the brain and immune system as a critical factor in the development and expression of cocaine use disorder. We have previously demonstrated in animal models that cocaine use upregulates the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)—a pleiotropic cytokine&mdas...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Metabotropic group II glutamate receptors in the basolateral amygdala mediate cue ‑triggered increases in incentive motivation
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances cocaine effects in the nucleus accumbens via a dopamine release –based mechanism
AbstractCocaine use disorder is associated with alterations in immune function including altered expression of multiple peripheral cytokines in humans —several of which correlate with drug use. Individuals suffering from cocaine use disorder show altered immune system responses to drug-associated cues, highlighting the interaction between the brain and immune system as a critical factor in the development and expression of cocaine use disorder. We have previously demonstrated in animal models that cocaine use upregulates the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)—a pleiotropic cytokine&mdas...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Metabotropic group II glutamate receptors in the basolateral amygdala mediate cue ‑triggered increases in incentive motivation
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Methylation quantitative trait locus rs5326 is associated with susceptibility and effective dosage of methadone maintenance treatment for heroin use disorder
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that some mQTLs may be associated with traits of opioid use disorder by implicating the DNA methylation and gene expression. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of stimulant medication on divergent and convergent thinking tasks related to creativity in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ConclusionsStimulant medication enhanced verbal fluency in adults with ADHD but had no effect on convergent abilities. Furthermore, stimulants enhanced fluency, flexibility, and originality scores on the TTCT. Therefore, stimulants appear to have positive effects on divergent task performance in adults with ADHD, but not convergent tasks. This finding warrants further studies into the specific roles of norepinephrine and dopamine in this effect. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Resting state functional connectivity patterns as biomarkers of treatment response to escitalopram in patients with major depressive disorder
ConclusionsThe study supports the role of resting-state networks in response to antidepressant treatment, and in particular the central role of the frontoparietal and default mode networks. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Methylation quantitative trait locus rs5326 is associated with susceptibility and effective dosage of methadone maintenance treatment for heroin use disorder
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that some mQTLs may be associated with traits of opioid use disorder by implicating the DNA methylation and gene expression. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of stimulant medication on divergent and convergent thinking tasks related to creativity in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ConclusionsStimulant medication enhanced verbal fluency in adults with ADHD but had no effect on convergent abilities. Furthermore, stimulants enhanced fluency, flexibility, and originality scores on the TTCT. Therefore, stimulants appear to have positive effects on divergent task performance in adults with ADHD, but not convergent tasks. This finding warrants further studies into the specific roles of norepinephrine and dopamine in this effect. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Resting state functional connectivity patterns as biomarkers of treatment response to escitalopram in patients with major depressive disorder
ConclusionsThe study supports the role of resting-state networks in response to antidepressant treatment, and in particular the central role of the frontoparietal and default mode networks. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Differences in the incidence of lurasidone adverse events between depressive disorders and schizophrenia in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials: a meta-analysis
AbstractRationaleWe conducted a meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trials of lurasidone (LUR) to examine the difference in the risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events (AEs) between depressive disorders (bipolar depression and major depressive disorders) and schizophrenia.ObjectivesThree trials for depressive disorders (n = 1,239) were used for flexible-dose LUR 20–60 (LUR20–60) and/or 80–120 (LUR80–120) mg/day. Nine schizophrenia trials (n = 2,684) were used for fixed-dose LUR. The RRs of LUR20–60 and LUR80–120 for depressive disord...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relative potency of intravenous oxymorphone compared to other µ opioid agonists in humans — pilot study outcomes
AbstractAimsIntravenous (IV) misuse of the µ opioid analgesic oxymorphone has caused significant public health harms; however, no controlled data on its IV abuse potential are available. The primary aims of this pilot study were to directly compare IV oxymorphone to IV oxycodone, morphine, and hydromorphone on a subjective measure of drug l iking and to assess relative potency.MethodsParticipants (n = 6) with opioid use disorder, physical dependence, and current IV use completed this two-site, within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, inpatient pilot study. During each session, one IV dose (mg/7...
Source: Psychopharmacology - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Low doses of ketamine and guanosine abrogate corticosterone-induced anxiety-related behavior, but not disturbances in the hippocampal NLRP3 inflammasome pathway
ConclusionsOur study provides novel evidence that low doses of ketamine and/or guanosine reverse corticosterone-induced anxiety-like behavior and shows that the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is likely unrelated to this response. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist PT150 on stress-induced fentanyl seeking in male and female rats
ConclusionThe glucocorticoid antagonist PT150 reduces shock-induced fentanyl seeking, suggesting it may be effective against stress-induced relapse, although the sex difference in response may need further exploration. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Problem-solving deficits in methcathinone use disorder
ConclusionsChronic methcathinone use was associated with deficits in problem-solving performance, which depended on the degree of task difficulty. The impairment was more evident in the long-term (>  3 years) MCAT group. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reduced cortical GABA and glutamate in high schizotypy
AbstractRationaleAbnormal functioning of the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) systems is proposed to play a role in the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Although results are mixed, previous 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in schizophrenia and clinical high-risk samples report these metabolites are altered in comparison to healthy controls. Currently, however, there are few studies of these metabolites in schizotypy samples, a personality dimension associated with the experience of schizophrenia and psychosis-like symptoms.ObjectivesWe investigated if GABA ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - August 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research