The role of HINT1 in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization
ConclusionsUsing the new technique, hip fractures were correctly predicted in 78% of cases compared with 36% when using the T-score. The accuracy of the prediction was not greatly reduced when using SSM and SAM (78% and 74% correct, respectively). Various geometric and BMD distribution traits were identified in the fractured and non-fractured groups. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of Topiramate on isolation-induced aggression: a behavioral and immunohistochemical study in mice
AbstractTopiramate, an antiepileptic drug, has been found to be useful for the treatment of aggression in clinical populations. Most preclinical studies related to Topiramate have been focused exclusively on the quantitative aspects of the aggressive behavior between mice. However, there is still limited knowledge regarding the effects of Topiramate on neuronal mechanisms occurring in aggressive mice. The present work aims to understand further the effects of the antiepileptic drug Topiramate on aggressive behaviors, and on the neural correlates underlying such behaviors. To achieve this, we combined the resident-intruder ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Playback of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations overcomes psychomotor deficits induced by sub-chronic haloperidol treatment in rats
ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that 50-kHz USV playback induces paradoxical kinesia in rats exhibiting motor deficits after sub-chronic haloperidol, as we previously showed after acute haloperidol treatment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The neurobehavioral effects of the designer drug naphyrone – an experimental investigation with pharmacokinetics and concentration/effect relationship in mice
AbstractRationaleThe recreational use of naphyrone, a potent synthetic cathinone with a pyrovalerone structure, has raised questions about possible deleterious neurobehavioral consequences.ObjectiveTo investigate naphyrone-induced neurobehavioral effects and alterations in brain monoamines using two patterns of abuse, i.e., single and repeated (binge) use.MethodsWe studied naphyrone dose/induced locomotor activity relationship at 3, 10, 30, and 100  mg/kg in mice. We investigated the effects of single (30 mg/kg; acute injection) versus repeated (30 mg/kg ×3/day for 3 days; binge injection) intrape...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Role of the stress response and the endocannabinoid system in Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced nausea
ConclusionsTreatments that interfere with the stress response also inhibit THC-induced conditioned gaping, but a typical anti-emetic drug does not, supporting the hypothesis that THC-induced nausea, and CHS, is a result of a dysregulated stress response. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Matrine alleviates neurobehavioral alterations via modulation of JNK-mediated caspase-3 and BDNF/VEGF signaling in a mouse model of burn injury
ConclusionsThese findings provide convincing evidence that Mat improves anxiety- and depressive-like emotional status through modulation of JNK-mediated inflammatory, oxidative stress, apoptotic, and BDNF/VEGF signaling in an acute mouse model of burn injury. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ecological momentary assessment of temptations and lapses in non-daily smokers
ConclusionsSmoking cues play a major role in ITS ’ temptations and lapses, perhaps indicating a degree of behavioral dependence. Affective distress also played a role in ITS lapses, undermining the idea that the affective distress seen in daily smokers’ lapses is due to nicotine withdrawal. The data reinforce the important role of coping in pr eventing lapses. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Synergistic antidepressant-like effect of capsaicin and citalopram reduces the side effects of citalopram on anxiety and working memory in rats
ConclusionCombined administration of Cap and Cit produces a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST and reduces the detrimental effects of Cit on anxiety and working memory. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effect of oxytocin, gender, and ovarian hormones on stress reactivity in individuals with cocaine use disorder
ConclusionsOxytocin may have differential effects in men and women with CUD. Women may be at greater risk for relapse in response to social stressors, but ovarian hormones may attenuate this effect. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

HDAC6-selective inhibitors decrease nerve-injury and inflammation-associated mechanical hypersensitivity in mice
ConclusionsOverall, our findings suggest that inhibition of HDAC6 provides a promising therapeutic avenue for the alleviation of mechanical allodynia associated with peripheral nerve injury and peripheral inflammation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Higher anhedonia during withdrawal from initial opioid exposure is protective against subsequent opioid self-administration in rats
ConclusionsOur data establish WIA as one of the first behavioral measures to predict individual differences in opioid SA in rodents. This model promises to be useful for furthering our understanding of behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms underlying vulnerability to opioid addiction. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurochemical and behavioral comparisons of contingent and non-contingent methamphetamine exposure following binge or yoked long-access self-administration paradigms
ConclusionsOverall, substantial differences in neurochemical markers between METH exposure and self-administration paradigms did not consistently translate to deficits in cognitive tasks, highlighting the complexity of correlating METH-induced neurochemical changes with cognitive outcomes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of repeated treatment with monoamine-transporter-inhibitor antidepressants on pain-related depression of intracranial self-stimulation in rats
ConclusionsThese results support effectiveness of bupropion to alleviate signs of pain-related behavioral depression in rats and further suggest that nortriptyline and citalopram produce significant but less reliable effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Behavioural and pharmacological profiles of zebrafish administrated pyrrolidinyl benzodioxanes and prolinol aryl ethers with high affinity for heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
ConclusionsThese behavioural studies indicate that full agonist prolinol aryl ethers are very active in increasing spatial learning, memory and attention in zebrafish. The benzodioxane partial agonist MCL-54 reduced nicotine-induced CPP, and the benzodioxane antagonist MCL-117 blocked all agonist-induced activities. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Improving intoxicated witness recall with the Enhanced Cognitive Interview
ConclusionsThe study findings are discussed in terms of their real-world value in aiding police officers to elicit as complete and as accurate an account as possible from intoxicated witnesses. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identifying key transcription factors for pharmacogenetic studies of antipsychotics induced extrapyramidal symptoms
AbstractIntroductionWe explore the transcription factors involved in the molecular mechanism of antipsychotic (AP)-induced acute extrapyramidalsymptoms (EPS) in order to identify new candidate genes for pharmacogenetic studies.MethodsProtein-protein interaction (PPI) networks previously created from three pharmacogenomic models (in vitro, animal, and peripheral blood inhumans) were used to, by means of several bioinformatic tools; identify key transcription factors (TFs) that regulate each network. Once the TFs wereidentified, SNPs disrupting the binding sites (TFBS) of these TFs in the genes of each network were selected ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ceftriaxone and mGlu2/3 interactions in the nucleus accumbens core affect the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in male and female rats
ConclusionsThese results indicate that ceftriaxone ’s effects depend on mGlu2/3 function and possibly mGlu2 receptor expression. Future work will test this hypothesis by manipulating mGlu2 expression in pathways that project to the NA core. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Quantification of observable behaviors induced by typical and atypical kappa-opioid receptor  agonists in male rhesus monkeys
ConclusionsAtypical “biased” KOR agonists produce side-effect profiles that are relatively benign (triazole 1.1) or reduced (nalfurafine) compared to typical KOR agonists. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Risky decision-making in individuals with substance use disorder: A meta-analysis and meta-regression review
AbstractBackgroundThis review aims to identify whether risky decision-making is increased in substance users, and the impact of substance type, polysubstance use status, abstinence period, and treatment status on risky decision-making.MethodsA literature search with no date restrictions was conducted to identify case-control studies or cross-sectional studies that used behavioral tasks to measure risky decision-making in substance users. A random-effects model was performed. GRADE criteria was used to assess the quality of evidence.Results52 studies were enrolled. The result showed that the difference in risky decision-mak...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Infralimbic cortex activity is required for the expression but not the acquisition of conditioned safety
AbstractThe ability to discriminate between danger and safety is crucial for survival across species. Whereas danger signals predict the onset of a potentially threatening event, safety signals indicate the non-occurrence of an aversive event, thereby reducing fear and stress responses. While the neural basis of conditioned safety remains to be elucidated, fear extinction studies provide evidence that the infralimbic cortex (IL) modulates fear inhibition. In the current study, the IL was temporarily inactivated with local muscimol injections in male and female rats. The effect of IL inactivation on the acquisition and expr...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gelsemine, a natural alkaloid extracted from Gelsemium elegans Benth. alleviates neuroinflammation and cognitive impairments in A β oligomer-treated mice
ConclusionAll these results directly demonstrated the anti-A β oligomer neuroprotective properties of gelsemine, opening a novel perspective for the development of gelsemine-based therapeutics against Aβ-associated neurodegeneration disorders, including AD in particular. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Event-related and readiness potentials when preparing to approach and avoid alcohol cues following cue avoidance training in heavy drinkers
ConclusionsAfter a single session of CAT, the enhanced N200 when approaching alcohol cues may indicate the engagement of executive control to overcome the associations learned during training. These findings clarify the neural mechanisms that may underlie the effects of CAT on drinking behaviour. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Oxycodone self-administration and withdrawal behaviors in male and female Wistar rats
ConclusionsThe present study demonstrated the face validity of the extended access model of oxycodone self-administration by identifying sex differences in the escalation of oxycodone intake and pronounced changes in pain and affective states. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The role of glucocorticoid receptors in the induction and prevention of hippocampal abnormalities in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder
ConclusionThe activation of GRs in response to severe stress may trigger the pathophysiological cascade leading to impaired FME and hippocampal apoptosis. In contrast, administration of GR antagonist could be useful for preventing the development of PTSD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Amphetamine improves rat 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT) irrespective of concurrent low-dose haloperidol treatment
ConclusionsThe pro-attentional effects of amphetamine were most likely mediated by dopamine release at D1-family receptors, since they persisted in the presence of acute D2 blockade. Alternative explanations for these findings are also discussed, as are their potential implications for future pro-cognitive therapeutics in schizophrenia. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopaminergic and noradrenergic manipulation of anticipatory reward and probability event-related potentials
AbstractPredicting what will happen in the future in terms of potential reward is essential in daily life. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the anticipation of reward value and probability. We hypothesized that dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonism would affect anticipation of reward value and probability, respectively. Twenty-three healthy participants were included in a haloperidol (2  mg) × clonidine (0.150 mg) × placebo cross-over design and subjected to a Go/NoGo experimental task during which cues signaled the probability of subsequent ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Central norepinephrine transmission is required for stress-induced repetitive behavior in two rodent models of obsessive-compulsive disorder
ConclusionThese findings support a role for NE transmission to the ACC in the expression of stress-induced compulsive behaviors and suggest further evaluation of anti-adrenergic drugs for OCD is warranted. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intrinsic connections between thalamic sub-regions and the lateral prefrontal cortex are differentially impacted by acute methylphenidate
ConclusionsMethylphenidate decreases functional connections between the lateral prefrontal cortex and thalamus broadly, while sparing intrinsic connectivity with thalamic sub-regions involved with working-memory and language related processes. Collectively, our results suggest that the dopamine transporter regulates functional connections between the prefrontal cortex and non-cognitive areas of the thalamus. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Chronic corticosterone shifts effort-related choice behavior in male mice
AbstractRationaleEffort-related choice tasks are used to study aspects of motivation in both rodents and humans (Der-Avakian and Pizzagalli Biol Psychiatry 83(11):932 –939,2018). Various dopaminergic manipulations and antidepressant treatments can shift responding to these tasks (Randall et al. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 18(2),2014; Yohn et al. Psychopharmacology 232(7):1313 –1323,2015). However, while chronic stress can precipitate mood disorders in humans, there is relatively little known about whether chronic stress elicits maladaptive behaviors in rodent effort-related choice tasks.ObjectivesChronic cortico...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Chronic treatment with the antipsychotic drug blonanserin modulates the responsiveness to acute stress with anatomical selectivity
ConclusionsTaken together, our findings show that chronic exposure to blonanserin modulates selective IEGs with a specific anatomical profile. Moreover, the differential activation of specific brain regions under challenging conditions may contribute to specific clinical features of the drug. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Interaction between behavioral inhibition and neural alcohol cue-reactivity in ADHD and alcohol use disorder
ConclusionsOur findings support the hypothesis that ADHD additionally diminishes inhibition ability in individuals with AUD. This may increase relapse risk when confronted with alcohol cues. Further, it is crucial for patients with comorbid AUD and ADHD to take into account not only reduced cognitive control over behavioral inhibition but also simultaneously heightened alcohol cue-reactivity. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The role of affect, emotion management, and attentional bias in young adult drinking: An experience sampling study
ConclusionsResults highlight the importance of positive affect in this population. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Differences in acute reinforcement across reduced nicotine content cigarettes
ConclusionsAlthough replication with larger samples and longer access is needed, results indicate that nicotine reduction to ≤ 2.3 mg/g in cigarettes would attenuate reinforcement. This choice procedure may efficiently inform future clinical trials to assess relative reinforcing effects of smoking reduced nicotine cigarettes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reduced regulatory T cells with increased proinflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia
AbstractAimTo investigate whether circulating T cells including regulatory T cells (Treg) and derived cytokines contribute to the immune imbalance observed in schizophrenia.MethodsForty patients with schizophrenia and 40 age, sex, body mass index, education, and smoking status –matched healthy controls (HC) are included in the study. We stained cells with anti-CD14, anti-CD3, anti-CD4, anti-CD8, anti-CD19, anti-CD20, and anti-CD16/56. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and stained with the human FoxP3 kit containing anti-CD4/anti-CD25 and intracell ular anti-Foxp3. PBMCs were cultured for 72&nbs...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopaminergic contributions to behavioral control under threat of punishment in rats
ConclusionsTogether, our data provide insight into the mesocorticolimbic mechanisms behind motivated behaviors by showing a modulatory role of dopamine in the expression of cost/benefit decisions. In contrast to our expectations, dopamine did not appear to directly mediate the type of behavioral control that is tested in our task. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The combination of acyclovir and dexamethasone protects against Alzheimer ’s disease-related cognitive impairments in mice
In this study, we have found that the combination of acyclovir and DXMT, but not acyc lovir or DXMT alone, could protect against AD causing β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomer-induced spatial cognitive impairments. Moreover, acyclovir and DXMT could prevent Aβ oligomer-induced over-activation of microglia and astrocytes, and over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating that anti- AD effects of drug combination might be at least partially via neuroinflammation inhibition and immunomodulation. Furthermore, Aβ oligomer-induced decrease of PSD-95 and increase of pTau expression was prevented by the combina...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Stress-induced impairment in fear discrimination is causally related to increased kynurenic acid formation in the prefrontal cortex
AbstractRationaleStress is related to cognitive impairments which are observed in most major brain diseases. Prior studies showed that the brain concentration of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) is modulated by stress, and that changes in cerebral KYNA levels impact cognition. However, the link between these phenomena has not been tested directly so far.ObjectivesTo investigate a possible causal relationship between acute stress, KYNA, and fear discrimination.MethodsAdult rats were exposed to one of three acute stressors —predator odor, restraint, or inescapable foot shocks (ISS)—and KYNA in the ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intermittent access cocaine self-administration produces psychomotor sensitization: effects of withdrawal, sex and cross-sensitization
ConclusionThe tolerance sometimes associated with LgA cocaine self-administration has been cited in support of the idea that, in addiction, drug-seeking and drug-taking is motivated to overcome a DA deficiency and associated anhedonia. In contrast, the neurobehavioral sensitization associated with IntA cocaine self-administration favors an incentive-sensitization view. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

7,8-Dihydroxyflavone alleviated the high-fat diet and alcohol-induced memory impairment: behavioral, biochemical and molecular evidence
Conclusion7,8-DHF administration conferred beneficial effects against alcohol and HFD-induced memory deficit via its unique antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic potential, along with the activation of TrkB/BDNF signaling pathway in the hippocampus. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Biparental care in C57BL/6J mice: effects on adolescent behavior and alcohol consumption
ConclusionsDuring single-mother parenting, pups are left unattended more often, and during adolescence, these organisms exhibited increased anxiety responses. This behavioral phenotype may act as a risk factor for alcohol initiation during adolescence. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An improved demand curve for analysis of food or drug consumption in behavioral experiments
AbstractThe incorporation of microeconomics concepts into studies using self-administration procedures has provided critical insights into the factors that influence consumption of a wide range of food and drug reinforcers. In particular, the fitting of demand curves to consumption data provides a powerful analytic tool for computing objective metrics of behavior that can be compared across a wide range of reward types in both human and animal experiments. The results of these analyses depend crucially on the mathematical form used to fit the data. The most common choice is an exponential form proposed by Hursh and Silberb...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Activation of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors is necessary for performance in a working memory task
ConclusionsThese experiments reveal that both α7nAChR and NMDAR activity are necessary for normal WM accuracy. They provide substantive new support for the therapeutic potential of positive modulators at these two receptor sites in SZ and other major brain diseases. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabinoid modulation of corticolimbic activation to threat in trauma-exposed adults: a preliminary study
ConclusionsThese preliminary data suggest that THC modulates threat-related processing in trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD, which may prove advantageous as a pharmacological approach to treating stress- and trauma-related psychopathology. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patch in premenopausal female smokers is moderated by within-subject severity of negative affect and physical symptoms
AbstractRationaleNicotine patches may be less effective in female compared with male smokers. However, it is unknown if negative affect and physical symptoms influence transdermal nicotine patch –related effects on smoking behaviors.MethodsEighty-one acutely tobacco-abstinent premenopausal female smokers attended three counter-balanced experimental sessions across the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, and mid-luteal) and were randomized to patch condition (nicotine [21  mg] vs. placebo [0 mg] transdermal patch). Negative affect and physical symptoms were assessed prior to patch administrat...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Tripping on nothing: placebo psychedelics and contextual factors
ConclusionUnderstanding how context and expectations promote psychedelic-like effects, even without the drug, will help researchers to isolate drug effects and clinicians to maximise their therapeutic potential. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ifenprodil rapidly ameliorates depressive-like behaviors, activates mTOR signaling and modulates proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of CUMS rats
ConclusionsOur data indicate that ifenprodil per se might exert antidepressant-like effects through its effects on neuroplasticity and inflammatory processes rather than the typical hormonal factors affected by stressors. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ketamine relieves depression-like behaviors induced by chronic postsurgical pain in rats through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant effects and regulating BDNF expression
ConclusionsKetamine can rapidly relieve CPSP-induced depression in rats, which may be related to the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, regulating oxidative stress and increasing BDNF in the hippocampus. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Amitifadine, a triple reuptake inhibitor, reduces self-administration of the opiate remifentanil in rats
ConclusionsThese studies show the promise of amitifadine as a treatment for countering opiate self-administration for adjunctive use with opioids for analgesia. Further studies are needed to determine the possible efficacy of amitifadine for combating opiate addiction or preventing it in humans during adjunctive use with opioids for chronic pain. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Long-term impact of acute restraint stress on heroin self-administration, reinstatement, and stress reactivity
ConclusionsAcute restraint stress results in anxiety-like behaviors and a stress-associated cue is sufficient to reinstate extinguished heroin seeking. This project has the potential to elucidate the complex relationship between stress/anxiety disorders, including some PTSD-like characteristics, and the onset, maintenance, and relapse to heroin seeking. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of 5-HT 2C , 5-HT 1A receptor challenges and modafinil on the initiation and persistence of gambling behaviours
ConclusionsWe present evidence for dissociable effects of systemic drug administration on different aspects of gambling behaviour. These data extend and reinforce the importance of serotonergic mechanisms in mediating discrete components of gambling behaviour. They further demonstrate the ability of modafinil to reduce gambling behaviour. Our work using a novel mouse paradigm may be of utility in modelling the complex psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of gambling problems, including the analysis of genetic and environmental factors. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research