Sex differences in affective states and association with voluntary ethanol intake in Sprague –Dawley rats
AbstractAlcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major problem across the USA. While AUD remains a complex human condition, it is difficult to isolate the directionality of anxiety and ethanol (EtOH) drinking from outside influences. The present study sought to investigate the relationship between affective states and EtOH intake using male and female Sprague –Dawley rats. Using complementary tests of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, we found sex- and test-specific differences in basal affective behavior such that females displayed enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the splash test and males displayed enhanced anxiety...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 19, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute pain-related depression of operant responding maintained by social interaction or food in male and female rats
ConclusionsOperant responding maintained by social interaction was more sensitive to pain-related disruption and less responsive to opioid analgesic rescue than food-maintained operant responding. Social behavior may be especially vulnerable to depression by pain states. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 19, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Analysis of recreational psychedelic substance use experiences classified by substance
ConclusionThis article addresses an existing research gap regarding the comparison of different psychedelic drugs on linguistic profiles of psychological states, processes, and experiences. The large sample of experience reports involving multiple psychedelic drugs provides valuable information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. The results could inform experimental research into psychedelic drug effects in healthy populations and clinical trials for psychedelic treatments of psychiatric problems. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 15, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of Thymoquinone on behavioural response to UCMS and neuroinflammation in hippocampus and amygdala in BALB/c mice model
ConclusionsThymoquinone restored the behavioural changes induced by UCMS. In addition, the antidepressant effect of thymoquinone is in line with changes in inflammatory parameters and changes in BDNF in the hippocampus and amygdala. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

PCSK9 mediates dyslipidemia induced by olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia patients
AbstractRationaleIt is controversial whether dyslipidemia induced by antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients is due to weight gain or direct effects of drug treatment. However, recent evidence showed that olanzapine can cause acute dyslipidemia independent of weight change, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.ObjectiveTo study the role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in olanzapine-induced dyslipidemia, we analyzed in schizophrenic patients and in experimental models involving mice and cells to understand the mechanism.MethodsDisturbances in lipid homeostasis caused by 8-week olanzapine tr...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of cannabidiol on symptoms induced by the recall of traumatic events in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder
The objective of this study was to test whether the administration of CBD 300  mg before the recall of traumatic events attenuated symptoms usually induced by recall in subjects diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and if its potential effects interfere with the reconsolidation of aversive memories. The double-blind trial included 33 participants of both sexes , aged between 18 and 60 years, diagnosed with PTSD according to the SCID-5 and randomly allocated to two groups treated with CBD (n = 17) and placebo (n = 16). In the first experimental section, participants were ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of Thymoquinone on behavioural response to UCMS and neuroinflammation in hippocampus and amygdala in BALB/c mice model
ConclusionsThymoquinone restored the behavioural changes induced by UCMS. In addition, the antidepressant effect of thymoquinone is in line with changes in inflammatory parameters and changes in BDNF in the hippocampus and amygdala. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

PCSK9 mediates dyslipidemia induced by olanzapine treatment in schizophrenia patients
AbstractRationaleIt is controversial whether dyslipidemia induced by antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients is due to weight gain or direct effects of drug treatment. However, recent evidence showed that olanzapine can cause acute dyslipidemia independent of weight change, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.ObjectiveTo study the role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in olanzapine-induced dyslipidemia, we analyzed in schizophrenic patients and in experimental models involving mice and cells to understand the mechanism.MethodsDisturbances in lipid homeostasis caused by 8-week olanzapine tr...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of cannabidiol on symptoms induced by the recall of traumatic events in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder
The objective of this study was to test whether the administration of CBD 300  mg before the recall of traumatic events attenuated symptoms usually induced by recall in subjects diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and if its potential effects interfere with the reconsolidation of aversive memories. The double-blind trial included 33 participants of both sexes , aged between 18 and 60 years, diagnosed with PTSD according to the SCID-5 and randomly allocated to two groups treated with CBD (n = 17) and placebo (n = 16). In the first experimental section, participants were ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 14, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Involvement of oxidative pathways and BDNF in the antidepressant effect of carvedilol in a depression model induced by chronic unpredictable stress
ConclusionsCARV presents antidepressant-like effects comparable to those observed with DVS. In addition, it has an antioxidant effect and is capable of increasing BDNF brain concentrations. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effect of CARV. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessing the risk –benefit profile of classical psychedelics: a clinical review of second-wave psychedelic research
ConclusionsSubstantial data have been gathered in the past 30  years suggesting that psychedelics are a potent treatment for a variety of common psychiatric conditions, though the ideal means of employing these substances to minimize adverse events and maximize therapeutic effects remains controversial. Unique factors related to study design are vital for cli nical researchers in the field to address. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Effectiveness and safety of intravenous valproate in agitation: a systematic review
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Involvement of oxidative pathways and BDNF in the antidepressant effect of carvedilol in a depression model induced by chronic unpredictable stress
ConclusionsCARV presents antidepressant-like effects comparable to those observed with DVS. In addition, it has an antioxidant effect and is capable of increasing BDNF brain concentrations. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant effect of CARV. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessing the risk –benefit profile of classical psychedelics: a clinical review of second-wave psychedelic research
ConclusionsSubstantial data have been gathered in the past 30  years suggesting that psychedelics are a potent treatment for a variety of common psychiatric conditions, though the ideal means of employing these substances to minimize adverse events and maximize therapeutic effects remains controversial. Unique factors related to study design are vital for cli nical researchers in the field to address. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Effectiveness and safety of intravenous valproate in agitation: a systematic review
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of episodic future thinking on reinforcement pathology during smoking cessation treatment among individuals with substance use disorders
AbstractRationaleReinforcer pathology (RP) is a theoretical model based on two processes: delay discounting (DD) and drug demand. Given that RP has been shown to have a predictive value on smoking behaviors, several studies have explored which interventions can reduce RP. Consistent with the RP framework, episodic future thinking (EFT) has shown effects on treatment outcomes and RP processes. The vast majority of studies that assess the effects of EFT on RP consist of experimental studies, and no previous research has tested these effects in a clinical sample of smokers.ObjectivesThe primary aim of this study was to assess...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prevalence and self-reported reasons of cannabis use for medical purposes in USA and Canada
ConclusionsA substantial proportion of the North American population self-reported cannabis use for medical purposes for a variety of medical reasons, including those living in jurisdictions without legal markets. Further research is needed to understand the safety and efficacy of these forms of medical cannabis use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

On the interrelation between alcohol addiction –like behaviors in rats
ConclusionConsistent AUD-like behavior was detected in a small proportion of alcohol drinking rats. Alcohol consumption, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and punishment resistance contribute in varying degrees to the AUD-like phenotype across the population. These findings emphasise the importance of considering the heterogeneity of AUD-like behavior. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of episodic future thinking on reinforcement pathology during smoking cessation treatment among individuals with substance use disorders
AbstractRationaleReinforcer pathology (RP) is a theoretical model based on two processes: delay discounting (DD) and drug demand. Given that RP has been shown to have a predictive value on smoking behaviors, several studies have explored which interventions can reduce RP. Consistent with the RP framework, episodic future thinking (EFT) has shown effects on treatment outcomes and RP processes. The vast majority of studies that assess the effects of EFT on RP consist of experimental studies, and no previous research has tested these effects in a clinical sample of smokers.ObjectivesThe primary aim of this study was to assess...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prevalence and self-reported reasons of cannabis use for medical purposes in USA and Canada
ConclusionsA substantial proportion of the North American population self-reported cannabis use for medical purposes for a variety of medical reasons, including those living in jurisdictions without legal markets. Further research is needed to understand the safety and efficacy of these forms of medical cannabis use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

On the interrelation between alcohol addiction –like behaviors in rats
ConclusionConsistent AUD-like behavior was detected in a small proportion of alcohol drinking rats. Alcohol consumption, habit formation, motivation for alcohol and punishment resistance contribute in varying degrees to the AUD-like phenotype across the population. These findings emphasise the importance of considering the heterogeneity of AUD-like behavior. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Peer presence and familiarity as key factors to reduce cocaine intake in both rats and humans: an effect mediated by the subthalamic nucleus
ConclusionOur results indirectly support the use of social interventions and harm reduction strategies and position the STN as a key cerebral structure to mediate these effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

“Push it!” or “Hold it!”? A comparison of nicotine-avoidance training and nicotine-inhibition training in smokers motivated to quit
ConclusionsAvoidance training might be slightly more effective in reducing smoking than inhibitory training. Overall, however, all four training types yielded equivalent therapy and training effects. Hence, a clear preference for one type of training remains premature. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prospecting for a quinoline containing selenium for comorbidities depression and memory impairment induced by restriction stress in mice
ConclusionsThese results suggested that 4-PSQ exhibited an antidepressant-like effect and attenuated the memory impairment induced by ARS, and it is a promising molecule to treat these comorbidities. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Peer presence and familiarity as key factors to reduce cocaine intake in both rats and humans: an effect mediated by the subthalamic nucleus
ConclusionOur results indirectly support the use of social interventions and harm reduction strategies and position the STN as a key cerebral structure to mediate these effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

“Push it!” or “Hold it!”? A comparison of nicotine-avoidance training and nicotine-inhibition training in smokers motivated to quit
ConclusionsAvoidance training might be slightly more effective in reducing smoking than inhibitory training. Overall, however, all four training types yielded equivalent therapy and training effects. Hence, a clear preference for one type of training remains premature. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prospecting for a quinoline containing selenium for comorbidities depression and memory impairment induced by restriction stress in mice
ConclusionsThese results suggested that 4-PSQ exhibited an antidepressant-like effect and attenuated the memory impairment induced by ARS, and it is a promising molecule to treat these comorbidities. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Caffeine and attentional control: improved and impaired performance in healthy older adults and Parkinson ’s disease according to task demands
AbstractIntroductionCaffeine is frequently consumed to boost goal-directed attention. These procognitive effects may occur due to the adenosine-mediated enhancement of monoamines, such as dopamine, after caffeine administration. As such, caffeine ’s beneficial effects may be altered in conditions such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, whether caffeine improves cognition, and at what cost, has not been experimentally established in patients with neurodegenerative disease.MethodsSingle-dose trials to probe cognitive effects of caffeine are often confounded by short-term caffeine abstinence which conflates caf...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 10, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association between platelet MAO activity and lifetime drug use in a longitudinal birth cohort study
ConclusionIn males, low platelet MAO activity is associated with drug abuse primarily owing to risk-taking at early age. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 10, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rrn3 gene knockout affects ethanol-induced locomotion in adult heterozygous zebrafish
AbstractGenome-wide analysis has identified the transcription factor,RRN3 (orTIF-1A), on human chromosome 16p13.11 as a candidate gene associated with mental disorders. Both genetic and biochemical experiments have demonstrated thatRRN3 plays a major role in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal DNA and cell growth. Previous research has suggested that loss ofRRN3 from mature neurons reproduces the chronic nature of neurodegenerative processes. Here, we report the first generation and characterization ofrrn3 mutant zebrafish in larval and adult stages using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. Homozygous knockou...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 10, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Caffeine and attentional control: improved and impaired performance in healthy older adults and Parkinson ’s disease according to task demands
AbstractIntroductionCaffeine is frequently consumed to boost goal-directed attention. These procognitive effects may occur due to the adenosine-mediated enhancement of monoamines, such as dopamine, after caffeine administration. As such, caffeine ’s beneficial effects may be altered in conditions such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, whether caffeine improves cognition, and at what cost, has not been experimentally established in patients with neurodegenerative disease.MethodsSingle-dose trials to probe cognitive effects of caffeine are often confounded by short-term caffeine abstinence which conflates caf...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 10, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association between platelet MAO activity and lifetime drug use in a longitudinal birth cohort study
ConclusionIn males, low platelet MAO activity is associated with drug abuse primarily owing to risk-taking at early age. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 10, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rrn3 gene knockout affects ethanol-induced locomotion in adult heterozygous zebrafish
AbstractGenome-wide analysis has identified the transcription factor,RRN3 (orTIF-1A), on human chromosome 16p13.11 as a candidate gene associated with mental disorders. Both genetic and biochemical experiments have demonstrated thatRRN3 plays a major role in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal DNA and cell growth. Previous research has suggested that loss ofRRN3 from mature neurons reproduces the chronic nature of neurodegenerative processes. Here, we report the first generation and characterization ofrrn3 mutant zebrafish in larval and adult stages using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technique. Homozygous knockou...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 10, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early social isolation stress increases addiction vulnerability to heroin and alters c-Fos expression in the mesocorticolimbic system
ConclusionsThese data indicate that ESI stress leads to increased seeking and motivation for heroin, and this may be associated with distinct changes in neuronal activities in different subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 8, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabidiol inhibits methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via modulation of the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway
ConclusionsThis study indicates that METH induces DA release via the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. Furthermore, CBD significantly inhibits DA release induced by METH through modulation of this pathway. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 8, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early social isolation stress increases addiction vulnerability to heroin and alters c-Fos expression in the mesocorticolimbic system
ConclusionsThese data indicate that ESI stress leads to increased seeking and motivation for heroin, and this may be associated with distinct changes in neuronal activities in different subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 8, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabidiol inhibits methamphetamine-induced dopamine release via modulation of the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway
ConclusionsThis study indicates that METH induces DA release via the DRD1-MeCP2-BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. Furthermore, CBD significantly inhibits DA release induced by METH through modulation of this pathway. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 8, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole once-monthly versus oral aripiprazole in Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority study
ConclusionsThis study confirmed the efficacy and safety of AOM for the treatment of Chinese patients with acute schizophrenia. The non-inferiority of AOM to oral aripiprazole was established, with comparable efficacy and tolerability. These findings suggested that AOM could be used as a treatment option for patients experiencing an acute episode of schizophrenia.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03172871. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 6, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity on striatal long-term potentiation
ConclusionsTogether, these studies demonstrate that METH-induced neurotoxicity impairs dopamine D1 receptor-dependent LTP within the DMS and that the FDA-approved drug bupropion restores induction of striatal LTP in mice with METH-induced dopamine neurotoxicity. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 5, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Antidepressant activity of pharmacological and genetic deactivation of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel subtype-3
ConclusionsTaken together, these findings link depression-related neural and behavioral pathophysiology with abnormal SK channel functioning and suggest that this can be reversed by the selective inhibition of SK3 channels. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 4, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Investigating individual differences in opioid-taking and opioid-seeking behavior in male rats
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that different traits may confer the initiation of opioid- vs. cocaine-taking behavior, and the propensity to relapse to opioid- vs. cocaine-seeking. Additional studies are needed to identify which neurobehavioral constructs confer liability to opioid use and relapse. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 4, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gut microbiota is involved in the antidepressant effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in chronic social defeat stress mouse model
ConclusionsADSCs are effective in treating depression behaviors in CSDS model, which might be partly due to the regulation of abnormal composition of gut microbiota. Thus, ADSCs offer a promising therapeutic strategy for treating depression in patients. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 4, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Behavioral economic analysis of topiramate pharmacotherapy for alcohol: a placebo-controlled investigation of effects on alcohol reinforcing value and delayed reward discounting
ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that topiramate reduces alcohol ’s reinforcing value as measured by alcohol demand and alcohol expenditure. More broadly, these findings support the utility of behavioral economics for understanding how medications reduce alcohol use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 4, 2022 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Protease-activated receptor 2 activation induces behavioural changes associated with depression-like behaviour through microglial-independent modulation of inflammatory cytokines
ConclusionsThese data reveal that PAR2 activation results in behavioural changes often associated with depression-like behaviour and an inflammatory profile that resembles that seen in patients with MDD and therefore PAR2 may be a target for novel antidepressant therapies. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - December 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety and cognitive-related effects of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are differentially mediated through distinct GSK-3 vs. Akt-mTOR pathways in the nucleus accumbens of male rats
ConclusionsThese findings reveal critical new insights into the neuroanatomical and molecular mechanisms associated with the differential neuropsychiatric side effects of THC in dissociable nucleus accumbens sub-regions. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - December 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research