Obituary: Professor Malcolm Lader
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: The effects of microdose LSD on time perception: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
The manufacturer of the drug product was Onyx Scientific Limited UK, to cGMP standards. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Discontinuation of medications classified as reuptake inhibitors affects treatment response of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy
ConclusionsRecent exposure to antidepressant drugs that target reuptake transporters may reduce treatment response to MDMA-assisted psychotherapy. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabidiol: pharmacology and therapeutic targets
AbstractRationaleCannabidiol (CBD) products lacking regulatory approval are being used to self-treat a myriad of conditions and for their unsubstantiated health benefits. The scientific evidence supporting these claims largely arises not from controlled clinical trials, but from the recognition that CBD has numerous biological targets. Yet, CBD is commonly consumed and often in over-the-counter products that are unapproved and of unknown composition. Epidiolex ® is the only product that has undergone rigorous pharmacokinetic assessment and testing in clinical trials; it was approved as a non-scheduled drug by the U.S. ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The impact of three weeks of pre-quit varenicline on reinforcing value and craving for cigarettes in a laboratory choice procedure
ConclusionsThese laboratory data from treatment-seeking smokers provide the strongest evidence to date that varenicline selectively attenuates smoking reinforcement prior to quitting. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nicotinic receptor modulation of the default mode network
ConclusionsThe finding that nAChR tone reduction by mecamylamine weakened task-induced DMN deactivation indicates that a constant tone of nAChR activation helps regulate DMN activity in healthy individuals. This suggests that low nAChR tone may play a causal role in DMN dysregulation seen in conditions such as mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer ’s disease. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Temporal discounting and smoking cessation: choice consistency predicts nicotine abstinence in treatment-seeking smokers
ConclusionOur data from treatment-seeking smokers do not support the pharmacological hypothesis of pronounced reversible changes in discounting behavior and brain activity, possibly due to limited power. Behavioral data rather suggest that differences between current and ex-smokers might be due to selection. The association of choice consistency and treatment outcome possibly links consistent intertemporal decisions to remaining abstinent. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Propofol but not dexmedetomidine produce locomotor sensitization via nitric oxide in rats
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05724-4 (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopaminergic modulation of reward discounting in healthy rats: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThese findings suggest a nuanced relationship between DA and discounting behavior and urge caution when drawing generalizations about the effects of pharmacologically manipulating dopamine on reward-based decision-making. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Altered baseline and amphetamine-mediated behavioral profiles in dopamine transporter Cre (DAT-Ires-Cre) mice compared to tyrosine hydroxylase Cre (TH-Cre) mice
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-020-05718-2 (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive enhancement effects of stimulants: a randomized controlled trial testing methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine
ConclusionsThe few observed significant positive effects of the tested stimulants were domain-specific and of rather low magnitude. The results can inform the use of stimulants for cognitive enhancement purposes as well as direct further research to investigate the effects of stimulants on specific cognitive domains that seem most promising, possibly by using tasks that are more demanding. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Synergistic antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of harmaline along with cinanserin in acute restraint stress-treated mice
ConclusionsThese results propose an interaction between harmaline and cinanserin to prevent depressive- and anxiogenic-like behaviors in the ARS mice. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluation of dopamine D 3 receptor occupancy by blonanserin using [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO in schizophrenia patients
We examined D2 and D3 receptor occupancies in patients with schizophrenia who had been treated with blonanserin.MethodsThirteen patients with schizophrenia participated. PET examinations were performed on patients treated with clinical dosage of blonanserin or olanzapine alone. A crossover design was used in which seven patients switched drugs after the first scan, and PET examinations were conducted again. D2 and D3 receptor occupancies were evaluated by [11C]-(+)-PHNO. We used nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) of 6 healthy subjects which we previously reported as baseline. To consider the effect of upregulation of...
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

No differences in delay discounting between smokers with and without HIV
ConclusionsThese findings do not support differences in delay discounting as a reason for the lower success rates of HIV+ smokers at quitting. Although delay discounting may not explain the disparity in smoking rates between people with and without HIV, future work should focus on additional correlates of higher smoking rates and lower quit rates among people with HIV. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: what about taurine?
ConclusionsIncomplete understanding of the properties and effects of AmEDs is unavoidable until more studies are performed on the influence of taurine on motivation to consume alcohol. Taurine should be further explored, particularly in regard to its potential beneficial applications, motivational properties and synergies with other psychoactive ingredients (i.e. caffeine). (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute administration of oxycodone, alcohol, and their combination on simulated driving —preliminary outcomes in healthy adults
AbstractRationaleEpidemiological data indicate that drivers testing positive for an opioid drug are twice as likely to cause a fatal car crash; however, there are limited controlled data available.ObjectivesThe primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of a therapeutic dose range of oxycodone alone and in combination with alcohol on simulated driving performance.MethodsHealthy participants (n = 10) completed this within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient study. Six 7-h sessions were completed during which oxycodone (0, 5, 10 mg, p.o.) was administered 30 min before alcohol (0, 0.8 g/...
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neonatal phencyclidine and social isolation in the rat: effects of clozapine on locomotor activity, social recognition, prepulse inhibition, and executive functions deficits
ConclusionThe PCP-SI model presents enduring and robust deficits (hyperactivity and social recognition impairment) associated with positive symptoms and cognitive/social deficits of schizophrenia, respectively. These deficits are normalized by chronic treatment with clozapine, thereby confirming the predictive validity of this animal model. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Propofol but not dexmedetomidine produce locomotor sensitization via nitric oxide in rats
ConclusionsOur results suggest that propofol but not dexmedetomidine produced a significant locomotor sensitization via central nitrergic system. Dexmedetomidine may have a lesser psychostimulant type addictive potential than propofol. Sensitization development by propofol implies that this drug might be effective on the neuroadaptive processes associated with a stimulant type of dependence. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ketamine reduces temporal expectation in the rhesus monkey
ConclusionIn conclusion, a subanesthetic dose of ketamine could have two independent effects: increasing reaction time and decreasing temporal expectation. This alteration of temporal expectation could explain cognitive deficits observed during ketamine use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Carnosic acid alleviates depression-like behaviors on chronic mild stressed mice via PPAR- γ-dependent regulation of ADPN/FGF9 pathway
ConclusionsCA could significantly improve stress-induced depressive disorder, which may be related to regulating the dysfunction of ADPN-FGF9 pathway via activating PPAR- γ in adipocytes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intranasal oxytocin decreases self-oriented learning
ConclusionsOur findings shed new light on the dynamics of IN-OT ’s effects on human self-oriented learning processes. For future studies on OT effects on self-oriented learning, individual factors such as social value orientation should be taken into consideration in research development and analysis. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute rewarding and disinhibiting effects of alcohol as indicators of drinking habits
ConclusionsThese data suggest that individual variability in liking the effects of alcohol and persistent disinhibition are key indicators of drinking habits. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Uncovering psychological mechanisms mediating the effects of drugs: some issues and comments using the example of psychedelic drugs
AbstractResearchers have begun efforts to uncover the psychological mechanisms by which psychedelic drugs may have beneficial effects on long-term outcomes in some circumstances. The approaches several recent publications on the topic have taken to analyze such mechanisms have some pitfalls and limitations. Based on the rich literature on mechanisms and mediation analysis in psychological science, I comment on five particular issues: (1) Separating mediating and moderating factors, (2) problems inherent in using cross-sectional data, (3) statistical methods in mediation analysis, (4) assumptions and limitations inherent in...
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nicotine-induced enhancement of a sensory reinforcer in adult rats: antagonist pretreatment effects
ConclusionsIn adult male rats, the reinforcement-enhancing effect of low-dose nicotine depends on nicotinic receptor stimulation and on neurotransmission via D1/D5 dopaminergic, opioid, alpha1-adrenergic, and CB1 cannabinoid receptors. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rottlerin, BDNF, and the impairment of inhibitory avoidance memory
ConclusionRottlerin impairs IA memory consolidation through the enhancement of BDNF signaling in the mouse hippocampus. Excessive brain BDNF levels can be detrimental to cognitive function. Rottlerin is likely to affect the original memory-associated neuroplasticity. Thus, it can be combined with exposure therapy to facilitate the forgetting of maladaptive aversive memory, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sigma-1 receptor ligands improves ventricular repolarization-related ion remodeling in rats with major depression disorder
ConclusionTaken together, our results indicate that Sigma-1 receptor modulates the functions of Ito and ICa-L to possibly exert antiarrhythmic effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

No effect of a dopaminergic modulation fMRI task by amisulpride and L-DOPA on reward anticipation in healthy volunteers
ConclusionThe present results cast doubt on the sensitivity of reward anticipation contrast in the MID task for assessing dopamine-specific changes in healthy volunteers by pharmaco-fMRI. While our task was not well-suited for detailed analysis of the outcome phase, we provide reasonable arguments that the lack of effect in the anticipation phase is not due to an inefficient task but points to unexpected behavior of the reward system during pharmacological challenge. Group differences of reward anticipation should therefore not be seen as simple representatives of dopaminergic states. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - November 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of sub-chronic amylin receptor activation on alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation and monoamine levels in mice
ConclusionsThese data suggest that sub-chronic sCT treatment differentially alters the ability of alcohol to cause locomotor stimulation, possibly through molecular mechanisms involving various neurotransmitter systems and not the CTR levels per se. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Urothelial toxicity of esketamine in the treatment of depression
This study aimed to assess whether single or repeated doses of esketamine used in an antidepressant indication are associated with urinary toxicity.MethodsWe included male and female inpatients with a current episode of depression and a diagnosis of recurrent depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder according to ICD-10 criteria (n = 25). The esketamine treatment schedule involved a maximum of 3× weekly dosing at 0.25–0.5 mg/kg i.v. or s.c. The primary outcome was the change in urine toxicity markers (leukocytes, erythrocytes, protein and free haemoglobin). Description o...
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ayahuasca blocks the reinstatement of methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference in mice: behavioral and brain Fos expression evaluations
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that ayahuasca restored normal brain function in areas associated with the long-term expression of drug wanting/seeking in animals conditioned to methylphenidate. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Differential effects of GABA A receptor activation in the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices on anxiety
ConclusionsThis study highlights that activation of GABAARs specifically within the PrL, but not OFC, reduces anxiety behaviours in male rats. This suggests that activity of the PrL plays a more important role than the OFC in the neurobiological mechanisms of unconditioned anxiety and should be targeted for future therapies. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond abstinence and relapse: cluster analysis of drug-use patterns during treatment as an outcome measure for clinical trials
ConclusionsCluster analysis provides person-level output that is more interpretable and actionable than traditional outcome measures, providing a concrete answer to the question of what clinicians can tell patients about the success rates of new treatments. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Multiple sources of internal calcium stores mediate ethanol-induced presynaptic inhibitory GABA release in the central nucleus of the amygdala in mice
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate ethanol-induced presynaptic release of GABA is mediated by internal calcium stores and by disrupting neurotransmitter exocytosis within the CeA, a critical brain area involved in drugs of abuse and alcohol addiction. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The escalation in ethanol consumption following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure is blunted in mice expressing ethanol-resistant GluN1 or GluN2A NMDA receptor subunits
AbstractN-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels essential for glutamatergic transmission and plasticity. NMDARs are inhibited by acute ethanol and undergo brain region-specific adaptations after chronic alcohol exposure. In previous studies, we reported that knock-in mice expressing ethanol-insensitive GluN1 or GluN2A NMDAR subunits display altered behavioral responses to acute ethanol and genotype-dependent changes in drinking using protocols that do not produce dependence. A key unanswered question is whether the intrinsic ethanol sensitivity of NMDARs also plays a role in determining beh...
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) inhibition decreases the motivation for alcohol in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats
AbstractRationaleN-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA) is an intracellular cysteine hydrolase that terminates the biological actions of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), two endogenous lipid-derived agonists of the nuclear receptor, and peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor-α. OEA and PEA are important regulators of energy balance, pain, and inflammation, but recent evidence suggests that they might also contribute to the control of reward-related behaviors.Objectives and methodsIn the present study, we investigated the effects of systemic and intracerebral NAAA inhibition in the ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cocaine addiction and sleep-related problems: the search for genetic culprits
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Protective effect of 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2, 5-diene-1, 4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L., against A β1–42-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells by reversing Bcl-2/Bax ratio
Conclusion and implicationsDMDD attenuated the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells induced by A β1–42 through reversing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Role of adolescent-formed, context-drug-associations on reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats
The authors have noted an error in Fig.  1B and Fig. 1C. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Inhaled corticosteroids as treatment for adolescent asthma: effects on adult anxiety-related outcomes in a murine model
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that steroid medications for youth with allergic asthma may not exacerbate anxiety-related symptoms, and that they  should be avoided in children/adolescents without a health condition. The results are informative to future work on the use of corticosteroid medications during childhood or adolescent development. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Transient serotonin depletion at adolescence, but not at early infancy, reduced subsequent anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake in female mice
ConclusionTransient 5-HT inhibition at adolescence may act, in females, as a protective factor for the emergence of anxiety disorders and problematic use of alcohol during adolescence. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Effect of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA-12) on sleep and event-related oscillations in rats exposed to ethanol vapor during adolescence
The title of this article is “Effect of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA-12) on sleep and event-related oscillations in rats exposed to ethanol vapor during adolescence”. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Etifoxine is non-inferior than clonazepam for reduction of anxiety symptoms in the treatment of anxiety disorders: a randomized, double blind, non-inferiority trial
ConclusionEtifoxine was non-inferior to clonazepam on reduction of anxiety symptoms, adverse effects, and clinical improvement. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The novel dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) derivative BNN27 counteracts cognitive deficits induced by the D1/D2 dopaminergic receptor agonist apomorphine in rats
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that BNN27 is effective to DA dysfunction caused by apomorphine, attenuating cognitive impairments induced by this D1/D2 receptor agonist in rats. Additionally, our findings illustrate a functional interaction between BNN27 and the DAergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioural symptoms. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of suppressing the biological stress systems on social threat-assessment following acute stress
ConclusionOur findings demonstrated that when intact, the biological stress systems adaptively support organisms during stress by focusing attention towards specific stimuli that are relevant to the threat. Dysregulations of the stress systems result in important system specific consequences on threat evaluation, such that suppression of either stress system alone resulted in reduced threat assessment for contextually relevant threatening stimuli, whereas when both systems were suppressed, individuals appear indiscriminately attentive to all potential threats in the environment, resulting in increased threat processing of ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Noradrenergic tone mediates marble burying behavior after chronic stress and ethanol
ConclusionsThese data indicate that NE contributes to the development of anxiety following a history of alcohol and/or stress, and that the influence of both treatment history and NE signaling is sex dependent. These results argue for further investigation of the NE system in relation to disrupted behavior following chronic alcohol and stress, and support the assertion that treatments may differ across sex based on differential neural system engagement. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Region-dependent regulation of acute ethanol on γ oscillation in the rat hippocampal slices
AbstractBackgroundEthanol use disorders are a serious medical and public health problem in the world today. Acute ethanol intoxication can lead to cognitive dysfunction such as learning and memory impairment. Gamma oscillations ( γ, 30–80 Hz) are synchronized rhythmic activity generated by population of neurons within local network, and closely related to learning and memory function. The hippocampus is a critical anatomic structure that supports learning and memory. On the grounds of structure and function, hippocampus can be divided into the intermediate (IH), the dorsal (DH), and ventral hippocampus (VH...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nicotine treatment buffers negative behavioral consequences induced by exposure to physical and emotional stress in adolescent male mice
AbstractEarly life stress influences adult psychopathology and is associated with an increase in the propensity for drug use/seeking throughout the lifespan. Animal models corroborate that stress exposure exacerbates maladaptive reactivity to stressful stimuli while also shifting the rewarding properties of many drugs of abuse, including nicotine (NIC), a stimulant commonly misused by adolescents. Interestingly, NIC treatment can also normalize some stress-induced behavioral deficits in adult rodents; however, little is known about NIC ’s therapeutic efficacy following stress experienced during adolescence. The goal ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Revision to psychopharmacology mRNA and microRNA profiles are associated with stress susceptibility and resilience induced by psychological stress in the prefrontal cortex
ConclusionsThe downregulation of genes involved in serotonergic synapse and imbalance of signaling pathways in the prefrontal cortex may be related to susceptibility to psychological stress. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Further evidence for the involvement of the PPAR γ system on alcohol intake and sensitivity in rodents
ConclusionsCollectively, these data suggest that PPAR γ agonists, and specifically pioglitazone, could be potential therapeutics for the treatment of binge alcohol drinking. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Methionine mediates resilience to chronic social defeat stress by epigenetic regulation of NMDA receptor subunit expression
ConclusionsOur data indicate that Met rescues susceptibility to stress by inactivating cortical NMDAR activity through an epigenetic mechanism involving histone methylation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - September 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research