The selective 5-HT 1A receptor biased agonists, F15599 and F13714, show antidepressant-like properties after a single administration in the mouse model of unpredictable chronic mild stress
ConclusionsOur studies showed that 5-HT1A receptor biased agonists such as F13714 and especially F15599, due to its less pronounced side effects, might have potential as fast-acting antidepressants. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Developing a real-world evidence base for prescribed cannabis in the United Kingdom: preliminary findings from Project Twenty21
We describe the health status of all patients enrolled into the project during its f irst 7 months of operation and the sociodemographic characteristics and primary presenting conditions for these patients, as well as details of the medical cannabis prescribed to these individuals. By 12th March 2021, 678 people had been enrolled into T21; the majority (64%) were male and their ave rage age was 38.7 years (range = 18–80). The most commonly reported primary conditions were chronic pain (55.6%) and anxiety disorders (32.0%) and they reported high levels of multi-morbidity, including high rates o...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The novel vasopressin receptor (V1aR) antagonist SRX246 reduces anxiety in an experimental model in humans: a randomized proof-of-concept study
ConclusionsAs anxiety-potentiated startle is elevated in anxiety and trauma-associated disorders and decreased by traditional anxiolytics such as SSRIs and benzodiazepines, the V1a receptor is a promising novel treatment target. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The cognitive and behavioral effects of D -amphetamine and nicotine sensitization in adult zebrafish
ConclusionChronic treatment with AMPH or NIC boosts cognitive performance in adult zebrafish. Cognitive sensitization occurred with both drugs, resulting in enhanced working memory; however, repeat AMPH exposure, following a withdrawal period, resulted in inhibited cognitive flexibility, an effect not evident with repeat NIC exposure. Cognitive and behavioral sensitization paradigms in zebrafish could serve as a useful tool for assessing cognitive states which result in cognitive enhancing or impairing effects of drugs. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sign- and goal-tracking score does not correlate with addiction-like behavior following prolonged cocaine self-administration
ConclusionsPhenotyping along a continuum of PCA scores may not be a valid predictor for identifying vulnerability to the addiction-like behaviors examined using the 3-CRIT model. However, PCA phenotype may predict a single feature of the 3-CRIT model, resistance to punishment, among those rats classified as either STs or GTs. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Test-retest reliability of tone- and 40 Hz train-evoked gamma oscillations in female rats and their sensitivity to low-dose NMDA channel blockade
ConclusionOverall, while both evoked gamma measures use NMDA transmission, 40-Hz ASSR showed superior psychometric properties of higher ICC and lower CV, relative to tone-evoked gamma. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sensory gating in tobacco-na ïve cannabis users is unaffected by acute nicotine administration
ConclusionsThese findings suggest a relationship between gating impairment and cannabis use; however, acute nicotine administration nicotine does not appear to impact sensory gating function. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Role of nucleus accumbens microRNA-181a and MeCP2 in incubation of heroin craving in male rats
ConclusionsResults indicate that incubation of heroin craving is mediated in part by time-dependent decreases in NAc miR181a expression that leads to time-dependent increases in MeCP2 expression. Our data suggest that NAc miR-181a and MeCP2 contribute to incubation of heroin craving. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of psilocybin microdosing on awe and aesthetic experiences: a preregistered field and lab-based study
AbstractThere is an increased societal trend to engage in microdosing, in which small sub-hallucinogenic amounts of psychedelics are consumed on a regular basis. Following subjective reports that microdosing enhances the experience of nature and art, in the present study we set out to study the effects of psilocybin microdosing on feelings of awe and art perception. In this preregistered combined field- and lab-based study, participants took part in a microdosing workshop after which they volunteered to self-administer a psilocybin microdose or a placebo for three consecutive weeks, while the condition was kept blind to th...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 30, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabidiol reduces withdrawal symptoms in nicotine-dependent rats
ConclusionsThis preclinical study suggests that using CBD as a strategy to alleviate the withdrawal symptoms upon nicotine cessation may be beneficial. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Females develop features of an addiction-like phenotype sooner during withdrawal than males
ConclusionsFemale ratsdeveloped addition-like features sooner during withdrawal than male rats indicating that the telescoping effect observed in humans is biologically based. Additionally, like drug-seeking/craving, motivation for cocaine and measures of compulsive use incubate over withdrawal. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Escalation and reinstatement of fentanyl self-administration in male and female rats
ConclusionAmong the different reinstatement tests assessed, escalation of fentanyl SA increased only drug-primed reinstatement, suggesting a limited relationship between escalation of drug intake and craving (reinstatement) for OUD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender dimorphic effect of dopamine D2 and muscarinic cholinergic receptors on memory retrieval
This study aimed to determine the gender-dependent effects of D2 and muscarinic activity on memory retrieval. Male and female mice were trained for Morris water maze test and contextual fear conditioning. Memory retrieval was assessed following sub-chronic treatment (for 5  days) with D2 antagonist (risperidone 2.5 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) or donepezil (1 mg/kg). Open field test was performed prior to the retrieval test to evaluate effects of risperidone treatment on locomotor activity and exploratory behavior. Risperidone co-treat ment with donepezil impaired spatial me...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association between functional brain alterations and neuropsychological scales in male chronic smokers using resting-state fMRI
ConclusionsWe concluded that chronic smokers have neural adaptations in local spontaneous activity but remain healthy brain functional networks. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Altered fronto-occipital connectivity during visual selective attention in regular cannabis users
ConclusionsIndividuals with a history of regular cannabis use exhibited abnormal theta interference activity in the occipital cortices, as well as altered prefrontal-occipital functional connectivity in the theta range during a visual selective attention task. Such differences may reflect compensatory processing, as these participants performed within normal range on the task. Understanding the neural dynamics in chronic, regular cannabis users may provide insight on how long-term and/or frequent use may affect neural networks underlying cognitive processes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Flavor additives facilitate oral self-administration of nicotine solution in mice
ConclusionsFlavor additives increase nicotine oral consumption and help maintaining operant behavior in mice. Moreover, flavors can be very attractive and can have highreinforcing value by themselves. Thus, it is crucial that the investigation on how taste signals play an important role in modulating oral nicotine intake in rodent models remains explored. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comparison of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and the “date rape” drug GHB: behavioral toxicology in the mouse model
AbstractN-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and γ-hydroxybutyrate acid (GHB) are synthetic solvents detected in the recreational drug market. GHB has sedative/hypnotic properties and is used for criminal purposes to compromise reaction ability and commit drug-facilitated sexual assaults and other crimes. NMP is a strong solubilizing solvent that has been used alone or mixed with GHB in case of abuse and robberies. The aim of this experimental study is to compare the acute pharmaco-toxicological effects of NMP and GHB on neurological signs (myoclonia, convulsions), sensorimotor (visual, acoustic, and overall tactile) respons...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Challenges in CNS drug development and the role of imaging
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Presynaptic GABA B receptor inhibition sex dependently enhances fear extinction and attenuates fear renewal
AbstractAnxiety and trauma-related disorders are highly prevalent worldwide, and  are associated with altered associative fear learning. Despite the effectiveness of exposure therapy, which aims to reduce associative fear responses, relapse rates remain high. This is due, in part, to the context specificity of exposure therapy, which is a form of extinction. Many studies show t hat fear relapses when mice are tested outside the extinction context, and this is known as fear renewal. Using Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction, we can study the mechanisms underlying extinction and renewal. The aim of the current ex...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 14, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nalmefene attenuates neural alcohol cue-reactivity in the ventral striatum and subjective alcohol craving in patients with alcohol use disorder
ConclusionIn the present study, reduced craving and cue-reactivity to alcohol stimuli in the ventral striatum by nalmefene indicates a potential anti-craving effect of this drug via attenuation of neural alcohol cue-reactivity. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Daidzein modulates cocaine-reinforcing effects and cue-induced cocaine reinstatement in CD-1 male mice
ConclusionsOur results suggest that these natural compounds alone or in combination can be a potential therapeutic approach for cocaine addiction. Further clinical studies are required in order to ascertain their potential therapeutic use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Quantifying value-based determinants of drug and non-drug decision dynamics
ConclusionsThe results indicate that value-based quantitative choice models can accurately capture choice determinants within complex decision-making contexts and corroborate drug choice as a multidimensional valuation process. Collectively, the present study indicates commonalities in decision-making for drug and non-drug rewards, validates the use of economic-based SUD therapies (e.g., contingency management), and implicates the neurobehavioral processes underlying drug-associated decision-making as a potential avenue for future SUD treatment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evidence of an antidepressant-like effect of xylopic acid mediated by serotonergic mechanisms
ConclusionTherefore, xylopic acid possesses antidepressant-like effects largely mediated by serotonergic and neuroprotective mechanisms. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex differences in noradrenergic modulation of attention and impulsivity in rats
ConclusionsAtomoxetine showed significant improvement in impulsivity, but atomoxetine had less beneficial effects on impulsive control in females than in males, and it even impaired attentional performance in female rats. The α1 receptors were mainly responsible for NE drug-related sex differences in attention rather than impulsivity. The results obtained in this study indicate that the sex differences exist in both attention and impulsivity by the modulation of noradrenaline and raise the concern to improve sex-specifi c treatments. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ferulic acid alleviates abnormal behaviors in isolation-reared mice via 5-HT 1A receptor partial agonist activity
ConclusionTaken together, these results suggest that FA ameliorates agitation-, anxiety-, and irritability-like behaviors such as hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors in isolation-reared mice via 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist activity. These findings support the efficacy of FA on mental health problems that have been suggested in preclinical and clinical practice. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effect of oxytocin nasal spray on auditory automatic discrimination measured by mismatch negativity
ConclusionsThe shortened MMN latencies that were observed after oxytocin nasal spray administration suggest that oxytocin may promote the comparison-decision stage. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating cannabidiol (CBD) expectancy effects on acute stress and anxiety in healthy adults: a randomized crossover study
ConclusionsCBD expectancy alone impacted several subjective and physiological responses. Additionally, expectancy-related factors were implicated in anxiolytic effects of CBD for those who believed it was helpful for such purposes, emphasizing the need to measure and control for CBD-related expectancies in clinical research that involves the administration of CBD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Bulbocodin D ameliorate cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by modulating amyloid-beta burden, oxidative status and neuroinflammation
ConclusionIn summary, the present study provides preclinical evidence that oral bulbocodin D can reduce AD pathology. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessment of the abuse potential of methamnetamine in rodents: a behavioral pharmacology study
ConclusionsMethamnetamine exhibits interceptive stimulus properties similar to those of cocaine and induces rewarding and reinforcing effects, suggesting its dependence liability potential. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Glatiramer acetate attenuates depressive/anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive deficits induced by post-weaning social isolation in male mice
In this study, the antidepressant potential of glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug used in the management of multiple sclerosis, was investigated in acute and chronic models of depression in male mice. The acute antidepressant screening was performed with the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests. In the chronic phase, post-weaning social isolation (SI) was used to induce depressive-/anxiety-like behaviors.MethodsMice were reared in two different groups of social (SG) and isolated (IG) for 4 weeks. IG mice were treated with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg of GA for the last 2 weeks of the SI period. Animals were assessed b...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Threshold dose for intravenous nicotine self-administration in young adult non-dependent smokers
AbstractRationaleReducing nicotine content of inhaled tobacco products may prevent nicotine addiction, but the threshold for nicotine reinforcement has not been systematically evaluated in controlled human laboratory studies.ObjectivesThe current study uses a novel double-blind placebo-controlled intravenous (IV) nicotine self-administration (NSA) model to determine threshold for subjective effects of nicotine and nicotine reinforcement using a forced choice self-administration procedure.MethodsYoung adults (n = 34) had 5 laboratory sessions after overnight nicotine abstinence. In each session, participants sampled and rat...
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Serotonin 5-HT 1B receptor-mediated behavior and binding in mice with the overactive and dysregulated serotonin transporter Ala56 variant
ConclusionsWhile reducing 5-HT1B receptors may attenuate sensorimotor gating deficits, increased 5-HT1B levels in SERT Ala56 mice do not necessarily exacerbate these deficits, potentially due to compensations during neural circuit development in this model system. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

APOE genotype influences P3b amplitude and response to smoking abstinence in young adults
ConclusionsThe results suggest that subjects with theAPOEε4 allele are more sensitive to nicotine, which could influence smoking patterns, the risk for nicotine dependence, and the cognitive effects of nicotine use in these individuals. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ketamine-induced urological toxicity: potential mechanisms and translation for adults with mood disorders receiving ketamine treatment
AbstractIntravenous (IV) ketamine has been shown to have rapid and robust antidepressant effects in adults with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Urological toxicity has been observed in chronic ketamine abusers as evidenced by dysuria, urgency, and hematuria. The foregoing observation provides the basis for evaluating whether ketamine-induced urological toxicity (KIUT) is associated with sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine (0.5 –1.0 mg/kg) in adults with mood disorders. The overarching objective of this article is to identify potential mechanisms of KIUT which appears to be dose and frequency dependent. Available r...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sodium phenylbutyrate reduces repetitive self-grooming behavior and rescues social and cognitive deficits in mouse models of autism
In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of NaPB, which is a chemical chaperone as well as histone deacetylase inhibitor on a BTBR T + Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice model of ASD. We found that acute and chronic treatment of NaPB remarkably improved, not only core ASD symptoms, including repetitive behaviors and sociability deficit, but also cognitive impairment in the BTBR mice. NaPB substantially induced histone acetylation in the brain of the BTBR mice. Intriguingly, the therapeutic effects of NaPB on autistic-like behaviors, such as repetitive behaviors, impaired sociability, and cognitive deficit also showed in the v...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of GABAA receptors in nucleus cuneiformis on the cannabinoid antinociception using the formalin test
ConclusionsThis study shows that GABA in the NC is involved in pain modulation and suggests the existence of a GABAA-mediated inhibitory system in the NC on pain control. Furthermore, it seems that the antinociceptive effect of WIN 55,212-2 in the formalin test is mediated partly by the activity of local GABAA receptors in the NC. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Paeonol triggers apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells: the role of mitochondria-related caspase pathway
In this study, we aim to evaluate the anti-cervical cancer capacity of paeonol and to investigate the mechanism driving its anti-cervical cancer effect. Paeonol administration markedly restrained the proliferation and caused apoptosis in HeLa cells. Furthermore, paeonol treatment resulted in a mitochondrial dysfunction in HeLa cells, including the inducing of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the release of cytochromec. Moreover, the Bcl-2/Bax proportion was obviously downregulated and cleaved caspase-3 expression was evaluated through paeonol treatment. Additionally, the...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychotropic use in children and adolescents in Scandinavia and Catalonia: a 10-year population-based study
ConclusionsPsychotropic consumption in younger populations is increasing, although there are differences between the countries as far as which drugs are used. Nordic countries show a higher prevalence of use than Catalonia. Psychotropic drug consumption increases with age, except for psychostimulants, which have the highest utilization rate among 10 –14-year-olds. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Time to re-engage psychiatric drug discovery by strengthening confidence in preclinical psychopharmacology
ConclusionsWe hope that this review will re-awaken the pharma industry and mental health advocates to the opportunities for improving psychiatric pharmacotherapy and so restore confidence and justify re-investment in the field. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A placebo-controlled study of the effects of ayahuasca, set and setting on mental health of participants in ayahuasca group retreats
AbstractAyahuasca is a plant concoction containingN,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and certain β-carboline alkaloids from South America. Previous research in naturalistic settings has suggested that ingestion of ayahuasca can improve mental health and well-being; however, these studies were not placebo controlled and did not control for the possibility of expectation bias. This naturalistic observational study was designed to assess whether mental health changes were produced by ayahuasca or by set and setting. Assessments were made pre- and post-ayahuasca sessions in 30 experienced participants of ayahuasca retreats host...
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute alcohol does not impair attentional inhibition as measured with Stroop interference scores but impairs Stroop performance
ConclusionsAttentional inhibition (Stroop interference score) was not impaired by clamped moderate alcohol exposure. Acute alcohol impaired Stroop performance evidenced by a general increase in response times. Our findings suggest that response and attentional inhibition do not share the same neurocognitive mechanisms and are affected differently by alcohol. Results could also be explained by automated behaviors known to be relatively unaffected by acute alcohol. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of voluntary adolescent alcohol consumption on alcohol taste reactivity in Long Evans rats
ConclusionsThese results suggest that ethanol consumption influences the future hedonic and aversive value of ethanol in a way that makes ethanol more palatable with greater prior consumption. However, it appears that those drinking ethanol as adolescents may be more resistant to this palatability shift than those first drinking as adults, suggesting different mechanisms of vulnerability to consumption escalation for adolescents and adults. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Co-administration of nalbuphine attenuates the morphine-induced anxiety and dopaminergic alterations in morphine-withdrawn rats
ConclusionTherefore, nalbuphine might have an important role in attenuating the anxiety and the effects of the dopaminergic pathway and may have potential in the treatment of opioid addiction. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Noradrenergic contributions to cue-driven risk-taking and impulsivity
ConclusionsThese results support the hypothesis that NA is an important neuromodulator of the cue-induced deficits in decision making observed in laboratory-based gambling paradigms, and suggest that NAergic drugs like atomoxetine and guanfacine may be useful in treating GD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The role of CYP2D in rat brain in methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine and serotonin release and behavioral sensitization
ConclusionsCYP2D-mediated methamphetamine metabolism in the brain is sufficient to alter behavioral sensitization, brain drug concentrations, and striatal dopamine and serotonin release. Moreover, day 1 methamphetamine-induced neurotransmitter release may be an important predictor of subsequent behavioral sensitization. This suggests the novel contribution of CYP2D in the brain to methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and suggests that the wide variation in human brain CYP2D6 may contribute to differential methamphetamine responses and chronic effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adolescent nicotine and footshock exposure augments adult nicotine self-administration and drug-seeking without affecting baseline anxiety-like behaviour or stress responsivity in male rats
ConclusionsAdolescent nicotine and footshock stressors have a synergistic effect on adult nicotine consumption, enhancing nicotine intake. Avenues toward reducing stress in adolescent nicotine users may provide opportunities to reduce vulnerability to adult nicotine consumption. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabinoids, reward processing, and psychosis
ConclusionsThere is evidence to suggest modulation of reward processing and its neural substrates by THC and CBD. Whether such effects underlie the psychotomimetic/antipsychotic effects of these cannabinoids remains unclear. Future research should address these unanswered questions to understand the relationship between endocannabinoid dysfunction, reward processing abnormalities, and psychosis. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute caffeine reverses the disruptive effects of chronic fluoxetine on the sexual behavior of female and male rats.
ConclusionsStimulation of sympathetic outflow by CAF may constitute a readily accessible on-demand treatment for the sexual side-effects of SSRIs. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intranasal oxytocin decreases fear generalization in males, but does not modulate discrimination threshold
ConclusionsTogether, the results suggest that OT can attenuate fear generalization in the absence of effects on discrimination threshold. This study provides the first evidence for effects of OT on fear generalization in humans and suggests that OT may have therapeutic potential in anxiety disorders characterized by dysregulated fear generalization. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Shifts in the neurobiological mechanisms motivating cocaine use with the development of an addiction-like phenotype in male rats
ConclusionThese findings indicate that in contrast to NAc-D1R, D2R remain critical for motivating cocaine use with the development of an addiction-like phenotype. These findings also indicate that shifts in the mechanisms motivating cocaine use impact the response to both site-specific and systemic pharmacological treatment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research