Computational modelling reveals contrasting effects on reinforcement learning and cognitive flexibility in stimulant use disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: remediating effects of dopaminergic D2/3 receptor agents
ConclusionsWe provide a parsimonious computational account of how perseverative tendencies and reward- and punishment-driven learning differentially contribute to PRL in SUD and OCD. D2/3 agents modulated these processes and remediated deficits in SUD in particular, which may inform therapeutic effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The use of reaction time distributions to study attention in male rats: the effects of atomoxetine and guanfacine
ConclusionsIT devmode is a measure of distribution skew thought to reflect lapses of attention. The effects of ATX  on IT devmode suggest that increased synaptic NE reduces attentional lapses. These findings are consistent with human reports of reduced RTV after ATX administration. The same pattern of results with guanfacine suggests that the effects of increased NE are due in part to binding at α-2 noradrene rgic receptors. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contribution of skeletal muscular glycine to rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine in an inflammation-induced mouse model of depression
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that skeletal muscular glycine contributes to the antidepressant effects of ketamine in inflammation. Effective strategies for improving skeletal muscular glycine levels may be a novel approach to depression treatment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of the synthetic psychedelic 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) on ethanol consumption and place conditioning in male mice
ConclusionsOur findings demonstrate that DOI blocks ethanol place conditioning and selectively reduces voluntary ethanol consumption. This may be related to modulation of the effects of ethanol in the reward circuitry of the brain, ethanol-induced neuroinflammation, or a combination of both. Additional studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which psychedelics attenuate the effects of ethanol would inform the pathophysiology of AUD and potentially provide new treatment options. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impact of modulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on nicotine reward in the mouse conditioned place preference test
ConclusionsTaken together, our results suggest that modulation of the α7 nAChR can play important roles in nicotine CPP in mice. In addition, the Type II α7 nAChR PAM PNU120596 attenuated nicotine reward suggesting that endogenous acetylcholine/choline tone is sufficient to reduce nicotine CPP. These findings highlight a beneficial effect of using α7 nAChR PAMs in nicotine reward. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ethanol-induced changes in synaptic amino acid neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens of differentially sensitized mice
ConclusionThese data suggest that the profile of amino acid neurotransmitters in the NAc of LS and HS mice significantly differs. Elucidating these adaptive differences contributes to our understanding of factors that confer susceptibility/resilience to alcohol use disorder. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modeling the effects of methylphenidate on interference and evidence accumulation processes using the conflict linear ballistic accumulator
ConclusionsEnhancement of evidence accumulation is a biologically plausible and task-general mechanism of stimulant effects on cognition. Moreover, the assumption that methylphenidate ’s effects on behavior are only visible with complexexecutive tasks may be misguided. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Estimating the optimal dose of flupentixol decanoate in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia —a systematic review of the literature
ConclusionsThe optimal dose of flupentixol decanoate is likely to be between 20  mg and 40 mg every 2 weeks although higher doses may be required in some individuals owing to variation in drug handling. Doses of flupentixol should be individually established in the range of 10 to 40 mg every 2 weeks according to response and tolerability. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of acute stress on consummatory and motivational responses for sucrose in rats after long-term withdrawal from morphine
ConclusionsAcute stress induced hedonic but not motivational deficit for sucrose reward in protracted drug-abstinent animals. Additional negative emotional states besides anhedonia were evoked by acute stress. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Opposite environmental gating of the experienced utility ( ‘liking’) and decision utility (‘wanting’) of heroin versus cocaine in animals and humans: implications for computational neuroscience
ConclusionsWe hope that this paper will serve as stimulus to design computational models more attuned to the complex mechanisms responsible for the rewarding effects of drugs in real-world contexts. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alcohol, empathy, and morality: acute effects of alcohol consumption on affective empathy and moral decision-making
ConclusionsThese results suggest that facets, beyond or in addition to deficits in affective empathy, might influence the relationship between alcohol consumption and utilitarian endorsements. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: bridging the gap with computational and translational psychopharmacology
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beer? Over here! Examining attentional bias towards alcoholic and appetitive stimuli in a visual search eye-tracking task
ConclusionsSocial drinkers may exhibit generalised attentional bias towards alcoholic and non-alcoholicappetitive cues. This adds to emergent research suggesting that the mechanisms driving these individual ’s attention towards alcoholic cues might ‘spill over’ to other appetitive cues, possibly due to associative learning. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Establishing operant conflict tests for the translational study of anxiety in mice
ConclusionsMouse operant conflict tests, especially 2-lever choice, allow for the translational study of distinct anxiety components. CDZ influences each component by ameliorating the impact of both previous punishment and potential future punishment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of cocaine base paste on anxiety-like behavior and immediate-early gene expression in nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex of female mice
ConclusionOur results suggest that chronic CBP exposure induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior and recognition memory. These changes were accompanied by altered IEGs expression. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Role of dopamine D 1 -like and D 2 -like receptors in the activation of ingestive behaviour in thirsty rats licking for water
ConclusionThe results support the suggestion that D1 receptors are involved in behavioural activation and D2 receptors are involved in a related evaluation process. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis, the increased burst size after D1-like receptor blockade might be interpreted as a pro-hedonic effect consequent to the increased cost of the activation of the licking response. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Computational psychopharmacology: a translational and pragmatic approach
ConclusionsComputational modelling provides a useful methodology for further detailed analysis of behavioural mechanisms that are affected by pharmacological manipulations across species and will aid the translation of experimental findings to understand the therapeutic effects of medications in neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as facilitating future drug discovery. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: The protein kinase C β-selective inhibitor, enzastaurin, attenuates amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity and self-administration behaviors in rats
The middle initial of the author should be “A” instead of “C”. The correct presentation of the author name is Colleen A. Carpenter. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

NMDA receptor antagonists traxoprodil and lanicemine improve hippocampal-prefrontal coupling and reward-related networks in rats
ConclusionThe antidepressant effect of NMDA antagonists appears to be associated with enhanced Hc-PFC coupling. The effects on local network properties and regional connectivity suggest that improvement of reward processing might also be important for understanding the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of these drugs. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relative insensitivity to time-out punishments induced by win-paired cues in a rat gambling task
ConclusionsThe emergence of risk-preferring choice on the rGT derives from a relative insensitivity to the cost of the time-out punishments, as opposed to a relative hypersensitivity to rewards. This hyposensitivity to punishment is more likely to be induced in individual rats by the addition of salient audiovisual cues to rewards delivered on win trials. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reward and avoidance learning in the context of aversive environments and possible implications for depressive symptoms
ConclusionOur data show that aversive environmental stimuli affect complex learning and decision-making, which depends on task valence. Further, we provide a model of the underlying computations of this affective modulation. Finally, our finding of increased decision-making biases in subjects reporting subclinical depressive symptoms matches recent reports of amplified Pavlovian influences on action selection in depression and suggests a potential vulnerability factor for mood disorders. We discuss our findings in the light of the involvement of the neuromodulators serotonin and dopamine. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

False memory formation in cannabis users: a field study
ConclusionIt is concluded that cannabis intoxication and history of cannabis use induce a liberal response criterion for newly presented words for which the level of association with previously learned words is low and uncertainty is high. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

CB1 receptor antagonism in capuchin monkeys alters social interaction and aversive memory extinction
ConclusionTaken together, these results suggest that CB1r antagonism induces social deficits without increasing anxiety levels and impairs the extinction of aversive memories. This behavioral profile in monkeys underscores the potential involvement of eCS signaling in the deficits observed in autism spectrum disorders. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

L-DOPA improves extinction memory retrieval after successful fear extinction
ConclusionThe results support the potential use of L-DOPA as a pharmacological adjunct to exposure treatment, but point towards a common boundary condition for pharmacological consolidation enhancers: a successful reduction of fear in the exposure session. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effect of acute cocoa flavanol intake on the BOLD response and cognitive function in type 1 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded cross-over pilot study
ConclusionsAcute CF intake improved reaction time on the flanker test and increased the BOLD response in the activated brain areas in patients with T1D and their matched controls. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Preconception maternal cocaine self-administration increases the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in male offspring
ConclusionsCollectively, these results indicate that preconception cocaine self-administration by dams results in the relatively selective enhancement of cocaine addiction-like behavior in male offspring. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Modeling subjective belief states in computational psychiatry: interoceptive inference as a candidate framework
AbstractThe nascent field computational psychiatry has undergone exponential growth since its inception. To date, much of the published work has focused on choice behaviors, which are primarily modeled within a reinforcement learning framework. While this initial normative effort represents a milestone in psychiatry research, the reality is that many psychiatric disorders are defined by disturbances in subjective states (e.g., depression, anxiety) and associated beliefs (e.g., dysmorphophobia, paranoid ideation), which are not considered in normative models. In this paper, we present interoceptive inference as a candidate ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A comparison of regional brain volumes and white matter connectivity in subjects with stimulant induced psychosis versus schizophrenia
ConclusionsThese findings reveal both similarities and differences between SIP and schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia with concurrent stimulant dependence may be associated with a different clinical and neuroanatomical profile as compared to schizophrenia alone. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopamine D2-like receptor stimulation blocks negative feedback in visual and spatial reversal learning in the rat: behavioural and computational evidence
ConclusionsD2R stimulation impairs reversal learning by blocking the impact of negative feedback. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subjective responses to amphetamine in young adults with previous mood elevation experiences
ConclusionsA history of mood elevation experiences or hypomania states is related to dampened response to a low dose of a psychostimulant drug, extending previous findings with dampened response to alcohol. This phenotype for mood disorders of dampened responses to drugs may contribute to risk for subsequent drug use or misuse. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Replication and extension of a model predicting response to psilocybin
ConclusionMental states of surrender or preoccupation at the time of ingestion explain variance in mystical or adverse psilocybin experiences, and mystical experiences relate to long-term positive change. The capacity to recognize this optimal preparatory mental state may benefit therapeutic use of psilocybin in clinical settings. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Toward an animal model of borderline personality disorder
ConclusionThrough exploration of the etiology, symptom presentation, and altered neurological function, we propose an animal model of BPD. We believe that a number of existing animal paradigms that model other mental health disorders should be combined in a unique way to reflect the etiology, symptom presentation, and altered neurological function that is evident in BPD. These model, when compared with available human data, will inform research and treatment in humans for better understanding of systems from the micro-molecular level to more global physiology underlying BPD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabinoid modulation of opioid analgesia and subjective drug effects in healthy humans
AbstractRationaleDozens of preclinical studies have reported cannabinoid agonist potentiation of the analgesic effects of μ-opioid agonists.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine if a cannabinoid agonist could potentiate opioid analgesia in humans using several laboratory pain models.MethodsHealthy participants (n = 10) with/out current drug use/pain conditions completed this within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient study. Nine 8-h sessions were completed during which dronabinol (0, 2.5, 5 mg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before oxycodone (0, 5, 10 mg, ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopaminergic drug treatment remediates exaggerated cingulate prediction error responses in obsessive-compulsive disorder
ConclusionsOur data support cingulate dysfunction during reward processing in OCD, and bidirectional remediation by dopaminergic modulation, suggesting that exaggerated cingulate error signals in OCD may be of dopaminergic origin. The results help to illuminate the mechanisms through which dopamine receptor antagonists achieve therapeutic benefit in OCD. Further research is needed to disentangle the different functions of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists during bidirectional modulation of cingulate activation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Loss of dysbindin-1 affects GABAergic transmission in the PFC
AbstractIt has been shown that dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 gene that encodes the protein dysbindin-1 is associated with risk for cognitive deficits, and studies have shown decreases in glutamate and correlated decreases in dysbindin-1 protein in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of post-mortem tissue from schizophrenia patients. The PFC and the hippocampus have been shown to play a fundamental role in cognition, and studies in dysbindin-1 null mice have shown alterations in NMDAR located in pyramidal neurons as well as perturbation in LTP and cognitive deficits. The balance between excitatory and inhibitory tr...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relevance of number and physiological status of conspecifics in preventing stress-induced decreases in newly proliferated cells and neuroblasts
ConclusionsPhysical interaction with the conspecifics and conspecifics ’ sickness, at best, play a minor role in mediating the buffering effects against stress-induced decreases in DG cell proliferation or early neurogenesis. Moreover, stress-buffering effects are negligible with the presence of only one conspecific. Finally, airborne OT produced stress-buffering eff ects possibly via its stimulation of OT receptors. Oxytocin merits further study as a substitute for the stress-buffering effects of companions. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute prazosin administration does not reduce stressor reactivity in healthy adults
ConclusionsFurther research is needed to determine whether this failure to translate preclinical neuroscience to human laboratory models is due to methodological factors (e.g., acute vs. chronic drug administration, brain penetration, study population) and/or suggests limited clinical utility of noradrenergic alpha-1 antagonists for treating stress-related psychiatric disorders. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Food craving and consumption evolution in patients starting treatment with clozapine
ConclusionsNo longitudinal differences were found for any of the food craving scores evaluated; however, in the NW group, food craving for “complex carbohydrates/proteins” changed. Thus, changes in “fast-food fats” cravings predicted weight increase in this sample. Interventions targeting food preferences may help to mitigate weight gain in patients starting treatment with clozapine. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Isoflurane produces antidepressant effects inducing BDNF-TrkB signaling in CUMS mice
ConclusionOur study indicates that isoflurane exerts a rapid antidepressant-like effect in CUMS depression animal model, and the activation of BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway plays an indispensable role in the biological and behavioral antidepressant effects of isoflurane. A single exposure to isoflurane could repair synaptic damage caused by chronic stimulation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Enduring effects of juvenile social isolation on physiological properties of medium spiny neurons in nucleus accumbens
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate neuronal hyperactivity in the NAc of socially isolated mice, which could contribute to locomotor hypersensitivity to METH. Furthermore, the findings indicate a biological link between early negative life events and the vulnerability to psychostimulant-induced psychosis in adulthood. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The phenolic interactome and gut microbiota: opportunities and challenges in developing applications for  schizophrenia and autism
AbstractSchizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder  have long been associated with elevated levels of various small phenolic molecules (SPMs). In turn, the gut microbiota (GMB) has been implicated in the kinetics of many of these analytes. Unfortunately, research into the possible relevance of GMB-mediated SPMs to neuropsychiatry continues to be li mited by heterogeneous study design, numerous sources of variance and technical challenges. Some SPMs have multiple structural isomers and most have conjugates. Without specialized approaches, SPMs can be incorrectly assigned or inaccurately quantified. In addition, SP...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Highs and lows of cannabinoid-dopamine interactions: effects of genetic variability and pharmacological modulation of catechol-O-methyl transferase on the acute response to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans
ConclusionsThe interaction between COMT rs4680 polymorphisms and tolcapone on the cognitive, but not on the psychotomimetic and overall subjective effects of THC, suggests that modulation of dopaminergic signaling may selectively influence specific cannabinoid effects in healthy individuals. The role of dopaminergic signaling in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids should be considered in drug development efforts targeting these effects.Clinicaltrials.gov registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678730?term=NCT00678730&rank=1ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678730. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Self-administration of benzodiazepine and cocaine combinations by male and female rhesus monkeys in a choice procedure: role of α1 subunit–containing GABA A receptors
ConclusionCompounds that lack efficacy at α1GABAA receptors may have low abuse potential compared to classic benzodiazepines, but self-administration of these compounds is context-dependent. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Additive interaction between scopolamine and nitric oxide agents on immobility in the forced swim test but not exploratory activity in the hole-board
ConclusionData suggests that NO agents could positively impact the therapeutic profile of scopolamine, because they might be useful for inducing antidepressant-like effect associated to scopolamine. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors mediate analgesic and hypnotic effects of l -tetrahydropalmatine in a mouse neuropathic pain model
ConclusionsThese findings indicated thatl-THP exerted analgesic effects by agonism D1R and antagonism D2R, and the antagonism of D2R mediated the hypnotic effect ofl-THP in PSNL mice. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The gut microbiome in psychopharmacology and psychiatry
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of cannabinoid 1 receptor compounds on memory: a meta-analysis and systematic review across species
ConclusionsThe acute administration of THC, partial CB1R agonist, significantly impaired non-spatial memory in humans, monkeys, and non-human primates but not rodents. However, full CB1R agonists significantly impaired non-spatial memory in a dose-dependent manner but CB1R antagonists had no effect on non-spatial memory in rodents. Moreover, chronic THC administration did not significantly impair spatial or non-spatial memory in rodents, and there is inconclusive evidence on this in humans. Our findings highlight species differences in the effects of cannabinoid compounds on memory. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender differences in the behavioral and subjective effects of methamphetamine in healthy humans
ConclusionsWomen appear to be more sensitive to the psychomotor-related behavioral and subjective effects of MA. These findings provide initial insight into gender differences in acute effects of MA that may contribute to gender differences in problematic MA use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Protective effect of potassium 2-(l-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate on hippocampal neurons, synapses and dystrophic axons in APP/PS1 mice
ConclusionsOur study showed for the first time the protective effect of PHPB on hippocampal neurons, synapses, and dystrophic axons in APP/PS1 mice, which to some extent revealed the possible mechanism for its ability to improve cognition in animal models of AD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effect of alcohol use disorder on cellular aging
ConclusionOur results support previous findings of telomere shortening with chronic alcohol exposures and show both an effect of AUD on TL that is independent of age as well as a significant AUD by age interaction on TL. These findings are consistent with accelerated cellular aging in AUD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research