A limited and intermittent access to a high-fat diet modulates the effects of cocaine-induced reinstatement in the conditioned place preference in male and female mice
ConclusionsThese results support that palatable food could act as an alternative reward to cocaine, accelerating extinction and blocking reinstatement, these effects being sex specific. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ferulic acid alleviates abnormal behaviors in isolation-reared mice via 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist activity
ConclusionTaken together, these results suggest that FA ameliorates agitation-, anxiety-, and irritability-like behaviors such as hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors in isolation-reared mice via 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist activity. These findings support the efficacy of FA on mental health problems that have been suggested in preclinical and clinical practice. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Presynaptic GABAB receptor inhibition sex dependently enhances fear extinction and attenuates fear renewal
AbstractAnxiety and trauma-related disorders are highly prevalent worldwide, and  are associated with altered associative fear learning. Despite the effectiveness of exposure therapy, which aims to reduce associative fear responses, relapse rates remain high. This is due, in part, to the context specificity of exposure therapy, which is a form of extinction. Many studies show t hat fear relapses when mice are tested outside the extinction context, and this is known as fear renewal. Using Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction, we can study the mechanisms underlying extinction and renewal. The aim of the current ex...
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cariprazine alleviates core behavioral deficits in the prenatal valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder
ConclusionsIn the present study, cariprazine effectively reversed core behavioral deficits and hyperactivity present in juvenile and young adult autistic-like rats. These findings indicate that cariprazine may be useful in the treatment of ASD symptoms. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Vulnerability factors for mephedrone-induced conditioned place preference in rats —the impact of sex differences, social-conditioning and stress
ConclusionsAltogether, the presented results give new insight into possible factors underlying the vulnerability to mephedrone abuse and can serve as a basis for further studies assessing mechanisms underlying observed effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabidiol (CBD) as a novel treatment in the early phases of psychosis
AbstractThe pharmacological interventions available for individuals in the early stages of psychosis are extremely limited. For those at clinical high risk for psychosis, there is no licensed treatment available. For those with first-episode psychosis, all licensed antipsychotic medications act via dopamine D2 receptors. While treatment with antipsychotics is transformative in some patients, in others, it is ineffective. In addition, these medications can often cause adverse effects which make patients reluctant to take them. This is a particular problem in the early phases of psychosis, when patients are being treated for...
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Serotonin toxicity of serotonergic psychedelics
ConclusionsSerotonin-related adverse reactions exist along a spectrum with serotonin syndrome being the most severe manifestations of ST. Due to varying  serotonergic mechanisms of psychedelics and psychotropics, with varying propensities to increase intrasynaptic serotonin, some combinations may present a significant risk for serotonin toxicity (ST) while others are likely benign. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comparative benefits of social housing and buprenorphine on wheel running depressed by morphine withdrawal in rats
ConclusionsThe impact of buprenorphine and social housing to reduce the effect of morphine withdrawal in rats is consistent with the use of opioid substitution therapy and psychotherapy/social support to treat opioid withdrawal in humans. These data provide further validation for the clinical relevance for the use of wheel running to assess spontaneous opioid withdrawal. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The relationship between job stress and job burnout moderated by BDNF rs6265 polymorphism
This study aimed to explore howBDNF rs6265 polymorphism may moderate the relationship between job stress and job burnout.MethodsThree hundred forty-one healthy participants (187 males and 154 females) from a Chinese university were included. The present study used a standardized questionnaire including demographic characteristics, job stress assessed by the House and Rizzo ’s Work Stress Scale, and job burnout assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. TheBDNF rs6265 polymorphism was genotyped.ResultsJob stress showed a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion (p 
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Protective effects of tetramethylpyrazine on dysfunction of the locus coeruleus in rats exposed to single prolonged stress by anti-ER stress mechanism
AbstractPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious stress-related neuropsychiatric disorder caused by major traumatic events. Abnormal activity of the locus coeruleus (LC)-noradrenergic system is related to the development of PTSD-like symptoms. Our previous studies have indicated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced neuronal apoptosis of LC in rats with PTSD. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the role of ER stress pathways in LC neuronal dysfunction and elucidate the effect of the bioactive component tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against ER stress response. We used an acute exposure to sin...
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator ASP8062 reduces operant alcohol self-administration in male and female Sprague Dawley rats
ConclusionsASP8062 decreases alcohol reinforcement like baclofen but without non-specific effects which are influenced by sex. Results support further development of ASP8062 as a potential treatment for AUD in humans. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Brain volume in chronic ketamine users — relationship to sub-threshold psychotic symptoms and relevance to schizophrenia
AbstractRationaleKetamine may model aspects of schizophrenia arising through NMDA receptor activity deficits. Although acute ketamine can induce effects resembling both positive and negative psychotic symptoms, chronic use may be a closer model of idiopathic psychosis.ObjectivesWe tested the hypotheses that ketamine users had lower brain volumes, as measured using MRI, and greater sub-threshold psychotic symptoms relative to a poly-drug user control group.MethodsKetamine users (n  = 17) and poly-drug using controls (n = 19) were included in the study. All underwent volumetric MRI imaging and mea...
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Metabotropic group II glutamate receptors in the basolateral amygdala mediate cue-triggered increases in incentive motivation
ConclusionsmGlu2/3 receptor activity in the BLA mediates cue-triggered potentiation of incentive motivation for reward, suppressing both cue-induced increases in instrumental pursuit of the reward and anticipatory approach behaviour. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Endocannabinoid signaling of homeostatic status modulates functional connectivity in reward and salience networks
ConclusionsAltogether, results suggest that peripheral AEA concentrations are sensitive to homeostatic changes and linked to neural communication in reward and salience networks. Findings may have significant implications for understanding normal and abnormal interactions between homeostatic input and reward valuation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Temporal instability in brain activation: a novel paradigm for evaluating the maintenance of attention among substance dependent patients
ConclusionsWe conclude from these findings that the ITV of P300 amplitude is an efficient and sensitive biomarker of the maintenance of attention. It is valuable for revealing group differences associated with substance dependence and ASPD. It may ultimately be valuable for detecting improvements resulting from psychostimulant treatment or other interventions, including cognitive remediation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - July 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Low-normal doses of methiopropamine induce aggressive behaviour in mice
AbstractRecreational use of illicit methiopropamine (MPA) is a public health concern because it produces neurochemical effects comparable with those induced by methamphetamine (METH). The present study investigated the effects of MPA on the expression of an aggressive behaviour. Eighty CD-1 male mice, after receiving intraperitoneal injection of saline, MPA (0.01 –10 mg/kg), METH (0.01–10 mg/kg), or AMPH (0.01–10 mg/kg), once a week over a 5-week period, underwent the resident–intruder test and spontaneous locomotor activity measurement. Results showed that all psychostimulants induce aggressive beh...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Consistent evidence of indirect effects of impulsive delay discounting and negative urgency between childhood adversity and adult substance use in two samples
ConclusionThese findings provide consistent evidence that decrements in regulation of negative emotions and overvaluation of immediate rewards indirectly link ACE and substance use. These robust cross-sectional findings support the need for elucidating the underlying neural substrates implicated and for longitudinal evaluations. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reduction of falls in a rat model of PD falls by the M1 PAM TAK-071
ConclusionsTAK-071 may benefit complex movement control, specifically in situations which disrupt the patterning of forward movement and require the interplay between cognitive and motor functions to modify movement based on information about the state of dynamic surfaces, balance, and gait. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms of sexual decision-making in women with alcohol use disorder
ConclusionsVisual sexual cues produced reactivity like that previously demonstrated for alcohol cues, suggesting a shared or domain-general mechanism for alcohol and sexual cue reactivity in women with AUD. Riskier sexual decisions in women with AUD may be a consequence of repeatedly pairing alcohol use and sexual activity, a characteristic behavior of this population. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Do proinflammatory cytokines play a role in clozapine-associated glycometabolism disorders?
ConclusionFindings from animal experiments and clinical trials have shown clear evidence that clozapine has a regulatory effect on immune-related proinflammatory cytokines and influences glycometabolism indicators. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relationship between voluntary ethanol drinking and approach-avoidance biases in the face of motivational conflict: novel sex-dependent associations in rats
ConclusionsOur results highlight sex and individual differences in both drinking and approach-avoidance bias in the face of cued conflict and further suggest that cued-conflict preference should be examined as a potential predictor of ethanol drinking. Ethanol exposure may also affect the timing of decision-making in the face of conflict. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The effect of N-acetylcysteine on bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsThere is no evidence indicating that NAC has beneficial effects as an adjunctive treatment for bipolar depression. Future trials with improved methodological design and efficient sample sizes are required to draw safer conclusions. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intracranial self-stimulation and concomitant behaviors following systemic methamphetamine administration in Hnrnph1 mutant mice
ConclusionsH1+/ − mice displayed a complex ICSS phenotype following MA, displaying indications of both blunted reward magnitude (lower normalized maximum response rates) and enhanced reward sensitivity specific to H1+/ − females (lower normalized M50 values). (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

7,8-Dihydroxyflavone improves cognitive functions in ICV-STZ rat model of sporadic Alzheimer ’s disease by reversing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance
ConclusionsConclusively, 7,8-DHF was found to be neuroprotective in the ICV-STZ rat model by ameliorating oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, thereby improving cognitive functions evident with the behavioral results. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The neurotherapeutic role of a selenium-functionalized quinoline in hypothalamic obese rats
ConclusionsIn brief, 4-PSQ therapy improved hypothalamic obesity-related parameters, as well as psychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment,  and neurochemical alterations found in obese rats.Graphical abstract (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Daily, but not occasional, cannabis use is selectively associated with more impulsive delay discounting and hyperactive ADHD symptoms in binge-drinking young adults
ConclusionsThe current findings provide support for a link between cannabis use in relation to immediate reward preference and symptoms of hyperactive-impulsive ADHD in young adults, but only among frequent users. No other neurocognitive domains exhibited associations with cannabis and age of first use was neither independently nor interactively associated with cognitive outcomes. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lack of effect of different pain-related manipulations on opioid self-administration, reinstatement of opioid seeking, and opioid choice in rats
ConclusionsResults extend the range of conditions across which pain-related manipulations fail to increase opioid seeking in rats and suggest that enhanced opioid-addiction risk in humans with chronic pain involves factors other than enhanced opioid reinforcement and relapse. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evidence accumulation and associated error-related brain activity as computationally-informed prospective predictors of substance use in emerging adulthood
ConclusionsThese findings highlight EEA as a computationally characterized neurocognitive risk factor for substance use during a critical developmental period, with clear links to both neuroimaging measures and well-established formal theories of brain function. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images strengthens smokers ’ inhibitory control under smoking-related background in Go/NoGo task
ConclusionsThese results suggest that the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers ’ inhibitory control would be alleviated by cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images, which emphasizes the important role of cigarette-specific disgust in strengthening smokers’ inhibitory control towards smoking-related cues. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex-specific mechanisms of tolerance for the cannabinoid agonists CP55,940 and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ9-THC)
ConclusionsOur results suggest that disruption of the GRK/ βarrestin2 pathway of desensitization alters tolerance to Δ9-THC but not CP55,940 in male but not female mice. As tolerance to Δ9-THC appears to develop differently in males and females, sex should be considered when assessing the therapeutic potential and dependence liability of cannabinoids. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of combined THC and heroin vapor inhalation in rats
ConclusionsThis study shows that additive effects of THC with an opioid on a medical endpoint such as analgesia may not generalize to other behavioral or physiological effects, which may be a positive outcome for unwanted side effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex-based changes in rat brain serotonin and behavior in a model of altitude-related vulnerability to treatment-resistant depression
ConclusionsFemales may be more vulnerable to depressive symptoms at altitude, while males may be resilient. Chronic hypoxic stress at altitudes as low as 4,500 ft may cause a brain serotonin imbalance to worsen vulnerability to depression and SSRI resistance, and potentially worsen suicide risk. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Reduced cortical GABA and glutamate in high schizotypy
AbstractRationaleAbnormal functioning of the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) systems is proposed to play a role in the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Although results are mixed, previous 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in schizophrenia and clinical high-risk samples report these metabolites are altered in comparison to healthy controls. Currently, however, there are few studies of these metabolites in schizotypy samples, a personality dimension associated with the experience of schizophrenia and psychosis-like symptoms.ObjectivesWe investigated if GABA ...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Geniposide ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depression-like behavior through inhibition of ceramide-PP2A signaling via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3 β axis
ConclusionsThese results indicate that geniposide exert a potential antidepressant-like effect on CUMS mice, and its effect might be associated with activated PI3K/Akt/GSK3 β signaling, reduced the level of ceramide and hippocampal neuron apoptosis. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute drug effects differentially predict desire to take dextroamphetamine again for work and recreation
ConclusionsWe found that positive subjective effects predicted desire to use dextroamphetamine again for work, while increased motor effects predicted desire to use dextroamphetamine recreationally. Hedonic effects may be perceived as advantageous when working, while increased physical energy may be preferred during recreation, suggesting that context of intended use is important when examining abuse liability. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Sign ‑ and goal‑tracking score does not correlate with addiction‑like behavior following prolonged cocaine self‑administration
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05891-y (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex differences in specific aspects of two animal tests of anxiety-like behavior
ConclusionsCombining our findings and previous studies, we speculate that increased anxiety-like behavior in females manifests especially when there is a specific, life-relevant condition (e.g., food in the NSFT). Our findings also validate NSFT and LDT use in females. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comments on “Sigma-1 receptor ligands improves ventricular repolarization-related ion remodeling in rats with major depression disorder”
AbstractWith respect to Guo ’s inspiring article (Guo et al. 2021), we would like to suggest several corrections about some of the figures. We felt obliged to write this erratum letter as these incompatibilities may cause confusion for the readers. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adaptive aspects of impulsivity and interactions with effects of catecholaminergic agents in the 5-choice serial reaction time task: implications for ADHD
ConclusionsThese findings indicate that impulsivity can be advantageous when rapid focusing and actions are required, an effect that may depend on increased dopamine neurotransmission. Conversely, activation of the noradrenergic system, with ATO and PHEN, led to a general inhibition of responding. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotion recognition in individuals with cocaine use disorder: the role of abstinence length and the social brain network
AbstractRationaleEmotion recognition is impaired in drug addiction. However, research examining the effects of cocaine use on emotion recognition yield mixed evidence with contradictory results potentially reflecting varying abstinence durations.ObjectivesTherefore, we investigated emotion recognition and its neural correlates in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) parsed according to abstinence duration.MethodsEmotion recognition performance was compared between current cocaine users (CUD  + ,n = 28; cocaine-positive urine), short-term abstainers (CUD-ST,n = 23; abstinence 
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Haloperidol rescues the schizophrenia-like phenotype in adulthood after rotenone administration in neonatal rats
AbstractNeuropsychiatric disorders are multifactorial disturbances that encompass several hypotheses, including changes in neurodevelopment. It is known that brain development disturbances during early life can predict psychosis in adulthood. As we have previously demonstrated, rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, could induce psychiatric-like behavior in 60-day-old rats after intraperitoneal injections from the 5th to the 11th postnatal day. Because mitochondrial deregulation is related to psychiatric disorders and the establishment of animal models is a high-value preclinical tool, we investigated the responsiv...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism moderates the effect of PTSD symptom severity on the left hippocampal CA3 volume: a pilot study
ConclusionsThis study suggests that DRD2 Taq1A polymorphism moderates the association between PTSD symptomatology and left CA3 volume, which promotes an etiological understanding of the hippocampal atrophy at the subfield level. This highlights the complex effect of environmental stress, and provides possible mechanism for the relationship between the dopaminergic system and hippocampal function in PTSD. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Relative potency of intravenous oxymorphone compared to other µ opioid agonists in humans — pilot study outcomes
AbstractAimsIntravenous (IV) misuse of the µ opioid analgesic oxymorphone has caused significant public health harms; however, no controlled data on its IV abuse potential are available. The primary aims of this pilot study were to directly compare IV oxymorphone to IV oxycodone, morphine, and hydromorphone on a subjective measure of drug l iking and to assess relative potency.MethodsParticipants (n = 6) with opioid use disorder, physical dependence, and current IV use completed this two-site, within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, inpatient pilot study. During each session, one IV dose (mg/7...
Source: Psychopharmacology - June 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

No evidence that low levels of intoxication at both encoding and retrieval impact scores on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale
ConclusionsModerately intoxicated interviewees may not be more suggestible during investigative interviews than sober interviewees. However, before concrete evidence-based policy recommendations are made to law enforcement, further research is needed examining the effects of alcohol on suggestibility in conditions that are more reflective of the legal context. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Non-Nicotinic E-Cigarettes to Reduce Cue- and Abstinence-Induced Cigarette Craving in Non-Treatment Seeking Daily Dependent Smokers
AbstractRationaleElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are potential tools for smoking cessation because they deliver nicotine and simulate smoking behaviors. The contribution of sensorimotor versus pharmacological substitution is unknown.ObjectivesTo evaluate whether non-nicotinic e-cigarettes, used alone or with nicotine lozenges, can attenuate cigarette craving following visual cue presentation or acute (3 h post ad-lib use) abstinence in dependent daily smokers.MethodsFollowing overnight (12 hours) abstinence, 41 daily smokers were exposed to 4 experimental conditions on separate days: (i) tobacco cigarettes (CIG); (ii)...
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist PT150 on stress-induced fentanyl seeking in male and female rats
ConclusionThe glucocorticoid antagonist PT150 reduces shock-induced fentanyl seeking, suggesting it may be effective against stress-induced relapse, although the sex difference in response may need further exploration. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anticataleptic activity of nicotine in rats: involvement of the lateral entorhinal cortex
ConclusionsThis may be the first demonstration of anticataleptic activity of nicotine. The results show that the effect is mediated by nicotine receptors in the LEntCx, via a glutamatergic mechanism. These findings may help advance the development of novel treatments for extrapyramidal disorders, including parkinsonism. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effect of Bifidobacterium on olanzapine-induced body weight and appetite changes in patients with psychosis
ConclusionsProbiotics may mitigate olanzapine-induced weight gain in the early stage of treatment and delay olanzapine-induced appetite increase. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Time to re-engage psychiatric drug discovery by strengthening confidence in preclinical psychopharmacology
A correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05859-y (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Co-treatment of vitamin D supplementation with enriched environment improves synaptic plasticity and spatial learning and memory in aged rats
ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate that in aged rats exposure to EE and VitD results in effects on hippocampal cognitive dysfunction and molecular mechanisms which are greater than effects of EE alone, suggesting potential for synergistic therapeutic effects for management of age-related cognitive decline. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - May 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research