Adolescent nicotine and footshock exposure augments adult nicotine self-administration and drug-seeking without affecting baseline anxiety-like behaviour or stress responsivity in male rats
ConclusionsAdolescent nicotine and footshock stressors have a synergistic effect on adult nicotine consumption, enhancing nicotine intake. Avenues toward reducing stress in adolescent nicotine users may provide opportunities to reduce vulnerability to adult nicotine consumption. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabinoids, reward processing, and psychosis
ConclusionsThere is evidence to suggest modulation of reward processing and its neural substrates by THC and CBD. Whether such effects underlie the psychotomimetic/antipsychotic effects of these cannabinoids remains unclear. Future research should address these unanswered questions to understand the relationship between endocannabinoid dysfunction, reward processing abnormalities, and psychosis. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute caffeine reverses the disruptive effects of chronic fluoxetine on the sexual behavior of female and male rats.
ConclusionsStimulation of sympathetic outflow by CAF may constitute a readily accessible on-demand treatment for the sexual side-effects of SSRIs. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Intranasal oxytocin decreases fear generalization in males, but does not modulate discrimination threshold
ConclusionsTogether, the results suggest that OT can attenuate fear generalization in the absence of effects on discrimination threshold. This study provides the first evidence for effects of OT on fear generalization in humans and suggests that OT may have therapeutic potential in anxiety disorders characterized by dysregulated fear generalization. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Shifts in the neurobiological mechanisms motivating cocaine use with the development of an addiction-like phenotype in male rats
ConclusionThese findings indicate that in contrast to NAc-D1R, D2R remain critical for motivating cocaine use with the development of an addiction-like phenotype. These findings also indicate that shifts in the mechanisms motivating cocaine use impact the response to both site-specific and systemic pharmacological treatment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Aversion-resistant fentanyl self-administration in mice
ConclusionsMice will respond for and consume oral fentanyl in both a two-bottle choice and an operant response task. Quinine is detectable in fentanyl but mice will continue to respond for and consume fentanyl with quinine in both paradigms. These data support the use of these models in behavioral studies of compulsive-like opioid use. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The usefulness of Olanzapine plasma concentrations in monitoring treatment efficacy and metabolic disturbances in first-episode psychosis
In conclusion, our results suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring of Olanzapine could be helpful to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and metabolic dysfunction in FEP patients treated with Olanzapine. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prevalence of obesity and clinical and metabolic correlates in first-episode schizophrenia relative to healthy controls
AbstractObjectivePeople with schizophrenia exhibit a high obesity rate. However, little is known about the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with clinical symptoms and metabolic indicators in first-episode drug-na ïve (FEDN) schizophrenia.MethodsDemographic and lipid parameters were gathered from 297 FEDN schizophrenia and 325 healthy controls. The patients ’ symptomatology was evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).ResultsThe obesity rate of FEDN patients was 10.77%, similar to that of controls (10.5%). The prevalence of overweight plus obesity of patients was 44.8%, significantl...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Simultaneous administration of cocaine and caffeine dysregulates HCN and T-type channels
ConclusionOur results suggest that deleterious consequences of stimulants cocaine and caffeine combination on the thalamocortical physiology as a whole might be related to potential neurotoxic effects of soaring intracellular [Ca2+]. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comments on “Caffeine intake and cognitive functions in children by Zhang, Lee and Qiu”
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The acute effects of alcohol on state rumination in the laboratory
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that acute alcohol consumption can regulate negative mood and concurrently rumination, providing preliminary evidence for the role of rumination in alcohol use disorders. Rumination may be a treatment target in alcohol use disorders. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep-wake cycle disturbances and NeuN-altered expression in adult rats after cannabidiol treatments during adolescence
ConclusionsOur findings are relevant for interpreting results of adult rats that were chronically exposed to CBD during the adolescence and provide new insights into how CBD may impact the sleep-wake cycle and neuronal activity during developmental stages. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Roles of sedative-hypnotics in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder: a nationwide population-based 14-year follow-up study in Taiwan
ConclusionsPatterns and characteristics of sedative-hypnotic use may affect depression recurrence. These findings should be considered by clinicians when combining sedative-hypnotics with antidepressant treatment. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) ameliorates cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity impairments in animal model of Alzheimer ’s diseases
AbstractIntroductionAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a progressive brain disorder accompanied with synaptic failures and decline in cognitive and learning processes. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is the major thrombin receptor in the brain that is implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. In the current study, we hypothesized that inhibition of PAR1 would theoretically prevent amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and then contribute to reduce risk of AD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PAR1 inhibition by using SCH (as an inhibitor of PAR1) on spatial learning, m...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in trauma-exposed women: a preliminary report
ConclusionsDysregulation in GABA may be a neurobiological marker and/or potential treatment target for women with PTSD symptom profiles characterized by prominent dysphoria and avoidance cluster symptoms. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social isolation at adolescence: a systematic review on behaviour related to cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine use in rats and mice
AbstractAdolescence is known for its high level of risk-taking, and neurobiological alterations during this period may predispose to psychoactive drug initiation and progression into more severe use patterns. Stress is a risk factor for drug consumption, and post-weaning social isolation increases drug self-administration in rodents. This review aimed to provide an overview of the effects of adolescent social isolation on cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine use-related behaviours, highlighting the specific period when animals were submitted to stress and these drugs. We wondered if there was a specific period during adolesce...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An interoceptive basis for alcohol priming effects
ConclusionsThis is novel evidence that suggests alcohol-induced changes in bodily states may mediate the occurrence of alcohol priming effects and highlights the potentially generative role of interoceptive mechanisms in alcohol-related behaviors. The differential patterns revealed by implicit biases and explicit response tendencies are considered within the context of the dissociation between wanting and liking. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

l -Arginine and NOS activity, a complex relationship
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mechanism and therapeutic strategies of depression after myocardial infarction
AbstractDepression resulted as an important factor associated with the myocardial infarction (MI) prognosis. Patients with MI also have a higher risk for developing depression. Although the issue of depression after MI has become a matter of clinical concern, the molecular mechanism underlying depression after MI remains unclear, whereby several strategies suggested have not got ideal effects, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this review, we summarized and discussed the occurrence mechanism of depression after MI, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) dysfunction, altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alprazolam-induced EEG spectral power changes in rhesus monkeys: a translational model for the evaluation of the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines
ConclusionsAlprazolam induces dose- and topography-dependent EEG changes in rhesus monkeys and provides a valuable model for studying benzodiazepine pharmacology. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sex differences in effort-related decision-making: role of dopamine D2 receptor antagonism
ConclusionsThese data suggest that, although there are sex differences in training, HAL decreases behavior across sexes, demonstrating that the D2 mechanism is similar in both sexes. These findings provide a better understanding of motivational dysfunction in both sexes and potential treatment targets for depression. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Synergistic antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects of morphine and methyl 8-ethynyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-4 H -benzo[ f ]imidazo[1,5- a ][1,4]diazepine-3-carboxylate (MP-III-024): a positive allosteric modulator at α2GABA A and α3GABA A receptors
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate an interaction between α2GABAA and α3GABAA receptor- and μ-opioid receptor-mediated signals and suggest that combination therapy may be useful for the treatment of pain-related disorders. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Long acting aripiprazole influences cognitive functions in recent onset schizophrenia
This study examined the short-term influence of aripiprazole long-acting injectable (LAI) as well as of COMT, MTHFR, and SERT gene polymorphisms and their interactions on clinical features and cognitive functions in inpatients with recent onset schizophrenia.MethodsThis study included 98 inpatients suffering from recent onset schizophrenia diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria. Three months after initiating aripiprazole LAI, the severity of symptoms was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), while cognitive functions were measured by 5-KOG test for cognition. Genotypes of SERT, MTHFR, and COMT gene w...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroprotective phosphatidylserine liposomes alleviate depressive-like behavior related to stroke through neuroinflammation attenuation in the mouse hippocampus
ConclusionOral PSL may improve post-stroke depression  (PSD) through its anti-inflammatory properties. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The intoxicated co-witness: effects of alcohol and dyadic discussion on memory conformity and event recall
ConclusionsPossible alcohol-related and social-cognitive mechanisms are discussed which may contribute to the current findings as well as applied implications for interviewing intoxicated witnesses. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Inhaled corticosteroids as treatment for adolescent asthma: effects on adult anxiety-related outcomes in a murine model
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05778-y (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Distinct association of plasma BDNF concentration and cognitive function in depressed patients treated with vortioxetine or escitalopram
AbstractRationaleCognitive dysfunction is frequent in major depressive disorder (MDD), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved both in regulation of cognition and in therapeutic response in MDD.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine if baseline plasma BDNF might predict change in cognitive function in MDD patients treated with vortioxetine or escitalopram, and whether the alterations in BDNF levels correlate with changes in cognitive performance during treatment.MethodsDrug-naive or drug-free patients with MDD (N=121) were sampled and evaluated at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment initiation w...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond abstinence and relapse II: momentary relationships between stress, craving, and lapse within clusters of patients with similar patterns of drug use
ConclusionsPeople who share similar patterns of drug-use during treatment also tend to share similarities with respect to psychological processes that surround instances of use, such as stress-induced craving. Cluster analysis combined with smartphone-based experience sampling provides an effective strategy for studying how drug use is related to personal and environmental factors. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Functional observation after morphine withdrawal: effects of SJP-005
ConclusionCompared to placebo, SJP-005 significantly reduced the incidence and duration of discontinuation-induced morphine withdrawal symptoms when treatment was initiated 2 days before morphine cessation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Amitifadine, a triple reuptake inhibitor, reduces self-administration of the opiate remifentanil in rats
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05794-y (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Samelisant (SUVN-G3031), a potent, selective and orally active histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist for the potential treatment of narcolepsy: pharmacological and neurochemical characterisation
ConclusionsPre-clinical studies of Samelisant (SUVN-G3031) provide a strong support for utility in the treatment of sleep-related disorders related to EDS and is currently being evaluated in a phase 2 proof of concept study in the USA for the treatment of narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The role of microglia in chronic pain and depression: innocent bystander or culprit?
This article summarizes the role of microglia in chronic pain, depression, and comorbidities, which is conducive to finding new targets to treat chronic pain and depression. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Combined effect of alcohol and cannabis on simulated driving
AbstractRationaleWith alcohol and cannabis remaining the most commonly detected drugs in seriously and fatally injured drivers, there is a need to understand their combined effects on driving.ObjectivesThe present study examined the effects of combinations of smoked cannabis (12.5% THC) and alcohol (target BrAC 0.08%) on simulated driving performance, subjective drug effects, cardiovascular measures, and self-reported perception of driving ability.MethodsIn this within-subjects, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, cannabis users (1 –7 days/week) aged 19–29 years attended f...
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations between opioid dependence and sweet taste preference
ConclusionsAmong people currently dependent on opioids, reduced sensitivity to low levels of sweetness and increased preference for sweeter flavours may be associated with increased dependence on opioids. Among those who have ceased opioid use, the association between preference for sweeter flavours and duration of abstinence is a novel finding that deserves further investigation. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - February 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rapid and sustained decreases in suicidality following a single dose of ayahuasca among individuals with recurrent major depressive disorder: results from an open-label trial
ConclusionsWhen administered in the appropriate context, ayahuasca may lead to rapid and sustained reductions in suicidality among individuals with MDD. Randomized, double-blind studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm this early finding. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nicotine sensitization (part 1): estradiol or tamoxifen is required during the induction phase and not the expression phase to enable locomotor sensitization to nicotine in female rats
ConclusionsThe enhancing effects of E2 on nicotine sensitization occur during the induction phase of nicotine sensitization, although require a delay to produce the effects on locomotor activity to nicotine, and may involve non-canonical estrogen pathways (e.g., activation of GPER1). (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sequential reversal learning: a new touchscreen schedule for assessing cognitive flexibility in mice
ConclusionsThis new schedule was feasible, easy to implement, and can provide a deeper understanding of the cognitive sub-processes during reversal. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Increased negative affect when combining early-life maternal deprivation with adolescent, but not adult, cocaine exposure in male rats: regulation of hippocampal FADD
ConclusionsAdolescence is a more vulnerable period, as compared to adulthood, to the combined impact of cocaine and early maternal deprivation, thus suggesting that the accumulation of stress early in life can anticipate the negative behavioral outcome associated with drug consumption. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nicotine sensitization (Part 2): Time spent in the centre of an open field sensitizes to repeated nicotine into the drug-free state in female rats
ConclusionRepeated nicotine sensitized the time spent in the centre of an open field with the long-lasting sensitization of this measure of anxiety-like behaviour evident in a drug-free state, in contrast to locomotor sensitization which does not persist in the drug-free state. The results suggest independence of the mechanisms of sensitization that underlie locomotor and anxiolytic effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prolonged ketamine infusion modulates limbic connectivity and induces sustained remission of treatment-resistant depression
AbstractKetamine produces a rapid antidepressant response in over 50% of adults with treatment-resistant depression. A long infusion of ketamine may provide durable remission of depressive symptoms, but the safety, efficacy, and neurobiological correlates are unknown. In this open-label, proof-of-principle study, adults with treatment-resistant depression (N = 23) underwent a 96-h infusion of intravenous ketamine (0.15 mg/kg/h titrated toward 0.6 mg/kg/h). Clonidine was co-administered to reduce psychotomimetic effects. We measured clinical response for 8 weeks post-infusion. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance ima...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Interest-activity symptom severity predicts response to ketamine infusion in treatment-resistant depression
AbstractBackgroundInterest and activity are part of the positive mood domain. Evidence suggests the symptom domain of interest-activity at baseline as a clinical predictor for treatment response to traditional antidepressants. However, whether this domain is related to the response to a single low-dose ketamine infusion remains unclear.MethodsSeventy-one patients with treatment-resistant depression were randomized to 3 treatment groups: a single 0.5 or 0.2  mg/kg ketamine or normal saline placebo infusion. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale before infusions and at post...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cannabinoid type 1 receptors in A2a neurons contribute to cocaine-environment association
ConclusionsThis study aids in mapping CB1R-dependent cocaine-induced behavioral adaptations onto distinct striatal neuron subtypes. A reduction of cocaine-induced locomotor activation in the D1- and A2a-Cnr1 knockout mice supports a role for CB1R function in the motor circuit. Furthermore, a lack of preference for cocaine-associated context in A2a-Cnr1 mice suggests that CB1Rs on A2a-neuron inhibitory terminals are necessary for either reward perception, memory consolidation, or recall. These results direct future investigations into CB1R-dependent adaptations underlying the development and persistence of substance use dis...
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ursolic acid ameliorates Nthy-ori 3-1 cells injury induced by IL-1 β through limiting MALAT1/miR-206/PTGS1 ceRNA network and NF-κB signaling pathway
ConclusionsUA treatment significantly relieved the injury of Nthy-ori 3-1 cells via inhibiting the ceRNA mechanism of MALAT1/miR-206/PTGS1 and inflammatory pathways, insinuating that UA may be helpful for the treatment of AIT. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of clonidine on progressive ratio schedule performance in Fmr1 knockout mice
ConclusionsOur findings show that clonidine alters operant behavior and serve as a caution for combining clonidine with behavioral therapies that rely on positive reinforcement. Further research using different murine behaviors (e.g., touchscreen tasks) or different animal models (e.g., knockout rats) is needed to explore the interaction between pharmaco- and behavioral therapy. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Antipsychotic potential of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor positive allosteric modulator GAT211: preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies
ConclusionTaken together, these findings support continued preclinical research regarding the usefulness of CB1R positive allosteric modulators as antipsychotics. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A randomized phase 1 single-dose polysomnography study of ASP8062, a GABA B receptor positive allosteric modulator
ConclusionsSingle-dose ASP8062 (35 and 70  mg) appeared to result in CNS penetration and enhanced GABAergic activity as measured by increases in slow-wave sleep and growth hormone release. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Differential effects of d - and l -enantiomers of govadine on distinct forms of cognitive flexibility and a comparison with dopaminergic drugs
ConclusionsThese findings further highlight differences between two enantiomers ofd,l-govadine that may reflect differential modulation of D1 and D2 receptors. These preclinical findings give further impetus to formal clinical evaluation ofd-govadine as a treatment for cognitive deficiencies related to schizophrenia. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Classic serotonergic psychedelics for mood and depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of mood disorder patients and healthy participants
ConclusionDespite the concerns over unblinding and expectancy, the strength of the effect sizes, fast onset, and enduring therapeutic effects of these psychotherapeutic agents encourage further double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials assessing them for management of negative mood and depressive symptoms. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lever-press duration as a measure of frustration in sucrose and drug reinforcement
ConclusionsThese data also show that average bar-press durations do not correlate with the number of bar presses, meaning that press duration is an independent measurement that represents a behavioral construct distinct from craving, which is typically measured with number of bar presses. Essentially, these results support that bar press durations can be used as a real-time measure of frustration as a 4th major facet of addiction-related behavior, adding to craving, impulsivity, and habit. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Is the decrease in NO x due to a lack of substrate or a NOS inhibition in patients with major depression?
(Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - January 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research