Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID ‐19: Real‐World Experience Assessing Mortality
ConclusionsWe report from a large retrospective multinational database analysis of COVID ‐19 outcomes with HCQ and overall mortality in hospitalized patients. There was no statistically significant increase in mortality and mortality‐arrhythmia with HCQ or HCQ‐AZ. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Frank H. Annie, Cristian Sirbu, Keely R. Frazier, Mike Broce, B. Daniel Lucas Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, Volume 40, Issue 11, Page 1069-1071, November 2020. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Differences in predicted warfarin dosing requirements between Hmong and East Asians using genotype ‐based dosing algorithms
AbstractIntroductionWarfarin ’s narrow therapeutic index and high variability in dosage requirements make dosage selection critical. Genetic factors are known to impact warfarin dosage selection. The Hmong are a unique Asian sub‐population numbering over 278,000 in the United States whose participation in genetic‐based re search is virtually non‐existent. The translational significance of early reports of warfarin pharmacogene differences in Hmong has not been evaluated.Objectives1): To validate previously identified allele frequency differences relevant to warfarin dosing in Hmong versus East Asians; and 2): T...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Boguang Sun, Ya ‐Feng Wen, Kathleen A. Culhane‐Pera, Muaj Lo, Txia Xiong, Koobmeej Lee, Kerui Peng, Bharat Thyagarajan, Jeffrey R. Bishop, Heather Zierhut, Robert J. Straka Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

First ‐Dose Vancomycin Pharmacokinetics Versus Empiric Dosing on Area‐Under‐the‐Curve Target Attainment in Critically Ill Patients
ConclusionsA dosing strategy using two vancomycin serum concentrations following the first dose and calculating personalized pharmacokinetic parameters to guide subsequent dosing is associated with greater AUC target attainment at SS compared to empiric dosing of vancomycin in critically ill adults with relatively stable renal function. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alexander H. Flannery, Natalie L. Delozier, Samuel A. Effoe, Katie L. Wallace, Aaron M. Cook, David S. Burgess Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Complementary Use of U.S. FDA ’s Adverse Event Reporting System and Sentinel System to Characterize Direct Oral Anticoagulants‐Associated Cutaneous Small Vessel Vasculitis
ConclusionsThe assessment of FAERS cases, combined with the temporal clustering of the Sentinel System cases suggest a possible causal relationship of DOACs and CSVV. Future efforts should characterize the risk of CSVV among the various DOAC users. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mohamed Mohamoud, Casie Horgan, Efe Eworuke, Elizabeth Dee, Justin Bohn, Oren Shapira, Monica A. Munoz, Danijela Stojanovic, Veronica Sansing ‐Foster, Adebola Ajao, Lois La Grenade Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Use of Direct ‐acting Oral Anticoagulants in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Systematic Review
AbstractThe use of direct ‐acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has increased secondary to the mounting evidence for comparable efficacy and potentially superior safety to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in the general population. However, insufficient data regarding DOAC use in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and numer ous pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations limit their use in this highly selected patient population. A systematic review of recent clinical evidence on the safety and efficacy of DOACs compared to VKAs in SOT recipients was conducted. Additional considerations including transplant‐sp ec...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alexandra L. Bixby, Alicia B. Lichvar, David Salerno, Jeong M. Park Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

Advances in Personalized Medicine and Non ‐Invasive Diagnostics in Solid Organ Transplantation
AbstractPersonalized medicine has been a mainstay and in practice in transplant pharmacotherapy since the advent of the field. Decisions pertaining to the diagnosis, selection, and monitoring of transplant pharmacotherapy are aimed toward the individual, the allograft, and the overall immunologic needs of the patient. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics, non ‐invasive biomarkers and artificial intelligence technologies have the promise of transforming the way we individualize treatment and monitor allograft function. Pharmacogenomic testing can provide clinicians with additional data that can minimize toxicity and maximi...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Angela Q Maldonado, Patricia West ‐Thielke, Kayla Joyal, Christin Rogers Marks Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

Use of Direct ‐acting Oral Anticoagulants in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Systematic Review
AbstractThe use of direct ‐acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has increased secondary to the mounting evidence for comparable efficacy and potentially superior safety to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in the general population. However, insufficient data regarding DOAC use in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and numer ous pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations limit their use in this highly selected patient population. A systematic review of recent clinical evidence on the safety and efficacy of DOACs compared to VKAs in SOT recipients was conducted. Additional considerations including transplant‐sp ec...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alexandra L. Bixby, Alicia B. Lichvar, David Salerno, Jeong M. Park Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

Advances in Personalized Medicine and Non ‐Invasive Diagnostics in Solid Organ Transplantation
AbstractPersonalized medicine has been a mainstay and in practice in transplant pharmacotherapy since the advent of the field. Decisions pertaining to the diagnosis, selection, and monitoring of transplant pharmacotherapy are aimed toward the individual, the allograft, and the overall immunologic needs of the patient. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics, non ‐invasive biomarkers and artificial intelligence technologies have the promise of transforming the way we individualize treatment and monitor allograft function. Pharmacogenomic testing can provide clinicians with additional data that can minimize toxicity and maximi...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Angela Q Maldonado, Patricia West ‐Thielke, Kayla Joyal, Christin Rogers Marks Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

Considerations and Controversies of Pharmacologic Management of the Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipient
AbstractPediatric kidney transplantation has experienced considerable growth and improvement in patient and allograft outcomes over the past 20 years, in part due to advancements in immunosuppressive regimens and management. Despite this progress, care for this unique population can be challenging due to limited pediatric transplant data and trials, intricacies related to differences in children and adolescents compared to their adult counterparts, and limitations to long ‐term survival facing all solid organ transplant populations. Immunosuppression and infection prevention practices vary from one pediatric transplant c...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rochelle Liverman, Mary Moss Chandran, Barrett Crowther Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

Evaluation of Guideline Recommendations for Dual Antipseudomonal Therapy in Hospitalized Adults with Pneumonia Using Combination Antibiograms
ConclusionsRisk factors necessitating dual antipseudomonal therapy for pneumonia should be locally validated. When dual antipseudomonal therapy is indicated, tobramycin or amikacin have the best likelihood of providing adequate in vitro activity. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Quyen Luu, Kaylee Vitale, Guogen Shan, Rebecca Jayakumar, Velliyur Viswesh Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Choice of Acid Suppressant Therapy and Long ‐Term Graft Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation
ConclusionsThere was no difference in renal function, rejection, or graft loss between PPI and H2RA treated patients. The majority of patients were maintained on PPI therapy for several years posttransplant without a clear indication; critical evaluation of ongoing need for acid suppressant therapy in the posttransplant course should be an area of future focus. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Spenser E. January, Kristin Progar, Nicole M. Nesselhauf, Jennifer C. Hagopian, Andrew F. Malone Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Tacrolimus Intrapatient Variability in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Multiorgan Perspective
ConclusionsHigh tacrolimus IPV has been associated with poor outcomes including acute rejection, dnDSA formation, graft loss, and patient mortality in SOT recipients. Future research should prospectively explore IPV ‐directed interventions to improve transplant outcomes. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lauren Schumacher, Abbie D. Leino, Jeong M. Park Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

Immunosuppression Trends in Solid Organ Transplantation: The Future of Individualization, Monitoring, and Management
AbstractImmunosuppression regimens used in solid organ transplant have evolved significantly over the past 70 years in the United States. Early immunosuppression and targets for allograft success were measured by incidence and severity of allograft rejection and 1 ‐year patient survival. The limited number of agents, infancy of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching techniques and lack of understanding of immunoreactivity limited the early development of effective regimens. The 1980s and 90s saw incredible advancements in these areas, with acute rejection r ates halving in a short span of time. However, the constant stru...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nicole A. Pilch, Lyndsey J. Bowman, David J. Taber Tags: TI ON TRANSPLANTATION Source Type: research

The Impact of Pre ‐transplant Opioid Exposure on Healthcare Utilization and Costs in Kidney Transplant
ConclusionThis study demonstrated that recent exposure to opioids prior to kidney transplant was significantly and independently associated with increased readmissions and readmission costs at multiple timepoints up to 1 year post ‐transplant, as well as chronic opioid use after transplant. Because opioid use is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to continue to study the association of opioid use, and potential for disease‐modifying interactions, with various clinical outcomes. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bailey Wise, Lytani Z Wilson, David J Taber, Nicole A Pilch, Vinayak Rohan, James N Fleming Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Optimization of Vancomycin Dosing Regimen in Cancer Patients using Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling
ConclusionsThe findings of this study showed that the cancer patients have lower levels of vancomycin due to higher clearance than non ‐cancer patients. Thus, higher doses than the standard vancomycin doses may be needed to treat invasive Methicillin‐resistantStaphylococcus aureus infections in cancer patients. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saeed Alqahtani, Abdullah Almatrafi, Norah Bin Aydan, Meshari Alqahtani, Faisal Alzamil, Abdullah Alsultan, Yousif Asiri Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, Volume 40, Issue 10, Page 989-991, October 2020. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Prescription Medication Use in Older Adults Without Major Cardiovascular Disease Enrolled in the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) Clinical Trial
ConclusionOverall medication burden and polypharmacy are low in older adults free of major cardiovascular disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications is higher than previously reported and similar to more vulnerable populations as a result of the introduction of proton ‐pump inhibitors to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. Longitudinal follow‐up is required to further understand the balance of benefits and risks for potentially inappropriate medications and polypharmacy in community‐dwelling older people. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jessica E. Lockery, Michael E. Ernst, Jonathan C. Broder, Suzanne G. Orchard, Anne Murray, Mark R. Nelson, Nigel P. Stocks, Rory Wolfe, Christopher M. Reid, Danny Liew, Robyn L. Woods, the ASPREE Investigator Group Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Drug ‐Induced Ototoxicity: A Comprehensive Review and Reference Guide
ConclusionThe effect and severity of ototoxicity can vary immensely depending on pharmacological and individual patient risk factors. The intent of this comprehensive review was to help health care providers of all sectors obtain a deeper knowledge of drug ‐induced ototoxicity to make more informed management decisions for their patients. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Habib G. Rizk, Joshua A. Lee, Yuan F. Liu, Lauren Endriukaitis, Julianne L. Isaac, Wendy M. Bullington Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

CBD and THC: Do they complement each other like yin and yang?
This article thus analyzes the scientific evidence available to support or disprove the idea that presence of CBD is beneficial and can exude a protective effect against THC. A thorough review of relevant literature, a basis from which to interpret such evidence through a critical mechanistic discussion, and the implications for patients are presented in this article. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sarah D. Pennypacker, E. Alfonso Romero ‐Sandoval Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Drug ‐Induced Ototoxicity: A Comprehensive Review and Reference Guide
ConclusionThe effect and severity of ototoxicity can vary immensely depending on pharmacological and individual patient risk factors. The intent of this comprehensive review was to help health care providers of all sectors obtain a deeper knowledge of drug ‐induced ototoxicity to make more informed management decisions for their patients. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Habib G. Rizk, Joshua A. Lee, Yuan F. Liu, Lauren Endriukaitis, Julianne L. Isaac, Wendy M. Bullington Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

CBD and THC: Do they complement each other like yin and yang?
This article thus analyzes the scientific evidence available to support or disprove the idea that presence of CBD is beneficial and can exude a protective effect against THC. A thorough review of relevant literature, a basis from which to interpret such evidence through a critical mechanistic discussion, and the implications for patients are presented in this article. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sarah D. Pennypacker, E. Alfonso Romero ‐Sandoval Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Prescription Medication Use in Older Adults Without Major Cardiovascular Disease Enrolled in the Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) Clinical Trial
ConclusionOverall medication burden and polypharmacy are low in older adults free of major cardiovascular disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. The prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications is higher than previously reported and similar to more vulnerable populations as a result of the introduction of proton ‐pump inhibitors to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria. Longitudinal follow‐up is required to further understand the balance of benefits and risks for potentially inappropriate medications and polypharmacy in community‐dwelling older people. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jessica E. Lockery, Michael E. Ernst, Jonathan C. Broder, Suzanne G. Orchard, Anne Murray, Mark R. Nelson, Nigel P. Stocks, Rory Wolfe, Christopher M. Reid, Danny Liew, Robyn L. Woods, the ASPREE Investigator Group Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Issue Information
Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy, Volume 40, Issue 10, Page 989-991, October 2020. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Proton pump inhibitor utilization in veteran patients on combined antithrombotic therapy and validation of simplified bleeding risk score
This study reports an overall rate of PPI co ‐therapy in patients on CAT of 40.9% (484/1181), with only 22.3% of patients on CAT receiving PPI for GIB prophylaxis. There was no difference in the mean follow up duration of PPI users and PPI co‐therapy (264.01 vs.271.92 days; p=0.3761). Current alcohol use (p=0.005), current smokers (p=0.022 ), chronic kidney disease (p=0.004), peptic ulcer disease (p
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tanvi Patil, Kimberly Murphy, Laura Woodard, Morgan Lebrecht Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetic study of vancomycin in Chinese pediatric patients with hematological malignancies
ConclusionsA PPK model of vancomycin was established for Chinese pediatric patients with hematological malignancies using a NONMEM, which provided a reference for the clinical application of vancomycin. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Huijuan Wang, Lingfei Huang, Junyan Wang, Yinghua Ni, Zhengyi Zhu, Peng Gao, Yan Hu, Liwen Zhang, Jufei Yang, Luo Fang Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Analgesia and Sedation Strategies in Mechanically Ventilated Adults with COVID ‐19
AbstractEvidence ‐based management of analgesia and sedation in COVID‐19‐associated acute respiratory distress syndrome remains limited. Non‐guideline recommended analgesic and sedative medication regimens and deeper sedation targets have been employed for patients with COVID‐19 due to exaggerated analgesi a and sedation requirements with extended durations of mechanical ventilation. This, coupled with a desire to minimize nurse entry into COVID‐19 patient rooms, marked obesity, altered end‐organ function, and evolving medication shortages, presents numerous short‐ and long‐term challenges. Al ternative a...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christopher D. Adams, Jerry Altshuler, Brooke L. Barlow, Deepali Dixit, Christopher A. Droege, Muhammad K. Effendi, Mojdeh S. Heavner, Jackie P. Johnston, Amy L. Kiskaddon, Diana Lemieux, Steven M. Lemieux, Audrey J. Littlefield, Kent A Owusu, Tags: INVITED COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Cefiderocol: A Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin against Multidrug ‐Resistant Gram‐Negative Pathogens
AbstractCefiderocol (CFDC), (formerly S ‐649266), is a novel injectable siderophore cephalosporin developed by Shionogi& Co., Ltd., with potentin vitro activity against Gram ‐negative pathogens including multidrug‐resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae and non‐fermenting organisms such asPseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii,Burkholderia cepacia, andStenotrophomonas maltophilia. Characterized by its siderophore catechol ‐moiety, CFDC uses a “trojan‐horse approach” to navigate through the bacterial periplasmic space thus, evading various beta‐lactam degrading enzymes and other mechanisms o...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jacinda C. Abdul ‐Mutakabbir, Sara Alosaimy, Taylor Morrisette, Razieh Kebriaei, Michael J. Rybak Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Analgesia and Sedation Strategies in Mechanically Ventilated Adults with COVID ‐19
AbstractEvidence ‐based management of analgesia and sedation in COVID‐19‐associated acute respiratory distress syndrome remains limited. Non‐guideline recommended analgesic and sedative medication regimens and deeper sedation targets have been employed for patients with COVID‐19 due to exaggerated analgesi a and sedation requirements with extended durations of mechanical ventilation. This, coupled with a desire to minimize nurse entry into COVID‐19 patient rooms, marked obesity, altered end‐organ function, and evolving medication shortages, presents numerous short‐ and long‐term challenges. Al ternative a...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christopher D. Adams, Jerry Altshuler, Brooke L. Barlow, Deepali Dixit, Christopher A. Droege, Muhammad K. Effendi, Mojdeh S. Heavner, Jackie P. Johnston, Amy L. Kiskaddon, Diana Lemieux, Steven M. Lemieux, Audrey J. Littlefield, Kent A Owusu, Tags: INVITED COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Analgesia and Sedation Strategies in Mechanically Ventilated Adults with COVID ‐19 COVID‐19
AbstractEvidence ‐based management of analgesia and sedation in COVID‐19‐associated acute respiratory distress syndrome remains limited. Non‐guideline recommended analgesic and sedative medication regimens and deeper sedation targets have been employed for patients with COVID‐19 due to exaggerated analgesi a and sedation requirements with extended durations of mechanical ventilation. This, coupled with a desire to minimize nurse entry into COVID‐19 patient rooms, marked obesity, altered end‐organ function, and evolving medication shortages, presents numerous short‐ and long‐term challenges. Al ternative a...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christopher D. Adams, Jerry Altshuler, Brooke L. Barlow, Deepali Dixit, Christopher A. Droege, Muhammad K. Effendi, Mojdeh S. Heavner, Jackie P. Johnston, Amy L. Kiskaddon, Diana G. Lemieux, Steven M. Lemieux, Audrey J. Littlefield, Kent A Owu Tags: INVITED COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Cefiderocol: A Novel Siderophore Cephalosporin against Multidrug ‐Resistant Gram‐Negative Pathogens
AbstractCefiderocol (CFDC), (formerly S ‐649266), is a novel injectable siderophore cephalosporin developed by Shionogi& Co., Ltd., with potentin vitro activity against Gram ‐negative pathogens including multidrug‐resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae and non‐fermenting organisms such asPseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii,Burkholderia cepacia, andStenotrophomonas maltophilia. Characterized by its siderophore catechol ‐moiety, CFDC uses a “trojan‐horse approach” to navigate through the bacterial periplasmic space thus, evading various beta‐lactam degrading enzymes and other mechanisms o...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jacinda C. Abdul ‐Mutakabbir, Sara Alosaimy, Taylor Morrisette, Razieh Kebriaei, Michael J. Rybak Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Using Child ‐Pugh Class to Optimize Voriconazole Dosage Regimens and Improve Safety in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Insights from a Population Pharmacokinetic Model‐based Analysis
AbstractBackgroundCirrhotic patients are at a high risk of fungal infections. Voriconazole is widely used as prophylaxis and in the treatment of invasive fungal disease. However, the safety, pharmacokinetics and optimal regimens of voriconazole are currently not well defined in cirrhotic patients.DesignRetrospective pharmacokinetics studySettingTwo large, academic, tertiary ‐care medical center.PatientsTwo hundred and nineteen plasma trough concentrations (Cmin) from 120 cirrhotic patients and 83 plasma concentrations from 11 non ‐cirrhotic patients were included.MethodsData pertaining to voriconazole were collected re...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taotao Wang, Miao Yan, Dan Tang, Yuzhu Dong, Li Zhu, Qian Du, Dan Sun, Jianfeng Xing, Yalin Dong Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Associated with Tofacitinib and Baricitinib: A Systematic Review and indirect Meta ‐Analysis
ConclusionsTofacitinib is not associated with an increased risk of VTE and has a superior safety profile to baricitinib in this respect. Tofacitinib may exert a protective effect against VTE. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teresa Gim énez Poderós, Sara Gallardo Borge, Pedro Vazquez‐Ferreiro Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Using Child ‐Pugh Class to Optimize Voriconazole Dosage Regimens and Improve Safety in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: Insights from a Population Pharmacokinetic Model‐based Analysis
AbstractBackgroundCirrhotic patients are at a high risk of fungal infections. Voriconazole is widely used as prophylaxis and in the treatment of invasive fungal disease. However, the safety, pharmacokinetics and optimal regimens of voriconazole are currently not well defined in cirrhotic patients.DesignRetrospective pharmacokinetics studySettingTwo large, academic, tertiary ‐care medical center.PatientsTwo hundred and nineteen plasma trough concentrations (Cmin) from 120 cirrhotic patients and 83 plasma concentrations from 11 non ‐cirrhotic patients were included.MethodsData pertaining to voriconazole were collected re...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taotao Wang, Miao Yan, Dan Tang, Yuzhu Dong, Li Zhu, Qian Du, Dan Sun, Jianfeng Xing, Yalin Dong Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Risk of Venous Thromboembolism Associated with Tofacitinib and Baricitinib: A Systematic Review and indirect Meta ‐Analysis
ConclusionsTofacitinib is not associated with an increased risk of VTE and has a superior safety profile to baricitinib in this respect. Tofacitinib may exert a protective effect against VTE. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teresa Gim énez Poderós, Sara Gallardo Borge, Pedro Vazquez‐Ferreiro Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized COVID ‐19 patients: Real world experience assessing mortality
ConclusionsWe report from a large retrospective multinational database analysis of COVID ‐19 outcomes with HCQ and overall mortality in hospitalized patients. There was no statistically significant increase in mortality and mortality/arrhythmia with HCQ or HCQ/AZ. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Frank H. Annie, Cristian Sirbu, Keely R. Frazier, Mike Broce, B. Daniel Lucas Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluation of guideline recommendations for dual antipseudomonal therapy in hospitalized adults with pneumonia using combination antibiograms
ConclusionRisk factors necessitating dual antipseudomonal therapy for pneumonia should be locally validated. When dual antipseudomonal therapy is indicated, tobramycin or amikacin have the best likelihood of providing adequatein vitro activity. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Quyen Luu, Kaylee Vitale, Guogen Shan, Rebecca Jayakumar, Velliyur Viswesh Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Choice of Acid Suppressant Therapy and Long ‐Term Graft Outcomes after Kidney Transplantation
ConclusionThere was no difference in renal function, rejection, or graft loss between PPI and H2RA treated patients. The majority of patients were maintained on PPI therapy for several years post ‐transplant without a clear indication; critical evaluation of ongoing need for acid suppressant therapy in the post‐transplant course should be an area of future focus. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Spenser E. January, Kristin Progar, Nicole M. Nesselhauf, Jennifer C. Hagopian, Andrew F. Malone Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Complementary Use of U.S. FDA ’s Adverse Event Reporting System and Sentinel System to Characterize Direct Oral Anticoagulants‐Associated Cutaneous Small Vessel Vasculitis
ConclusionsThe assessment of FAERS cases, combined with the temporal clustering of the Sentinel System cases suggest a possible causal relationship of DOACs and CSVV. Future efforts should characterize the risk of CSVV among the various DOAC users. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mohamed Mohamoud, Casie Horgan, Efe Eworuke, Elizabeth Dee, Justin Bohn, Oren Shapira, Monica A. Munoz, Danijela Stojanovic, Veronica Sansing ‐Foster, Adebola Ajao, Lois La Grenade Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Acetylcysteine for the Treatment of Suspected Remdesivir ‐Associated Acute Liver Failure in COVID‐19: A Case Series
AbstractRemdesivir is a direct ‐acting nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor with activity against the novel SARS‐CoV‐2 virus used in the treatment of COVID‐19 pneumonia. Here we present two cases of suspected remdesivir ‐associated acute liver failure (ALF) in which the liver failure improved following continuous infusion acetylcysteine and withdrawal of remdesivir. Both patients had significant increases in transaminases between day 3 and day 10 of remdesivir therapy accompanied by coagulopathy and encephalopath y. After initiation of continuous infusion acetylcysteine, the transaminases of both patients rapidly ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - October 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chancey Carothers, Kara Birrer, Mai Vo Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research