Optimizing Rapid Diagnostics and Diagnostic Stewardship in Gram ‐Negative Bacteremia
AbstractAntimicrobial resistance remains a high global concern, as it is associated with prolonged hospitalizations, increased morbidity and mortality, and escalating health care-related costs. Rapid diagnostic technology (RDT) has become the cornerstone in achieving prompt blood culture results providing a quicker initiation of optimal therapy, decreased mortality, and decreased spread of resistance. To maximize the benefits of RDTs, antimicrobial stewardship programs must implement a diagnostic stewardship (DS) subgroup to optimize communication, education, and interpretation of RDT results within the health care system....
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jamie L. Wagner, Kylie C. Markovich, Katie E. Barber, Kayla R. Stover, Lauren R. Biehle Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Impact of CYP3A5 Phenotype on Tacrolimus Time in Therapeutic Range and Clinical Outcomes in Pediatric Renal and Heart Transplant Recipients
This study investigated the effect of CYP3A5 phenotype on time in therapeutic range (TTR) of tacrolimus post-transplant in pediatric patients. Clinical records of pediatric kidney and heart recipients with availableCYP3A5 genotype were reviewed for tacrolimus dosing, troughs, and the clinical events (biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR] andde novo donor-specific antibodies [dnDSA]). The primary outcome, mean TTR in the first 90 days post-transplant, was 9.0% (95% CI: -16.1, -1.9) lower in CYP3A5 expressers (P=0.014) when adjusting for time to therapeutic concentration and organ type. There was no difference between CYP3A5 ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Abbie D. Leino, Jeong M. Park, Amy L. Pasternak Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Therapeutic review of cabotegravir/rilpivirine  long‐acting antiretroviral injectable and implementation considerations at an HIV specialty clinic
AbstractCabotegravir/rilpivirine (CAB/RPV) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first complete parenteral antiretroviral (ART) regimen for treatment of people living with HIV (PLWH). As a monthly intramuscular (IM) injection, this therapy constitutes a major departure from the traditional paradigm of oral therapy requiring (at least) daily administration that has defined HIV treatment for decades. Composed of a second-generation integrase inhibitor (INSTI) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), CAB/RPV has achieved high rates of sustained virologic suppression with a...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zach W. Howe, Sarah Norman, Abbie F. Lueken, Emily Huesgen, Eric K. Farmer, Kaitlyn Jarrell, Joscelyn E. Mathis, Kyle W. Bonham, Julie Hahn Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

The Immunomodulatory Effects of Opioids and Implications for Intensive Care Unit Populations
AbstractAnalgesia within the intensive care unit (ICU) is often achieved via the utilization of opioids in alignment with current guidelines. Recent evidence has not only demonstrated the potential impact of opioids in suppression of immune function, but also the potential harm of immunosuppression of patients within the ICU. Despite the potential immunosuppression seen with opioids in this at-risk population, their use remains frequent. In this review, we highlight the potential immunomodulatory impact of opioids within the critically ill and considerations for their use. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pha...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Breanne Mefford, J. Chris Donaldson, Brittany D. Bissell Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Risks and mitigation strategies to prevent etoposide infusion ‐related reactions in children
AbstractEtoposide is an antineoplastic agent widely used for treatment of many pediatric cancers. Etoposide has been associated with infusion-related reactions. In this brief report we compare etoposide infusion-related reactions that occurred over a 10-year period at two freestanding pediatric hospitals. Infusion reactions occurred in 1% of patients at two hospitals across the study period. Rates of 4.8%, 3.4%, and 7.9% were observed at Children ’s Mercy Hospital during 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively, after the implementation of in-line filters during etoposide infusions in late 2017. Of the 32 patients who expe...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Emma Tillman, Sarah L. Suppes, Nicholas Miles, Ashley M. Duty, Kelsey L. Kelley, Jennifer L. Goldman Tags: EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Outcomes of Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia Who Received an Active Anti ‐Pseudomonal β‐Lactam: Does “S” Equal Success in the Presence of Resistance to other Anti‐Pseudomonal β‐Lactams?
ConclusionFurther study is needed, but this exploratory analysis suggests that the full APBL susceptibility profile should be considered when selecting therapy for patients withP. aeruginosa HABP/VABP. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 8, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thomas P. Lodise, Laura A. Puzniak, Lie H. Chen, Yun Tian, Rong Wei, Theresa M. Im, Sara Y. Tartof Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A retrospective analysis of bleeding risk with rivaroxaban, enoxaparin, and aspirin following total joint arthroplasty or revision
ConclusionsAmong rivaroxaban, enoxaparin, and aspirin used for thromboprophylaxis in knee and hip arthroplasty or revision, aspirin had significantly decreased odds of bleeding complications compared to enoxaparin. Although not statistically significant, aspirin also had a trend towards decreased odds of bleeding complications compared to rivaroxaban.Our study results suggest that aspirin is a safer alternative for use in postoperative thromboprophylaxis following lower extremity joint arthroplasty or revision. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 30, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paula J Watts, Michael Kopstein, Weston Harkness, Brendon Cornett, Oliwier Dziadkowiec, M. Elizabeth Hicks, Shakib Hassan, Dmitriy Scherbak Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis Comparing Post ‐operative Bleeding with Various Doses of Aspirin after Lower Extremity Joint Arthroplasty or Revision
ConclusionsThere were no significant differences in the odds of bleeding or venous thromboembolism among all studied aspirin dosages in patients receiving aspirin for thromboprophylaxis following lower extremity joint arthroplasty or revision. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paula J Watts, Michael Kopstein, Weston Harkness, Brendon Cornett, Oliwier Dziadkowiec, Patrick Jenkins, M. Elizabeth Hicks, Shakib Hassan, Dmitriy Scherbak Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

TT genotype of the MMP ‐9‐1562C/T polymorphism may be a risk factor for thrombolytic therapy‐induced hemorrhagic complications after acute ischemic stroke
AbstractIntroductionLevels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) influence recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) therapy response in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Serum levels of MMPs and TIMPs along with the expression of genes coding these proteins are related to the recovery and appearance of adverse effects (AE) after AIS. Consequently, it is important to explore whether polymorphisms in regulatory sequences of MMPs and TIMPs are associated with rtPA response in AIS patients.ObjectivesTo determine whether selected polymorphic variants withinMMP-2,MMP-9, andTIMP-2...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 28, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marija Dusanovic Pjevic, Biljana Jekic, Ljiljana Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljubica Vojvodic, Tatjana Damnjanovic, Milka Grk, Nela Maksimovic, Milica Pesic, Milica Gulic, Jelena Trickovic, Katarina Kacar Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

NONMEM population pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo dosing simulations of imipenem in critically ill patients with life ‐threatening severe infections during support with or without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an intensive care unit
ConclusionThe ECMO circuit had little effect on enhancing the PK changes of imipenem that had already occurred in critically ill patients. A high dosage of imipenem may be required for achieving the PK/pharmacodynamic targets against less susceptible pathogens, however, the dosage regimens in patients with renal impairment may not need to be as high as those required in patients with normal renal function. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 27, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sutep Jaruratanasirikul, Apinya Boonpeng, Monchana Nawakitrangsan, Maseetoh Samaeng Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Low ‐dose versus standard‐dose four‐factor prothrombin complex concentrate for factor‐Xa inhibitor reversal in spontaneous and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage
ConclusionFor the reversal of FXaI in ICH, a 25  IU/kg dose may be an effective alternative to 50 IU/kg 4PCC dosing. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 18, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ava E. Cascone, Mitchell J. Daley, Neil Pan, Eimeira Padilla ‐Tolentino, Truman J. Milling Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and safety of lefamulin after single intravenous dose administration in subjects with impaired ‐hepatic function
ConclusionLefamulin was generally well tolerated. Differences in lefamulin and BC-8041 pharmacokinetics were small, relative to the overall variability, and any changes appear to be compensated by increases in renal clearance and decreased protein binding. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wolfgang W. Wicha, Thomas C. Marbury, James A. Dowell, Jared L. Crandon, Cathie Leister, James Ermer, Steven P. Gelone Tags: EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and safety of lefamulin after single intravenous dose administration in subjects with impaired renal function and those requiring hemodialysis
AbstractStudy ObjectiveLefamulin is a novel IV and oral pleuromutilin recently approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Given that renal comorbidities are common in patients admitted for CABP, understanding the pharmacokinetics of lefamulin in the face of severe renal impairment, including those requiring hemodialysis, is needed.DesignOpen-label, Phase-1 pharmacokinetic study.SettingResearch Study Center.PatientsTwenty-three matched subjects were included, seven with “Normal” renal function (creatinine clearance>90  ml/min), eight with “Severe” renal impai...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wolfgang W. Wicha, Thomas C. Marbury, James A. Dowell, Jared L. Crandon, Cathie Leister, James Ermer, Steven P. Gelone Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Reduced Alternative Insulin Dosing in Hyperkalemia: a Meta ‐Analysis of Effects on Hypoglycemia and Potassium Reduction
AbstractObjectiveRecent studies have identified that reduced alternative intravenous insulin doses, such as 5 units or 0.1 units/kg, may reduce the risk of hypoglycemia compared to standard doses of 10 units in patients treated for hyperkalemia. However, some studies suggest that these alternative doses may reduce the ability to lower serum potassium. This meta-analysis was performed to determine the impact of alternative insulin dosing on hypoglycemia and potassium reduction in patients with hyperkalemia.MethodsPubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Ovid, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception through November 2020 for stu...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 16, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kayvan Moussavi, Joshua Garcia, Eglis Tellez ‐Corrales, Scott Fitter Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluation of Dosing Strategies and Trough Concentrations of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration
AbstractBackgroundRecommendations regarding vancomycin dosing in critically ill patients on continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current dosing practices of pharmacists for patients treated with CVVH, develop guidelines for optimal dosing and monitoring of vancomycin to improve target trough attainment, and reduce pharmacist workload.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was performed of critically ill adult patients at an academic medical center in Detroit, Michigan, from January 2015 to December 2018. Patients were included if they received vancomycin during CVV...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 8, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Krista A. Wahby, Lejla Cunmaljaj, Karim Mouabbi, Zinah Almadrahi, Liz Wilpula Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Glucagon: Its Evolving Role in the Management of Hypoglycemia
This article discusses the evidence surrounding new glucagon formulations compared to the original glucagon emergency kit including ease of use, efficacy, and safety with a focus on important patient counseling points and relevant clinical information on hypoglycemia. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 8, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Diana Isaacs, Jennifer Clements, Neil Turco, Rachel Hartman Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Achievement of goal anti ‐Xa activity with weight‐based enoxaparin dosing for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in trauma patients
ConclusionsThe use of initial weight-based enoxaparin dosing in trauma patients routinely achieved the prespecified target anti-Xa goal. In conclusion, anti-Xa levels are not necessary for routine monitoring of weight-based enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Incidence of clinically significant bleeding and newly diagnosed VTE were similar to previous studies. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 7, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ashley Taylor, Ellen Huang, Jennifer Waller, Cassandra White, Patricia Martinez ‐Quinones, Tim Robinson Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pre ‐transplant Amiodarone Use Does Not Affect Long‐Term Heart Transplant Survival
AbstractPurposeEffect of pre-transplant amiodarone use on post heart transplant (HT) survival is not well established. We therefore sought to examine the effect of amiodarone use on post HT survival.MethodsWe stratified adults who underwent HT between January 2000 and August 2018 in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients according to pre-transplant amiodarone use and used recipient and donor characteristics to calculate propensity scores. We then used overlap propensity score weighting to construct Cox proportional hazards regression models (adjusted for Index for Mortality Prediction After Cardiac Transplantatio...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Douglas L. Jennings, Naga Vaishnavi Gadela, Abhishek Jaiswal, Amanda Touch, William L. Baker Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE ARTICLE Source Type: research

2,5TT genotype of the MMP ‐9‐1562C/T polymorphism may be a risk factor for thrombolytic therapy‐induced hemorrhagic complications after acute ischemic stroke
AbstractIntroductionLevels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) influence recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) therapy response in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Serum levels of MMPs and TIMPs along with the expression of genes coding these proteins are related to the recovery and appearance of adverse effects (AE) after AIS. Consequently, it is important to explore whether polymorphisms in regulatory sequences of MMPs and TIMPs are associated with rtPA response in AIS patients.ObjectivesTo determine whether selected polymorphic variants withinMMP ‐2,MMP ‐9, and...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marija Dusanovic Pjevic, Biljana Jekic, Ljiljana Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljubica Vojvodic, Tatjana Damnjanovic, Milka Grk, Nela Maksimovic, Milica Pesic, Milica Gulic, Jelena Trickovic, Katarina Kacar Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

2,5TT genotype of the MMP ‐9‐1562C/T polymorphism may be a risk factor for thrombolytic therapy‐induced hemorrhagic complications after acute ischemic stroke
AbstractIntroductionLevels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) influence recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) therapy response in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Serum levels of MMPs and TIMPs along with the expression of genes coding these proteins are related to the recovery and appearance of adverse effects (AE) after AIS. Consequently, it is important to explore whether polymorphisms in regulatory sequences of MMPs and TIMPs are associated with rtPA response in AIS patients.ObjectivesTo determine whether selected polymorphic variants withinMMP-2,MMP-9, andTIMP-2...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marija Dusanovic Pjevic, Biljana Jekic, Ljiljana Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljubica Vojvodic, Tatjana Damnjanovic, Milka Grk, Nela Maksimovic, Milica Pesic, Milica Gulic, Jelena Trickovic, Katarina Kacar Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Elbasvir/grazoprevir administered for 12 weeks via Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Achieves Sustained Virologic Response: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature
This report describes the first case of a pegylated-interferon and ribavirin treatment-experienced patient who successfully achieved HCV cure after 12 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir administered via percutaneous gastrostomy tube. We further review the available pharmacokinetic and clinical literature regarding administration via enteral feeding tubes for all first-line direct acting antivirals (DAAs). The literature suggests that crushed administration can be considered for DAAs in patients with gastric access. However, caution should be exercised in patients with extragastric enteral tubes and in those with altered gastroi...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 2, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rajeev B. Shah, Katy L. Garrett, Amy L. Brotherton, Amanda J. Noska Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Elbasvir/grazoprevir administered for 12 weeks via Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Achieves Sustained Virologic Response: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature
This report describes the first case of a pegylated‐interferon and ribavirin treatment‐experienced patient who successfully achieved HCV cure after 12 weeks of elbasvir/grazoprevir administered via percutaneous gastrostomy tube. We further review the available pharmacokinetic and clinical literature regarding administration via enteral feeding tubes for all first‐line direct acting antivirals (DAAs). The literature suggests that cr ushed administration can be considered for DAAs in patients with gastric access. However, caution should be exercised in patients with extragastric enteral tubes and in those with altered ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 2, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rajeev B. Shah, Katy L. Garrett, Amy L. Brotherton, Amanda J. Noska Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Prasugrel versus Ticagrelor following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Study
This study used the Optum ’s de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database and included patients aged 18 years or older with an index hospital admission between May 2012 and September 2015, a diagnosis of ACS managed with PCI, and treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary composite outcome was defined a s the first occurrence of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemic stroke. The secondary composite outcome included the first occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleed, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), or other major bleeds requiring hospitalization. Weighted Cox proportional hazar...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nicholas Belviso, Herbert D. Aronow, Richard Wyss, Marilyn Barbour, Yichi Zhang, Xuerong Wen, Stephen Kogut Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Prasugrel versus Ticagrelor following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Study
This study used the Optum ’s de‐identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database and included patients aged 18 years or older with an index hospital admission between May 2012 and September 2015, a diagnosis of ACS managed with PCI, and treatment with either ticagrelor or prasugrel. The primary composite outcome was defined as the first occurrence of all‐cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemic stroke. The secondary composite outcome included the first occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) bleed, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), or other major bleeds requiring hospitalization. Weighted Cox proportional ha...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nicholas Belviso, Herbert D. Aronow, Richard Wyss, Marilyn Barbour, Yichi Zhang, Xuerong Wen, Stephen Kogut Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
AbstractHeart failure (HF) impacts more than 6 million Americans with an annual mortality rate approaching 22%. Along with optimizing guideline-directed management and therapy (GDMT), the development of treatment options to improve mortality and morbidity in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is paramount. Cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve both cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes and have consistently reduced hospitalizations for HF in patients with and without a previous history of HF. A precise m...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jessica A. Starr, Nathan A. Pinner, Katelin M. Lisenby, Alyssa Osmonson Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
AbstractHeart failure (HF) impacts more than 6 million Americans with an annual mortality rate approaching 22%. Along with optimizing guideline ‐directed management and therapy (GDMT), the development of treatment options to improve mortality and morbidity in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is paramount. Cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown that sodium‐glucose cotransporter‐ 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve both cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes and have consistently reduced hospitalizations for HF in patients with and without a previous history of HF. A p...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jessica A. Starr, Nathan A. Pinner, Katelin M. Lisenby, Alyssa Osmonson Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Management of noncardiovascular comorbidities in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
This article will review the literature on the pharmacologic management of common noncardiovascular comorbidities —including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, diabetes mellitus, gout, chronic kidney disease, and iron deficiency—in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, as well as provide recommendations for appropriate treatment selection in this population. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stormi E. Gale, Andrew Mardis, Michael E. Plazak, Alina Kukin, Brent N. Reed Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Use of Remdesivir in Myasthenia gravis and COVID ‐19
We describe the first reported clinical course of three patients with myasthenia gravis who safely received remdesivir in combination with dexamethasone for the management of COVID-19. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 27, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bradley J. Peters, Alejandro A. Rabinstein, Hilary M. DuBrock Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Use of Remdesivir in Myasthenia gravis and COVID ‐19
We describe the first reported clinical course of three patients with mya sthenia gravis who safely received remdesivir in combination with dexamethasone for the management of COVID‐19. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 27, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bradley J. Peters, Alejandro A. Rabinstein, Hilary M. DuBrock Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Issue Information Source Type: research

Analysis of fentanyl pharmacokinetics, and its sedative effects and tolerance in critically ill children
This study aimed to assess the fentanyl pharmacokinetics (PK), the sedation outcome, and the development of tolerance in children receiving fentanyl continuous infusion.MethodsThis study included children admitted to the pediatric or cardiovascular intensive care unit between January 1 and October 31, 2016, who were>30  days to
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sin Yin Lim, Jamie L. Miller, Emilie Henry, Rebecca Heltsley, Sukyung Woo, Peter N. Johnson Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Low dose versus standard dose four factor prothrombin complex concentrate for factor ‐Xa inhibitor reversal in spontaneous and traumatic intracranial hemorrhage
ConclusionFor the reversal of FXaI in ICH, a 25 IU/kg dose may be an effective alternative to 50 IU/kg 4PCC dosing. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 18, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ava E. Cascone, Mitchell J. Daley, Neil Pan, Eimeira Padilla ‐Tolentino, Truman J. Milling Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Achievement of goal anti ‐Xa activity with weight‐based enoxaparin dosing for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in trauma patients
ConclusionThe use of initial weight ‐based enoxaparin dosing in trauma patients routinely achieved the anti‐Xa goal range. Therefore, anti‐Xa levels are not necessary for routine monitoring of weight‐based enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Clinically significant bleeding and newly diagnosed VTE were similar to previous studies. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ashley Taylor, Ellen Huang, Jennifer Waller, Cassandra White, Patricia Martinez ‐Quinones, Tim Robinson Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes of concomitant rifamycin and opioid therapy: A systematic review
The objective of this review was to examine literature which evaluates the concomitant use of opioids and rifamycins with clinically relevant CYP ‐inducing properties. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) criteria was performed. PubMed, Scopus, and OVID Embase were queried for studies from database inception to January 2020 related to rifamycin and opioid medications . Only full‐text, peer‐reviewed, English language articles addressing clinical outcomes from concomitant rifamycin and opioid therapy were included. The review isolated 12 article...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 6, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Eric M. Kinney, Sandhya Vijapurapu, Jordan R. Covvey, Branden D. Nemecek Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Lefamulin After Single Intravenous Dose Administration in Subjects with Impaired Hepatic Function
ConclusionLefamulin was generally well tolerated. Differences in lefamulin and BC ‐8041 pharmacokinetics were small, relative to the overall variability, and any changes appear to be compensated by increases in renal clearance and decreased protein binding. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 3, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wolfgang W. Wicha, Thomas C. Marbury, James A. Dowell, Jared L. Crandon, Cathie Leister, James Ermer, Steven P. Gelone Tags: EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Lefamulin After Single Intravenous Dose Administration in Subjects with Impaired Renal Function and those Requiring Hemodialysis
AbstractStudy ObjectiveLefamulin is a novel IV and oral pleuromutilin recently approved for the treatment of community ‐acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Given that renal comorbidities are common in patients admitted for CABP, understanding the pharmacokinetics of lefamulin in the face of severe renal impairment, including those requiring hemodialysis, is needed.DesignOpen ‐label, Phase‐1 pharmacokinetic studySettingResearch Study CenterPatientsTwenty ‐three matched subjects were included, seven with “Normal” renal function (creatinine clearance>90 mL/min), eight with “Severe” renal im...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 2, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wolfgang W. Wicha, Thomas C. Marbury, James A. Dowell, Jared L. Crandon, Cathie Leister, James Ermer, Steven P. Gelone Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research