Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Treated with a Monoamine Oxidase Type‐B inhibitor: A Cross‐Sectional, Cohort Study
ConclusionLong‐term use of MAOB‐I therapy was associated with reduced risk of dyskinesia in patients with PD. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - July 3, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Khashayar Dashtipour, Jack J. Chen, Camellia Kani, Khaled Bahjri, Mark Ghamsary Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Potential Role of Alirocumab in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia in Patients with High‐Risk Cardiovascular Disease
A high level of low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C) has proved to have a positive correlation with mortality from cardiovascular disease, and it is the key modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lowering levels of LDL‐C with statins reduces both vascular morbidity and mortality; however, myalgias occur in 10% to 15% of patients, and many patients managed with statins achieve suboptimal levels of LDL‐C. The injectable drug alirocumab—the first of a new class of drugs called proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors—is a monoclonal antibody to the PCSK9 gene, whi...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - July 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arinze Nkemdirim Okere, Courtney Serra Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Impact of Quetiapine Treatment on Duration of Hypoactive Delirium in Critically Ill Adults: A Retrospective Analysis
ConclusionIn this mixed ICU population, treatment of hypoactive delirium with quetiapine was safe and reduced the duration of delirium compared with standard care alone. Prospective placebo‐controlled studies are needed to further assess the role of antipsychotics in hypoactive delirium. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - July 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christopher J. Michaud, Heather M. Bullard, Serena A. Harris, Wendy L. Thomas Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Weight‐based Rabbit Anti‐thymocyte Globulin Induction Dosing Regimen for Kidney Transplant Recipients
ConclusionsIn combination with triple maintenance immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone, modest differences in the cumulative rATG dose were not associated with increased risk of acute rejection. Measures to optimize rATG utilization present opportunities for cost‐saving without sacrificing efficacy in this patient population. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - July 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Catherine A. Pennington, Sarah M. Tischer, Eliza Lee, Sun Lee, James Sindelar, Jeong M. Park Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Ceftolozane/Tazobactam: A Novel Cephalosporin/β‐Lactamase Inhibitor Combination
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a novel antipseudomonal β‐lactam/β‐lactamase inhibitor combination that is currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI). It exhibits bactericidal properties through inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, which is mediated through penicillin‐binding proteins (PBPs). Ceftolozane is a potent PBP3 inhibitor and has a higher affinity for PBP1b compared with other β‐lactam agents. Ceftolozane/tazobactam differs from other cephalosporins...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - July 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jonathan C. Cho, Mallory A. Fiorenza, Sandy J. Estrada Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

A Cluster‐Randomized Trial of a Centralized Clinical Pharmacy Cardiovascular Risk Service to Improve Guideline Adherence
ConclusionsPatient enrollment will continue through 2016, with results expected in 2019. This study will provide information on whether a distant, centralized CVRS can be implemented in large numbers of medical offices, if it is effective in diverse populations, and if there is a long‐term sustained effect. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 25, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Barry L. Carter, Christopher S. Coffey, Elizabeth A. Chrischilles, Gail Ardery, Dixie Ecklund, Brian Gryzlak, Mark W. Vander Weg, Paul A. James, Alan J. Christensen, Christopher P. Parker, Tyler Gums, Rachel J. Finkelstein, Liz Uribe, Linnea A. Polgreen, Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Combined Fentanyl and Methadone Induced Serotonin Syndrome is Called Into Question
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Timothy J. Atkinson, Jeffrey Fudin, Thien C. Pham, Ashley Hillman, Corey Witenko, Said Sultan, Gary Gala Tags: Alternative Viewpoint Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of an Extended 4‐hour Infusion of Piperacillin‐Tazobactam in Critically Ill Patients Undergoing Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
ConclusionsAdministration of a 4‐hour infusion of piperacillin‐tazobactam was associated with a favorable pharmacodynamic profile in patients undergoing CRRT. Concentrations associated with maximal activity were attained in our patients. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Don‐Kelena Awissi, Annie Beauchamp, Elisabeth Hébert, Viviane Lavigne, Danya Lucia Munoz, Geneviève Lebrun, Michel Savoie, Mylène Fagnan, Julie Amyot, Nicolas Tétreault, Robert Robitaille, France Varin, Christian Lavallée, Vincent Pichette, Martine Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Adverse Reactions to Pneumococcal Vaccine in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients with Sickle Cell Disease
Study ObjectiveTo review five cases of severe adverse reactions after vaccination with the 23‐valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in pediatric and adolescent patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), and to evaluate the prevalence of adverse reactions to PPSV23 in patients with SCD by analyzing data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). DesignCase series and retrospective analysis of data from the VAERS. Data SourcesMedical records from a tertiary care hospital and the VAERS database. Measurements and Main ResultsFive cases of severe adverse reactions after vaccination with PPSV23 in ped...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jin Han, Opeyemi Kemiki, Lewis L. Hsu, Angela E. Rivers Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

New‐Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus in an Adult with an Atypical Presentation of Cat‐Scratch Disease: Successful Treatment with High‐Dose Corticosteroids
We describe the case of a 28‐year‐old woman who was hospitalized with NORSE secondary to an unknown etiology. She did not respond to traditional anticonvulsant therapy, including benzodiazepines, fosphenytoin, propofol, and levetiracetam. The patient was placed on continuous electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and was treated further with multiple antiepileptics, which were titrated aggressively based on EEG readings and therapeutic drug levels; despite this treatment, EEG monitoring revealed continued seizures. Thus, high‐dose corticosteroids were started for seizure control. Her workup included computed tomogra...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Emily M. Laswell, Kasandra D. Chambers, Danielle R. Whitsel, Kiran Poudel Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Agranulocytosis with Ceftaroline High‐Dose Monotherapy or Combination Therapy with Clindamycin
ConclusionsClinicians should have a heightened awareness of agranulocytosis when using ceftaroline in such settings and monitor complete blood counts at least once/week. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 3, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Neilmegh L. Varada, George Sakoulas, Lani R. Lei, Jimmy Chua Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Fluoroquinolone Sequential Therapy for Helicobacter pylori: A Meta‐analysis
ConclusionFluoroquinolone‐based sequential therapy is a reasonable treatment alternative to first‐line eradication therapy for treatment of H. pylori. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pramodini B. Kale‐Pradhan, Anela Mihaescu, Sheila M. Wilhelm Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Sublingual Buprenorphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
ConclusionsThis is the first study to investigate the population PK of sublingual buprenorphine in neonatal NAS. To our knowledge, this is also the first report to describe the age‐dependent changes of buprenorphine PK in this patient population. No buprenorphine dose adjustment is needed for neonates with NAS treated with buprenorphine and concurrent phenobarbital. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chee M. Ng, Erin Dombrowsky, Hopi Lin, Michelle E. Erlich, David E. Moody, Jeffrey S. Barrett, Walter K. Kraft Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Minimal Prolongation of Prothrombin Time with Extended Exposure to Argatroban
We describe an unusual case of prolonged argatroban treatment in a patient with heparin‐induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis syndrome (HITTS) resulting in a minimal elevation of the INR. The patient received a total of 58 days of argatroban and was resistant to warfarin therapy, requiring a 13‐day bridge to achieve a therapeutic INR of 2.0 to 3.0. Ultimately, argatroban was successfully transitioned to warfarin therapy when the INR was 2.7 on both agents, producing the confirmatory true INR of 2.4. Argatroban and warfarin cotherapy did not increase the INR beyond 4.0 after prolonged argatroban exposure. Clinic...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Renee K. McAlister, Satoru Ito Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Persistent Sexual Dysfunction and Suicidal Ideation in Young Men Treated with Low‐Dose Finasteride: A Pharmacovigilance Study
ConclusionPersistent SD might be a potential risk of low‐dose finasteride for androgenic alopecia therapy in young men, and this risk might contribute to SI. Our findings provide a strong hypothesis for pharmacoepidemiologic studies to further examine this association. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ayad K. Ali, Balraj S. Heran, Mahyar Etminan Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Acute Sensorineural Hearing Loss After Abuse of an Inhaled, Crushed Oxymorphone Extended‐Release Tablet
We describe the case of a previously healthy, 24‐year‐old male who experienced reproducible acute subjective bilateral temporary hearing loss that occurred after inhalation of oxymorphone. He presented to the emergency department complaining of acute bilateral hearing loss after he reported snorting a crushed oxymorphone ER 30‐mg tablet. Emergency department evaluation revealed obvious bilateral hearing loss as well as coincidental aspiration pneumonia. The patient's medical history revealed that he had experienced a similar episode of hearing loss after a previous episode of oxymorphone inhalation. His hearing loss ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lisa E. MacDonald, Jennifer E. Onsrud, Rita Mullins‐Hodgin Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Retrospective Evaluation of Postoperative Bleeding Events in Patients Receiving Rivaroxaban After Undergoing Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparison with Clinical Trial Data
Study ObjectiveAlthough data from the Regulation of Coagulation in Orthopedic Surgery to Prevent Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (RECORD) 1–4 trials have shown a similar postoperative bleeding risk between rivaroxban and enoxaparin in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), anecdotal observations from local institutions have suggested that postoperative bleeding rates seemed higher in patients who received rivaroxaban than those reported in the RECORD trials. Thus, the objective of this pilot study was to assess postoperative bleeding events observed in clinic...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - June 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Robert C. Wood, David W. Stewart, Lindsey Slusher, Hadi El‐Bazouni, David Cluck, Jessica Freshour, Brian Odle Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Abstracts from the American College of Clinical Pharmacy 2015 Virtual Poster Symposium
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: ACCP Abstracts Source Type: research

Riociguat: A Novel New Drug for Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension
Riociguat is the first approved medication from the novel class of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators and the only agent approved for treating both chronic thromboembolic hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The novel mechanism of riociguat lies in its ability to restore the homeostatic and therapeutic effects of nitric oxide that are diminished as a result of phenotypic alterations associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Improvements in 6‐minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients with PAH during the phase 3 PATENT‐1 trial were comparable to other oral agents approved for the trea...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Charles T. Makowski, Richard W. Rissmiller, Wendy M. Bullington Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Medication Management of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy After Heart Transplantation
Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a common complication following heart transplantation (HT), resulting in diminished graft survival. The preferred strategy for preventing CAV is optimal medical management; however, for patients who develop CAV, delaying disease progression through effective medication management is equally important. A review of the literature regarding medication management of CAV was conducted via a search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were included if they were published in English, conducted in humans ≥ 18 years of age or older, and used noninvestigational medications. Immunosupp...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ian B. Hollis, Brent N. Reed, Michael P. Moranville Tags: Reviews of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Relative Bioavailability of Orally Administered Fosphenytoin Sodium Injection Compared with Phenytoin Sodium Injection in Healthy Volunteers
ConclusionFPHT sodium injection given orally was absorbed more rapidly and to a significantly greater extent than PHT sodium injection given orally to healthy volunteers. Further evaluation of oral FPHT as an alternative in patients requiring enteral feedings is warranted. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kevin A. Kaucher, Nicole M. Acquisto, Gauri G. Rao, David C. Kaufman, Jeff D. Huntress, Alan Forrest, Curtis E. Haas Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Alfuzosin Treatment Improves The Rate and Time for Stone Expulsion in Patients with Distal Uretral Stones: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study
ConclusionAlfuzosin is safe and effective in increasing stone expulsion rates and shortening stone passage times for uncomplicated distal ureteral stones. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nouran O. El Said, Lamia El Wakeel, Khaled M. Kamal, Abd El Reheem Morad Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Impact of a Stewardship‐Initiated Restriction on Empirical Use of Ciprofloxacin on Nonsusceptibility of Escherichia coli Urinary Isolates to Ciprofloxacin
ConclusionThe restriction and subsequent reduction of ciprofloxacin use was found to have a positive effect on the susceptibility of E. coli urinary isolates to ciprofloxacin. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kristen A. O'Brien, Jingwen Zhang, Patrick D. Mauldin, Juanmanuel Gomez, John M. Hurst, M. Sean Boger, John A. Bosso Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Individualized Vancomycin Dosing in Obese Patients: A Two‐Sample Measurement Approach Improves Target Attainment
ConclusionMeasurement of two serum vancomycin concentrations significantly improves subsequent target trough concentration attainment in the obese population. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Joseph Hong, Lynne C. Krop, Tracy Johns, Manjunath P. Pai Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Leishmaniasis in the United States: Focus on Miltefosine
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infection native to various countries, including those in South America and Southeast Asia. Although the incidence of leishmaniasis is low in the United States, it is an important cause of infection in individuals traveling to endemic areas. Various treatment modalities are available, depending on their availability in the geographic region. In the United States, the treatment of choice is considered to be liposomal amphotericin, although other therapies have been explored. In 2014, miltefosine became the first orally available medication approved for the treatment of leishmaniasis in the Unite...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Niyati H. Vakil, Noriko Fujinami, Punit J. Shah Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

A Descriptive and Historical Review of Bibliometrics with Applications to Medical Sciences
This article reviews the history, definition, laws, and elements of bibliometric principles and provides examples of bibliometric applications to the broader health care community. To accomplish this, the Medline (1966–2014) and Web of Science (1945–2014) databases were searched to identify relevant articles; select articles were also cross‐referenced. Articles selected were those that provided background, history, descriptive analysis, and application of bibliometric principles and metrics to medical science and health care. No attempt was made to cover all areas exhaustively; rather, key articles were chose...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dennis F. Thompson, Cheri K. Walker Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Spontaneous Hemopericardium in a Patient Receiving Apixaban Therapy: First Case Report
This report, along with two previous cases reports of hemopericardium associated with dabigatran and rivaroxaban, emphasizes the need for careful use of NOACs and for further research to identify an antidote or other method for controlling hemorrhage secondary to NOACs in an acute setting. Furthermore, clinicians should consider hemopericardium in the differential diagnosis of patients treated with anticoagulants, including NOACs, who present with cardiomegaly. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen Sigawy, Sara Apter, Jacob Vine, Ehud Grossman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol in Healthy Chinese Subjects
Study ObjectiveTo investigate the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) – a fixed‐dose combination of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long‐acting β2‐agonist for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – after single and repeat administration in healthy Chinese subjects. DesignDouble‐blind, placebo‐controlled, single‐site, randomized, four‐way crossover study. SettingThe Clinical Pharmacological Research Centre at Peking Union Medical College Hospital [PUMCH]) in Beijing, China. SubjectsSixteen healthy, nonsmoki...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xia Chen, Xin Zheng, Ji Jiang, Pei Hu, Kai Wu, Lihong Zhuang, Lian Liu, Xin Du, Rodger Kempsford, Ann Allen Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Predictors of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Among Patients with Atrial Fibrillation After Initiating Dabigatran Therapy
ConclusionThe risk of GI bleeding in patients receiving dabigatran is highly associated with increased age and cardiovascular, renal, and other comorbidities, even after adjusting for other factors. Fewer than 50% of patients restarted an anticoagulant after experiencing a GI bleed. Clinicians should continue to monitor for these risk factors or consider whether alternative therapies may be appropriate. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Julie C. Lauffenburger, Denise H. Rhoney, Joel F. Farley, Anil K. Gehi, Gang Fang Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Management of Drug Interaction between Posaconazole and Sirolimus in Patients Who Undergo Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
ConclusionCoadministration of posaconazole oral suspension with oral sirolimus increases the sirolimus C/D ratio by approximately 2.7‐fold in HSCT patients. An initial empiric oral sirolimus dose reduction between 50% and 65% may be recommended for most clinically stable patients with close sirolimus concentration monitoring for at least 3 weeks following posaconazole initiation. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Eunah Cho, Holly Chan, Huan (Mark) Nguyen, Sepideh Shayani, Ryotaro Nakamura, Doreen Pon Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention in Critically Ill Patients
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and is a substantial source of disability in the United States. Moderate‐to‐severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can progress to respiratory failure, necessitating ventilator assistance in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients in the ICU with AECOPD requiring ventilator support have higher morbidity and mortality rates as well as costs compared with hospitalized patients not in the ICU. The mainstay of management for patients with AECOPD in the ICU includes ventilator support (noninvasive or invasive), rapid‐acting i...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Deepali Dixit, Mary Barna Bridgeman, Liza Barbarello Andrews, Navaneeth Narayanan, Jared Radbel, Amay Parikh, Jag Sunderram Tags: Reviews of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation and Chronic Idiopathic Constipation: Focus on Prosecretory Agents
Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS‐C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) are two common functional gastrointestinal disorders that impair quality of life and pose a significant economic burden to the health care system. Current therapeutic options include lifestyle modifications, over‐the‐counter (OTC) agents, antispasmodics, serotonin agonists, and lubiprostone and linaclotide, two prosecretory prescription drugs approved for the treatment of IBS‐C and CIC. This review discusses the efficacy and safety of current treatments and emerging therapies for the treatment of IBS‐C and CIC, with a foc...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rachel H. Thomas, David R. Luthin Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Successful Treatment of a Massive Metoprolol Overdose Using Intravenous Lipid Emulsion and Hyperinsulinemia/Euglycemia Therapy
We describe the case of a 59‐year‐old man who intentionally ingested ~7.5 g of metoprolol tartrate. Initial treatment of bradycardia and hypotension included glucagon, atropine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Despite these treatment modalities, the patient developed cardiac arrest. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) and hyperinsulinemia/euglycemia (HIE) therapies were initiated during advanced cardiac life support and were immediately followed by return of spontaneous circulation. Further treatment included gastric lavage, activated charcoal, continued vasopressor therapy, and a repeat bolus of ILE. The patient was w...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 22, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cassie A. Barton, Nathan B. Johnson, Nathan D. Mah, Gillian Beauchamp, Robert Hendrickson Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Collaborative Drug Therapy Management and Comprehensive Medication Management―2015
The American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) previously published position statements on collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) in 1997 and 2003. Since 2003, significant federal and state legislation addressing CDTM has evolved and expanded throughout the United States. CDTM is well suited to facilitate the delivery of comprehensive medication management (CMM) by clinical pharmacists. CMM, defined by ACCP as a core component of the standards of practice for clinical pharmacists, is designed to optimize medication‐related outcomes in collaborative practice environments. New models of care delivery emphasize pati...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: , Sarah E. McBane, Anna L. Dopp, Andrew Abe, Sandra Benavides, Elizabeth A. Chester, Dave L. Dixon, Michaelia Dunn, Melissa D. Johnson, Sarah J. Nigro, Tracie Rothrock‐Christian, Amy H. Schwartz, Kim Thrasher, Scot Walker Tags: ACCP White Paper Source Type: research

Provision of Clinical Pharmacist Services for Individuals with Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection – An Alternative Viewpoint
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jason J. Schafer Tags: Alternative Viewpoint Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of Continuous‐Infusion Meropenem for the Treatment of Serratia marcescens Ventriculitis in a Pediatric Patient
Neither guidelines nor best practices for the treatment of external ventricular drain (EVD) and ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections exist. An antimicrobial regimen with a broad spectrum of activity and adequate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration is vital in the management of both EVD and ventriculoperitoneal infections. In this case report, we describe the pharmacokinetics of continuous‐infusion meropenem for a 2‐year‐old girl with Serratia marcescens ventriculitis. A right frontal EVD was placed for the management of a posterior fossa mass with hydrocephalus and intraventricular hemorrhage. On hospital day 6, C...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jeffrey J. Cies, Wayne S. Moore, Sharon Calaman, Melandee Brown, Prithvi Narayan, Jason Parker, Arun Chopra Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Rectal Propranolol Controls Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity: A Case Report
We report the use of rectal propranolol for symptomatic control of PSH in a critically ill patient with an altered gastrointestinal tract for whom oral intake was contraindicated. A 15‐year‐old Caucasian male with no past medical history was admitted status post all‐terrain vehicle rollover with multiple intra‐abdominal injuries. On hospital day 40, the patient experienced cardiac arrest with a subsequent anoxic brain injury, which was complicated by the development of PSH on post‐arrest day 1. Because of his altered gastrointestinal tract, he was symptomatically managed with propranolol 40 mg per rectum eve...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Casey C. May, Douglas R. Oyler, Sara E. Parli, Cynthia L. Talley Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Autoinduction of Voriconazole Metabolism in a Child with Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis
Inter‐ and intra‐patient variability in voriconazole pharmacokinetics has been described in children as the result of age‐specific differences in hepatic metabolism, saturable nonlinear pharmacokinetics, CYP450 2C19 polymorphisms, decreased bioavailability compared with adults, and drug–drug interactions. We introduce dose‐dependent autoinduction of metabolism as another cause for altered voriconazole pharmacokinetics in children and summarize previously published literature on this phenomenon. A 10‐year‐old girl with severe aplastic anemia developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after high‐dose cycl...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alice Jenh Hsu, Alix Dabb, Ravit Arav‐Boger Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Combination Therapy with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Other Antidepressants or Stimulants: Strategies for the Management of Treatment‐Resistant Depression
Treatment‐resistant depression (TRD) is a major health concern. More than 40% of patients treated for major depressive disorder with an appropriate antidepressant dose for an adequate duration fail to respond. Further, approximately half of adults with major depressive disorder fail to achieve sustained remission despite various medication trials. The utilization of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for the treatment of depression in clinical practice today is low due to their widely known adverse effects, some of which may be life threatening, and the risk for dietary and drug interactions. For these reasons, MAOIs a...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Samantha J. Thomas, Mirae Shin, Melvin G. McInnis, Jolene R. Bostwick Tags: Reviews of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Clinical Implications of Vancomycin Heteroresistant and Intermediately Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has proven to be a major pathogen with the emergence of methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections and recently with heteroresistant vancomycin‐intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin‐intermediate S. aureus (VISA) infections. Although vancomycin is traditionally a first‐line and relatively effective antibiotic, its continued use is under question because reports of heteroresistance in S. aureus isolates are increasing. Both hVISA and VISA infections are associated with complicated clinical courses and treatment failures. The prevalence, mechanism of...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Diane M. Gomes, Kristina E. Ward, Kerry L. LaPlante Tags: Reviews of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Vedolizumab for the Treatment of Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory bowel disease characterized by a relapsing and remitting course. A substantial proportion of patients fail conventional therapies despite therapy with immunosuppressives and tumor necrosis factor antagonists. Accordingly, newer therapeutic agents that target disease‐specific inflammation and minimize adverse events are required. Central to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis is an aberrant host response to commensal microorganisms with a resultant dysregulation of gut immune homeostasis and lymphocyte trafficking. Recently, a newer biologic, vedolizumab, which ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Parambir S. Dulai, Mahmoud Mosli, Reena Khanna, Barrett G. Levesque, William J. Sandborn, Brian G. Feagan Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Overview of Current and Alternative Therapies for Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy
Membranous nephropathy is one of the leading causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults, which is characterized by edema, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, lipiduria, and proteinuria. Determination of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) disease progression risk is important for guiding initial therapy, with immunosuppressive therapy being reserved for high‐risk patients. Because IMN may spontaneously remit in approximately 30% of patients, it is important to carefully select which patients should begin immunosuppressive therapy so as to maximize clinical benefit while limiting toxicity. An observation period of at least 6...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tran H. Tran, Gregory J. Hughes, Chuck Greenfeld, Jacqueline T. Pham Tags: Reviews of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Beneficial Effects of a Point‐of‐Care Bleeding Risk Calculator on Anticoagulant Selection in the Coronary Catheterization Laboratory
Study ObjectivesTo estimate periprocedural bleeding risk before elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by using a point‐of‐care bleeding risk calculator and to document changes in anticoagulant use and bleeding complications after implementation of use of this calculator. DesignProspective observational pilot study with a historical control cohort. SettingTertiary care medical center. PatientsThe pilot cohort consisted of 100 patients undergoing ad hoc PCI during elective cardiac catheterization procedures between January and May 2013, whose bleeding risk and accompanying PCI anticoagulant recommendations we...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jocelyn J. Kerl, Frank C. Spexarth, Rachel Pedersen, Mia Stone, Suhail Q. Allaqaband, James L. Schulgit, Tanvir K. Bajwa, Anjan N. Gupta, Anthony C. DeFranco Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Approach to Addressing Missing Data for Electronic Medical Records and Pharmacy Claims Data Research
ConclusionThe use of the multiple imputation method to account for missing data did not alter conclusions based on a complete‐case analysis. Given the frequency of missing data in research using electronic health records and pharmacy claims data, multiple imputation may play an important role in the validation of study findings. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mark Bounthavong, Jonathan H. Watanabe, Kevin M. Sullivan Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Nationwide Evaluation of Day‐to‐Day Clinical Pharmacists’ Interventions in German Hospitals
ConclusionFor the first time in a European country, our findings show the scope of clinical pharmacist involvement in patient care in daily clinical practice and demonstrate the usefulness and importance of their proactive interventions in the prevention of hazards and risks for hospital inpatients. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Claudia Langebrake, Angela Ihbe‐Heffinger, Katja Leichenberg, Sandra Kaden, Mareike Kunkel, Michael Lueb, Heike Hilgarth, Carina Hohmann Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes ~50% of all heart failure diagnoses and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The treatment of HFpEF can be challenging due to a lack of evidence supporting the benefit of various drug therapies. In practice, treatment can be divided into acute and chronic management. Acute therapy for decompensated heart failure is similar for both HFpEF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The mainstay of treatment is diuretics to reduce volume overload and improve dyspnea. Patients with an acute exacerbation of HFpEF and rapid atrial fibri...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jade E. Basaraba, Arden R. Barry Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Practice What We Publish
(Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: C. Lindsay DeVane Tags: Pharmacotherapy Rounds Source Type: research

African‐American Race Modifies the Influence of Tacrolimus Concentrations on Acute Rejection and Toxicity in Kidney Transplant Recipients
Study ObjectiveTo determine the effect of tacrolimus trough concentrations on clinical outcomes in kidney transplantation, while assessing if African‐American (AA) race modifies these associations. DesignRetrospective longitudinal cohort study of solitary adult kidney transplants. SettingLarge tertiary care transplant center. PatientsAdult solitary kidney transplant recipients (n=1078) who were AA (n=567) or non‐AA (n=511). ExposureMean and regressed slope of tacrolimus trough concentrations. Subtherapeutic concentrations were lower than 8 ng/ml. Measurements and Main ResultsAA patients were 1.7 times less likely ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: David J. Taber, Mulugeta G. Gebregziabher, Titte R. Srinivas, Kenneth D. Chavin, Prabhakar K. Baliga, Leonard E. Egede Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Impact of Liposomal Bupivacaine Administration on Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement
ConclusionLiposomal bupivacaine did not improve pain control in patients undergoing TKA when compared with historical management strategies; however, differences may have been obscured by increased utilization of adjunctive analgesics among patients in the control group. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sarah White, Cathy Vaughan, Doug Raiff, William Eward, Michael Bolognesi Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research

Safety of Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the management of a variety of conditions, but their prevalence is likely underreported as a result of widespread availability and the perception that nonprescription therapies are unnecessary to report during medication history taking. However, NSAIDs are associated with a number of adverse effects, especially in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with CVD and comorbidities for which NSAIDs may provide symptomatic relief (e.g., osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) tend to be older, which places them at greater risk of harm. For these reasons, the ...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - April 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ilya M. Danelich, Sampaguita S. Wright, Jennifer M. Lose, Brittany J. Tefft, Jonathan D. Cicci, Brent N. Reed Tags: Reviews of Therapeutics Source Type: research