Annexin A2 degradation contributes to dopaminergic cell apoptosis via regulating p53 in neurodegenerative conditions
Conclusion These results indicated that Annexin A2 degradation plays a crucial role the degeneration of dapaminergic cells of Parkinson’s disease, and Annexin A2 downregulation-mediated the cell death is closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction via p53-dependent pathway; thus provide a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease treatment. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves neurological function via the p38-MAPK/CCL2 signaling pathway following traumatic brain injury
Conclusions This study indicates that the p38-MAPK–CCL2 signaling pathway could mediate neuroinflammation and HBO therapy can modulate neuroinflammation by modulating the p38-MAPK–CCL2 signaling pathways following TBI. This study may provide theoretical evidence for HBO treatment in the treatment of TBI. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Proangiogenic functions of osteopontin-derived synthetic peptide RSKSKKFRR in endothelial cells and postischemic brain
Conclusion In conclusion, OPNpt9 promotes angiogenesis and neurological recovery after ischemic stroke. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

The variability in neurological deficits in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients may be explained by differences in dystrophin glycoprotein complexes in the brain and muscle
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive genetic neuromuscular disorder. The variability in neurologic deficits in DMD patients may be explained by the fact that (1) dystrophin containing complexes in the brain are more stable than dystrophin containing complexes in the muscle (2) neurons are not affected by the same stresses as muscle and (3) neurons have a greater capacity to buffer increases in intracellular calcium levels. In the muscle, the loss of dystrophin and subsequent loss of dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs) affects the stability of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and calcium ion chann...
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurodegeneration Source Type: research

Patterns of brain c-Fos expression in response to feeding behavior in acute and chronic inflammatory pain condition
Conclusion The present results show that brain regions that participated in the fasting- and refeeding-induced analgesia were completely different in acute and chronic inflammatory pain conditions. Also, refeeding recruits more brain regions under chronic inflammatory pain conditions compared to the acute inflammatory pain condition. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into brain regions involved in fasting- and refeeding-induced analgesia, which can be potential neural circuit-based targets for the development of novel therapeutics. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Combination effect of exercise and environmental enrichment on cognitive functions and hippocampal neurogenesis markers of rat
Conclusions These results may have clinical implications for behavioral interventions in conditions with cognitive deficiencies. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Dynamic changes in c-Fos and NF-κB gene expression and Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg content due to brain injury in irradiated rats
Conclusion In RBI model, adding Mg2+ may relieve RBI. The protective mechanisms of Mg2+ in the hippocampi from a variety of brain activity indicators including the c-Fos and NF-κB genes. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes patients with and without diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a mismatch negativity study
Objectives To assess the cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using mismatch negativity (MMN) and to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Methods Sixty-six T2DM patients and 40 healthy controls were included. For each participant, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was applied to assess the general cognitive function and MMN was elicited. T2DM patients were divided into two subgroups: subgroup DPN−, patients without DPN; subgroup DPN+, patients with DPN. The MMSE scores, MMN amplitudes and latencies were compared ...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognition and motor learning in a Parkinson’s disease cohort: importance of recall in episodic memory
The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between motor learning and multiple domains of cognitive performance in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Twenty-nine participants with Parkinson’s disease received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, followed by practice of a bimanual finger sequence task. A retention test of the finger sequence task was completed 24 h later. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations between motor learning (acquisition rate and retention) and cognitive performance in five specific cognitive domains, while controlling fo...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of the expression of farnesoid X receptor in astrocytes
Recently, we have identified a functional expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in neurons in vitro and in vivo. However, whether the FXR is expressed in astrocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we addressed this issue by using an array of experimental methods such as immunofluorescence and western blot. Results showed that the FXR mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse brain primary cultured astrocytes. In mouse primary cultured astrocytes in vitro the FXR was predominantly localized in the nucleus with an obvious punctuate distribution property. Unlike its expressional characteristic in cultured astrocytes,...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of immunoproteasome subunit low molecular mass polypeptide 7 with ONX-0914 improves hypoxic-ischemic brain damage via PI3K/Akt signaling
This study explored these issues in a rat model of HIBD. Pathology was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. LMP7 expression was detected using western blot analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemical staining. The presence of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β, was tested using ELISA and RT-qPCR. Behavioral performance was evaluated using a short-term neurological function score and the Morris water maze test. Compared to those in the Sham group, the HIBD group exhibited obvious upregulated LMP7 and pro-inflamma...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin on the myelin morphological changes and PSD-95 protein expression in Balb/c mice after sciatic nerve injury
Conclusions 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin can affect nerve recovery in mice with sciatic nerve injury, which shows a definite dose–effect relationship with its dose. Besides, PSD-95 protein expression can suppress the regeneration of the injured nerve myelin. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased spasticity of Baishaoluoshi Decoction through the BDNF/TrKB-KCC2 pathway on poststroke spasticity rats
Conclusion Suppression of spasticity by Baishaoluoshi Decoction in PSS rat models may be correlated with upregulated BDNF/TrKB-KCC2 pathway, which may be a complementary therapeutic strategy for PSS. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Maternal corticosteroids and depression during gestation and decreased fetal heart rate variability
Conclusion Maternal depression is associated via corticosteroids with decreased development of nervous system control of fetal heart rate. Decreased FHRV indicates developmental alterations in gestation that correlate with altered brain function and subsequent regulatory challenges in early infancy. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Intracranial electroencephalography features of young and old mice under midazolam administration
This study aimed to monitor the intracranial electroencephalography (in the cortex and hippocampus) in free-moving young and old mice under midazolam administration. Behavioral assessment revealed that compared with young mice, old mice had a longer immobility time with a similar midazolam dose. In both young and old mice, midazolam significantly suppressed the total, δ (0.5–4 Hz), θ (4–8 Hz), and α (8–12 Hz) power, and thus induced an increase in the relative β (12–30 Hz) and γ (30–140 Hz) power. Age had a main effect on the &gam...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Changes in the connection network of whole-brain fiber tracts in patients with Alzheimer’s disease have a tendency of lateralization
In this study, we investigated the relationship between the damage in white matter tracts and the decline of cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease. DTI data were collected from 38 Alzheimer’s disease patients and 30 normal controls. Fiber assignment by continuous tracking approach was used to establish connections between different brain regions of the whole brain, network-based statistical analysis and support vector machine classification analysis were used to explore the connection of whole-brain fiber bundles between the two groups. Most importantly, our results showed that the connections between brain...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Protective effects of Dimethyl malonate on neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier after ischemic stroke
Conclusions DMM could regulate activation and polarization of microglia to inhibit neuroinflammation and protect BBB. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Neurovascular protection of salvianolic acid B and ginsenoside Rg1 combination against acute ischemic stroke in rats
Ischemic stroke continues to be a major global health problem associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. Thus, it is still targeted by researchers for developing new strategies or drugs to alleviate the lesion of stroke. In the present study, both the permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) model and the restoration of cerebral blood flow after middle cerebral artery occlusion (CI/R) model were set up for evaluating the efficiency of salvianolic acid B and ginsenoside Rg1 combination (SalB-Rg1). SalB-Rg1 decreased infarct area through 3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain and improved neurolog...
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Gangliosides combined with mild hypothermia provides neuroprotection in a rat model of traumatic brain injury
In this study, we explored the neuroprotection role of the combination of gangliosides (GM) and mild hypothermia (MH) and the potential effect on oxidative stress injuries in a rat model of TBI. All 50 rats were randomized to five groups: (1) NC group: undergoing surgery without hit; (2) TBI group: undergoing surgery with hit; (3) GM group: TBI treated with gangliosides; (4) MHT group: TBI treated with MH; (5) GM+MHT group: TBI treated with gangliosides and MH. Spatial learning impairments, neurological function injury, Evans Blue leakage, brain MRI and oxidative stress injuries were assessed. The protein levels of Cleaved...
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Maternal spatial training before fertilization improves the spatial learning process in female offspring
Recent results of our team showed that parental spatial training before fertilization improves the offspring’s spatial memory. However, the process of spatial learning (short-term/working and long-term memories, mnesic consolidation and procedures) in the offspring has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, this study aimed at specifically analyzing whether maternal learning of a spatial task before fertilization can impact on the process of spatial learning in the female offspring. In the present study, 8-week-old female Wistar rats that had been spatially trained (or not) in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) were mated...
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Functional connectivity pre-post exercise intervention in individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Conclusion Following a 12-week speeded walking exercise intervention, there were no significant increases or decreases in global graph metrics and results at the level of local metrics were equivocal in individuals with RRMS. Further research with experimental designs that include baseline and longitudinal follow-up, as well as larger sample sizes, is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of symptom improvement following exercise in RRMS. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Simultaneous treatment with pentoxifylline does not adversely affect the neurotrophic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on spiral ganglion neurons
The hemorheologic drug pentoxifylline is applied for the treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to improve cochlear microcirculation. Recent studies also suggest protective and trophic effects on neuronal cells. Because the preservation of sensorineural structures of the inner ear is fundamental for normal hearing and hearing restoration with auditory prostheses, pentoxifylline and neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are promising candidates to treat degenerative disorders of the inner ear. We used an in-vitro model to determine the neurotrophic effects of these factor...
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic food restriction enhances dopamine-mediated intracranial self-stimulation
Dopamine-mediated reinforcement and behavioral adaptation is essential to survival. Here, we test the effects of food restriction on dopamine-mediated learning and reinforcement using optical intracranial self-stimulation (oICSS), an optogenetic version of conventional electrical ICSS (also known as brain stimulation reward, BSR). Using mouse genetic lines to express channelrhodopsin selectively in midbrain dopamine neurons, we demonstrate that genetically expressed channelrhodopsin can mediate optically evoked dopamine release and support self-stimulation in a lever-pressing paradigm. Using this midbrain dopamine oICSS pr...
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Gadd45α is involved in regulating activity-dependent and exon-specific BDNF expression in postmitotic cortical neurons
Conclusions DNA demethylation mediated by Gadd45α protein involves promoting the regulation of activity-dependent BDNF exon I expression in neurons. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stroke injury induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion is resistant to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism in FVB/NJ mice
In conclusion, our data demonstrated that FVB/NJ mice are no more susceptible to cerebral ischemia than C57BL/6 mice and that NMDAR antagonism is ineffective in mice, even in an excitotoxicity-prone strain, subjected to dMCAO. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol prevented spatial deficits and rescued disarrayed hippocampus asymmetric dimethylarginine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in young rats with increased circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine
Increased plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine can be encountered in chronic inflammatory disease, liver damage, renal failure, and multiple organ failure. In addition, an association between circulating asymmetric dimethylarginine levels and all-cause mortality has been reported. Male Sprague–Dawley rats, postnatal day 17 ± 1, received continuous asymmetric dimethylarginine infusion via an intraperitoneal pump. Spatial performance and dorsal hippocampal asymmetric dimethylarginine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were examined, and the effect of resveratrol was tested....
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparative study of the reorganization in bilateral motor and sensory cortices after spinal cord hemisection in mice
Conclusions The dendritic spines in hindlimb representation area of the sensorimotor cortex experienced bilaterally remodeling after SCI. And those spines in the sensory and motor cortex experienced great but different change trends after SCI. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identifies specific modules and hub genes related to Parkinson’s disease
Conclusions Our findings indicate that SLC18A2, GRIN1 and GRIN2D may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitative evaluation of brain volumes in drug-free major depressive disorder using MRI-Cloud method
Conclusion Our study gives a strong message that depression is associated with altered structural brain volumes, especially, in drug-free and first-episode MDD patients who present with similar duration and severity of depression while the role of demographic and comorbid risk factors should not be neglected. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aberrant cerebral intrinsic activity and cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in right temporal lobe epilepsy: a resting-state functional MRI study
Conclusion This study demonstrated aberrant intrinsic cerebral activity and functional connectivity in the whole brain network, which may act as responsible and compensatory factors in attention deficits, especially further profoundly illuminated the compensatory role of cerebellum in patients with rTLE. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Neural response during temporal – and spatial luminance contrast processing and its manifestation in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signal in striate and extra-striate cortex
The primate visual system has been the prime site for investigating the relationship between stimulus property, neural response and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD)-signal; yet this relationship remains ill-understood. Electrophysiological studies have shown that the ability to visualise a neural response is determined by stimulus property and presentation paradigm. The neural response in the human visual cortex consists of a phasic response processing temporal and tonic response processing spatial luminance contrast. We investigated their influence on the BOLD signal from the visual cortex. To do so, we compared BOLD s...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Neuroprotection against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cytotoxicity by naturally occurring polydatin through activation of transcription factor MEF2D
Polydatin is the major active ingredient of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. Et Zucc. A recent study indicated that polydatin could protect against substantia nigra dopaminergic degeneration in rodent models associated with Parkinson’s disease. However, mechanisms that underlie the neuroprotection of polydatin have not been fully elucidated. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects and detailed mechanisms of action of polydatin were investigated in Parkinson’s disease-related cellular models. Polydatin dose- and time-dependently prevented neurotoxicity caused by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) in prim...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of CAMK II modulates water permeability by reducing AQP4 expression in astrocytes after oxygen-glucose deprivation
The predominant form of edema that occurs during the early stage of ischemic stroke is cytotoxic, resulting in neuronal injury during brain ischemia and reperfusion. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is elevated following brain ischemia leading to increased cell membrane permeability. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), the downstream molecular signal of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), is sensitive to elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed primarily in the brain, is a water-transport protein. However, it is unclear whether CaMK II regulates AQP4 expression to modulat...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated histone acetylation in the regulation of depression
Depression is one of the most common and disabling mental disorders. There is growing evidence that 5-HT1A receptor is involved in the regulation of depressive-related behaviors. However, the exact mechanism underlying the role of 5-HT1A receptor in depression remains unknown. Histone acetylation is associated with the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. In the current study, we investigated whether the epigenetic histone deacetylase (HDAC)-induced histone acetylation mediates the regulation of 5-HT1A receptor in depressive behaviors. We showed that 5-HT1A receptor selective agonist (±)−8-hydroxy-2-(d...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

The impact of thiamine deficiency and benfotiamine treatment on Nod-like receptor protein-3 inflammasome in microglia
In this study, we found that NLRP3 inflammasomes were significantly activated in the microglia of thiamine deficiency mice model. In contrast, benfotiamine dampened inflammation NLRP3 mediated in BV2 cells stimulated with LPS and ATP through reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels and mitigating autophagy flux defect. These data identify an important role of thiamine metabolism in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and correcting thiamine metabolism through benfotiamine provides a new therapeutic strategy for NLRP3 inflammasome related neurological, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal expression of Rap1 and Ras mediates the acquisition and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in mice via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation
Drug addiction is a chronic recurrent brain disease characterized by compulsive drug use and a high tendency to relapse. We previously reported that the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-ΔFosB pathway in the caudate putamen (CPu) was involved in methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. Rap1, as an antagonist of Ras originally, was found to participate in neuronal synaptic plasticity recently, but the role of Rap1 in methamphetamine addiction is unclear. First, in this study, we constructed the acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

MicroRNA-488 inhibits neural inflammation and apoptosis in spinal cord injury through restraint on the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway
Conclusion MiR-488 inhibited neural inflammation and apoptosis in SCI via its binding with HMGB1-mediated restraint on the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

SIRT2 inhibition exacerbates p53-mediated ferroptosis in mice following experimental traumatic brain injury
Conclusions These findings indicate that p53-mediated ferroptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of TBI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SIRT2 exerts a neuroprotective effect against TBI by suppressing p53-mediated ferroptosis. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

LB100 attenuates methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization by inhibiting the Raf1-ERK 1/2 cascade in the caudate putamen
In this study, LB100, a PP2A inhibitor for treating solid tumors, was first used to clarify the relationship between PP2A and ERK 1/2. In addition, Western blot was used to examine the levels of p-Raf1 (Ser 259) and p-ERK 1/2 (Thr 202/Tyr 204) in the CPu, hippocampus (Hip) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Our results showed that 2 mg/kg LB100 significantly attenuated METH-induced behavioral sensitization. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that pretreatment with 2 mg/kg LB100 remarkably reversed METH-induced reduction of p-Raf1, as well as upregulation of p-ERK 1/2 in the CPu. Taken together, these results indicate th...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

The possible role of biochanin A in ameliorating endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced leptin resistance
Leptin plays an important role in energy intake and body weight homeostasis. Leptin is secreted mainly from white adipose tissue and circulates in the bloodstream, inhibiting food intake by activating the leptin receptor expressed on hypothalamic neurons. Recent studies have demonstrated leptin resistance as the main factor involved in the development of obesity. We and others have reported that leptin resistance is caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress due to the accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER. In the present study, we investigated whether isoflavones could affect ER stress and the subsequent development...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

All-trans retinoic acid reduces mammalian target of rapamycin via a Sirtuin1-dependent mechanism in neurons
Neuroinflammation has emerged as a key contributor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. And an elevated mTOR activity has been detected in AD-affected brain areas. Previous studies have suggested that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and rapamycin (RAPA), an mTOR inhibitor, protect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuronal inflammation through inhibiting nuclear import of NFκB. The aim of this study was to test the effects of atRA on mTOR expression. Here we discovered that mTOR and p-mTOR express...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA differentiation antagonizing nonprotein coding RNA promotes the proliferation, invasion and migration of neuroblastoma cells via targeting β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase III by sponging miR-338-3p
Neuroblastoma is a common malignant tumor in children, and patients often have a poor prognosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of neuroblastoma progression. However, the regulatory effect of lncRNA differentiation antagonizing nonprotein coding RNA (DANCR) on neuroblastoma is still not clear. The expression levels of DANCR, miR-338-3p and β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase III (B4GALT3) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2 thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry and transwell assays were used to evaluate the proliferation, apoptosis, migrat...
Source: NeuroReport - July 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

White matter degeneration in diffuse axonal injury and mild traumatic brain injury observed with automatic tractography
A better understanding of white matter tract damage in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is important to obtain an objective basis for sequelae. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of white matter tract degeneration in DAI and MTBI using automated tractography. T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on seven DAI and seven MTBI patients as well as on nine healthy subjects. Automated probabilistic tractography analysis was performed using FreeSurfer and TRACULA (tracts constrained by underlying anatomy) for the reconstruction of maj...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Precise oculocentric mapping of transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked phosphenes
Conclusions Our results emphasize the need to carefully control eye movements when carrying out phosphene localization studies and suggest that individual differences in the reliability of the reported position of individual phosphenes must be considered. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Evans blue dye as an indicator of albumin permeability across a brain endothelial cell monolayer in vitro
In conclusion, we investigated the use of EBD as an indicator of albumin permeability in vitro, explored some of its drawbacks and further demonstrated that EBD at the concentration used in vivo does not affect albumin permeability. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bioinformatics analysis and identification of genes and molecular pathways involved in Parkinson’s disease in patients with mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene
This study aims to identify potential crucial genes and pathways associated with GBA mutations in patients with PD and to further analyze new molecular mechanisms related to the occurrence of gene mutations from the perspective of bioinformatics. Gene expression profiles of datasets GSE53424 and GSE99142 were acquired from the Gene Expression Ominibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, using the ‘limma’ package in R, comparing IDI-PD 1 (idiopathic PD patients) and GBA-PD 1 [PD patients with heterozygous GBA mutations (GBA N370S)] group samples. The functions of top modules were asses...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

The c.824C>A and c.616dupA mutations in the SLC17a8 gene are associated with auditory neuropathy and lead to defective expression of VGluT3
Auditory neuropathy is sensorineural deafness where sound signals cannot be transmitted synchronously from the cochlea to the auditory center. Abnormal expression of vesicle glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) encoded by the SLC17a8 gene is associated with the pathophysiology of auditory neuropathy. Although several suspected pathogenic mutations of the SLC17a8 gene have been identified in humans, few studies have confirmed their pathogenicity. Here, we describe the effects of two known suspected pathogenic mutations (c.824C>A and c.616dupA) in the SLC17a8 gene coding VGluT3 protein and analyzed the potential pathogenicity...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered intrinsic brain activity in mild Alzheimer’s disease patients with sleep disturbances
In this study, we applied percent amplitude of fluctuation (PerAF) and mPerAF (divided by global mean PerAF) to test the strength of intrinsic brain activity in 38 mild Alzheimer’s disease patients with sleep disturbances (ADSD) and 21 mild Alzheimer’s disease patients without sleep disturbances (ADNSD). Compared with ADNSD, we found decreased intrinsic brain activity in the calcarine gyrus, the lingual gyrus, the fusiform gyrus extending to the parahippocampal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus (all in the left hemisphere) and the left brainstem. Conclusively, ADSD exhibited reduced neural acti...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway is involved in synaptic plasticity of the spinal dorsal horn and neuropathic pain in rats by regulating autophagy
This study aimed to explore the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in autophagy-mediated neuropathic pain. We established a spared nerve injury (SNI) model in adult male SD rats by ligating the common peroneal nerve and tibial, with the distal end cutoff. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and C/A-fiber evoked field potentials were determined by electrophysiologic tests at day 0 (before operation), day 7 and day 14 postoperation, and SNI significantly increased field potentials (P  (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of donepezil on the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease: evidence from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging
Conclusions Donepezil improved SNA in the frontal lobe of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, ALFF was demonstrated to be a potential tool for assessing the effectiveness of Alzheimer’s disease treatment. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research