Sex differences in a chronometric mental rotation test with cube figures: a behavioral, electroencephalography, and eye-tracking pilot study
In chronometric mental rotation tasks, sex differences are widely discussed. Most studies find men to be more skilled in mental rotation than women, which can be explained by the holistic strategy that they use to rotate stimuli. Women are believed to apply a piecemeal strategy. So far, there have been no studies investigating this phenomenon using eye-tacking methods in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) analysis: the present study compared behavioral responses, EEG activity, and eye movements of 15 men and 15 women while solving a three-dimensional chronometric mental rotation test. The behavioral analysis sho...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Ketamine differentially restores diverse alterations of neuroligins in brain regions in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression
In conclusion, NLs showed diverse changes in different brain regions in the rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, which could be reversed differentially by the administration of ketamine. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Loss-of-function mutation in Hippo suppressed enlargement of lysosomes and neurodegeneration caused by dFIG4 knockdown
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common hereditary neuropathy, and more than 80 CMT-causing genes have been identified to date. CMT4J is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene, the product of which plays important roles in endosome–lysosome homeostasis. We hypothesized that Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST) 1 and 2, tumor-suppressor genes, are candidate modifiers of CMT4J. We therefore examined the interaction between dFIG4 and Hippo (hpo), Drosophila counterparts of FIG4 and MSTs, respectively, using the Drosophila CMT4J model with the knockdown o...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Negative modulation of spinal κ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception by the µ-opioid receptor at selective doses of (−)-pentazocine
This study provides evidence that spinal MOR negatively modulates the KOR-mediated antinociceptive effect of i.t. pentazocine. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Fluorescence in-situ hybridization method reveals that carboxyl-terminal fragments of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 truncated at the amino acid residue 218 reduce poly(A)+ RNA expression
Transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has emerged as an important contributor to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. To understand the association of TDP-43 with complex RNA processing in disease pathogenesis, we performed fluorescence in-situ hybridization using HeLa cells transfected with a series of deleted TDP-43 constructs and investigated the effect of truncation of TDP-43 on the expression of poly(A)+ RNA. Endogenous and overexpressed full-length TDP-43 localized to the perichromatin region and interchromatin space adjacent to poly(A)+ RNA. Deleted variants of TD...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Delayed treatment of propofol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia through the PI3K/PKB pathway
In this study, we aim to investigate whether delayed propofol treatment is protective against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Cultured BV2 microglial cells were exposed to propofol at various time points after initiation of LPS stimulation. Nitrite production and cell viability were assessed after stimulation with LPS for 24 h. The effect of propofol on mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was analyzed using reverse transcri...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutathione-mimetic D609 alleviates memory deficits and reduces amyloid-β deposition in an AβPP/PS1 transgenic mouse model
Excessive extracellular deposition of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Oxidative stress is associated with the onset and progression of AD and contributes to Aβ generation. Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) is a glutathione (GSH)-mimetic compound. Although the antioxidant properties of D609 have been well-studied, its potential therapeutic significance on AD remains unclear. In the present study, we used a mouse model of AD to investigate the effects and the mechanism of action of D609 on AD. We found that D609 treatment significantly impr...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensorimotor cortex atrophy in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy
Previous studies have shown compensatory adaptive changes in cerebral functions before surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), especially in the sensorimotor cortices. However, the structural changes in the sensorimotor cortices in patients with CSM remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric changes in the sensorimotor cortices using morphological MRI and to correlate these changes with clinical scales. We hypothesize that CSM causes atrophy in the sensorimotor cortices, which results in functional changes during CSM progression. The study participants included 30 C...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy in hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice
The β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Dysfunction in autophagy has been reported to lead to the Aβ deposition. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy activity and the Aβ deposition and to demonstrate whether exercise-induced reduction in the Aβ deposition was associated with changes in autophagy activity. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were divided into transgenic sedentary (TG-SED, n=12) and transgenic exercise (TG-EXE, n=12) groups. Wild-type mice were also divided into sedentary (WT-SED, n=12)...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

The dysfunction of processing emotional faces in schizophrenia revealed by expression-related visual mismatch negativity
To investigate the emotional face processing in patients with schizophrenia, the preattentive automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with schizophrenia was compared with that of age-matched healthy control group as indexed by the expressional mismatch negativity (EMMN) elicited by facial expressions. Compared with neutral faces as standard stimuli, deviant emotional faces elicited posterior EMMN between 150 and 500 ms after stimuli onset, with larger amplitudes for sad than happy deviant faces. Both early and late EMMNs significantly decreased in the schizophrenia group, regardless of sad or happy EM...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation facilitates excitability of spinal reflex, but does not affect cerebellar inhibition and facilitation in spinocerebellar ataxia
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cerebellum facilitates the spinal reflex in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such cerebellar spinal facilitation (CSpF) appears in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) presenting with atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter and dentate nucleus. One patient with SCA type 6 and another with SCA type 31 participated in this study. TMS over the right primary motor cortex was used to induce motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, which were detected using electromyography. Conditioning TMS using interstimulus inte...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over right intraparietal sulcus enhances emotional face processing in the left visual field
The frontoparietal network is largely involved in the process of emotional face perception and attention. However, how the right intraparietal sulcus (rIPS) may guide this process is not yet established. The effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intraparietal sulcus in the perception of emotional faces is still unclear. To address that, we applied a modified Posner attention task where participants discriminated backward-masked emotional faces at the valid side and delivered 10-Hz rTMS over rIPS and vertex. Behavioral results demonstrated a processing advantage for emotional faces compared ...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Isosteviol sodium injection improves outcomes by modulating TLRs/NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats
Previous studies have shown that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against permanent cerebral ischemia injury by inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Overwhelming evidence shows that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the upstream regulators of NF-κB. On the basis of the similarity of the pathology caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, we speculated that STVNa may have a therapeutic effect against TBI through regulation of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling-mediated inflammatory response. Thus, we studied the potential th...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside antagonizes β-amyloid-induced inflammatory injury in microglia cells by regulating PU.1 expression
Inhibiting β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced microglial activation is proposed as an effective strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Tetrahydroxystilbene glycoside (TSG) is the main active ingredient of Polygonum multiflorum and has a wide range of biological properties, including antiinflammation. Here, we focused on the function and regulatory mechanism of TSG in Aβ-induced N9 and BV2 cells. The results showed that Aβ treatment induced the activation of microglia cells and the production of inflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2, and p...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of apoptotic pathways in dorsal root ganglion neurons following peripheral nerve injury
In this study, we performed peripheral nerve transection on adult rats, after which the corresponding DRGs were harvested at 7, 14, and 28 days after injury for subsequent molecular analyses with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Nerve injury led to increased levels of caspase-3 mRNA and active caspase-3 protein in the DRG. Increased expression of caspase-8, caspase-12, caspase-7, and calpain suggested that both the extrinsic and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptotic pathways were activated. Phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like ER kinase further impli...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Emotion intensity modulates perspective taking in men and women: an event-related potential study
When empathizing with another individual, one can imagine the individual’s emotional states and how he or she perceives a situation. However, it is not known to what extent imagining the other differs from imagining oneself under different emotional intensity situations in both sexes. The present study investigated the regulatory effect of emotional intensity on perspective taking in men and women by event-related potentials. The participants were shown pictures of individuals in highly negative (HN), moderately negative, and neutral situations, and instructed to imagine the degree of pain perceived from either a sel...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Event-related brain potential correlates of brain reorganization of episodic memory throughout the adult lifespan
The main aim of this study was to characterize the age-related evolution of the event-related brain potentials correlates of successful to tackle the neural reorganization patterns associated with this episodic retrieval. We thus examined the evolution of the event-related brain potential old/new effect across the adult lifespan, in five groups, aged 21–70 years (21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, and 61–70 years), equalized on their memory performance through a word-stem cued-recall task. This procedure makes it possible to examine the evolution of age-related changes in brain organization dur...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered whole-brain gray matter volume in high myopia patients: a voxel-based morphometry study
In this study, we analyzed the difference in the whole-brain gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume between HM patients and healthy controls (HCs) using a voxel-based morphology method. A total of 82 HM patients (52 men and 30 women) and 58 HCs (28 men and 30 women), matched closely in terms of age and education, were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent MRI scans. The MRI data were processed using the SPM8 software. The relationship between the mean GMV values of the brain regions and clinical features, including refractive diopter and the mean retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, in the HM group w...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abnormal gray matter asymmetry in alcohol dependence
Previous voxel-based morphometry studies have provided evidence that patients with alcohol dependence (AD) have widespread gray matter morphological abnormalities. However, brain structural asymmetry in AD has not been assessed to date. Here, we aimed to use a recently developed voxel-based morphometry-based approach to investigate global and regional gray matter asymmetry alterations in AD. A total of 39 male individuals, including 19 AD patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls, underwent high-resolution structural MRI. Global and voxel-wise gray matter asymmetries were measured separately by the Dice coefficient and ...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcription factor 7 functions as an unfavorable prognostic marker of glioblastoma multiforme by promoting proliferation by upregulating c-Myc
Transcription factor 7 (TCF7) is an oncogenic transcription factor in several kinds of cancers. However, the clinical significance of TCF7 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has not been well elucidated. A total of 107 patients with surgical resection of GBM were enrolled in our study. TCF7 expression in these cases was detected by immunohistochemistry and the difference in TCF7 mRNA levels between tumor tissues and adjacent tissues was compared with a real-time PCR. The correlation between TCF7 expression and the clinicopathologic factors was analyzed using the χ2-test. Moreover, the prognostic value of TCF7 was evaluat...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transgenerational consequences of prepregnancy chronic morphine use on spatial learning and hippocampal Mecp2 and Hdac2 expression
There has recently been increasing interest in the transgenerational effects of opioids. Herein, transgenerational consequences of maternal chronic morphine consumption before gestation were investigated at the behavioral and molecular levels of next two generations. Twelve female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: pregestation morphine-consuming and control mothers. Morphine-consuming mothers had access to morphine solution ad libitum for 2 months, whereas the control mothers received only tap water. One month after stopping morphine consumption, rats were mated. After parturition, male and female offsprin...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ten-eleven translocation 1 regulates methylation of autophagy-related genes in human glioma
This study indicates that ten-eleven translocation 1 may be involved in the development and progression of glioma through demethylation regulating a variety of cellular functions and signaling pathways, and autophagy is one of the regulatory mechanisms. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of microRNA-429 attenuates oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced neuronal injury by promoting expression of GATA-binding protein 4
In this study, the effect of miR-429 on oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced neuronal injury was investigated in vitro. The results showed that miR-429 expression levels were upregulated in cultured neurons with OGD/R treatment. The downregulation of miR-429 significantly alleviated OGD/R-induced neuronal injury, whereas upregulation of miR-429 aggravated it. Bioinformatic analysis showed that miR-429 could directly target the 3′-untranslated region of GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4), which was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, we found that miR-429 negatively regulate...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

LINC00673 silencing inhibits cell migration and invasion by suppressing PI3K/AKT signaling in glioma
In conclusion, LINC00673 silencing inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion by suppressing the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and it is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic glioma. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exposure to bisphenol A affects GABAergic neuron differentiation in neurosphere cultures
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) influence not only endocrine functions but also neuronal development and functions. In-vivo studies have suggested the relationship of EDC-induced neurobehavioral disorders with dysfunctions of neurotransmitter mechanisms including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic mechanisms. However, whether EDCs affect GABAergic neuron differentiation remains unclear. In the present study, we show that a representative EDC, bisphenol A (BPA), affects GABAergic neuron differentiation. Cortical neurospheres prepared from embryonic mice were exposed to BPA for 7 days, and then neuronal differentiat...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mechanisms of ketamine on mice hippocampi shown by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis
In the present study, we used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics method to evaluate the effects of ketamine on mice hippocampi. Multivariate statistical analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis were then used to identify and explore the potential mechanisms and biofunction of ketamine. Compared with the control (CON) group, 14 differential metabolites that involved amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress metabolism were identified. After combination with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) administration, six of the 14 metabolites remaine...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aquaporin-4 facilitator TGN-073 promotes interstitial fluid circulation within the blood–brain barrier: [17O]H2O JJVCPE MRI study
The blood–brain barrier (BBB), which imposes significant water permeability restriction, effectively isolates the brain from the systemic circulation. Seemingly paradoxical, the abundance of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) on the inside of the BBB strongly indicates the presence of unique water dynamics essential for brain function. On the basis of the highly specific localization of AQP-4, namely, astrocyte end feet at the glia limitans externa and pericapillary Virchow–Robin space, we hypothesized that the AQP-4 system serves as an interstitial fluid circulator, moving interstitial fluid from the glia limitans externa to...
Source: NeuroReport - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered intrinsic activity and functional connectivity in two animal models with opposing fear memories
In conclusion, our data suggested that damaged regional spontaneous activity and abnormal functional connectivity might be differently involved in two opposing fear memories. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Altered white matter microstructure associated with mild and moderate depressive symptoms in young adults, a diffusion tensor imaging study
This study provides a new avenue in addressing neuropathology of depression, mainly in subtle forms that are almost always overlooked. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Upregulation of P2X2 and P2X3 receptors in rats with hyperalgesia induced by heroin withdrawal
Drug dependence and withdrawal syndrome induced by abrupt cessation of opioid administration remain a severe obstacle in the clinical treatment of chronic pain and opioid drug addiction. One of the key symptoms during opioid withdrawal is hyperalgesia. The mechanism of opioid withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia remains unclear. P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, members of P2X receptor subunits, act as the integrator of multiple forms of noxious stimuli and play an important role in nociception transduction of chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. The process of P2X2 and P2X3 receptor antagonism inhibits inflammatory hyperalgesia, ...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Curcumin mitigates axonal injury and neuronal cell apoptosis through the PERK/Nrf2 signaling pathway following diffuse axonal injury
In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of curcumin for the treatment of DAI and investigated the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of curcumin against neural cell death and axonal injury after DAI. Rats subjected to a model of DAI by head rotational acceleration were treated with vehicle or curcumin to evaluate the effect of curcumin on neuronal and axonal injury. We observed that curcumin (20 mg/kg intraperitoneal) administered 1 h after DAI induction alleviated the aggregation of p-tau and β-APP in neurons, reduced ER-stress-related cell apoptosis, and ameliorated neurological...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

miR-221 alleviates the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis of neuronal cell through targeting TNFAIP2 in spinal cord ischemia–reperfusion
This study aimed to examine the role of miR-221 in inflammatory response and apoptosis of neuronal cells after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Blood samples were obtained from 20 I/R patients and that of 20 healthy individuals were used as a control. AGE1.HN and SY-SH-5Y neuronal cell lines subjected to oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) stress were used in cell experiments. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the expression of miR-221, tumor necrosis factor-α, and TNFAIP2. TUNEL assay analyzed cell apoptosis. I/R patients had lower serum levels of miR-221 than healthy controls. In...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cooperative hand movements: effect of a reduced afference on the neural coupling mechanism
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of unilateral reduction of afferent input on the ‘neural coupling’ mechanism during cooperative hand movements. This ‘neural coupling’ is reflected in the task-specific appearance of contralateral reflex responses in forearm muscles to unilateral arm nerve stimulation. Sensory input from the right hand was reduced by ischemic nerve block at the right wrist. Ipsilateral and contralateral reflex responses elicited by stimulation of the ulnar nerve either at the left or the right wrist proximal to the nerve block were recorded in forearm extensors dur...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Anxiety-like behaviour assessments of adolescent rats after repeated maternal separation during early life
In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS and early handling (EH) on locomotor activity in an open-field test, a light–dark box test and an elevated plus-maze test of adolescent rats. The results showed that MS reduced locomotor activities in the open-field test, and increased anxiety-like behaviours in the light–dark box test and the elevated plus-maze test in adolescent rats. These tests indicated that early life stress caused by MS might induce anxiety-like behaviours during adolescence. However, compared with the control group, both the MS and EH groups showed conflicting anxiety levels. The...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Growth hormone promotes neurite growth of spiral ganglion neurons
Intact spiral ganglion neurons are a specific requirement for hearing rehabilitation in deaf patients by cochlear implantation. Neurotrophic growth factors have been proposed as effective tools to protect and regenerate spiral ganglion neurons that are degenerated in the majority of patients suffering from hearing loss. Here, we show that growth hormone (GH), a pleiotropic growth factor whose neurotrophic role in the inner ear is still unclear, significantly increases neurite extension, as well as neuronal branching, in spiral ganglion cell cultures derived from early postnatal rats. Our data suggest that GH can act as a p...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Automatic processing of pragmatic information in the human brain: a mismatch negativity study
This study explored whether pragmatic information can be automatically processed during spoken sentence comprehension. The experiment adopted the mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to capture the neurophysiological indicators of automatic processing of spoken sentences. Pragmatically incorrect (‘Foxes have wings’) and correct (‘Butterflies have wings’) sentences were used as the experimental stimuli. In condition 1, the pragmatically correct sentence was the deviant and the pragmatically incorrect sentence was the standard stimulus, whereas the opposite case was presented in condition 2. The experim...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

A novel online fluorescence method for in-vivo measurement of hydrogen peroxide during oxidative stress produced in a temporal lobe epilepsy model
In this study, we measured the extracellular H2O2 concentration in the rat hippocampus in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. A new fluorescent technique for measuring H2O2in vivo simultaneously with electroencephalography recording was tested. The method consists of mixing microdialysate with an enzymatic reactor to produce a fluorescent compound. The fluorescence intensity was measured every second and was proportional to the H2O2 concentration. The results showed that H2O2 was released during SE; we detected a significant increase of up to five times over the baseline value that correlated with changes in electrical activit...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ketamine effects on mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in the mouse limbic system depend on functional dopamine D3 receptors
Ketamine is a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist. When acutely administered to rodents, it produces a rapid antidepressant effect. There is evidence that N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor blockade enhances glutamatergic transmission preferentially engaging α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors leading to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathways activation, thus resulting into downstream neuroadaptive changes in limbic structures. Recent in-vitro data on primary neuronal cultures showed that ketamine activates mTOR also in dopaminergic neurons, and this ...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Upregulation of long noncoding RNA Gadd45a is associated with sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rat neural stem cells
Emerging evidence has shown that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays a crucial role in controlling neural stem cells’ (NSCs) survival. However, the fundamental role of lncRNA underlying sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, we investigate the effect of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent and duration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we assayed the differential profile of lncRNA in rat hippocampal NSCs following sevoflurane exposure, and identified lncRNA Gadd45a and the correlation between lncRNA Gadd45a and Gadd45a. We found that lncRNA Gadd45a and ...
Source: NeuroReport - May 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

The neural underpinnings of music listening under different attention conditions
In this study, we explicitly manipulated the participants’ focus of attention while they listened to the musical pieces. We used an ecologically valid experimental setting by presenting the musical stimuli simultaneously with naturalistic film sequences. In one condition, the participants were instructed to focus their attention on the musical piece (attentive listening), whereas in the second condition, the participants directed their attention to the film sequence (passive listening). We used two instrumental musical pieces: an electronic pop song, which was a major hit at the time of testing, and a classical music...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Generation of human vascularized brain organoids
The aim of this study was to vascularize brain organoids with a patient’s own endothelial cells (ECs). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of one UC Davis patient were grown into whole-brain organoids. Simultaneously, iPSCs from the same patient were differentiated into ECs. On day 34, the organoid was re-embedded in Matrigel with 250 000 ECs. Vascularized organoids were grown in vitro for 3–5 weeks or transplanted into immunodeficient mice on day 54, and animals were perfused on day 68. Coating of brain organoids on day 34 with ECs led to robust vascularization of the organoid after 3–5 weeks i...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Face-sensitive P1 and N170 components are related to the perception of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects
This study aimed to directly compare the relationship between face-sensitive N170 during face perception (upright and inverted faces) and object-related N170 during object perception (two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects). More specifically, the purpose was to clarify whether face-sensitive P1 and N170 components are related to the perception of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects. Electroencephalography was performed in participants who were shown one of the four types of stimuli: upright faces, inverted faces, two-dimensional objects, or three-dimensional objects. The results revealed that the latency ...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology Source Type: research

Proliferation and committed differentiation into dopamine neurons of neural stem cells induced by the active ingredients of radix astragali
In conclusion, our study verifies that the active ingredients of radix astragali can promote the proliferation of NSCs and induce NSC differentiation toward DA neurons in vitro. These phenomena may occur through upregulation of Shh, Nurr1, and Ptx3 in the process of drug treatment. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Mitochondrial calcium uniporter-mediated inhibition of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ions neurotoxicity in PC12 cells
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most debilitating neurodegenerative disorders. The etiology of sporadic PD remains unknown. One prominent hypothesis is that impaired mitochondrial function may underlie slow and progressive neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a crucial component that regulates the intramitochondrial Ca2+ level. Ca2+ uptake to the mitochondria by MCU, resulting in activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases and stimulation of ATP synthesis, but excessive Ca2+ uptake to the mitochondria resulting in cell apoptosis. Therefore, this study focused on whether MCU was involved i...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Flavonoids extracted from leaves of Diospyros kaki regulates RhoA activity to rescue synapse loss and reverse memory impairment in APP/PS1 mice
In this study, APP/PS1 mice were used as an AD model, and we found that synapse loss occurred in AD mice brain. Flavonoids extracted from leaves of Diospyros kaki (FLDK) were used to investigate whether its protective effects on synapse were related to Rho GTPases activity in AD mice. The Rho GTPases Activation Kit showed that Ras homologous member A (RhoA)-GTP was significantly higher and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-GTP was significantly lower in APP/PS1 mice than in normal mice, and RhoA-GTP activity was significantly inhibited by FLDK. We also found that FLDK improved learning and memory function, ...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Three-dimensional multiple object tracking in the pediatric population: the NeuroTracker and its promising role in the management of mild traumatic brain injury
As mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects hundreds of thousands of children and their families each year, investigation of potential mTBI assessments and treatments is an important research target. Three-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT), where an individual must allocate attention to moving objects within 3D space, is one potentially promising assessment and treatment tool. To date, no research has looked at 3D-MOT in a pediatric mTBI population. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine 3D-MOT learning in children and youth with and without mTBI. Thirty-four participants (mean age=14.69±2.46 years...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical significance of visually equivocal amyloid PET findings from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort
To evaluate the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with visually equivocal amyloid PET images, patients from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort who had fluorine-18-florbetapir PET scans both at baseline and 24 months were selected. Five nuclear medicine physicians visually assessed the PET images and classified them as either positive or negative. Images not reaching a majority agreement were classified as equivocal. Among a total of 379 patients, the number of patients in each fluorine-18-florbetapir PET negative/equivocal/positive categories was 218 (57.5%), 32 (8.4%), and 129 (34....
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Subcortical grey matter structures in multiple sclerosis: what is their role in cognition?
In conclusion, reduced GM volume and enhanced frontobasal ganglia connectivity are related to cognition in MS patients. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Melatonin prevented spatial deficits and increases in brain asymmetric dimethylarginine in young bile duct ligation rats
In this study, we examined the role of brain asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in young BDL rats with spatial deficits. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 17 days were assigned to four groups: laparotomy (SHAM), laparotomy plus 5 mg melatonin delivered through a pellet (SHAMM) for 4 weeks, BDL for 4 weeks, and BDL plus 5 mg melatonin delivered through a pellet (BDLM) for 4 weeks. Their spatial memory was assessed using a Morris water-maze task. Plasma and brains were collected for biochemical and ADMA analyses. We found that the BDL group had significantly ele...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dopamine modulates striatal response to reward and punishment in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a pharmacological challenge fMRI study
In this study, using fMRI, we tested a group of Parkinson’s disease patients on and off dopaminergic medications and matched healthy individuals. All individuals completed an fMRI cognitive task that dissociates feedback learning from reward versus punishment. The administration of dopaminergic medications attenuated blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses to punishment in the bilateral putamen, in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left premotor cortex. Further, the administration of dopaminergic medications resulted in a higher ratio of BOLD activity between reward and punishment trials in these...
Source: NeuroReport - April 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research