Altered hippocampal function with preserved cognitive performance in treatment-naive major depressive disorder
The hippocampus is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), with evidence that morphological changes occur with disease progression. It was hypothesized that treatment-naive patients with depression would show performance deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory trials, with concurrent hippocampal activation deficits on functional magnetic resonance imaging, compared with control participants. Thirteen treatment-naive patients with MDD and 13 control participants completed a hippocampus-dependent memory functional magnetic resonance imaging process-dissociation task. On behavioural measures of ...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

C-terminal fragments of amyloid precursor proteins increase cofilin phosphorylation by LIM kinase in cultured rat primary neurons
In this study, we aim to elucidate the effects of APP-CTFs on the actin-depolymerizing factor [(ADF)/cofilin]. Our data indicate that transfection with APP-CT99 and APP-CT57 may increase the phosphorylation level of Ser3 of ADF/cofilin and Thr508 of LIM-kinase 1 in rat primary cortical neuronal cultures. S3 peptide, a synthetic peptide competitor of LIM-kinase 1 for ADF/cofilin phosphorylation and an inhibitor of APP-CTFs, induced ADF/cofilin phosphorylation. In comparison with the wild-type mouse, the APP-CT transgenic mouse showed increased immunoreactivity of phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin) in the brain. Treatment wi...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α in mediating the antinociceptive effects of palmitoylethanolamine in rats
Palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is a ligand at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α (PPARα), a nuclear receptor that has anti-inflammatory effects. Herein, complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain model in rats and in-vitro calcium imaging studies were used to evaluate the mechanisms that underlie the antinociceptive effects of PEA, including modulating the activity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, which is a key receptor involved in the development of inflammatory pain. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180–250 g) received subcutaneous injections...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Effects of white noise duration on somatosensory event-related potentials
Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate cognitive function. This phenomenon is called stochastic resonance. The present study examined the effects of white noise duration on behavioral data [reaction time (RT), the SD of RT, and error rates] and the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability. Before recording event-related potentials, participants heard three different white noise durations (1, 3, and 5-min conditions), and performed s...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of the antispasticity effects of baclofen on spinal ventral horn neurons
Conclusion Baclofen may have both presynaptic and postsynaptic capacity to inhibit synaptic transmission in ventral horn neurons by GABAB receptors. These cellular mechanisms may induce the antispasticity effects of intrathecal baclofen therapy in the spinal cord. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Alterations in reelin and reelin receptors in Down syndrome
Reelin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that modulates synaptic function and plasticity, with a crucial role in neuronal migration. Changes in the expression of this protein have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This molecule is produced by Cajal–Retzius neurons during development and by inhibitory neurons in the adult nervous system. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) present an early development of AD; therefore, we analyzed the alterations in this molecule and its receptors in the murine model for DS Ts65Dn as well as in human with DS. We performed immuno...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Protein disulphide isomerase is associated with mutant SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder prevalent in the canine population. It may represent a unique, naturally occurring disease model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar clinical signs and association with superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutations. Misfolded SOD1 aggregates and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are major pathophysiological features associated with ALS. Interestingly, an ER foldase, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is upregulated during ALS and it co-localizes with SOD1 inclusions in ALS patient tissues. Furthermore, mutations in the gen...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Expression alterations of apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain in Aβ25–35-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity
In this report, we not only confirm previous reports that ARC is expressed in the hippocampal neurons but also demonstrate for the first time that ARC is also expressed in the hippocampal astrocytes. Furthermore, we extend the findings to show that, contrary to the time-dependently decreased ARC levels in the hippocampal neurons, ARC in astrocytes is strikingly increased in Aβ25–35-induced early neurotoxicity. Our data suggest that ARC has distinct roles based on cell type and stimuli. Our results provide valuable information for further exploring the complicated functions and related mechanisms of ARC in amyloi...
Source: NeuroReport - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Hypoxia enhances the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/HIF-1α pathway
This study aims to explore the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway and its relationship with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells under hypoxia. In the study, we found that hypoxia could activate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway associated with the enhancements of the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells. When the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and HIF-1α were inhibited by the siRNAs or inhibitors, the migration and invasion of human glioblastoma U87 cells were suppresse...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

ROCK2 regulates autophagy in the hippocampus of rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage
This study aimed to investigate the role of ROCK2 in the regulation of hippocampus autophagy after SAH. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups – the sham group, the SAH group, and the SAH+ ROCK2 inhibitor group (or the drug group) – and analyzed through a behavior test. The hippocampus tissues were analyzed using immunochemistry and western blot analysis. We observed injured morphology in the hippocampus and impaired learning and memory ability in the rats in the SAH group, accompanied by upregulated ROCK2 expression and increased beclin-1 and LC3-II expression. Compared with the...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Green tea polyphenols ameliorate ethanol-induced spatial learning and memory impairments by enhancing hippocampus NMDAR1 expression and CREB activity in rats
The current research probed into the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on ethanol-induced spatial learning and memory impairments and inquired the potential molecular mechanism in rats. Thirty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (control, n=10), ethanol group (ethanol, n=10), and GTPs intervention group (GTP, n=10) received gavage administration of saline, ethanol, and ethanol–GTP solution, respectively, for 8 weeks. Morris water maze was applied to assess the spatial learning and memory function of rats in each group at the last week of treatment. Ther...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Corticospinal excitability is modulated by temporal feedback gaps
This study investigated CE during the motor preparation period in a goal-directed movement task with temporal feedback gaps. Each trial began with a pair of first-informative and second-response beeps presented successively as cues. Trials with temporal feedback gaps showed that virtual hand movements lagged 400 ms behind actual performed movements. The participants were instructed to prepare for movement in accordance with the first beep, start the movement upon hearing the second beep, and perform movements that were both fast and accurate to the virtual target. We delivered a single-pulse of transcranial magnetic...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Cognitive impairment correlates with serum carbonyl compound profiles in subclinical carotid atherosclerosis
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the profiling of serum carbonyl compounds in subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (SCA) patients and to explore the relationship between serum carbonyl compounds and cognitive performance. We enrolled 51 SCA patients and 45 healthy control individuals using carotid ultrasound assessment. All the participants were subjected to a neuropsychological assessment and their fasting serum samples were collected for untargeted stable isotope-labeling strategy combined with liquid chromatography–double precursor ion scan–mass spectrometry analysis. Compared with the control, the SCA gro...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

P7C3-A20 neuroprotection is independent of Wallerian degeneration in primary neuronal culture
This study aimed to establish whether P7C3-A20, through induction of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase activity, would affect the rate of WD. The model systems used were dissociated primary cortical neurons, dissociated superior cervical ganglion neurons and superior cervical ganglion explants. P7C3-A20 failed to show any protection against WD induced by neurite transection or vincristine administration. Furthermore, there was a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity. These findings are important in understanding the mechanism by which P7C3-A20 mediates its effects – a key step before moving to human clinical tri...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Axon initial segment plasticity accompanies enhanced excitation of visual cortical neurons in aged rats
Recent studies have indicated that the structure of the axon initial segment (AIS) of neurons is highly plastic in response to changes in neuronal activity. Whether an age-related enhancement of neuronal responses in the visual cortex is coupled with plasticity of AISs is unknown. Here, we compare the AIS length and the distribution of Nav1.6, a key Na+ ion channel in action potential (AP) initiation, along the AIS of layer II/III neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) of young adult and aged rats, which were examined previously in a single-unit recording study. In that study, we found that V1 neurons in aged rats showe...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Effects of COMT polymorphism on the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation
Recent evidence has shown that auditory-motor integration for speech production is influenced by cognitive functions such as working memory and attention, suggesting that speech motor control is likely modulated by mechanisms mediated by prefrontal regions. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene plays an important role in dopamine breakdown in the prefrontal cortex and has been associated with a variety of prefrontal cognitive functions. The present event-related potential study investigated the association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and auditory-motor processing of vocal feedback errors. A sample of 131 Chinese...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

The potential effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on vasoproliferative disorders of the immature retina
In this study, we used (a) oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model (standard model for retinopathy of prematurity) and (b) Y79 retinoblastoma cells (a human cell line derived from immature retinal cells). In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, number of preretinal nuclei (representing pathologic retinal neovascularization) significantly increases by 57% (P (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Mitochondrial biogenesis mediated by melatonin in an APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice model
In this study, we used the amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutations K594N/M595L (APPswe)/presenilin 1 with the exon-9 deletion (PS1dE9) transgenic mouse model of AD, which was successfully established by the expression of amyloid β precursor protein and presenilin 1 (PS1). Then, we compared APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice with and without melatonin (MT) in drinking water for 4 months (estimated 0.5 mg/day) and control C57BL/6J mice without MT for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors (mitochondrial transcription factor A, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor &...
Source: NeuroReport - November 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement in proactive and reactive aggression: a transcranial direct current stimulation study
To investigate whether modulation of the excitability of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would alter proactive aggression, reactive aggression, or both. The Taylor Aggression Paradigm, considered to provide measures indicative of the two types of aggression, was presented with delivery of either anodal tDCS or sham tDCS over rVLPFC. Participants were required to select levels of negative feedback to delivery should they win on a competitive reaction-time task and the levels selected on initial trials (with no feedback from the opponent) were taken as m...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

CRISPR-mediated SOX9 knockout inhibits GFAP expression in retinal glial (Müller) cells
Müller cells, as the predominant glial element in the sensory retina, play a crucial role in healthy and diseased retina. Overactivation of Müller cells in response to damage is detrimental to the retina tissue. Current research shows that inhibiting glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a sensitive indicator of Müller cell activation, attenuated glial reactions and promoted neuroprotection. Recent evidence suggests that the transcript factor SOX9 (sex-determining region Y box 9), part of the SOX family, regulates GFAP expression of astrocytes in the central nervous system. However, in retina Müller c...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Effect of social distance on outcome evaluation in self–other decision-making: evidence from event-related potentials
Previous studies have shown that social distance influences one’s judgment at the decision-making stage, although its impact in the outcome evaluation stage, which is a vital stage in the decision-making process, is ignored. Using event-related potentials, we examined the influence of social distance on outcome feedback by requiring participants to make decisions for themselves, their friends, or strangers. Increased social distance reduced the feedback-related negativity amplitude in the early stage of outcome evaluation and reduced the P300 amplitude in the late stage of outcome evaluation. These results provide ev...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Effects of baicalin on diabetic neuropathic pain involving transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the dorsal root ganglia of rats
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and leads to sensory symptoms, including diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). DNP is a major public health problem because it has a considerable impact on life quality of diabetes mellitus patients. Therefore, development of novel effective analgesics for DNP relief and treatment is warranted. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) has a crucial role in nociceptive transmission under pathological forms of pain. Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from a medicinal herb, Huang Qin, it possesses antioxidant properties and has an a...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Reduced γ-aminobutyric acid in the superior temporal gyrus is associated with absolute pitch
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to label the pitch of tones without any reference tones. Previous studies have shown that the anatomical and functional basis of AP exists in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), although the associated neurotransmitters remain unknown. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the bilateral STG of adult AP possessor and non-AP possessors. We found a significant negative correlation between AP scores and GABA concentration in the left STG. Furthermore, mean GABA concentration was signi...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

The effects of P2X7 receptor knockout on emotional conditions over the lifespan of mice
In conclusion, P2X7r KO improves the emotional conditions at later stages of the lifespan of mice, but not in all ages, suggesting time-specific roles of immune response in nervous system through NF-κB signaling pathway. Video abstract: http://links.lww.com/WNR/A494. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Microstructural differences in visual white matter tracts in people with aniridia
Aniridia is a panocular disorder characterized chiefly by iris hypoplasia. Most cases result from mutations of the PAX6 gene, which is important in both eye and brain development. In addition to ocular alterations, differences in global brain volume and functional connectivity have been reported in humans with aniridia. Understanding neural alterations in aniridia may require examination of possible differences in white matter structure, as few studies have assessed white matter in this population. The current study utilized diffusion-weighted imaging to assess white matter structure in 11 people with aniridia and 11 healt...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Effects of thermal stimulation on neurons and astrocytes cultured from the rat median preoptic nucleus
Warming or cooling of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in-vivo evokes appropriate thermoregulatory responses. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether single neurons (and astrocytes) of primary rat MnPO cell cultures maintain properties, which are consistent with their putative role within the central thermoregulatory structures. Using the fura-2 ratio imaging technique, we therefore measured changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in neurons of rat MnPO primary cultures stimulated by rapid cooling from 37 to 25°C, or warming from 37 to 45°C, or glutamate, the transmitter which transfe...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus blood oxygen-level dependent signal changes during the repetition of an attention task in meditators and nonmeditators
Conclusion Attention to repetitive stimuli during two equal runs of SWCT is mediated by the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, and mental training through meditation may influence the activity of these regions during such tasks. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Triggering microglia through toll-like receptor 2 pathway induced interferon β expression in cell and animal model of Alzheimer’s disease
This study was designed to investigate whether pretreatment with the TLR2 receptor ligand can regulate microglia to produce interferon β (INFβ) in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. For this purpose, the BV-2 cell line was cultured in a 24-well plate, treated with Pam3Cys (1 μg/ml), and then incubated with oligomeric Aβ for 24 h. The expression of TRIF, IRF3, and INFβ was measured by western blot technique. For in-vivo study, bilateral guide cannulas were streotaxically implanted in the right and left lateral ventricles. Pam3Cys/vehicle was microinjected into the right ventricle ...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Does emotion arousal influence the benefit received from testing: insights from neural correlates of retrieval mode effect
Retrieval can not only assess what was learned in a prior episode but also strengthen memory retention. Episodic context account posited that the act of thinking back to an original study episode (i.e. being in a retrieval mode) is the mechanism of retrieval practice effect. However, whether the retrieval practice effect could be influenced by emotional arousal is still unclear. We aim to investigate the role of retrieval mode and emotional arousal on retrieval practice effect by using event-related potentials. Using negative and neutral items, participants were asked to either restudy or perform a source memory test, and ...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

The endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer old astrocyte specifically induced substance positively regulates glial scar formation in spinal cord injury
To investigate the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS) and astrogliosis in spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI models were established using adult male mice deficient for OASIS and C57BL/6 (wild-type mice) mice. After SCI, recovery and astrogliosis were examined in the mice at specific time points using functional and histological methods. After SCI, functional recovery was better in the OASIS-deficient mice than in the wild-type mice. OASIS deletion did not inhibit astrocyte migration but reduced the excessive accumulation of N-cadherin-expressi...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Testing between the gunpowder fuse and the filling-hose analogy for mental curve tracing using electroencephalography: boom!
Curve tracing occurs when a line is followed covertly to accomplish a task, for example, to determine whether two landmarks are on the same line or not (could Highway 61 take Robert Johnson from New Orleans to St Louis?). Previous work suggests that attention either moves along the curve, momentarily activating local representations of the curve during this process, leaving little or no trace of this activation once attention has passed, or attention spreads along the curve, resulting in an activated state along the entire portion of the curve that was traced. We re-examined this issue using event-related potentials. Curve...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Serum miRNA expression profiling reveals miR-486-3p may play a significant role in the development of autism by targeting ARID1B
Recent studies have implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) in autism and have supported changes in serum miRNA expression profile. We proposed to analyze miRNA expression and its target genes related to regulatory networks in autism within a cohort of Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to explore the dysregulation of miRNAs in autism and investigate the potential mechanistic implications in the pathogenesis of autism. MiRNA was isolated from the serum samples of 20 patients with autism and 23 controls. Dysfunctional miRNAs were identified using miRNA microarray analyses. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to ex...
Source: NeuroReport - November 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

(2R,6R)-Hydroxynorketamine promotes dendrite outgrowth in human inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons through AMPA receptor with timing and exposure compatible with ketamine infusion pharmacokinetics in humans
The mechanisms underlying the prolonged antidepressant effects after a single infusion of ketamine are only partially understood. Ketamine’s half-life of ∼2 h cannot explain antidepressant effects that last for 1 week, suggesting the triggering of long-lasting neuroplasticity. Recent human pharmacokinetics (PK) data indicate that a ketamine metabolite, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), persists in the high submicromolar range for additional 6–12 h. As in rodents HNK can induce dendrite outgrowth through AMPA receptor-mediated mechanisms, in this work, we aimed to show that HNK produces similar...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fear conditioning downregulates miR-138 expression in the hippocampus to facilitate the formation of fear memory
In this study, a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) paradigm, bioinformatic methods, a luciferase assay, real-time PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the detailed effects of miR-138 on fear memory. We found that miR-138 transiently decreased in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) after CFC training. Upregulation or downregulation of miR-138 in the DH with miR-138 agomir or antagomir treatment significantly impaired or enhanced the formation of CFC memory, respectively. Moreover, the effects of miR-138 in the DH on the formation of CFC memory were achieved by changing the expression of the downstream target gene calpain 1 (...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resting-state functional connectivity as a biomarker of aggression in mild traumatic brain injury
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can alter the structure of the brain and result in a range of symptoms, including elevated aggression. Neurological damage associated with mTBI is traditionally viewed as transient, yet a growing number of studies suggest long-lasting psychological and neurological changes following mTBI. However, research examining the neural basis of emotion processing in the chronic stage of mTBI recovery remains sparse. In the current study, we utilized resting state functional MRI to explore the association between default mode network connectivity and aggression in 17 healthy controls and 17 adults ...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Altered whole-brain gray matter volume in primary angle closure glaucoma patients: a voxel-based morphometry study
The study aimed to compare the whole-brain gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) difference between primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients and health controls (HCs) using a voxel-based morphometry method. A total of 27 patients with PACG (17 males and 10 females) and 27 HCs (17 males and 10 females), closely matched for age and education, were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The MRI data were processed using SPM8 software in voxel-based morphometry 8 toolbox. The relationship between the mean GMV values of brain regions and the clinical features...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of intranasal administration of neurotrophic factors on regeneration of chemically degenerated olfactory epithelium in aging mice
In the mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE), neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime, by replacing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) lost by normal turnover in the postnatal period. However, this ability decreases with age and/or because of various toxic factors. To date, no effective treatment for olfactory dysfunction’ especially because of aging, is available in clinical practice. Here, we examined the effects of intranasal administration of fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 in gelatin hydrogel on the degenerated OE of aging mice induced by methimazole administration. These topical ...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

MiR-592 suppresses the development of glioma by regulating Rho-associated protein kinase
This study aims to explore the suppressive mechanism of miR-592 in the regulation of glioma development, an effect that is crucial for the further exploration of miR-592 as a novel therapeutic target for glioma. Our results proved that the expression of miR-592 was lower and the expression of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK1) was higher in glioma tissue than in adjacent tissue and that lower miR-592 expression was associated negatively with ROCK1 expression. Then, we showed that miR-592 was downregulated in glioma and could suppress the growth of the glioma cell lines U87 and U251. ROCK1, which is a known oncogene, was...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lacosamide modulates collapsin response mediator protein 2 and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus
This study reveals that, in addition to its antiseizure efficacy, LCM has a neuroprotective effect and inhibits the development of epilepsy. CRMP2 is possibly involved in the mechanism by which LCM suppresses MFS and is expected to be a new therapeutic target for treating epileptogenesis. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The use of acoustic information in lexical ambiguity resolution: an event-related potential study
In this study, we replaced noun uses of ambiguous words with verb uses to determine whether these manipulations affected the N400 event-related potential, which is associated with semantic violations, or the P600 component, which is associated with syntactic ambiguity. The results suggest that the acoustic differences between noun/verb polysemes mitigate the extent to which these words are perceived as ambiguous, although the results do not indicate whether replacing one with the other produces a meaning violation. Durational differences in noun/verb polysemes may affect their processing in fluent speech. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Role of receptor-interacting protein 1/receptor-interacting protein 3 in inflammation and necrosis following chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve
This study aimed to explore the role of RIP1 and RIP3 in sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) in mice. On a total of thirty mice, sciatic nerve CCI was performed. The paw withdrawal threshold was measured using Von Frey filaments. The mRNA expression and protein levels of inflammatory factors RIP1 and RIP3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord (SC) and hippocampus (HIP) were also determined. We found that paw withdrawal threshold was significantly reduced from the second day after the operation, and the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ in DRG, SC and HIP were significantly...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

MiR-16 attenuates β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity through targeting β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 in an Alzheimer’s disease cell model
The aberrant deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) is closely linked to the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). MiR-16 was abnormally downregulated and may be related to the development of AD. However, the functional role and molecular mechanism of miR-16 in AD pathogenesis are still not well elucidated. The expressions of miR-16 and β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) mRNA and protein levels in AD brain tissues and Aβ-treated PC12 cellular AD model were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. Luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the potential tar...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effectiveness of phenobarbital in patients with refractory status epilepticus undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange
This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic concentration range of phenobarbital (PB) for adults, as well as the influence of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on plasma concentration of PB. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients diagnosed with refractory status epileptic (RSE) and treated with a bolus injection of PB as well as TPE, admitted to our neurocritical care unit from November 2015 to October 2016. Continuous electroencephalographic monitoring was performed routinely for these patients. TPE was performed using a continuous-flow cell separator. PB concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid we...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional interaction between human dorsal premotor cortex and the ipsilateral primary motor cortex for grasp plans: a dual-site TMS study
Recent findings suggest that the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), a cortical area in the dorsomedial pathway, is involved in grasp control. It is unclear, however, whether human PMd transfers grasp-related information to the primary motor cortex hand area (M1HAND) during action preparation. The present study tested whether ipsilateral cortico–cortical connections between PMd and M1HAND in the left hemisphere are modulated during grasp preparation. Ten participants performed object-directed grasps and reaches with the right hand. Functional connectivity between left PMd and ipsilateral M1HAND was probed with dual-site tr...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optical measurement of neuronal activity in the developing cerebellum of zebrafish using voltage-sensitive dye imaging
In this study, we used a model system ideal to study neurogenesis by applying VSD imaging to the cerebellum of zebrafish larvae to analyze the neuronal activity of the developing cerebellum, focusing on both excitation and inhibition. We performed in-vivo high-speed imaging of the entire cerebellum of the zebrafish, which was stained using Di-4-ANEPPS, a widely used VSD. To examine whether neuronal activity in the zebrafish cerebellum could be detected by this VSD, we applied electrical stimulation during VSD imaging, which showed that depolarization was detected widely in the cerebellum upon stimulation. These responses m...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

N400 amplitude does not recover from disappearance after repetitions despite reinitiated semantic integration difficulty
It remains an open question whether the amplitude of N400 reflects combinatory postlexical semantic integration processing. To examine the issue, we repeatedly presented strictly simplified, N400-eliciting three-word structures for seven times, mixed with their plausible counterparts, followed immediately by a much more enriched and informative sentence containing two keywords of the incongruous structure, for the purpose of reinitiating semantic integration processing. Event-related potentials were recorded and compared at the first, fourth, seventh, and eighth time. It was found that multiple repetitions attenuated the N...
Source: NeuroReport - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

G protein γ subunit Gγ13 is essential for olfactory function and aggressive behavior in mice
In this study, we report that a G protein γ subunit, Gγ13, is expressed in a spatiotemporal manner similar to those of Gαolf and Gαi2 in the olfactory system and vomeronasal organ, respectively. In addition, Gγ13 was found in the glomeruli of the main olfactory bulb but was largely absent in the glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb. Using the Cre-loxP system, the Gγ13’s gene Gng13 was nullified in the mature olfactory sensory neurons and apical vomeronasal sensory neurons where the Cre recombinase was expressed under the promoter of the Omp gene for the olfactory marker protei...
Source: NeuroReport - September 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abnormal intrinsic brain activity in individuals with peripheral vision loss because of retinitis pigmentosa using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations
The study aimed to determine alterations in intrinsic brain activity in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) individuals using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method. Sixteen RP individuals (10 men and six women) and 14 healthy controls (HCs) (six men and eight women) closely matched in age, sex, and education were enrolled in the study. The ALFF/fALFF method was applied to compare different intrinsic brain activities between the RP group and the HC group. The relationship between the mean ALFF/fALFF signal values of different brain regions and the visual mea...
Source: NeuroReport - September 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stimulation or lesion of the medial vestibular nucleus increases the number of choline acetyltransferase-positive efferent vestibular neurons in the brainstem
In this study, we used animal models with altered vestibular afferent information by electrically stimulating or destroying the vestibular medial nucleus (MVe). We confirmed the location of VENs in the brainstem by injecting five adult male Wistar rats in the vestibular region with a retrograde tracer. Following this, the MVe was stimulated electrically for 30 min in 20 naive rats. Rats were anesthetized and euthanized 1, 3, 6, and 12 h after stimulation. The MVe was electrolytically lesioned in another group (n=20); then, the rats were anesthetized and euthanized 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after lesioning. VENs wer...
Source: NeuroReport - September 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Symmetric tract-based spatial statistics of patients with left versus right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
This study aims to investigate the diffusion metrics of left versus right temporal lobe epilepsy in a well-defined subgroup of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) because of unilateral hippocampal sclerosis while taking into account interhemispheric differences. Eighteen patients with TLE [nine left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and nine right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE)] and a norm group of 36 nonepileptic individuals were scanned with a multiband accelerated diffusion tensor imaging protocol at 3T. The scalar diffusion tensor parameters fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffus...
Source: NeuroReport - September 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research