Transcranial direct current stimulation effects on hand sensibility as measured by an objective quantitative analysis device: a randomized single-blind sham-control crossover clinical trial
Studies show that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate somatosensory processing, but optimum parameters for tDCS effects on hand sensibility remain in question. We aimed to test the effects of anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS) compared with sham tDCS (stDCS) of primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices on healthy subjects’ hand sensibility. In this single-blind clinical trial, 30 randomized healthy volunteers received six tDCS sessions over 6 weeks: one session each of atDCS, ctDCS and stDCS over M1, and one session each of atDCS, ctDCS and stDCS over S1. Current perceptio...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anesthesia enhances spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the brain
The neurophysiological basis of spontaneous low-frequency brain activity has become a major theme in the study of neural function in both humans and animal models. In such studies, the anesthesia model was generally adopted. However, the effects of anesthesia on spontaneous activity remain unclear. In this work, we explored the characteristics of cerebral spontaneous low-frequency activities at different depths of anesthesia in mice. Using Fourier transformation and the multitaper analysis methods, spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the intrinsic signals of different cerebral regions (artery, vein, and cortex...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Perception of surface stickiness in different sensory modalities: an functional MRI study
Surface texture can be perceived not only from tactile, but also from auditory and visual sensory cues. In our previous psychophysical study, we demonstrated that humans can recognize surface stickiness using only one kind of sensory modality without any difficulty. However, the brain regions that would be activated by non-corresponding sensory cues, for example, auditory and visual cues, remain unknown. In this human functional MRI study, we explored brain regions associated with surface stickiness perception in each of three different sensory modalities, and sought for common neural activities across modalities. In the t...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Chicken cognin interactome and the memory of filial imprinting
Visual imprinting is a learning process whereby young animals come to prefer a visual stimulus after exposure to it (training). The intermediate medial mesopallium in the domestic chick forebrain is critical for visual imprinting and contributes to molecular regulation of memory formation. Criteria used to infer that a change following training is learning-related have been formulated and published. Cognin (protein disulphide isomerase) is one of several identified plasma membrane and mitochondrial proteins that are upregulated in a learning-related way 24 hours after training. Since virtually nothing is known about the co...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

High-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training alleviate β-amyloid deposition by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice
Recent study has demonstrated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) have the same effect to alleviate β-amyloid pathology in the hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice. Activation of nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is pivotal and has been demonstrated to accelerate β-amyloid accumulation. The present study aimed to examine whether the exercise-induced β-amyloid reduction was associated with changes in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were random...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 contributes to sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity through negatively modulating microRNA-181b
Sevoflurane has been reported to promote learning and memory disabilities by promoting neuroinflammation and neuroapoptosis. However, the precise mechanism by which sevoflurane mediating neurotoxicity remains to be determined. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inflammation and apoptosis were measured by cell counting kit-8 assay, ROS kit, ELISA, flow cytometry and western blot assay. The abundance of small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) and microRNA-181b (miR-181b) was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in HT22 cells. The binding sites between miR-181b and SNHG1 were predicted by Starbase, an...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

LncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate (CASC7) upregulates phosphatase and tensin homolog by downregulating miR-10a to inhibit neuroblastoma cell proliferation
In this study, the role of CASC7 in neuroblastoma was investigated for the first time. We observed the downregulation of CASC7 in neuroblastoma tissues compared to non-cancer tissues of neuroblastoma patients. Across neuroblastoma tissues, CASC7 was inversely correlated with microRNA-10a (miR-10a) but positively correlated with phosphatase and tensin homolog mRNA. In neuroblastoma cells, CASC7 overexpression led to downregulated miR-10a but upregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog. Furthermore, miR-10a overexpression led to downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog and reduced effects of CASC7 overexpression. CASC7 ov...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Xenon produces rapid antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced depression mice model
Onset delay of current antidepressants is always the most significant limitation for the treatment of depression. More attention has been given to the glutamate acid system for developing fast-onset antidepressants. Xenon, acting as a well-known N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors antagonist, has been widely used clinically as anesthetics and was reported to exert antidepressant-like effects in rats under normal condition. The robust and rapid-acting antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of xenon through the use of depression rodent model are still elusive. By using lipopolysaccharide-induced depression mice models, th...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antagonistic muscle prefatigue weakens the functional corticomuscular coupling during isometric elbow extension contraction
Conclusion Antagonistic muscle prefatigue led to significantly lower gamma band corticomuscular coherence and phase coupling during an isometric elbow extension position task. The lower corticomuscular coupling may indicate a central modulation mechanism of antagonist muscle prefatigue that related to decreased descending common drive or joint instability compensation modulation mechanism. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations of functional connectivity between thalamus and cortex before and after decompression in cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients: a resting-state functional MRI study
Objective: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is regarded as a chronic, special incomplete spinal cord injury, so the sensory components transmitted to thalamus decreased after distal spinal cord injury, which lead the disturbance of thalamus-cortex circuits, which might explain the alterations of clinical function of cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients. However, for lack of effective methods to evaluate the disturbance circuits and how the relative mechanism adapt to the recovery of cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients after decompression. Therefore, this study aim to explore how the possible mechanism of thalamus...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stereological study on the numerical plasticity of myelinated fibers and oligodendrocytes in the rat spinal cord with painful diabetic neuropathy
Painful diabetic neuropathy may associate with nerve morphological plasticity in both peripheral and central nervous system. The aim of this study was to determine numerical changes of myelinated fibers in the spinothalamic tract region and oligodendrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with painful diabetic neuropathy and the effects of metformin on the above changes. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the control group (n = 7), the painful diabetic neuropathy group (n = 6) and the painful diabetic neuropathy treated with metformin group (the PDN + M group, n = 7), respectively. Twenty-eight d...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of metformin on lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice and its mechanisms
Metformin, an AMPK activator, is a widely used medicine for type II diabetes, which has been considered to exert the anti-inflammatory effects. It has been reported that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often utilized to induce depressive-like behavior in mice with respect to recent studies. However, whether metformin alleviates the symptoms of depressive-like behaviors and its mechanisms remain unexplored. The present study investigates whether metformin alleviates LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice and aims to explore the mechanisms. We first tr...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Different changes in granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and its correlation with inflammatory biomarkers in patients after traumatic brain injury
Conclusion The G-CSF levels in the severe TBI group exhibited a different pattern from those in the mild and moderate TBI groups, and these levels positively correlated with inflammatory biomarkers. Higher G-CSF levels in severe TBI at day 7 indicated a good outcome at 6 months. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gender impact on transcranial magnetic stimulation-based cortical excitability and cognition relationship in healthy individuals
Conclusion This study demonstrated that lower cortical excitability is associated with better global cognition in healthy female and not male individuals. RMT could be further studied as a tool to better personalize brain stimulation protocols that aim at enhancing cognition. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evidence of both brainstem and auditory cortex involvement in categorical perception for Chinese lexical tones
In this study, by using across-category and within-category lexical tone contrasts with the equivalent physical interval, we recorded deviance detection activities at both the brainstem (reflected by frequency following response) and cortical levels (reflected by mismatch negativity) simultaneously. We found that significantly enhanced intertrial phase-locking of frequency following response s was observed only during the across-category deviance detection, which indicates that phonological differences could be detected at the level of brainstem. In addition, the across-category deviants induced stronger mismatch negativit...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Acupuncture inhibits reinstatement of intravenous methamphetamine self-administration via gamma aminobutyric acid pathway
Methamphetamine is one of the widely abused drugs. Nevertheless, there is little predominant therapy for the abuse. In the previous study, acupuncture had shown to attenuate methamphetamine self-administration behavior, and based on, the present study investigated whether acupuncture inhibits the reinstatement of methamphetamine self-administration. As well, a possible neuronal mechanism was investigated. Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 270–300 g were trained to intravenously self-administer methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Following training, rats who administered stable amount o...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Targeting the anterior cingulate with bipolar and high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation
Research on the feasibility of using transcranial direct current stimulation to modulate the function of the anterior cingulate cortex is limited in part due to its anatomical depth. However, high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation may be better able to reach the anterior cingulate cortex and modulate its function and behavioral outputs. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation, as compared to traditional bipolar transcranial direct current stimulation, to modulate behavioral measures of anterior cingulate cortex function. In a ...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Gamma frequency band shift of contralateral corticomuscular synchronous oscillations with force strength for hand movement tasks
Bilateral voluntary contractions involve functional changes in both primary motor cortices. However how the unilateral voluntary contraction of hand muscles influences the contralateral corticomuscular synchronous oscillations mechanisms remains unclear. In the bimanual tasks, nine healthy subjects were instructed to generate force by abducting their left-hand index finger against a force sensor and simultaneously the right-hand precise pinch task with visual feedback. They were divided into four conditions according to the two contraction force levels of the left-hand muscles 5% and 50% maximal isometric voluntary contrac...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Propagating wave activity in a tangential cortical slice
Propagating neural waves in the cerebral cortex influence the integration of incoming sensory information with ongoing cortical activity. However, the neural circuit elements that support these cortical waves remain to be fully defined. Here, a novel tangential slice preparation was developed that exhibited propagating wave activity across the dorsal cortical sheet, as assessed using autofluorescence imaging following focal electrical stimulation. Analysis of functional connectivity in the slice preparation with laser-scanning photostimulation via glutamate uncaging revealed a lack of short-latency, presumed monosynaptic, ...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Event-related potential correlates of auditory feedback control of vocal production in experienced singers
Considerable evidence has shown that experienced singers are capable of voluntarily suppressing vocal compensations for consistent pitch perturbations in auditory feedback. Our recent behavioral study found that singers also compensated for brief pitch perturbations to a lesser degree than nonsingers in an involuntary manner. In the present event-related potential study, we investigated the neural correlates of involuntary vocal pitch regulation in experienced singers. All participants were instructed to vocalize the vowel sounds while their voice was unexpectedly shifted in pitch by –50 and –200 cents. The res...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Cortical high-frequency oscillation loops initiate spasm seizures
Some epileptic spasms are classified into focal-onset seizures. However, the cortical network underlying this kind of spasm seizure is not yet clear. Four patients with epileptic spasms who underwent intracranial electrode implantation and focal resection surgery were studied. All the patients had good outcomes, and three of them with intellectual disability showed improved intelligence after surgery. The power spectra characteristics of electrocorticography and the dynamic functional network changes of epileptic spasms were investigated. Electrocorticography power in the resected zone peaked 0.5 seconds before the clinica...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Brain source imaging based on movement-related cortical potentials induced by fatigue during self-paced handgrip contractions
Conclusion In an attempt to maintain a target level of force during upper limb muscle fatigue induced by low intensity repetitive activation, the brain enhances the activation of sensorimotor cortex and enlarges the sensorimotor cortex area, especially in the ipsilateral hemisphere. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Memantine treatment prevents okadaic acid induced neurotoxicity at the systemic and molecular levels
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of okadaic acid intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection on memory function and expression level of α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and NR2B subunit of NMDA glutamate receptors in the hippocampus, as well as effect of the antidementic drug memantine on okadaic acid induced changes at systemic and molecular levels in rats. Okadaic acid was dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and injected ICV 200 ng/10 μl. Vehicle control received 10 μl of aCSF ICV bilaterally. Control and okadaic acid injected rats...
Source: NeuroReport - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Mirror movement-like muscle hypertonia stroke model based on ipsilateral weight load
In this study, we investigated the effect of unilateral muscle hypertonia on ipsilateral cortical activity and contralateral motor function. Fourteen right-handed healthy young subjects lifted a weight of 10% body weight with the right upper limb to increase muscle tone (weight task), while no weight lifting was set as the control ‘nonweight’ task. We recorded the motor-evoked potential (MEP), resting motor threshold and H-reflex from the left flexor carpi radialis muscle during both tasks. To estimate the functional effect of the weight task, subjects performed the ‘Purdue pegboard test’, consistin...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

In-vitro neuroprotective effect and mechanism of 2β-hydroxy-δ-cadinol against amyloid β-induced neuronal apoptosis
This study suggests that HOC may be a potential agent for the prevention of Aβ neurotoxicity. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Neurochemical characterization of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons expressing organic cation transporter 2
This study investigated the localization of OCT2 (a member of OCTs) in mouse DRG neurons and determined their histochemical properties. OCT2 expression was found in about 20% of DRG neurons, which were small to medium size. OCT2-expressing neurons were labeled with markers for peptidergic nociceptive (substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide) and tactile/proprioceptive (neurofilament 200 or tropomyosin receptor kinase B or C) neurons. OCT2 was also expressed in cholinergic DRG neurons identified by choline acetyltransferase promoter-derived Cre expression. In the spinal dorsal horn, OCT2 was distributed in superficia...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rats with prenatal dexamethasone exposure and postnatal high-fat diet exhibited insulin resistance, and spatial learning and memory impairment: effects of enriched environment
In conclusion, adult male offspring with prenatal dexamethasone exposure and a postnatal HFD showed obesity, increased systolic blood pressure, peripheral and central insulin resistance, and spatial learning and memory impairment. In addition, an enriched environment had beneficial effects in this context. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

MicroRNA-338-5p alleviates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by targeting connective tissue growth factor through the adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CIR) injury could lead to the function of brain cell disorder and cerebral infarction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to participate in the progression and protection of CIR injury. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the functional effects of microRNA-338-5p (miR-338-5p) on proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory response of CIR injury. According to the results, miR-338-5p was downregulated in the brain of the mice caused by CIR injury, and overexpression of miR-338-5p reduced the neurological deficit and infarct volume of the brain in the mice caused by CIR injury. Meanwhile, miR...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anandamide and sucralose change ΔFosB expression in the reward system
In this study, we evaluated the activity of dopaminergic nuclei implicated in food reward after the chronic administration of AEA (0.5 mg/kg bw) and sucralose intake (0.02%). We analyzed the expression of ΔFosB by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that the chronic administration of AEA and sucralose intake induces an overexpression of ΔFosB in the infralimbic cortex (Cx), nucleus accumbens (NAc) core, shell, and central nucleus of amygdala (Amy). These results suggest that the possible interaction between receptors CB1 and T1R3 has consequences not only in taste perception but also that AEA interven...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mir-155 knockout protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury and hemorrhagic transformation
MiR-155 negatively regulates translation of mRNA targets to proteins involved in processes that modulate ischemic brain injury including neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and apoptosis. However, reports of the effect of cerebral miR-155 expression changes after ischemic brain injury are equivocal and miR-155 modulates molecular pathways with opposing effects on these processes. The role of miR-155 in postischemic cerebral hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. To understand the net effect of complete inactivation of miR-155, miR-155 knockout mice were studied in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selenium nanoparticles reduce glucose metabolism and promote apoptosis of glioma cells through reactive oxygen species-dependent manner
This study aimed to test the anti-tumor effect of selenium nanoparticles and its mechanism. We used selenium nanoparticles to treat commercial glioma cell lines, and patient-derived glioma cells, and then used the MTT assay to determine selenium nanoparticles effect against these. Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V-Fluos staining kit. Glucose uptake, lactate, and adenosine triphosphate production, together with hexokinase 2 and pyruvate kinase activities were measured to determine the glucose metabolism level. Reactive oxygen species production was tested using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein dia...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression of sirtuin type 3 in locus ceruleus is associated with long-term intermittent hypoxia-induced neurocognitive impairment in mice
Recent studies revealed that increased oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction induced by long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH). Locus ceruleus (LC) neurons, which fire at high rate across wakefulness, are essential for optimal cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sirtuin type 3 (SirT3), a redox responses coordinator, plays a role in LTIH-induced neurocognitive impairment. Mice were subjected to LTIH or room air [normal control (NC)] for 10 weeks (10 h/day). Morris water maze test was used to detect spatial learning and memory ability. The ...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Impact of subchronic variable stress on ovariectomy and dendritic spine density in prefrontal cortex in mice
Major depressive disorder affects both women and men but females are two times more susceptible to the incidence of depression. The majority of stress models used male rodents, whereas fewer studies included females. Volumetric reductions have been reported in brain areas critical for the stress response, such as prefrontal cortex, and remodeling of dendritic spines has been proposed as an underlying factor. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic variable stress (SCVS) in males, sham, and specifically in ovariectomized (OVX) female mice. Here, we used 6 days SCVS model to induce depressive-like be...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p prevent amyloid β-induced injury by targeting BACE1 in SH-SY5Y cells
Conclusion: MiR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p relieved amyloid β-induced injury by targeting BACE1 in SH-SY5Y cells, indicating miR-16-5p and miR-19b-3p as protective agents for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microtubule-associated protein 2 knockdown sensitizes glioma cells to vincristine treatment
In this study, we investigated the role of MAP2 in gliomas and its relationship to the chemosensitivity of vincristine (VCR), an MTD commonly used in glioma chemotherapy. We downregulated MAP2 expression in glioma cells using RNA interference, observed the resultant changes in the biological characteristics of the cells, and tested their drug sensitivity to VCR by MTT assay. The results show downregulation of MAP2 in glioma cells significantly inhibited cell viability and migration, induced apoptosis, and increased sensitivity to VCR in vitro. Our findings suggest that MAP2 may be a useful molecular marker in MTD chemother...
Source: NeuroReport - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of voluntary and forced exercises on motor function recovery in intracerebral hemorrhage rats
Motor paralysis is a severe consequence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) that reduces patient quality of life. Rehabilitation is beneficial for stroke patients. However, functional recovery depends on the exercise type, and which factors are effective during rehabilitation are unknown. We aimed to clarify the effect of voluntary and forced exercises for functional recovery in ICH rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: forced treadmill running (F-Ex.), voluntary wheel cage running (V-Ex.) and no exercise (Non-Ex.). The effects of the two exercises on motor recovery were analyzed by determining...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

The relationship between cortical thickness and language comprehension varies with sex in healthy young adults: a large sample analysis
Functional neuroimaging studies evaluating sex differences in language processing have been previously reported. However, it remains largely unclear whether there are structural bases for language comprehension and whether these are partially affected by sexual dimorphism in cortical thickness. To this end, we performed correlation analysis between cortical thickness and language comprehension in a large (N = 1017, 549 females, 468 males) young and healthy subjects from Human Connectome Project, with a specific focus on the impact of sex. We identified significant relationship between cortical thickness of th...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Possible interaction between the ventral hippocampal cannabinoid CB2 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the modulation of memory consolidation in mice
To clarify possible interaction between the ventral hippocampal cannabinoid CB2 receptors and the cholinergic system in control of the memory process, the effects of cannabinoid and acetylcholine receptor agents on memory consolidation have been investigated in mice. Animals implanted with bilateral cannulas at the CA3 region of the ventral hippocampus and microinjected with scopolamine and cannabinergic agents. These animals were tested using a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. The results indicated impairment of memory consolidation by posttraining intra-CA3 microinjection of scopolamine (1 and 2 &mic...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Involvement of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors in mediating the ventrolateral orbital cortex-induced antiallodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain
The present study examined the roles of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptor subtypes in mediating the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO)-induced antiallodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI). Change of mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was measured using von-Frey filaments. Microinjection of preferential or selective 5-HT2A/C, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptor agonists, (±)-1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), α-methyl-5-(2-thienylmethoxy)-1H-Indole-3-ethanamine hydrochloride (BW723C86) and 1-(3-Chlorophenyl)-piperazine hydrochloride (m-CPP)...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Auditory categorical processing for speech is modulated by inherent musical listening skills
During successful auditory perception, the human brain classifies diverse acoustic information into meaningful groupings, a process known as categorical perception (CP). Intense auditory experiences (e.g., musical training and language expertise) shape categorical representations necessary for speech identification and novel sound-to-meaning learning, but little is known concerning the role of innate auditory function in CP. Here, we tested whether listeners vary in their intrinsic abilities to categorize complex sounds and individual differences in the underlying auditory brain mechanisms. To this end, we recorded EEGs in...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Applying minimal RNA-seq of peripheral blood platelet mRNA to reveal novel biomarkers in male patients with cerebral stroke
In this study, samples of peripheral blood from eight male stroke patients and four male healthy controls were collected. RNA-seq of platelets was performed to detect the differential expression of mRNA in platelets isolated from the samples. Totally, 1091 (429 up-regulated and 662 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes were identified in patients with stroke compared with healthy controls. Analyses based on Gene Ontology and the KEGG pathway revealed that most annotated genes were involved in graft-versus-host disease, cell adhesion molecules signaling pathways, inflammation-related pathways, and so on. RNA expres...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selective accumulation of adiponectin in the cerebral cortex under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in the rat
Adiponectin is a plasma protein predominantly derived from adipocytes. Adiponectin has beneficial properties against diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In experimental acute cerebral ischemia, adiponectin accumulates on vessels in ischemic lesions and has anti-inflammatory protective effects. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is associated with white matter lesions and risk of dementia. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by permanent occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery can experimentally produce cerebrovascular white matter lesions in the rat brain. Microglia are activated shortly after ischemia a...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Neuroprotection of dihydrotestosterone via suppression of the toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway in high glucose-induced BV-2 microglia inflammatory responses
In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory role of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in high glucose (HG)-induced neuroinflammatory response in BV-2 microglia. Our results revealed that DHT significantly inhibited HG-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 through suppressing the expression of corresponding regulatory enzymes – inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Also, DHT inhibited HG-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β. Moreover, DHT suppressed the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Furthermore, when SH-SY5Y neurons were cultured...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Somatostatin receptor 5-mediated modulation of outward K+ currents in rat retinal ganglion cells
In this study, we investigated the effect of sst5 activation on outward K+ currents in acutely isolated rat retinal ganglion cells using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Extracellular application of L-817,818, a specific sst5 agonist, significantly reduced outward K+ currents which was mainly the 4-aminopyridine and glybenclamide sensitive current components, but not the tetraethylammonium-sensitive one. The L-817,818 effect was mediated by sst5 since the suppression was eliminated when intracellular dialysis of the G-protein inhibitor GDP-β-S or extracellular application of the sst5 antagonist BIM-23056. Intracellu...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal fibroblast growth factor 22 signaling during development, but not in adults, is involved in anhedonia
Growth factor signaling in the brain is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, autism, and epilepsy. Fibroblast growth factor 22 is a growth factor that regulates excitatory synapse development and neurogenesis in the brain. We have previously shown that adult mice in which fibroblast growth factor 22 is constitutively inactivated in all cells throughout life (fibroblast growth factor 22-null mice) show anhedonia, a core feature of depression in humans, suggesting that fibroblast growth factor 22 signaling contributes to the regulation of affective behavior. Here we asked (1) whether inactivat...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Isoflurane attenuates carbogen-induced blood–brain barrier disruption independent of body temperature in mice and rats
In conclusion, isoflurane protected against BBB disruption caused by carbogen inhalation in mice and rats, but unlike isoflurane-mediated protection against ischemic BBB disruption, the effect could not be explained by anesthesia-induced hypothermia. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Over-expression of long noncoding RNA HOTAIRM1 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in human glioblastoma by up-regulating SP1 via sponging miR-137
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor in adults. Long noncoding RNA HOTAIRM1 (HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1) has been reported to participate in the progression of various cancers. However, the role of HOTAIRM1 in glioblastoma and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The relative expression levels of HOTAIRM1, miR-137 and specificity protein 1 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR or western blot. The effects of HOTAIRM1 on cell proliferation and invasion were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Transwell assay, respectively. The interactions among HOTAIRM1, miR-137 and s...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oxycodone suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation by downregulating nuclear factor-κB in hippocampal astrocytes of Sprague–Dawley rats
Neuroinflammation is a common pathogenic mechanism in several neurodegenerative diseases, and glial cells are the primary inflammatory mediators of the central nervous system (CNS). Acute neuronal injury, infection, and chronic neurodegeneration may induce astrocyte activation, which is a response characterized by hyperproliferation and release of multiple inflammatory signaling factors. The opioid analgesic oxycodone has demonstrated anti-inflammatory efficacy in peripheral tissue, but its effects on the CNS have not been studied. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of oxycodone on astrocyte activation and proinflammatory...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Melatonin inhibits GABAergic neurons in the hypothalamus consistent with a reduction in wakefulness
Although melatonin is necessary for circadian regulation of sleep, the mechanisms underlying this effect of melatonin are still unclear. In the present study, we showed that melatonin suppressed the activity of GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, which has been reported to play a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness. The inhibitory effect of the melatonin was mediated by activation of melatonin 1 receptors and depended on the inhibition of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels. At behavioral levels, infusion of melatonin into the lateral hypothalamus significantly decreased th...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, prevents L-arginine-induced downregulation of the rat cortical somatostatinergic system
Activation of NMDA receptors leads to nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by NO synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. Neuronal NOS colocalizes with somatostatinergic (SRIF) neurons and there is growing evidence of an interaction between NO and the cerebral SRIFergic system in several neurological diseases. Our aim was to study the effect of L-arginine on the regulation of the SRIFergic system in the frontoparietal cortex of male Sprague–Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal administration of L-arginine (150 mg/Kg), twice-daily during eight days, induced a decrease in SRIF receptor density, which was accompanied by a reduction in the...
Source: NeuroReport - January 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research