Xanthohumol protect cognitive performance in diabetic model rats by inhibiting protein kinase B/nuclear factor kappa-B pathway
In this study, we found XN inhibit phosphorylation of protein kinase B and nuclear factor kappa-B which was overactivated in diabetic rats, followed by decreased blood glucose and increased body weight. Additionally, XN treatment significantly increased freezing time in a fear memory test. In further research, we found XN increased synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine density, while decreased reactive oxygen species in hippocampus slices from diabetic rats. All these results indicate that XN might be a promising drug to treat diabetic encephalopathy. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Event-related potentials reveal that bilinguals are more efficient in resolving conflict than monolinguals
In the current study, we evaluated behavioral and electrophysiological evidence to determine whether bilinguals differ from monolinguals in the efficiency of response inhibition. Bilinguals and matched monolingual controls performed the flanker task while behavioral and electrophysiological measures were collected. Participants were slower and less accurate in responding to incongruent trials, but the magnitude of the behavioral effect of congruence was not modulated by participant group. The electrophysiological data revealed a biphasic N200/P300 signature. Incongruent trials elicited a larger N200 response, followed by a...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Modulating short-term auditory memory with focal transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the supramarginal gyrus
Previous studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can affect performance by decreasing regional excitability in a brain region that contributes to the task of interest. To our knowledge, no research to date has found both enhancing and diminishing effects on performance, depending upon which polarity of the current is applied. The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is an ideal brain region for testing tDCS effects because it is easy to identify using the 10–20 electroencephalography coordinate system, and results of neuroimaging studies have implicated the left SMG in short-term memory for phonol...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Expression of ghrelin or growth hormone secretagogue receptor in the brain of postpartum stress mice
Postpartum depression is one of the most common mental diseases that occur in women after childbirth; this disorder is extremely painful for women and represents a major burden on the society. Therefore, we designed this study to explore the possible material basis of the disease, and provide potential novel antidepressants therapy using a mouse model. We established a postpartum immobilization stress model. Maternal body weight changes and food intake were recorded for half a month after delivery, and levels of ghrelin and its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) were measured. The mice in the immobilizat...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Protective effect of acute splenic irradiation in rats with traumatic brain injury
Objective To explore the protective effect of acute splenic irradiation against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Methods A rat model of TBI was established according to Feeney’s method. Splenic irradiation was performed by the reverse intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) source-axis distance (SAD) irradiation technique. Rat brain tissue samples were collected, the water content of the rat brain tissue was determined and the abundance of microglia was detected by immunofluorescence. Spleens were collected to measure the spleen index. Lung, liver, small intestine and kidney tissues were taken fo...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Sulfasalazine maintains blood–brain barrier integrity and relieves lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in hCMEC/D3 cells
This study confirmed that 5 mM sulfasalazine improved the maintenance of BBB integrity and relieved lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory apoptosis and showed that sulfasalazine might be an effective treatment for BBB disruption. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Protective effect of metformin against ovariectomy induced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours in rats: role of oxidative stress
Several studies have shown that low estrogen levels can lead to an increase in the incidence of depression and anxiety during menopause. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are parts of the brain involved in depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Recent studies have revealed that metformin has neuroprotective effects mainly due to its antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the therapeutic potential of metformin in depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Young female Wistar Albino rats were distributed ...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Rapid elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in the bilateral trigeminal ganglia by unilateral transection of the mental nerve in mice
Conclusions Unilateral nerve injury upregulates BDNF production in the bilateral trigeminal ganglia by NO-mediated and/or indirect activation of afferent neurons, resulting in contralateral hyperalgesia. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Poria cocos polysaccharide attenuates damage of nervus in Alzheimer’s disease rat model induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride
This article aims to investigate the effects of PCP on neuronal damage of hippocampus and cognitive function in a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride. Oxiracetam (ORC) was used as a positive drug in this experiment. The rats were treated with PCP at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/day for 30 days and ORC at dose of 346 mg/kg/day after modeling. The results of behavioral test showed that PCP could prevent cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease rats as assessed by Y-maze test and Morris water maze test. Results of hippocampus slices showed that neurons were integrate...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interleukin-33 modulates lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory response in rat primary astrocytes
This study utilized lentiviral short hairpin RNA vectors to target IL-33 (LV-shIL-33) for gene silencing. After lipopolysaccharide stimulation, the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways, were evaluated to elucidate the mechanisms related to the contributions of IL-33 to the inflammatory response in astrocytes. We found that the expression IL-33 has increased in rat primary cultured astrocytes after lipopolysaccharide stim...
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Probiotics alleviate depressive behavior in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat models by remodeling intestinal flora
Conclusion By remodeling intestinal flora, probiotics can reduce the CUMS-induced depressive behavior of rats, increase the levels of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, and inhibit the expression of ACTH and corticosterone. Significantly, the effect of both paroxetine and probiotic on microorganisms is similar. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Approach of visual stimuli facilitates the prediction of tactile events and suppresses beta band oscillations around the primary somatosensory area
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the approach of visual stimuli influences prediction of subsequent tactile events. For this purpose, we examined electroencephalograms (EEGs) during the prediction of tactile events when visual stimuli did or did not approach. Tactile stimuli were presented with a high probability (80%) of being applied to the left (or right) index finger and a low probability (20%) of being applied to the opposite index finger. In the approach condition, visual stimuli were presented towards the hand to which the high-probability tactile stimuli were presented; in the neutral con...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Levodopa responsiveness in Parkinson’s disease patients and white matter alterations in diffusion tensor imaging: a cross-sectional tract-based spatial statistics study
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between levodopa responsiveness and white matter alterations in Parkinson’s disease patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-six recruited Parkinson’s disease patients were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y) and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Each patient underwent a DTI scan and an acute levodopa challenge test. The improvement rate of UPDRS-III was calculated, Parkinson’s disease patients were grouped into a responsive group (improvement rate ≥30%) and a nonresponsive ...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The modulation of attentional deployment on regret: an event-related potential study
Adopting a sequential risk-taking task, this study explored the modulation of attentional deployment on regret. Attentional deployment was manipulated during outcome feedback of the task by highlighting different parts to induce participants to focus on collected gains (GF context) or missed chances (MF context). The control context without attentional deployment manipulation was also set. Behaviorally, compared to the control context, participants felt less regret in the GF context but more regret in the MF context. Event-related potential results showed that the GF context elicited stronger reward positivity and late pos...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessment of spontaneous brain activity patterns in patients with iridocyclitis: a resting-state study
Several studies demonstrated that patients with iridocyclitis were associated with vision loss and cognitive decline, whereas alterations in spontaneous brain activity occur in iridocyclitis patients remains unknown. The study aimed to explore spontaneous brain activity changes in iridocyclitis patients. Twenty-six patients with iridocyclitis and 26 healthy controls were finally included in our study. Resting-state MRI (rs-MRI) scan was conducted on both groups and the whole brain amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) value was collected to assess differences in spontaneous brain activity. A receiver operating ch...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional plasticity in lateral hypothalamus and its prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with diffuse axonal injury: evidence from a resting-state functional connectivity study
Objective Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a common pathological process after traumatic brain injury, which may cause survivors severe functional disorders, including cognitive impairment and physical disability. Recent literature indicated lateral hypothalamus and medial hypothalamus damage during DAI. Thus, we aim to investigate whether there is imaging evidence of hypothalamic injury in patients with DAI and its clinical association. Methods Twenty-four patients with diagnosed DAI and 26 age and sex-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI. We assessed the lateral hypothalamus and medial...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparing activated brain regions between noisy and conventional galvanic vestibular stimulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging
Conclusions Noisy GVS could increase brain activity in the insular peripheral region compared to conventional GVS. Our results extend the literature about the importance of the stochastic resonance of noise addition for the vestibular system. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased levels of γ-aminobutyric acid in temporal lobe of children with 47,XYY syndrome
Conclusion The inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA appears to be reduced in boys with 47,XYY, especially in the left hemisphere. Further, the typical association between GABA and testosterone levels, observed in older typically developing control boys was not evident in boys with 47,XYY. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

GABAergic retinal ganglion cells regulate innate defensive responses
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is regarded as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, including the retina. However, the roles of GABA-immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have not been explored. Here, we report the expression of GABAergic RGCs that project to many brain areas in mice, including the superior colliculus. Selective ablation of the superior colliculus-projecting GABAergic RGCs, leaving other GABAergic RGCs intact, reduces the looming stimulus-induced defensive response without affecting image-forming functions; it also significantly enhances glucose metabolism in t...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of Rpd3 as a novel epigenetic regulator of Drosophila FIG 4, a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-causing gene
Mutations in the factor-induced-gene 4 (FIG 4) gene are associated with multiple disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), epilepsy with polymicrogyria, Yunis–Varón syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The wide spectrum of disorders associated with FIG 4 may be related to the dysregulated epigenetics. Using Gene Expression Omnibus, we found that HDAC1 binds to the FIG 4 gene locus in the genome of human CD4+ T cells. Rpd3 is a well-known Drosophila homolog of human HDAC1. We previously established Drosophila models targeting Drosophila FIG 4 (dFIG 4) that exhibited defective locomotive abi...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Atrophy of lacunosum moleculare layer is important for learning and memory in APP/PS1 transgenic mice
Changes in the hippocampus are closely associated with learning and memory in Alzheimer’s disease; however, it is not clear which morphological and cellular and subcellular changes are essential for learning and memory. Here, we accurately quantitatively studied the hippocampal microstructure changes in Alzheimer’s disease model mice and analyzed the relationship between the hippocampal microstructure changes and learning and memory. Ten-month-old male APP/PS1 transgenic mice and age-matched nontransgenic littermate mice were randomly selected. The spatial learning and memory abilities were assessed using the M...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation decreased hippocampal microtubule dynamics in the acute behavioral deficits induced by intracerebroventricular injection of lipopolysaccharide in male adult rats
This study confirmed that hippocampal microtubule dynamics was decreased in the rats with acute behavioral deficits following a central immune challenge. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential roles of two isoforms of dopamine D2 receptors in l-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements in mice
l-dopa and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists are commonly used to relieve the motor deficits of Parkinson’s disease. However, long-term treatment with l-dopa or D2R agonists can induce adverse effects such as abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), which are major limiting factors in achieving long-term control of parkinsonian syndromes. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of dopaminergic agonist-induced adverse effects are not well understood. Here, we examined the role of two D2R isoforms, D2S and D2L, in l-dopa-induced AIMs using dopamine D2L knockout (D2L KO) mice (expressing purely D2S...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antisense oligonucleotides targeting alternative splicing of Nrcam exon 10 suppress neurite outgrowth of ganglion sensory neurons in vitro
Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule that has been shown to be involved in several cellular processes in the peripheral nervous system, including neurite outgrowth. We recently reported that alternative splicing of Nrcam mRNA at exon 10 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contributes to the peripheral mechanism of neuropathic pain. Specially, Nrcam antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) targeting Nrcam exon 10, attenuated neuropathic pain hypersensitivities in mice. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrcam ASO on neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons in vitro. By immunostaining DRG n...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Age-related changes in expression of lysine48 and lysine63 ubiquitin linkages in dopamine neurons of midbrain in mice
Ubiquitination of target proteins is mediated via different ubiquitin lysine (K) linkages and determines the protein fates. In particular, K48 ubiquitin linkage targets proteins for degradation, whereas K63 ubiquitin linkage plays a nondegradative role. Parkinson’s disease is an age-onset neurodegenerative disorder, which shows selective loss of dopamine neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) and ubiquitinated protein aggregates. However, age-related expression of K48 and K63 ubiquitin linkages in SNC dopamine neurons remains elusive. We thus sought to explore the expression of K48 and K63 ubiquitin linkages...
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Protective effect of Houttuynia cordata extract on propofol-induced injury of rat hippocampal neurons by regulating PI3K/Akt and Toll-like receptor 4/NF-κB signaling pathway
Conclusion Our findings provide references for anesthetic use in infants and young children. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k enhances the survival, growth and axonal regeneration of spinal cord motor neurons in vitro
Achyranthes bidentata polypeptide k (ABPPk), a powerful active component from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb-Achyranthes bidentata Bl., has exhibited promising neuroprotective activity due to its multiple-targeting capability. However, the effect of ABPPk on the survival, growth and axonal regeneration of spinal cord motor neurons remains unclear. Here, a modified method, which is more optimized for embryonic cells in ambient carbon dioxide levels, was used for acquisition of rat embryonic spinal cord motor neurons with high survival and purity. ABPPk concentration-dependently enhanced the neuronal viability and prom...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Deferoxamine reduces amyloid-beta peptides genesis and alleviates neural apoptosis after traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as the most influential risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases later in life, including Alzheimer’s disease. The aberrant genesis of amyloid-β peptides, which is triggered by TBI, is associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Evidence suggests that iron plays a role in both the production of amyloid-β and its neurotoxicity, and iron overload has been noted in the brain after TBI. We therefore investigated the effects of an iron-chelating treatment on amyloid-β genesis in a weight-drop model of TBI in mice. Human brain samples were obtain...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Ischemic-time associated reductions in equol monosulfate plasma levels in a mouse model of ischemic stroke: support the existence of a ‘brain–gut axis’
Conclusion Ischemic stroke may time-dependently reduce plasma levels of equol monosulfate by lowering the metabolic rate of equol in MCAO-induced mice. This study provides indirect support of the brain–gut axis hypothesis. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Effects of negativity bias on amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex activity in short and long emotional stimulation paradigms
In conclusion, the effects of negativity bias depend on neural regions, including the amygdala and ACC, and therefore, we should consider these effects while designing stimulation paradigms. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abnormal intrinsic functional network hubs in diabetic retinopathy patients
Conclusion Our results highlight that reorganization of the hierarchy of the cortical connectivity network related to visual network. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Thalamic shape abnormalities in patients with multiple sclerosis-related fatigue
Thalamus plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis-related fatigue (MSrF). However, the thalamus is a heterogeneous structure and the specific thalamic subregions that are involved in this condition are unclear. Here, we used thalamic shape analysis for the detailed localization of thalamic abnormalities in MSrF. Using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, we measured fatigue in 42 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The thalamic shape was extracted from T1w images using an automated pipeline. We investigated the association of thalamic surface deviations with the severity of glo...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of passive and active training modes of upper-limb rehabilitation robot on cortical activation: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study
Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the cortical activation during passive and active training modes under different speeds of upper extremity rehabilitation robots. Methods Twelve healthy subjects completed the active and passive training modes at various speeds (0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 m/s) for the right upper limb. The functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to measure the neural activities of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Results Both the active and passive training modes can activate SMC...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Perceived gaze direction affects concreteness effects in words memory: an event-related potentials study
This study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether perceived gaze direction could affect concreteness effects in words memory. Concrete and abstract words were presented on direct- or averted-gaze faces, and participants were asked to memorize the words. Behavioral results verified the direct-gaze memory advantage, showing that memory performance was better for words presented with direct gaze than with averted gaze. ERP results showed that concrete words were associated with a larger N400 and a smaller late positive component (LPC) than abstract words. ERP results also revealed a significant interactio...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Analysis of functional MRI signal complexity based on permutation fuzzy entropy in bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder is a manifestation of an emotional disease and is associated with emotional and cognitive dysfunction. The entropy-based method has been widely used to study the complexity of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) signals in mental diseases; however, alterations in the brain rs-fMRI signal complexities in bipolar disorder patients remain unclear, and previously used entropy methods are sensitive to noise. Here, we performed a work using permutation fuzzy entropy (PFEN), which has better performance than previously used methods, to analyze the brain complexity of bipolar disorder patients. Based on PFEN re...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hepatocyte growth factor induces pErk and pSTAT3 (Ser 727) to promote mitochondrial activity and neurite outgrowth in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures
In this study, we investigated the role of HGF in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves using cultured dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). When cells were treated with HGF protein, the length of the neurite was increased 1.4-fold compared to the untreated control group. HGF greatly increased the level of phosphorylated STAT3 at serine 727 [pSTAT3 (Ser 727)], thereby translocating the protein to the mitochondria. HGF treatment increased the activity of mitochondrial complex I. When DRGs were cultured in the presence of U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of Erk, the HGF-mediated increase in neurite outgrowth and the level ...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transmembrane protein DCBLD2 is correlated with poor prognosis and affects phenotype by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human glioblastoma cells
Conclusion The current study reveals that high expression of DCBLD2 is closely related to poor prognosis in glioblastoma and can significantly enhance the tumor cell viability and metastasis by activating the EMT process, suggesting that DCBLD2 may be a possible biomarker for glioblastoma treatment. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intracerebral hemorrhage influences hippocampal neurogenesis and neurological function recovery via Notch1 signaling
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high rate of mortality and morbidity, but lacks effective therapies. Accumulating studies indicated that the hippocampal neurogenesis plays an essential role in the recovery of neurological function after ICH. The Notch1 signaling pathway shows important roles in neurogenesis. However, the effects of Notch1 on the recovery of neurological function after ICH remain unclear. Here, we used ICH mice model to investigate whether Notch1 signaling was involved in the hippocampal neurogenesis and the recovery of neurological function post-ICH. Our results showed that the rate of sy...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

CXCL12 promotes spinal nerve regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to the complex mechanisms of the external microenvironment and internal neurobiochemistry that restrict neuronal plasticity and axonal regeneration. Chemokine CXCL12 was verified in regulating the development of central nervous system (CNS) and repairing of CNS disease. In the present study, CXCL12 was downregulated in the spinal cord after SCI. SCI also induced gliosis and loss of synapse. Intrathecal treatment of CXCL12 promoted the functional recovery of SCI by inducing the formation of neuronal connections and suppressing glia scar. To c...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vitamin K2 protects against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity by activating autophagy and improving mitochondrial function in Drosophila
This study was conducted to explore the protective effect of vitamin K2 against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity. Methods Alzheimer disease transgenic Drosophila model used in this study was amyloid beta with the arctic mutation expressed in neurons. Alzheimer disease flies were treated with vitamin K2 for 28 days after eclosion. Aβ42 level in brain was detected by ELISA. Autophagy-related genes and NDUFS3, the core subunit of mitochondrial complex I, were examined using real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results Vitamin K2 improved climbing ability (P = 0.0105), prolon...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of the sensitizing effects of cocaine and ethanol on histone deacetylase isoforms in the rat brain
Behavioral sensitization, an animal model of drug addiction, persists for a prolonged period after repeated exposure to drugs of abuse. The persistence of an addiction behavioral phenotype suggests long-lasting changes in gene regulation at the epigenetic level. We measured the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) isoforms in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum following the development of sensitization to cocaine (15 mg/kg, administered five times) and ethanol (0.5 g/kg, administered 15 times) to investigate the epigenetic changes that mediate sensitization. Animals sensitized to ethanol exhibited augmented lo...
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based plasma metabolome to identify biomarkers and time of injury in traumatic brain injured rats
Conclusion Using metabolomic analysis, we identified new TBI serum biomarkers for accurate detection and determination of the timing of TBI injury. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pain-like behavior in mice can be induced by the environmental context in which the pain stimulus was previously given
It has been known for decades that classical conditioning influences pain perception. However, the precise mechanism of pain modified by conditioning remains unclear, partly because of the lack of dedicated behavioral tests. In the present study, we aimed to develop a new method to detect conditioned pain using mice that were injected with formalin as an unconditioned nociceptive stimulus into the hind paw repetitively under a neutral environment. On the test day, the mice exhibited a pain-like behavior without the application of a pain stimulus in the environment. These results demonstrate that a conditioned nociceptive r...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Alpha entrainment drives pain relief using visual stimulation in a sample of chronic pain patients: a proof-of-concept controlled study
This study explores whether (a) alpha entrainment increase alpha power in patients and (b) whether this increase in alpha correlates with analgesia. In total, 28 patients with chronic pain sat in a comfortable position and underwent 4-min visual stimulation using customised goggles at 10 Hz (alpha) and 7 Hz (control) frequency blocks in a randomised cross-over design. 64-channel electroencephalography and 11-point numeric rating scale pain intensity and pain unpleasantness scores were recorded before and after stimulation. Electroencephalography analysis revealed frontal alpha power was significantly higher when stimulatin...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Investigating the neural correlates of phonological encoding using a cluster-based analysis approach
Phonological encoding, a subprocess in speech production, proceeds incrementally from word onset to offset. However, the incremental nature of encoding for multisyllabic words is unclear, and limited research has examined neural activity underlying the seriality of the process. In the present study, we investigated the timing of encoding between and within syllables of bisyllabic words using a data-driven cluster-based analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data. In a phoneme-monitoring task, young adults covertly named pictures of bisyllabic words with a prespecified target phoneme present or absent. Target phonemes in ...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural electrophysiological mechanism of joint hierarchical rule shifting: an event-related potential study
This study adopts a modified joint hierarchical rule shifting paradigm in which one actor judged the parity task and the other decided the magnitude task. Results demonstrated that cues in high- and low-shift conditions elicited larger P2 amplitudes and that low-shift had a larger P3 amplitude than high-shift. Results further indicated that participants required more attention resources to ascertain who would make a judgment for the current trial and that low hierarchical features were superior in reconfiguring changed rules. Regarding the target, the high-shift condition evoked smaller P2 and larger N2 amplitudes when com...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of the P2X4 receptor in trigeminal neuralgia, a common neurological disorder
Neurological disorders, which include various types of diseases with complex pathological mechanisms, are more common in the elderly and have shown increased prevalence, morbidity and mortality worldwide. Unfortunately, current therapies for these diseases are usually suboptimal or have undesirable side effects. This necessitates the development of new potential targets for disease-modifying therapies. P2X4R, a type of purinergic receptor, has multiple roles in neurological disorders. In this review, we briefly introduce a neurological disorder, trigeminal neuralgia and its’ symptoms, etiology and pathology. Moreover...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

High mobility group box 1 promotes the differentiation of spinal ependymal cells into astrocytes rather than neurons
In this study, we investigated whether HMGB1 released from reactive astrocytes after SCI regulates the proliferation and differentiation of ependymal cells in vitro. Ependymal cells extracted and cultured from the spinal cord of mice were separately treated with astrocyte culture medium (ACM), IL-1β, ACM (IL-1β) and the HMGB1 protein, and the proliferation and differentiation of ependymal cells were detected. Additionally, an HMGB1-neutralizing antibody (anti-HMGB1) was added to further verify the regulatory effect of HMGB1 on ependymal cells. The results showed that HMGB1 released from reactive astrocytes promot...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deletion of MyD88 adaptor in nociceptor alleviates low-dose formalin-induced acute pain and persistent pain in mice
The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) adaptor mediates signaling by Toll-like receptors and some interleukins (ILs) in neural and non-neuronal cells. Recently, MyD88 protein was found to express in primary sensory neurons and be involved in the maintenance of persistent pain induced by complete Freund’s adjuvant, chronic constriction injury and chemotherapy treatment in rodents. However, whether MyD88 in nociceptive neurons contributes to persistent pain induced by intraplantar injection of formalin remains elusive. Here, using conditional knockout (CKO) mice, we found that selective deletion of Myd88 in Nav1...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of Cerebrolysin on reducing impaired cerebral endothelial cell permeability
Cerebrolysin has been shown to promote neurovascular protection and repair in preclinical models of stroke and neural injury and is demonstrating promise for stroke and neural injury therapeutic application in the clinic. The effect of Cerebrolysin on the human cerebral endothelial cell function has not been investigated. Using an in-vitro cerebral endothelial cell permeability assay and western blot analyses of tight junction and proinflammatory and procoagulant proteins, the present study showed that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and fibrin substantially impaired human cerebral endothelial cell barrier function and ...
Source: NeuroReport - March 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research