Changes in white-matter functional network efficiency across the adult lifespan
Previous studies have used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and graph-theory approaches to investigate the lifespan trajectory of the topological organization of the gray-matter functional networks. Recent evidences have suggested that rs-fMRI data can also be used to estimate white-matter function, challenging the conventional practice of taking white-matter signals as noise or artifacts. Here, we examined the correlation between age and white-matter functional network efficiency by applying graph-theory to a large sample of rs-fMRI data of 435 participants. We found that age was correlated negatively with both glob...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Opioid signal transduction regulates the dendritic morphology of somatostatin and parvalbumin interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex
The endogenous opioid system is of great importance to normal brain functions. Opiate acts on GABAergic cells in both the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens to exert psychological effects. However, the effects of opioid signal transduction on the morphology of GABAergic interneurons (INs) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region critical for motivational and addictive behaviors, are unclear. By fluorescent dye injection and morphological reconstruction, we found that the total dendrite length and dendritic complexity of both parvalbumin (PV) INs and somatostatin (SST) INs in mPFC were significan...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Association of cerebrospinal fluid zinc-α2-glycoprotein and tau protein with temporal lobe epilepsy and related white matter impairment
This study aimed to identify the change of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), tau protein and phosphorylated tau 181 (P-Tau 181), and analyze their association with white matter impairment (WMI) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Levels of ZAG, tau, and P-Tau 181 in CSF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. WMI was scored based on Scheltens and Ylikoski scales. ZAG and total tau (T-Tau) were decreased in CSF of patients with TLE than controls (P (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Insulin attenuates epileptiform discharge-induced oxidative stress by increasing zinc-α2-glycoprotein in primary cultured cortical neurons
This study investigated the effect and mechanism of insulin on ZAG expression and epileptiform discharge-induced oxidative stress. Primary cultured cortical neurons were treated with insulin, AXL1717 (inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor), or BMS-754807 (inhibitor of both insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor). Mg2+-free epileptiform discharge model was also made. Levels of ZAG and AZGP1 mRNAs in neurons were measured. Oxidative stress in Mg2+-free-treated treated neurons underwent AZGP1 knock-down, AZGP1 overexpression, or insulin treatment was determined. Insulin treatment increased ZAG...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Scaling of brain compartments to brain size
In this study, we examine the relationship between total brain volume (BV) and the volumes of several main brain compartmental (BC) measures (cortical thickness, cortical surface area, corpus callosum, cortical gray matter, normal appearing cerebral white matter (NAWM), amygdala, accumbens, caudate, hippocampus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, cerebellar gray matter, and cerebellar WM) of physically and cognitively healthy elderly individuals (mean age: 71 years, age range: 65–85 years). The statistical analysis uncovered extremely different relationships between total BV and the aforementioned BC metrics. These relatio...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase regulates monocyte/macrophage polarization and improves neurological outcome in a rat model of ischemic stroke
This study aimed to evaluate whether a selective sEH inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA), can regulate monocyte/macrophage polarization and improve motor function in the rats with ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We measured the infarct volume with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and used the rotarod test to assess motor performance in rats. The monocyte/macrophage activation and mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators were measured by flow cytometry and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR, respectively. Our results showed better neurological funct...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Short-term session of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation combined with motor imagery facilitates corticospinal excitability in healthy human participants
This study highlights the possibility that short-term sessions of rPMS combined with MI could have clinical applications in improving the sensorimotor dysfunctions of stroke patients. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Neuronal deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog results in cerebellar motor learning dysfunction and alterations in intracellular signaling
The purpose of this investigation was to examine cerebellar levels of several molecular signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and markers of neuronal migration, following loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene in a subset of neurons, as well as the accompanying behavior phenotype in mice. Motor coordination and learning were measured by the sticker removal task and the accelerating rotarod. Western blots were conducted on cerebellar tissue samples. We demonstrated that neuron subset-specific deletion of PTEN in mice led to deficits in motor coordination. These...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

BDNF–TrkB signaling is involved in the histopathological damage, synaptic protein loss and inflammatory response caused by an electromagnetic pulse in rat brain cortex
In this study, we investigated the effects of EMP exposure on the cortex of the rat brain and the involvement of deficiencies in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway. Rats were exposed to EMPs once a day for 7 consecutive days. Histopathological damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of synaptic marker postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD95) and synaptophysin (SYN), as well as methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2), were determined by western blots. Levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 and the anti-inflammatory factor int...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Neonatal anesthesia impairs synapsin 1 and synaptotagmin 1, two key regulators of synaptic vesicle docking and fusion
Early exposure to anesthetics may interfere with synaptic development and lead to cognitive deficits. We previously demonstrated a decrease in vesicles docked at and within 100 nm from the presynaptic membrane in hippocampal nerve terminals of neonatal rats after anesthesia. Hence, we designed this study to assess the effects of neonatal anesthesia on synapsin 1 (Syn1) and synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), two key regulators of vesicle docking and fusion. To test the link between changes in Syn1 and Syt1 and behavioral deficits observed after neonatal anesthesia, we also assessed retention memory and fear conditioning in adol...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Suppressed neurogenesis without cognitive deficits: effects of fast neutron irradiation in mice
This study assessed the effects of combined low-dose neutron and γ-ray irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent memory. Neural progenitor cell division and survival were evaluated in brain sections and whole hippocampal preparations following head irradiation at a dose of 0.34 Gy for neutron radiation and 0.36 Gy for γ-ray radiation. Hippocampal-dependent memory formation was tested in a contextual fear conditioning task following irradiation at doses of 0.4 Gy for neutron radiation and 0.42 Gy for γ-ray radiation. Cell division was suppressed consisten...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Phenotypic distinctions between the nodose and jugular TRPV1-positive vagal sensory neurons in the cynomolgus monkey
Vagal capsaicin-sensitive afferent C-fibers play an important role in the maintenance of visceral homeostasis and contribute to symptoms in visceral diseases. Based on their developmental origin two functionally distinct types of vagal C-fibers are recognized: those with neurons in the vagal nodose ganglia (derived from epibranchial placodes) and in the vagal jugular ganglia (from neural crest). Studies in nonprimate species demonstrated that the vagal nodose and jugular C-fibers differ in activation profile, neurotrophic regulation, and expression of neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that the expression of selected marke...
Source: NeuroReport - April 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Structural and functional connectivity correlates with motor impairment in chronic supratentorial stroke: a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study
The aim of this study was to identify differences in structural and functional brain connectivity between poststroke mild and severe motor impairment. Twenty-four chronic stroke patients who underwent resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor image were retrospectively included. All patients were classified into two groups (mild motor impairment: 11 patients and severe motor impairment: 13 patients) according to their Fugl-Meyer motor assessment score. Tract-based spatial statistics and group independent component analyses were applied to investigate between-group differences in structural and functional connectivi...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Control of bill-grasping aperture with varying food size in crows
This study focused on kinematics of pecking in crows, known to possess dexterous visuomotor skills, to examine whether crows adjust the grasping aperture to food diameter with a kinematic mechanism similar to that in pigeons. The pecking at a small piece of food was video recorded to analyze the grasping aperture. The results showed that the grasping aperture was proportional to food diameter. Kinematic analysis showed that the aperture adjustment was mediated by grasping velocity and grasping duration, which is consistent with the findings of previous research on pecking in pigeons. However, the relative contribution of g...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry reveals regional reductions of gray matter volume in school-aged children with short-term type 1 diabetes mellitus
This study aimed to evaluate gray matter volume (GMV) changes and their relationships with clinical variables in school-aged children with short-term T1DM. Twenty-one school-aged T1DM children were compared with 21 control patients, matched for sex and age. T1-weighted gradient echo three-dimensional MRI was performed using a 3.0-Tesla scanner and the resulting images were processed with FSL software to assess the difference in GMV between the two groups. The children with T1DM presented with decreased GMV in the left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG), the right postcentral gyrus, and the left triangular part of the frontal inf...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and reward system of young rats after social novelty exposure
Socialization is an adaptive behavior during the early stages of life because it helps young animals become independent and determines healthy adult social behavior. Therefore, it is probable that the brain areas involved in the processing of social stimuli are more sensitive to social novelty during early life stages. To test this hypothesis, four groups of young male rats were exposed to different socioenvironmental stimuli; nonsocial physical novelty, social familiarity, social novelty, and a control group which received no stimulation. After stimuli exposure, brains were fixed and cut in coronal sections for c-Fos immu...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Auditory evoked response delays in children with 47,XYY syndrome
In this study, we investigated the associations of genotype and clinical phenotype with auditory processing. Whole cortex magnetoencephalography recorded during a passive auditory paradigm (500 Hz tones) was used to assess the auditory evoked response in three groups of male children: idiopathic ASD, typically developing, and XYY boys. Response waveforms were computed for left and right auditory cortex and latencies of the ∼50 ms (M50) and ∼100 ms (M100) components were determined. M50 latencies were significantly delayed compared with typically developing controls in children with ASD in the r...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Treadmill exercise inhibits amyloid-β generation in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice by reducing cholesterol-mediated lipid raft formation
The deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and a higher cholesterol level is involved in the deposition of Aβ. Previous evidence suggested that exercise exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of AD models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a 12-week treadmill exercise program on Aβ deposits in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice and the potential underlying mechanism. After 12 weeks of exercise, Aβ deposits were significantly decreased in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the amyloid...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Neonatal exposure to the experimental environment or ketamine can induce long-term learning dysfunction or overmyelination in female but not male rats
Ketamine can induce neurotoxicity after exposures to the developing brain. To investigate whether ketamine at subanesthetic dosage or its environmental condition can cause long-term cognitive dysfunction after multiple exposures in male or female neonatal rats, postnatal day 5 (P5)-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: ketamine group, vehicle group, and control group (no disturbance). Learning and memory abilities from P60 to P65 and immunofluorescence tests for myelin basic protein (MBP) in gray matter on P65 were conducted. The results showed that in female rats, the path length on day 1 in ketam...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Relationship between motor function improvements and white matter structure after low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation plus intensive occupational therapy in chronic subcortical stroke patients
This is a second paper on partly the same patient group and the same intervention, but with a different anatomical outcome measurement. An intervention that combines low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and intensive occupational therapy may improve brain function in poststroke patients with motor paralysis. The aim of this study was to clarify whole-brain white matter structural changes after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and occupational therapy. We recruited 25 patients hospitalized for 15 days with poststroke upper extremity paralysis to receive 12 sessions of low-frequency repetiti...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Liraglutide protects against diabetes mellitus complicated with focal cerebral ischemic injury by activating mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels
In this study, liraglutide, but not insulin, significantly improved ischemia-induced neurological deficits and decreased infarct volumes following CI in diabetic rats, down-regulated the expression of myeloperoxidase and up-regulated the expression of superoxide dismutase and two subunits of the mitoKATP channel (SUR1 and Kir6.2). However, these effects were weakened by the mitoKATP antagonist 5-hydroxydecanoic acid. Our study demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of liraglutide on CI injury with diabetes, which occurs by reducing oxidative stress and the inflammatory response, are associated with the activation of...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Cognitive conflict could facilitate negative stimulus processing: evidence from trait anxiety in the flanker paradigm
The present study used event-related potentials to investigate the affective priming effect of cognitive conflict and the influence of trait anxiety during the early stage of conflict processing. Participants with relatively high-trait or low-trait anxiety were tested using a combination of flanker task (congruent or incongruent arrows) as primes presented 200 ms before positive or negative words as targets. Behavioral results showed that response times were shorter for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and vice versa, suggesting that conflicts facilitated the processing of ...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Insensitivity of auditory mismatch negativity to classical fear conditioning and extinction in healthy humans
The relationship between auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and the neural cognitive processes of fear has been suggested in both healthy participants and patients with fear-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder. The present study sought to confirm whether the MMN is affected by classical fear conditioning in healthy participants. MMN amplitude, N1 amplitude, and skin conductance level (SCL) in 20 healthy volunteers during a fear-conditioning paradigm consisting of three phases (habituation, fear acquisition, and fear extinction) were recorded. Red and blue light signals were pr...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Imagery strategy affects spinal motor neuron excitability: using kinesthetic and somatosensory imagery
In this study, we examined spinal motor neuron excitability during kinesthetic, somatosensory, and combined imagery. Healthy adult volunteers (n=14) were recruited for F-wave recording. The F-wave was measured during relaxation to determine baseline levels, followed by measurement during the three imagery trials performed in a random order. In the somatosensory imagery (SI) trial, participants imagined tactile and pressure perception of the thumb finger pulp during holding a pinch meter. In the kinesthetic imagery (KI) trial, participants imagined muscle contraction during isometric thenar muscle activity at 50% maximal vo...
Source: NeuroReport - April 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Localization of chloride co-transporters in striatal neurons
In this study, the expression of these transporters was found to be different between projection neurons and interneurons. NKCC1 immunoreactivity was observed in the soma of adult BAC-D1-eGFP+ and D2-eGFP+ striatal projection neurons (SPNs). KCC2 was not expressed in either projection neuron and immunoreactivity to this transporter was observed only in the neuropile. However, NKCC1 and KCC2 co-transporters were not localized in intracellular biocytin-injected dendrites of SPNs of the direct or indirect pathways (D1-SPNs and D2-SPNs). Experiments with PV+ Cre transgenic mice transfected with Cre-dependent adeno-associated v...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Long-term disuse of the hand affects motor imagery ability in patients with complete brachial plexus palsy
The purpose of this study was to examine motor imagery ability in patients with peripheral nerve disorder using the hand mental rotation task. Five patients with left total avulsion brachial plexus palsy (BPP) and 16 healthy age-matched adults participated in this study. The mean±SD time from the injury was 103.6±49.7 months. Participants performed a hand mental rotation task as the motor imagery task; outcome measures included the reaction time from cognizing hand stimuli to the judgment of hand laterality (right or left) and the error rate. Patients also completed the Hand 20 questionnaire to assess the use...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Human sperm-associated antigen 4 as a potential biomarker of glioblastoma progression and prognosis
This study aimed to explore the specific effects of SPAG4 on the pathogenesis of GBM. We first investigated the expression level and prognostic power of SPAG4 in patients with GBM using The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort, and then SPAG4 knockdown by RNA interference was performed to reveal the effects of SPAG4 on GBM cells. mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. MTT assay was used to examine cell proliferation, and a wound healing assay was performed to detect cell migration. SPAG4 was significantly overexpressed in patients with GBM, and high expression of SPAG4 was associated wi...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Subcortical gray matter structural alterations in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and potentially Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying the effects of glucose on brain abnormalities is not fully understood. The differential effects of glucose alteration on brain changes in patients with T2D and those with prediabetes are also unclear. MRI data were collected from 21 patients with T2D (male/female, 7/14); 21 patients with prediabetes (male/female, 8/13); and 21 age-matched, sex-matched, and education-matched normal controls (male/female, 7/14). MRI data were analyzed using the Freesurfer software to obtain subc...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

EGb 761 inhibits Aβ1–42-induced neuroinflammatory response by suppressing P38 MAPK signaling pathway in BV-2 microglial cells
This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of EGb 761 on the Aβ1–42-induced BV-2 microglial cells. We analyzed the production and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and qRT-PCR, examined phosphorylation of MAPKs by western blot and measured nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation. Compared with Aβ1–42-treated group, EGb 761 inhibited release and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, suppressed nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB and attenuated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in a concent...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Increased cortical infarction and neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke mice with experimental periodontitis
Ischemic stroke is a common life-threatening disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic periodontitis is closely related to ischemic stroke. However, it remains unknown whether periodontitis plays a direct role in the injury of cerebral ischemia. To explore the role of chronic periodontitis in the development process of ischemic stroke, we combined two mouse models: experimental periodontitis induced by a periodontal injection of lipopolysaccharide and ischemic stroke induced by the photothrombotic method. Alveolar bone loss and inflammatory infiltration of the periodontal tissue were found in the mice with e...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Acute ketamine administration attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior by reversing abnormal regional homogeneity in the nucleus accumbens
Ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects, but no study to date has investigated changes in resting-state brain activity following ketamine administration in inflammation-induced depression. The purpose of this study was to use blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI to explore changes in the resting-state brain activity in a rat model of depression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg) challenge and to examine whether acute ketamine administration can reverse LPS-induced depressive-like behavior. Here, we showed LPS-induced depressive-like behavior as evidenced by significantly reduced motility in the fo...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Interhemispheric functional connectivity and its relationships with creative problem solving
In this study, we recruited 60 participants and used a revised chunk decomposing task to estimate participants’ individual differences during CPS. Then, the VMHC method was used to explore neural correlates underlying individual differences of CPS. Results showed that altered VMHC in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus, bilateral hippocampus/insula/amygdala, and bilateral fusiform gyrus/cerebellum/middle occipital gyrus was related to individual differences of CPS. These brain regions reflect the information integration of both hemispheres might be critical for CPS. Therefore, our results may shed lig...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Brain microstructural abnormalities correlate with KCC2 downregulation in refractory epilepsy
Dysregulations in the expression level of Na–K–Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) and K–Cl cotransporter (KCC2) genes have been detected in the brain tissues of patients with refractory epilepsy. Given the importance of these proteins in the determination of Cl− equilibrium potential (ECl), evaluation of the expression changes of these transporters might assist in optimizing the diagnostic approaches and therapeutic strategies. The present investigation evaluates the expression level chloride transporters in polymorphonuclear cells and their correlation with microstructural abnormalities. Thirty cases of drug...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Phase of electroencephalography theta oscillation during stimulus encoding affects accuracy of memory recall
Oscillatory activity is a ubiquitous property of brain signals, and yet relatively few studies have investigated how the phase of such ongoing oscillations affects our cognition. One of the main findings in this field is that the phase of electroencephalography (EEG) in the alpha band can affect perception of milliseconds-long stimuli. However, the importance of the phase of EEG for processing more naturalistic stimuli, which have a much longer duration, is still not clear. To address this question here, we presented word–nonword pairs, each of which was visible for 5 s and measured the effect of EEG phase dur...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Chronic ethanol exposure reduces the expression of NCX3 in the hippocampus of male C57BL/6 mice
In this study, the effect of EtOH on NCX3 was analyzed by observing NCX3 expression in the hippocampus of chronic EtOH-exposed male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into a control group, a 10% EtOH group, and a 20% EtOH group for 30, 60, and 90 days. Behavioral changes were observed using the Morris water maze. The protein and mRNA expressions of NCX3 and their distribution in the hippocampus were observed by western blotting, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry staining. The results showed that EtOH exposure exerted a significant adverse effect on the spatial memory capacity of mice. Increased expression of calpain-...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element signal in rats with diffuse axonal injury
This study investigated changes in Nrf2-ARE expression in rats with DAI to provide a basis for studying the DAI mechanism and a guide for clinical practice. The rat traumatic brain injury (TBI) model was established by a speeding rotation device and confirmed by neural scoring and silver staining. Nrf2 protein expression at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI was measured by western blot analysis. Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. The in-situ expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. Nrf2 protein expression was si...
Source: NeuroReport - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Abnormal amygdala resting-state functional connectivity in primary dysmenorrhea
In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity (AFC) network alteration in patients with PDM during ovulatory period. Thirty-six PDM patients and 35 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The AFC was constructed using amygdala-based functional connectivity using resting-state functional MRI data. The plasma prostaglandin E2 level was measured during ovulatory period. The group difference on AFC network was conducted and further explored the clinical significant of the abnormal AFC network in PDM patients. Compared to the healthy control group, PDM patients showed increa...
Source: NeuroReport - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Neural intrinsic functional connectivity associated with sensation seeking in heavy metal music and classical music lovers
The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) and classical music lovers (CML) as well as the neural correlates of sensation seeking in two groups. Thrity-six HMML and 30 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration. A voxel-wise two-sample t-test was used to test the differences between the two groups and a whole-brain correlation analysis was carried...
Source: NeuroReport - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Processing of task-irrelevant words of different frequency values: a visual mismatch negativity study
This study examined electrophysiological correlates of early and automatic word access. Chinese single-character words of high frequency and low frequency were peripherally presented in an oddball paradigm. Participants were instructed to carry out a centrally presented nonlinguistic colour-tracking task and ignore the lexical stimuli presented on both sides. Early visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) effects at 120–150 and 200–300 ms were elicited only by high-frequency characters, whereas low-frequency characters yielded vMMN only after 300 ms. This contrast of vMMN effects indicating lexical proce...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Cerebral cortical thickness after treatment with desvenlafaxine succinate in major depressive disorder
Thickness of the cerebral cortex has been previously investigated for its potential as a biomarker in major depressive disorder (MDD). This is the first study to examine the longitudinal effects of a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS), on whole-brain cortical thickness (CT) in patients treated for MDD. We also aimed to replicate a previous finding of an association between improvement in clinical severity and CT in one of five predefined regions-of-interest (ROI). Twenty-five individuals with MDD received treatment with DVS (50 mg/day) for 8 weeks, with 19 completing the stud...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

The gap junction inhibitor INI-0602 attenuates mechanical allodynia and depression-like behaviors induced by spared nerve injury in rats
The objective was to investigate the analgesic role and mechanisms of INI-0602 in neuropathic pain induced by spared nerve injury (SNI), and whether INI-0602 attenuated pain-induced depression-like behaviors. Rats were randomly assigned to saline treatment groups (sham+NS and SNI+NS) or INI-0602 treatment groups (sham+INI-0602 and SNI+INI-0602). The von Frey test was used to assess pain behavior, and the sucrose preference test, the forced swimming test, and the tail suspension test were used to assess depression-like behaviors. Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) was measured by parachute assay. Western blots ...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Abnormal amygdala resting-state functional connectivity in primary dysmenorrhea
In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity (AFC) network alteration in patients with PDM during ovulatory period. Thirty-six PDM patients and 35 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The AFC was constructed using amygdala-based functional connectivity using resting-state functional MRI data. The plasma prostaglandin E2 level was measured during ovulatory period. The group difference on AFC network was conducted and further explored the clinical significant of the abnormal AFC network in PDM patients. Compared to the healthy control group, PDM patients showed increa...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 in rat brain following the administration of kainic acid and pentylenetetrazole
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder of the central nervous system characterized by hypersynchronized neuronal activity and has been associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). We evaluated the expression of Nrf2 in the rat brain in treated with kainic acid (KA) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Nrf2 immunoreactivity was observed in astrocytes of the hippocampal region in rats exposed at KA. Nrf2 expression was increased significantly in rats with KA and PTZ. These results provide evidenc...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: DEGENERATION AND REPAIR Source Type: research

Impairment of oligodendrocyte lineages in spinal muscular atrophy model systems
Survival motor neuron (SMN) deficiency indicates that various cellular processes are impaired in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Previous reports have shown that SMN deficiency causes motor neuron degeneration, whereas the numbers of astrocytes and microglia are significantly increased or activated in SMA model systems. Only a few groups have studied the role of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineages such as OL precursor cell and nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2)-glia in SMA pathology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether OL lineages are impaired in SMA model systems. We investigated the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 following traumatic brain injury in the human brain
In this study, human brain tissues were obtained during surgery from patients suffering from TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated gene products, NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1, and glutathione S-transferase in human injured brain tissue after TBI. Our results revealed that the nuclear level of Nrf2 was significantly increased in injured brain tissues, whereas the cytoplasmic level of Nrf2 was markedly decreased. In addition, the expression of NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 and glutathione S-transferase was significantly upregulated. Nrf2 may be activated and confer...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Contribution of left frontal-motor alpha phase synchronization to semantic inhibition in obsessive–compulsive tendencies
Patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder attempt to suppress obsessions and/or compulsions. Although previous psychological research suggests reduced semantic inhibition in such patients, no research has explored the underlying neural mechanisms of semantic control in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder. In addition to semantic representation, semantic control also generates task-relevant behaviors. Previous research has implicated the left frontal and posterior temporal areas in semantic control; however, no research approaches the dynamic relationships among task-relevant brain areas. To address th...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Antipruritic effects of electroacupuncture on morphine-induced pruritus model mice through the TLR2/4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway
Pruritus is one of the common side effects of intrathecal or epidural injection of opioids. The aim of this study was to test the antipruritic effect of acupuncture and its possible mechanism. We used electroacupuncture (EA), toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4 antagonist sparstolonin B (SsnB), and TLR2/4 agonist peptidoglycan (PGN) to precondition female wild-type BALB/c mice, and then prepared a morphine-induced pruritus model. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting. The contents of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Functional properties of axolotl transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 revealed by the heterologous expression system
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) from tetrapod vertebrates except rodents are activated by high temperature with a relatively clear threshold. Our recent investigation suggested that a gradual heat activation without clear threshold might be a common feature for TRPA1 of fish. To approach which animal first acquires TRPA1 as a threshold detector instead of a gradual heat sensor, here, we focused on TRPA1 from axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). We isolated a full-length cDNA of axolotl transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (axTRPA1) and studied the functional properties by two-electrode voltage clamp method usin...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research

Neural intrinsic functional connectivity associated with sensation seeking in heavy metal music and classical music lovers
The aim of this study was to investigate the spontaneous neural activity and functional connectivity in heavy metal music lovers (HMML) and classical music lovers (CML) as well as the neural correlates of sensation seeking in two groups. Thrity-six HMML and 30 CML underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration. A voxel-wise two-sample t-test was used to test the differences between the two groups and a whole-brain correlation analysis was carried...
Source: NeuroReport - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS Source Type: research

Glaucocalyxin A as a natural product increases amyloid β clearance and decreases tau phosphorylation involving the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway
In this study, we discovered a natural product, glaucocalyxin A (GLA), as a new mTOR inhibitor based on a high-throughput screening platform with α-screen technology against our natural product library. Further study showed that GLA increased Aβ clearance involving the protein kinase B/mTOR/autophagy signaling pathway and inhibited tau phosphorylation involving the mTOR/70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase pathway, which highlighted the therapeutic potential of GLA for the AD treatment. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - February 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Source Type: research