Transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked potentials after the stimulation of the right-hemispheric homologue of Broca’s area
The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography can be applied to probe effective connectivity. Neurons are excited by magnetic pulses, which produce transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked potentials that can be monitored with electroencephalography. Effective connectivity refers to causal connections in the brain; it describes how different brain areas communicate with each other. Broca’s area is crucial for all phases of speech processing and is located in the frontotemporal region of the cortex. Only a few studies have investigated this region using transcranial magnetic stimulati...
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Altered hypothalamic functional connectivity patterns in major depressive disorder
This study suggests that the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder might be associated with the abnormal hypothalamic resting-state functional connectivity. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Influence of focal vibration over Achilles tendon on the activation of sensorimotor cortex in healthy subjects and subacute stroke patients
The modulation of cerebral activity could induce plastic changes in the cerebral cortex and contribute to motor rehabilitation. Focal vibration over lower-extremity muscles has therapeutic effects on the impaired motor function for stroke patients, but the modulatory effects of focal vibration on brain activity are less known. To explore this problem, this experiment was designed and conducted, in which focal vibration (75 Hz) was applied over the right Achilles tendon of 14 healthy subjects and the affected Achilles tendon of seven subacute stroke patients. Electroencephalography was recorded in the following phases: rest...
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of cortical thickness with age of onset in first-episode, drug-naïve major depression
Conclusions MDD patients with different age at onset show distinct CT alterations, suggesting potentially divergent pathological mechanisms of EOD and LOD. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in the development of subcortical structures in autism spectrum disorder
In this study, we used volBrain, an automatic and reliable quantitative analysis tool, and a longitudinal design to examine developmental changes in the volume of subcortical structures in ASD, and quantified the relation between subcortical volume development and clinical correlates. Nineteen individuals with ASD (16 males; age: 12.53 ± 2.34 years at baseline; interval: 2.33 years) and 14 typically developing controls (TDC; 12 males; age: 13.50 ± 1.77 years at baseline; interval: 2.31 years) underwent T1-weighted MRI at two time points. Bilaterally, hippocampus volume increased from baseline to follow-up in ...
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

TOMM40 polymorphism is associated with resting-state functional MRI results in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Conclusion We analyzed rs-fMRI characteristics of TOMM40 rs157581-G carriers of AD for the first time, which suggest that TOMM40 rs157581-G plays a harmful role in AD patients. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Concentration- and time-dependent effects of myo-inositol on evoked epileptic afterdischarge in the hippocampus in vivo
Epilepsy is one of the most widespread neurological diseases characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. There is no cure for epilepsy, and available pharmacological treatments with anti-seizure drugs are only symptomatic. Moreover, about third of epilepsy patients are resistant to the anti-seizure drugs. Thus, it is essential to discover new anti-epilepsy drugs. Recently, myo-inositol has been identified as a promising antiepileptic compound. In the present study, using electrophysiological method, we examined for the first time, the effect of myo-inositol on the generation of epileptic afterdischarges in the hippoca...
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

A protective effect of baicalin on cerebral ischemic rats is related to the improvement of serum progesterone level in serum
Baicalin, an ingredient drawn from Scutellaria amoena Georgi, plays a brain-protective role through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective mechanism of baicalin on middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups: sham, middle cerebral artery occlusion, middle cerebral artery occlusion + baicalin, middle cerebral artery occlusion + baicalin treated + inhibitor (bromocriptine, which inhibit progesterone induction). After 7 days treatment, neurological deficits and infarct volume were determined, morphological change of penumb...
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Age-specific effects of P2X7 receptors on olfactory function in mice
In conclusion, P2X7R knockout can improve the olfactory function of middle and old-aged mice, while it may cause damage to young-aged mice, suggesting that P2X7R plays age-specific role on olfactory functions in mice. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese medicine, Kami-Shoyo-San protects ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cell-differentiated neurons through activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Conclusion: Kami-Shoyo-San could protect ketamine-induced neurotoxicity, and the underlying mechanism may involve brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling pathway. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

TRPV1 and spinal astrocyte activation contribute to remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia in rats
In this study, we used the hot-plate and Von Frey tests to evaluate the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. Protein expressions of TRPV1 and protein kinase C (PKC) in dorsal root ganglion were assayed by western blotting and mRNA level of Trpv1, Trpa1, Trpv4, and Trpm8 were assayed by real-time PCR. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in spinal cord were measured by ELISA. Immunofluorescence assay was applied to analyze the activation of astrocyte in spinal cord. Continuing infusion of remifentanil induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, which were accompanied by upregulation of TRPV1 and PKC protein i...
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Persistent peripheral presence of Staphylococcus aureus promotes histone H3 hypoacetylation and decreases tyrosine hydroxylase protein level in rat brain tissues
Conclusion The results indicate that commensals like S. aureus, in spite of being largely restricted to the peripheral tissues, could modulate the homeostasis of molecular features in brain tissues whose maintenance is critical for preserving normal neurological functions. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gastrin-releasing peptide inhibits CA1 neurons via increasing inhibitory synaptic transmissions in hippocampal slices of rats
In this study, we examined the effects of gastrin-releasing peptide on excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons and further explored the mechanisms of its effects on synaptic transmission. The results showed that gastrin-releasing peptide inhibited the excitability of CA1 neurons and increased the amplitude and frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents significantly. In summary, we demonstrate that gastrin-releasing peptide can inhibit the excitability of hippocampal CA1 area neurons in brain slices and clarify the synaptic transmission mechanism involved in this process, which provide a theoretical basis for gastrin-re...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Overexpression of immunoproteasome low-molecular-mass polypeptide 7 and inhibiting role of next-generation proteasome inhibitor ONX 0912 on cell growth in glioma
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the expression level of immunoproteasome and its clinical significance in glioma preliminarily. Furthermore, we studied the function and molecular mechanism of proteasome inhibitor ONX 0912 on glioma cell. Materials and methods: The expression of immunoproteasome in glioma and tumor-adjacent brain tissues was detected by western blot. Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of low-molecular-mass polypeptide 7 in 55 cases of glioma tissues and 6 cases of tumor-adjacent brain tissues. Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationship between t...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

RE-1 silencing transcription factor alleviates the growth-suppressive effects of propofol on mouse neuronal cells
Conclusion: Our research not only enhances our understanding of propofol on mouse neuronal cells but also uncovers a potential signaling pathway that may mediate the effects of propofol on neuronal cells. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dendritic cell factor 1 deletion leads to developmental defects in mushroom-shaped dendritic spines
Dendritic spines are divided into four subtypes, namely, Mushroom, Stubby, Thin, and Branched. The mushroom-shaped spines are related to learning and memory. Previous studies have shown that the dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1, a transmembrane protein) affects the memory process and regulates the development of dendritic spines by inhibiting the expression of lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, a member of the family containing over 20 small secreted proteins). However, the exact subtype of dendritic spines that are specifically affected by Dcf1 remains unknown. Here, we identified that deletion of Dcf1 leads to developmental defects in mush...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonist RO5263397 on sensory gating in mice
The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonist RO5263397 effect on sensory gating in C57BL/6 mice was studied. Sensory gating is a mechanism for dosing and filtering the incoming information, by which the brain regulates the responses to sensory stimuli coming from the environment. Sensory gating deficit is considered to be one of the schizophrenia endophenotypes. TAAR1 agonist at a 1 mg/kg dosage contributed to the sensory gating index (S1–S2) increase. Sensory gating index rose due to the N40 amplitude increase in response to the first stimulus in a pair, whereas the amplitude of the second stimulus remained...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Incorporation of one N-glycosylation-deficient subunit within a tetramer of HCN2 channel is tolerated
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are glycoproteins N-glycosylated at a specific asparagine residue in the S5-S6 linker region. Previous reports suggested that N-glycosylation-deficient HCN2 N380Q (NQ) channels fail to properly target to the plasma membrane and are unable to form functional ion channels. HCN channels are known to homo- and hetero-oligomerize and it is not known whether HCN2-NQ subunits can oligomerize with wild type (wt) N-glycosylated subunits to form a tetrameric assembly. In the present study, homomeric NQ-mutant resulted in no current, cRNA titration experiments control...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential distributions of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the sulci and gyri of the adult ferret cerebral cortex
In this study, we systematically compared the distributions of parvalbumin-positive interneurons among three neighboring gyrus and sulcus pairs—coronal gyrus and cruciate sulcus, anterior ectosylvian gyrus and rostral suprasylvian sulcus, and posterior ectosylvian gyrus and pseudosylvian sulcus—in the adult ferret cerebral cortex. We proposed a method to partition sulci and gyri into several specific subregions through the deepest points of the sulci and the highest points of gyri in the inner and outer cortical contours of coronal sections. We found that the density of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the ...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Drosophila Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase AlkB is involved in repair from neuronal disorders induced by ultraviolet damage
AlkB family proteins are enzymes that repair alkylated DNA and RNA by oxidative demethylation. Nine homologs have been identified and characterized in mammals. ALKBH1 is conserved among metazoans including Drosophila. Although the ALKBH1 mouse homolog, Alkbh1 functions in neurogenesis, it currently remains unclear whether ALKBH1 plays a role in neuronal disorders induced by ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. We herein demonstrated that the Drosophila ALKBH1 homolog, AlkB contributed to recovery from neuronal disorders induced by ultraviolet damage. The knockdown of AlkB resulted in not only learning defects but also altered c...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Protective effects of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol on spinal cord injury-induced oxidative stress and inflammation
In this study, our objective was to investigate the underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective role of DOPET in attenuating spinal cord injury (SCI). Initially, SCI was induced by performing surgical laminectomy on the rats at T10-T12 level. Then, the neurological function-dependent locomotion was measured using Basso Beattie Bresnahan score, which declined in the SCI-induced group. Increased antioxidant levels such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione along with other parameters such as increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were all observed in the SCI group. ...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Dissociating neural correlates of retrieval practice and elaborative study in associative recognition memory
Retrieval practice effect refers to better long-term retention enhanced by active retrieval compared to re-studying, which has been widely demonstrated. However, controversies remain as to whether the underlying mechanism of this effect could be attributed to semantic elaboration. We investigated whether retrieval practice and elaboration were equivalent by observing the underlying cognitive processes of the two conditions using corresponding event-related potentials measures of associative memory and item memory. Behavioral results showed that retrieval practice induced better associate memory performance than elaborative...
Source: NeuroReport - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

EphA4 receptor regulates outwardly rectifying chloride channel in CA1 hippocampal neurons after ischemia-reperfusion
In this study, we present evidence that outwardly rectifying chloride channels reside in CA1 hippocampal neurons. EphA4 receptor increased chloride channel currents. Moreover, the EphA4 receptor no longer had significant effects on enhanced channel currents following ischemia-reperfusion. Inhibition of EphA4 receptor with EphA4-Fc significantly decreased the channel currents after ischemia-reperfusion. These results suggest that the increased effect of the EphA4 receptor on the outwardly rectifying chloride channel activity in CA1 hippocampal neurons may provide better treatment for ischemic brain injury. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Orexinergic actions modify occurrence of slow inward currents on neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus
Orexins are neuromodulatory peptides of the lateral hypothalamus which regulate homeostatic mechanisms including sleep-wakefulness cycles. Orexinergic actions stabilize wakefulness by acting on the nuclei of the reticular activating system, including the pedunculopontine nucleus. Orexin application to pedunculopontine neurons produces a noisy tonic inward current and an increase in the frequency and amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents. In the present project, we investigated orexinergic neuromodulatory actions on astrocyte-mediated neuronal slow inward currents of pedunculopontine neurons and their relationships...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparison of contrast-dependent phase sensitivity in primary visual cortex of mouse, cat and macaque
Neurones in the primary visual cortex (V1) are classified into simple and complex types. Simple cells are phase-sensitive, that is, they modulate their responses according to the position and brightness polarity of edges in their receptive fields. Complex cells are phase invariant, that is, they respond to edges in their receptive fields regardless of location or brightness polarity. Simple and complex cells are quantified by the degree of sensitivity to the spatial phases of drifting sinusoidal gratings. Some V1 complex cells become more phase-sensitive at low contrasts. Here we use a standardized analysis method for data...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical correlates of extraversion: a test–retest study implicating gray matter volume in the caudate nucleus
This study is the first to use two different time points to assess the consistency of the association of brain structures with extraversion. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Separation effect of early visual cortex V1 under different crowding conditions: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
The visual crowding makes it difficult to identify the patterns in peripheral vision, but the neural mechanism for this phenomenon is still unclear because of different opinions. To study the separation effect of early visual cortex V1 under different crowding conditions, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is applied within the right V1. The experimental design includes two factors: TMS intensity (10%, 65%, and 90% of the phosphene threshold) and crowding conditions (high and low). The accuracy results show that there is a strong interaction between crowding and TMS conditions. When the TMS intensity is 6...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The early stage of face detection in patients with major depressive disorder: an ERP study
To investigate whether perceptual processes involved in early stages of face processing are influenced by depressive disorder, the face detection and configural analysis were assessed by recording the N170 component elicited by faces and objects (tables) presented under upright and inverted conditions. The N170 component elicited at occipital–temporal sites by faces was larger and peaked later than that elicited by tables, and inverted faces significantly enhanced and delayed the N170. The N170 in response to faces was enhanced in patients with major depressive disorder and the N170 face effect for upright condition ...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The hypnotic effect of propofol involves inhibition of GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus
Propofol is widely used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, which causes a rapid loss of consciousness. So far the mechanisms underlying the effect of propofol are still largely unknown. Here, we found that microinjection of propofol in the lateral hypothalamus caused a significant decrease in wakefulness and an increase in the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Application of propofol in the lateral hypothalamus affected the electroencephalogram power spectra with a decrease in theta oscillations and an increase in the delta oscillations. Additionally, using whole-cell patch cla...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selective impairment of the executive attentional network in adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1
In this study, we used the revised attention network test to examine the function of three attentional networks–alerting, orienting and executive control–in 20 adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 in comparison to 20 normal controls. Adult patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 showed significant greater conflict effect for the executive control network, but no significant differences were found for alerting and orienting network relative to normal controls. These results provide evidence that there is an attentional deficit which is specifically associated with the executive control network in adult pa...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of long non-coding RNA SNHG12 in neuroprotection following cerebral ischemic injury
As one of the major causes of mortality and disability worldwide, ischemic stroke has never been received enough attention. Following ischemia/reperfusion injury, long non-coding RNAs have been extensively found to be involved into inflammatory responses, microvascular endothelial cell death, and angiogenesis in the brain. The small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 was found to be significantly increased following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 in ischemic stroke remain to be explored. We established an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxyg...
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Sequential neural information processing in nidopallium caudolaterale of pigeons during the acquisition process of operant conditioning
This study provides the electrophysiological experimental evidence for the dynamic coding mechanism of nidopallium caudolaterale. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - September 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects of sulfur dioxide within the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats: involvement of Calcium Ion channels, Adenine nucleoside triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and the nitric oxide/cyclic Guanine trinucleotide phosphate pathway
This study was designed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of sulfur dioxide within the nucleus tractus solitarii. Sulfur dioxide or artificial cerebrospinal fluid was unilaterally applied into the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats, and the effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (ABR) were determined. To explore the mechanisms of the effects of intra-nucleus tractus solitarii sulfur dioxide, various inhibitors were applied prior to sulfur dioxide treatment. Unilateral microinjection of sulfur dioxide produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure in anesthetized rats. Signif...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Auxin-mediated rapid degradation of target proteins in hippocampal neurons
In this study, we employed this technology to postmitotic neurons to address whether the auxin-inducible degron system could be applied to the nervous system. Using adeno-associated viruses, we simultaneously introduced enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused with an auxin-inducible degron tag and an F-box family protein, TIR1 from Oryza sativa (OsTIR1), into hippocampal neurons from mice. In dissociated hippocampal neurons, EGFP enhanced green fluorescent protein fluorescence signals rapidly decreased when adding a plant hormone, auxin. Furthermore, auxin-induced enhanced green fluorescent protein degradation was ...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electrophysiological evidence of encoding in self-referential effect
Although the self-referential effect was widely supported by several previous studies, there was few event-related potential (ERP) evidence for the encoding mechanism of the self-referential effect. The present study employed ERPs to investigate whether the electrophysiological indices of the encoding processing could predict the retrieval processing in the self-referential paradigm. Behavioral results demonstrated better performance in the self-reference condition than other-reference condition. The N400 and LPP for the subsequent memory effect (the Dm effect) were observed in both self-referential and other-referential t...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like effect via regulating NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway in rats
Ginsenoside (GS Rg1), which has neuroprotection and anti-inflammation activities, is the main active ingredient of Radix Ginseng. However, its antidepressant-like effect in rats remains unclear. Our study was conducted to investigate whether GS Rg1 confers an antidepressant effect in rats exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression and to explore its possible mechanisms. Our results revealed that GS Rg1 treatments for 3 weeks alleviated the depression-related behaviors of chronic unpredictable mild stress-exposed rats, as indicated by increasing sucrose preference, improving locomotor activity and sh...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Social anxiety and attentional bias variability: electrophysiological evidence of attentional control deficits
This study aimed to investigate whether attentional bias in social anxiety was caused by attentional control deficit. Event-related potentials and behavioural attentional bias index (trial-level attentional bias variability) were recorded as participants completed the dot-probe task. The behaviour result showed that compared with the low socially anxious individuals, the high socially anxious individuals had a marginally higher score of attentional bias variability. For event-related potentials results, target-locked frontocentral N2 amplitude was significantly larger under the incongruent condition than the congruent cond...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Unitization improves item recognition through less overall neural processing
It is widely accepted that unitization can promote familiarity-based associative recognition, but the role of unitization in recognition of individual component elements remains unclear. Our goals of this study were to elaborate how unitization influenced item recognition and to further examine the effect of unitization on the extent to which familiarity and recollection contributed to item recognition. The results showed that unitization could facilitate item recognition through reducing the contribution of recollection. Together with previous findings that unitization could facilitate associative recognition, we believed...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Diffusion-weighted imaging volume and diffusion-weighted imaging volume growth in acute stroke: associations with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities-diffusion-weighted imaging mismatch and functional outcome
Conclusions Evaluating DWI volume on admission, DWI volume on follow-up as well as DWI volume growth comprehensively may be useful in predicting the functional outcome of acute stroke patients after thrombectomy. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Sirtuin 1 on microglia in spinal cord injury: involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway
In this study, we investigate the effect of SIRT1 on the SCI model and on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated primary microglia using a pharmacological intervention (SRT1720, an agonist of SIRT1). Results showed that SIRT1 levels gradually decreased in spinal cord until the fourth week after SCI, while the level of 8-hydroxy-2’–deoxyguanosine increased. SIRT1 was negatively correlated with the expression of β-catenin following SCI. The administration of SRT1720 significantly improved number of neurons and the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score after SCI. The number of ionizing calcium-binding adaptor molecul...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Rat ultrasonic vocalizations as a measure of the emotional component of chronic pain
In humans, chronic pain is often expressed as a spontaneous emotional response which can lead to fragmented sleep. Rat 50-kHz and 20-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are well-established measures of positive and negative emotional states, respectively. The rat chronic constriction injury model was used to induce chronic pain, and ultrasonic vocalizations were measured in both the heterospecific rough-and-tumble play (i.e. tickling) test as well as during 24-hour home cage recordings. Rates of hedonic 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations during the non-stimulus periods of the tickling test, as well as the rewarding value of tickling...
Source: NeuroReport - August 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Atypical frontal midline theta activity during cognitive control in heroin addicts
This study examined frontal midline theta deficits in patients with heroin dependence during a Go/No-go task which explicitly involved cognitive control. Electroencephalography readings were collected from 15 male heroin addicts and 17 demographically matched healthy controls during an equal probability Go/No-go task. The findings revealed that heroin addicts responded significantly slower to the Go stimulus as compared to the healthy control. Heroin addicts also showed less frontal midline theta modulations between the Go and No-go conditions. These findings provided further evidence toward understanding the nature of dru...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The inhibition process underlying correct rejection of lures under different attentional states: an event-related potential study
This study explored the effects of different attentional states on correct rejection of lures (CRL) by studying event-related potentials. Healthy college students were recruited to complete a study–test task. Results showed that CRL processing was regulated by participants’ attentional states. Under focused attention, CRL was confirmed using subsequent diagnostic monitoring. Under distracted attention, lures were identified using early-familiarity processing; in addition, subsequent processes of CRL under distracted attention might reflect subjects’ confidence in making rejection judgments. Time–fre...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Scene processing following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex
It has been suggested that the mental construction of scene imagery is a core process underpinning functions such as autobiographical memory, future thinking and spatial navigation. Damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans can cause deficits in all of these cognitive domains. Moreover, it has also been reported that patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions are impaired at imagining fictitious scenes, although they seem able to describe specific scenes from autobiographical events. In general, not much is known about how ventromedial prefrontal cortex patients process scenes. Here, we deployed a re...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corticospinal excitability related to reciprocal muscles during the motor preparation period: effect of movement repetition
Conclusion These results implied that corticospinal excitability for agonist muscles during the motor preparation period is consistently modulated by movement repetition, whereas that for antagonist muscles is weakened by movement repetition. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Physiological arousal and visuocortical connectivity predict subsequent vividness of negative memories
Relative to neutral memories, negative and positive memories both exhibit an increase in memory longevity, subjective memory re-experiencing and amygdala activation. These memory enhancements are often attributed to shared influences of arousal on memory. Yet, prior work suggests the intriguing possibility that arousal affects memory networks in valence-specific ways. Psychophysics work has shown that arousal-related heart rate deceleration (HRD) responses are related to enhanced amygdala-visual functional connectivity (AVFC) and visual perception of negative stimuli. However, in the memory realm, it is not known whether t...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Role of exosomes induced by remote ischemic preconditioning in neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an effective regimen for neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released into the blood, where they can transfer signals throughout the body. Several studies have demonstrated that RIPC leads to many changes in circulating exosomes. However, the role of RIPC-induced exosomes in neuroprotection remains to be determined. In the current study, we demonstrate that infusion of enriched plasma exosomes from RIPC-treated mice significantly attenuates infarction size in a murine model of cerebral ischemia compared to control group receiving infusion of exos...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Decreased serotonin synthesis is involved in seizure-induced respiratory arrest in DBA/1 mice
A known cause of seizure-induced respiratory arrest is the deficiency in serotonergic neurotransmission. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) synthesis which converts l-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan. A recent study revealed a reduction in TPH2 protein expression in the brainstems of DBA/1 mice that developed recurrent seizure-induced respiratory arrest, whereas the activity of this protein was unexplored. Thus this study aims to investigate the association between intrinsic 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the brainstem and the susceptibility for sudden ...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association between imbalance of cortical brain activity and successful motor recovery in sub-acute stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study
Conclusion: Our results suggested that activation of the non-lesional hemisphere in sub-acute stroke associated with motor recovery in moderate-to-severe upper limb hemiparesis. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation of stroke patients with moderate-to-severe upper limb hemiparesis might enhance the compensatory movements and pre-existing motor network from the non-lesional motor cortex. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

LncRNA SAMMSON overexpression distinguished glioblastoma patients from patients with diffuse neurosarcoidosis
The MRI characteristics of diffuse neurosarcoidosis are similar to those of glioblastoma. Therefore, identification of novel biomarkers to distinguish these two diseases is needed. We found that lncRNA Survival Associated Mitochondrial Melanoma-Specific Oncogenic Non-Coding RNA (SAMMSON) was upregulated in plasma of glioblastoma patients but not in diffuse neurosarcoidosis patients comparing to healthy controls. Upregulated SAMMSON distinguished glioblastoma patients from diffuse neurosarcoidosis patients and healthy controls. MiR-622 in glioblastoma patients was inversely correlated with SAMMSON. SAMMSON overexpression ca...
Source: NeuroReport - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research