Hypercholesterolemia impairs contextual fear conditioning memory formation in female mice: evidence for cholinergic dysfunction
The present study evaluated the effects of hypercholesterolemia in response to conditioned aversive stimuli in mice. Specifically, (a) young (3 months old) and aged (24 months old) female C57Bl/6 mice were fed daily for 4 weeks with a standard rodent diet or an enriched cholesterol diet (ECD) and then subjected to the contextual fear conditioning test. In another experimental set, 3-month-old C576Bl/6 female mice, fed daily during the 4 weeks with the standard rodent diet or ECD, were subjected to the contextual fear conditioning test and received vehicle or scopolamine (0.37 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) immediately af...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Influence of the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation and cutaneous stimulation on the soleus H-reflex in healthy individuals
Modulation of the soleus H-reflex following galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been used to evaluate vestibulospinal tract function. It is not known whether this modulation is because of vestibular stimulation and/or cutaneous stimulation, and the suitable stimulating intensity of GVS for the modulation is not established. We investigated the influence of GVS intensity and cutaneous stimulation on the soleus H-reflex in healthy adults. We applied cathodal GVS (at 1, 2, and 3 mA) or 3-mA cutaneous stimulation as a conditioning stimulation in a random order to 17 individuals in the prone position with the head ...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Older adults use a prefrontal regulatory mechanism to reduce negative memory vividness of a highly emotional real-world event
This study replicated previous episodic memory tasks: age was associated with more negative hippocampal connectivity with dorsomedial prefrontal regions during retrieval of memories triggered by negative relative to positive cues. Such findings suggest that older adults may be recruiting a similar regulatory mechanism during retrieval of both negative laboratory stimuli and highly negative events from their past. These findings are discussed in relation to previous work showing that young and older adults interact differently with the negative details related to a highly negative event. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

A novel long noncoding RNA lnc158 promotes the differentiation of mouse neural precursor cells into oligodendrocytes by targeting nuclear factor-IB
Long noncoding RNAs have been implicated in oligodendrocyte myelination and oligodendrocyte maturation, but their roles in normal oligodendrocyte differentiation are not fully defined. Here, we report a novel nonprotein-coding RNA, named lnc158, discovered in mouse oligodendrocytes identified in subependymal ventricular zone tissue by single-cell RNA sequencing. Lnc158 is an endogenous antisense transcript of nuclear factor-IB (NFIB) and complementary to 3′ untranslated region of NFIB mRNA. NFIB is a member of the nuclear factor-I family and is essential in the development of many organs such as brains and lungs. We ...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gentiopicroside protects neurons from astrocyte-mediated inflammatory injuries by inhibition of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways
The effects of gentiopicroside (Gent), an active component derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Gentiana macrophylla, on lipopolysaccharide-induced astrocyte activation and subsequent neuronal damage were investigated. Gent significantly inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E, as well as expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced primary astrocytes. Furthermore, Gent relieved neurotoxicity from astrocyte-mediated inflammatory injury. Mechanism studies indicated that Gent significantly supp...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular interplay between hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology in the NS-Pten knockout mouse model
This study provides novel insight into how altered mTOR signaling is linked to AD pathology, without the use of an in-vivo AD model that already displays neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhancement of a genuine visual mismatch negativity correlates with the facilitation of perceptual alternation of a bistable image
By focusing on the automatic visual change detection process, the present study attempted to clarify neural processing relevant to the exogenously driven perceptual alternation (ePA) of a bistable image. In our recent electroencephalographic study, the oddball paradigm was adopted to the continuous presentation of a bistable image to record visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, a relative enhancement in the brain response to a deviant over a repetitively presented standard, reflecting the visual change detection process and prediction error to the deviant over the standard). In terms of interindividual differences in behaviora...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Chronic administration of quetiapine attenuates the phencyclidine-induced recognition memory impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress in rats
The underlying mechanism of atypical antipsychotics in treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, on object recognition memory and hippocampal oxidative stress in a phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. Rats were treated with chronic quetiapine (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for 16 days or acute quetiapine (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) on day 16. On day 16, 1 h after the administration of quetiapine, the rats were administered PCP (50 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Af...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Natural image reconstruction on the basis of local field potential signals of pigeon optic tectum neurons
Reconstruction of visual input through a neuron response helps to understand the information processing mechanism of the visual system. This paper uses the amplitude and phase characteristics of the local field potential signal in the pigeon optic tectum area to reconstruct the visual input from the neuron response data by means of local information accumulation using a linear inverse filter and a back propagation neural network algorithm. The reconstructed results show that the correlation between three reconstructed images and their corresponding stimulus images (tree branches, birds, and eyeglasses) was 0.8461±0....
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Effects of dexamethasone on autophagy and apoptosis in acute spinal cord injury
In this study, we established an in-vitro model of spinal cord injury to study the effects of dexamethasone on mechanical injury, autophagy, and apoptosis in spinal cord neurons. The results showed that dexamethasone inhibited the level of autophagy in the injured nerve cells in a dose-dependent manner. High doses of dexamethasone protected the damaged spinal cord neurons by inhibiting apoptosis, but a protective effect from low hormone concentrations was not obvious. When autophagy was inhibited in damaged spinal cord neurons, apoptosis decreased significantly; in contrast, impairment of autophagy-induced activation of sp...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aucubin alleviates glial cell activation and preserves dopaminergic neurons in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonian mice
Aucubin (AUC) is a major bioactive ingredient in Eucommia ulmoides, Plantain asiatica, and Aucuba japonica, and has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. We explore the neuroprotective effects of AUC in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonian mice. Mice were administered MPTP (30 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, followed by treatment with AUC for 7 days. Measurement of dopamine levels was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography and tyrosine hydroxylase expression was assessed by western blot. Our results showed that AUC treatment impro...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Voltage-dependent calcium channels in the neurosecretory cells of cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain
Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play a critical role in stimulus–secretion coupling in neurosecretory cells (NSCs). The crustacean cerebral ganglion plays a crucial role in neuromodulation and controls neuropeptide release. The present study used patch-clamp and Illumina sequencing techniques to investigate the potential features of VDCC in the cerebral ganglia of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). The electrophysiological characteristics of VDCC were analyzed in three types of NSCs with a patch clamp. The thresholds for activation of Ca2+ channel current recorded from all the three types of NSCs were all...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of the biological affection of long noncoding RNA BC200 in Alzheimer’s disease
BC200 is a long noncoding RNA expressed at high levels in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and blocking of BC200 by siRNA is assumed to be an effective method for various disease therapy. We have established an AD cell model overexpressing amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)1-42 to observe the effects of BC200 on the cell viability and apoptosis, and to investigate the associated underlying mechanisms. Efficient knockdown and overexpression of BC200 were established using BC200 siRNA and BC200 mimics, respectively. Cell viability following BC200 knockdown and overexpression was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, ...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

The electrophysiological correlates of internet language processing revealed by N170 elicited by network emoticons
During communication, people rely on both linguistic messages and paralinguistic cues to convey information. A question then arises concerning the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the integration of multimodal sources of information during communication. Within such a background, this study compares the early processing stages between network emoticons and emotional words, as both involve emotional content, by recording the N170 of event-related potentials. We found that the N170 elicited by emoticons showed higher amplitude and longer latency than the N170 by words over right occipital-temporal region. Additionally, th...
Source: NeuroReport - August 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology Source Type: research

Accumbal ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 signaling in alcohol reward in female rats
The present study investigated the relationship between accumbal ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling in alcohol reward in female rats. Animals with guide cannulae targeting the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) and shell (NAcS) were habituated to alcohol for 12 weeks through a two-bottle intermittent access paradigm. JMV2959, a ghrelin antagonist, and exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 agonist, were microinjected at the onset of the nocturnal cycle. Alcohol, food, water, and total fluid intake were measured 2, 6, and 24 h postinjection. Results indicated that JMV2959 reduced alcohol consumption when injected in...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Memory reconsolidation and extinction of fear conditioning induced different Arc/Arg3.1 expression
Re-exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS) during which the threat was experienced leads to two different processes: brief CS presentation initiates reconsolidation to re-stabilize the original fear memory, whereas prolonged CS presentation leads to extinction to form an inhibitory memory. The two processes used distinct mechanisms, but the difference in neuronal activation during these processes still remains to be addressed. Using the auditory fear-conditioning model, we analyzed Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) expression after brief or prolonged CS presentation at several time points. Here, we...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Homocysteine sensitizes the mouse neuromuscular junction to oxidative stress by nitric oxide
In this study, HCY was observed to sensitize the neuromuscular junction to ROS-induced depression of spontaneous transmission frequency, an effect we found to be mediated by a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and nitric oxide (NO). The NMDAR antagonist D, L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid prevented the HCY-induced sensitization to oxidative stress. Disrupting NO activity with either the nitric oxide synthase I antagonist Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt also prevented sensitization. Moreover, rep...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Uncertain is worse: modulation of anxiety on pain anticipation by intensity uncertainty evidence from the ERP study
To investigate the effect of uncertain information in the anticipation phase, this study used four cues to inform participants that they would face four kinds of subsequent electrical shocks: low-intensity shock, high-intensity shock, 50–50% chance of low-intensity or high-intensity shock, and no shock. Subjective evaluation on the anxiety elicited by different cues showed that uncertain cues aroused higher anxiety than certain cues, but the effect was observed only at low-intensity shock. The electroencephalogram data revealed that uncertain-shock cue elicited significantly larger stimulus-preceding negativity than ...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Electroencephalography delta, theta, and alpha oscillations in valence–space metaphorical associations
Conceptual metaphor theory holds that understanding abstract affective words relies on concrete spatial information, known as valence–space metaphorical associations. Previous studies show that these metaphorical associations are related to several event-related potentials. However, we know nothing about the neural oscillations underlying these associations. The present study adopted a priming paradigm and the electroencephalographic time–frequency analysis to reveal the brain oscillatory activities related to the processing of valence–space associations. In the experiment, participants first memorized a ...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Influence of 24-diamino-5-phenylthiazole on neomycin ototoxicity in cultured organ of Corti explants
Hair cells do not undergo spontaneous regeneration when they are damaged in the mammalian organ of Corti, leading to irreversible hearing loss. Previous studies have shown that 24-diamino-5-phenylthiazole (DAPT), an inhibitor of Notch signaling, plays a major role in inner ear development. However, whether DAPT influences antibiotic-induced hair cell damage remains uncertain. The present study aimed to investigate whether DAPT exerts protective or regenerative effects on neomycin-damaged hair cells. A histological analysis was carried out to assess the number and morphological changes of hair cells in cultured organ of Cor...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

High-field MRS study of GABA+ in patients with migraine: response to levetiracetam treatment
To explore alterations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in response to levetiracetam (LEV) treatment in patients with migraine. Patients with migraine (N=14) were treated with LEV for 12 weeks. The levels of GABA+ in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were examined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy before (baseline) and after treatment. LEV showed good efficacy in the reduction of headache frequency and intensity in patients with migraine. Among the 14 patients, good-quality spectral data of GABA+ in the PCC region were obtained in 11...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine relieves neuropathic pain by inhibiting hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated currents in dorsal root ganglia neurons
This study was designed to examine the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on neuropathic pain (NP). The NP model was established by performing chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury (CCI). Seven days after CCI surgery, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with Dex, ZD7288 (an HCN channel inhibitor), and saline, respectively. The paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and the thermal withdrawal latency tests were performed. After administration, the L4, L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of rats were isolated. In addition, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels sub...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Disrupted metabolic and functional connectivity patterns of the posterior cingulate cortex in cirrhotic patients: a study combining magnetic resonance spectroscopy and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging
The association between metabolic activity and functional coupling of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in cirrhotic patients remains undefined. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the association of functional coupling with metabolic patterns of PCC in resting cirrhotic patients. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients, including 10 with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and 16 without HE, were assessed, alongside 21 control participants. Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the PCC and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) were performed on a 3.0-T MR scanner. The ratios of all metabolites to creatine (Cr) ...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Unilateral whisker pad injection of botulinum toxin type a enhances spatial learning in mice
The central cholinergic nervous system plays an important role in cognition, with acetylcholine hypofunction considered to be a major factor of dementia. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A), a potent poison secreted by Clostridium botulinum, is used widely for dystonia treatment and facial cosmesis. BoNT/A injection inhibits acetylcholine release in the neuromuscular junction through cleavage of synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa in cholinergic terminals. Furthermore, beyond the injection site, BoNT/A undergoes retrograde transport and transcytosis to the central nervous system from peripheral cholinergic termina...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in insular cortex metabolites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in insular cortex metabolites and the correlation with clinical manifestations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). Lateral insular metabolite levels were measured and relevant ratios were calculated in OSA patients and healthy individuals, including N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), inositol/creatine (Ins/Cr), glutamate compound/creatine (Glx/Cr), N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), and lactic acid (Lac). Participants’ scores on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), the Pittsbu...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Establishment of an induced pluripotent stem cell model of Hirschsrpung disease, a congenital condition of the enteric nervous system, from a patient carrying a novel RET mutation
Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a complex genetic disorder of the enteric nervous system that is characterized by a complete loss of the neuronal ganglion cells in the intestinal tract. It is one of the most frequent causes of congenital intestinal obstruction and more than 80% of the causative mutations are in RET. Here, we identified a new RET mutation in a patient and established a cell model that can be used to elucidate the pathogenesis of HSCR. Peripheral blood was collected from a patient who was clinically and pathologically diagnosed with HSCR with a heterozygous deletion mutation (c.180delT; p.Glu61ArgfsX163) in e...
Source: NeuroReport - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory P300 study in patients with convalescent bipolar depression and bipolar depression
In conclusion, bipolar patients had P300 abnormalities and deficits in cognitive processing of stimulus, and may be present even when emotional symptoms were relieved. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Improvement in dysmyelination by the inhibition of microglial activation in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease
Sandhoff disease (SD) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation of the β-subunit gene β-hexosaminidase B (HexB) in humans, which results in the massive accumulation of the ganglioside GM2 and related glycosphingolipids in the nervous system. SD causes progressive neurodegeneration and changes in white matter in human infants. An animal model of SD has been established, Hexb-deficient (Hexb−/−) mice, which shows abnormalities resembling the severe phenotype found in human infants. Previously, we reported that the activation state of microglia caused astrogliosis in the early stage of Hexb−/&minu...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

The neural correlation of sustained attention in performing conjunctive continuous performance task: an event-related potential study
In this study, a visual version of the conjunctive continuous performance task-visual was used to examine the differences of cognitive processes in target and nontarget stimuli. Twenty healthy individuals (average age: 23 years) participated in the study. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded from all participants during conjunctive continuous performance task-visual. After preprocessing, the ERPs were calculated by averaging the epochs that were time-locked to the stimulus onset. Then, the ERPs of the two groups of target and nontarget stimuli, from the aspects of differences in the P300 and N200 morphological featur...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of miR-25 aggravates diabetic peripheral neuropathy
In this study, we aimed to investigate the function of miR-25 during the development of oxidative/nitrative stress and in subsequent neurological problems. We detected the oxidative stress effects and expression of miR-25 on sciatic nerves from db/db diabetic model mice and analyzed the expression of related genes by qPCR and Western blotting. Interestingly, we observed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nox4 expression in db/db mice accompanied with reduced miR-25. MiR-25 inhibitor treatment increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate activity in Schwann cells, whereas miR-25 precursor overexpression le...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Suppressed acoustic startle response in traumatic brain injury masks post-traumatic stress disorder hyper-responsivity
An exaggerated acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is a clinical indicator of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the prevalence of PTSD following traumatic brain injury (TBI), we studied the effects of TBI on ASR. Adult Sprague Dawley rats exposed to moderate controlled cortical impact injury model of TBI displayed suppression of ASR intensity and sensitivity. As patients with PTSD have been shown to display hyperactive startle responses, the present discrepant observation of TBI-induced suppression of ASR has clinical implications, in that the reduced, instead of elevated, startle response i...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Effect of LGI1 antibody-positive IgG on hippocampal neuron survival: a preliminary study
Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis is one of the most frequently encountered forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Many patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis develop permanent hippocampal neuron loss and chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms, suggesting that LGI antibodies (Ab) might have a neurotoxic action. To investigate this hypothesis, purified serum IgG of three patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis and six healthy controls were incubated with cultured primary hippocampal neurons obtained from newborn mice. Nontreated cells were used as controls. The viability of IgG-treated neurons was evaluated b...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vascular delivery of intraperitoneal Evans blue dye into the blood–brain barrier-intact and disrupted rat brains
Blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity can be determined by tracer infusion into the circulation followed by measurements of its penetration into the brain parenchyma. Tracer injection through the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route (rather than intravascular injection) avoids confounding effects of animal anesthesia or immobilization/surgical stress. Evans blue dye (EBD) can be administered by i.p. injection, and once in circulation, it binds to plasma albumin to become an endogenous protein tracer. Here, we investigated whether a similar level of EBD is extravasated into the brain following i.p. versus intravenous (i.v.) inj...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional connectivity during monitoring for visuomotor incongruence
Previous human studies on monitoring for visuomotor incongruence emphasized the contribution of the fronto-parietal network and revealed significant activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right rostral inferior parietal lobule. Using functional MRI, this study investigated the brain regions involved in explicit monitoring for incongruence between motor intention and visual and/or proprioceptive information, particularly focusing on the fronto-parietal network. During in-phase bimanual movements, a static image of the participant’s own hands was randomly inserted within real-time visual...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identify abnormalities in resting-state brain function between first-episode, drug-naive major depressive disorder and remitted individuals: a 3-year retrospective study
This study aims to identify and characterize neurobiological markers for major depressive disorder (MDD) from resting-state brain functional MRI. We examined the abnormality in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in first-episode, drug-naive major depressive disorder (fMDD), and remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) and correlated these fluctuations with clinical markers of MDD. We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the medical records of 43 patients with fMDD. Overall, 13 of the 43 patients who had at least 3 years of follow-up care and the 17-item Hamilton Depre...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Numb-p72, but not Numb-p65, contributes to the trafficking of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors
The protein Numb localizes to clathrin-coated vesicles and participates in the trafficking of transmembrane receptors. We previous reported that Numb promotes the presence of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1) on neuronal membrane, and Numb deficiency impairs synaptic expression of mGlu1. However, the actions of different Numb isoforms on mGlu1 trafficking are unknown. Here, we found that Numb-p72 and Numb-p65 are distinctly expressed in HEK293T cells. Interestingly, Numb-p72, but not Numb-p65, binds to mGlu1α and promotes the membrane expression of mGlu1α by antagonizing its internalization. We hypothes...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Feasibility of microRNA profiling in human inner ear perilymph
Hearing loss is common and caused by a wide range of molecular and cellular pathologies. Current diagnosis of hearing loss depends on a combination of physiologic testing, patient history, and in some cases genetic testing. Currently, no biopsy or equivalent procedure exists to diagnose inner ear disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short ribonucleic acids that regulate a variety of cellular processes. They have been found to be reliable markers for a variety of disease processes. In particular, a variety of miRNAs that are markers for neurodegenerative disease have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid. The aim of this study...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Sharing as a model for understanding division
Emerging research suggests that children’s ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18–23 years) du...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

The facilitating effect of positive emotions during an emotional Stroop task
Prior research has shown that negative emotions, even though task irrelevant, are capable of delaying a participant’s response to the color in which a negative emotional word is presented, a phenomenon known as the ‘emotional Stroop effect’. However, relatively little is known about whether positive emotions have a similar or an opposite effect. The current study sets out to confirm the facilitating effect of positive emotions on color naming, which is predicted by Barbara Fredrickson’s ‘broaden and build’ theory. Our results indicate that positive emotions did facilitate such processing...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Abnormal expression of ephrin-A5 affects brain development of congenital hypothyroidism rats
EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats. Thyroxine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampus and triiodothyronine treatment f...
Source: NeuroReport - July 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in a chronometric mental rotation test with cube figures: a behavioral, electroencephalography, and eye-tracking pilot study
In chronometric mental rotation tasks, sex differences are widely discussed. Most studies find men to be more skilled in mental rotation than women, which can be explained by the holistic strategy that they use to rotate stimuli. Women are believed to apply a piecemeal strategy. So far, there have been no studies investigating this phenomenon using eye-tacking methods in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) analysis: the present study compared behavioral responses, EEG activity, and eye movements of 15 men and 15 women while solving a three-dimensional chronometric mental rotation test. The behavioral analysis sho...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Ketamine differentially restores diverse alterations of neuroligins in brain regions in a rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression
In conclusion, NLs showed diverse changes in different brain regions in the rat model of neuropathic pain-induced depression, which could be reversed differentially by the administration of ketamine. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Loss-of-function mutation in Hippo suppressed enlargement of lysosomes and neurodegeneration caused by dFIG4 knockdown
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common hereditary neuropathy, and more than 80 CMT-causing genes have been identified to date. CMT4J is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Factor-Induced-Gene 4 (FIG4) gene, the product of which plays important roles in endosome–lysosome homeostasis. We hypothesized that Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST) 1 and 2, tumor-suppressor genes, are candidate modifiers of CMT4J. We therefore examined the interaction between dFIG4 and Hippo (hpo), Drosophila counterparts of FIG4 and MSTs, respectively, using the Drosophila CMT4J model with the knockdown o...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Negative modulation of spinal κ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception by the µ-opioid receptor at selective doses of (−)-pentazocine
This study provides evidence that spinal MOR negatively modulates the KOR-mediated antinociceptive effect of i.t. pentazocine. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Fluorescence in-situ hybridization method reveals that carboxyl-terminal fragments of transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 truncated at the amino acid residue 218 reduce poly(A)+ RNA expression
Transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has emerged as an important contributor to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. To understand the association of TDP-43 with complex RNA processing in disease pathogenesis, we performed fluorescence in-situ hybridization using HeLa cells transfected with a series of deleted TDP-43 constructs and investigated the effect of truncation of TDP-43 on the expression of poly(A)+ RNA. Endogenous and overexpressed full-length TDP-43 localized to the perichromatin region and interchromatin space adjacent to poly(A)+ RNA. Deleted variants of TD...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Delayed treatment of propofol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia through the PI3K/PKB pathway
In this study, we aim to investigate whether delayed propofol treatment is protective against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory responses in microglial cells. Cultured BV2 microglial cells were exposed to propofol at various time points after initiation of LPS stimulation. Nitrite production and cell viability were assessed after stimulation with LPS for 24 h. The effect of propofol on mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was analyzed using reverse transcri...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutathione-mimetic D609 alleviates memory deficits and reduces amyloid-β deposition in an AβPP/PS1 transgenic mouse model
Excessive extracellular deposition of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Oxidative stress is associated with the onset and progression of AD and contributes to Aβ generation. Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) is a glutathione (GSH)-mimetic compound. Although the antioxidant properties of D609 have been well-studied, its potential therapeutic significance on AD remains unclear. In the present study, we used a mouse model of AD to investigate the effects and the mechanism of action of D609 on AD. We found that D609 treatment significantly impr...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sensorimotor cortex atrophy in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy
Previous studies have shown compensatory adaptive changes in cerebral functions before surgery in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), especially in the sensorimotor cortices. However, the structural changes in the sensorimotor cortices in patients with CSM remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric changes in the sensorimotor cortices using morphological MRI and to correlate these changes with clinical scales. We hypothesize that CSM causes atrophy in the sensorimotor cortices, which results in functional changes during CSM progression. The study participants included 30 C...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy in hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice
The β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is one of the major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Dysfunction in autophagy has been reported to lead to the Aβ deposition. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on autophagy activity and the Aβ deposition and to demonstrate whether exercise-induced reduction in the Aβ deposition was associated with changes in autophagy activity. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were divided into transgenic sedentary (TG-SED, n=12) and transgenic exercise (TG-EXE, n=12) groups. Wild-type mice were also divided into sedentary (WT-SED, n=12)...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

The dysfunction of processing emotional faces in schizophrenia revealed by expression-related visual mismatch negativity
To investigate the emotional face processing in patients with schizophrenia, the preattentive automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with schizophrenia was compared with that of age-matched healthy control group as indexed by the expressional mismatch negativity (EMMN) elicited by facial expressions. Compared with neutral faces as standard stimuli, deviant emotional faces elicited posterior EMMN between 150 and 500 ms after stimuli onset, with larger amplitudes for sad than happy deviant faces. Both early and late EMMNs significantly decreased in the schizophrenia group, regardless of sad or happy EM...
Source: NeuroReport - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research