The connectivity between the olfactory and auditory cortex predicts an individual’s sleep quality
Sleep disorders and multiple sensory impairments have been noticed as the potential first sign of neurodegenerative diseases such as the Parkinson disease. The relationship between sleep quality and the sensory neural basis would help us consider their combination in early diagnosis. In the present study, 32 out of 45 healthy subjects’ resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data survived from motion correction and entered into the connectivity analysis. We found that the connectivity between two regions of interest (the left olfactory gyrus and the left superior temporal pole) and the regional homogeneit...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Auditory cortex supports verbal working memory capacity
Working memory (WM) is a fundamental construct of human cognition. The neural basis of auditory WM is thought to reflect a distributed brain network consisting of canonical memory and central executive brain regions including frontal lobe and hippocampus. Yet, the role of auditory (sensory) cortex in supporting active memory representations remains controversial. Here, we recorded neuroelectric activity via electroencephalogram as listeners actively performed an auditory version of the Sternberg memory task. Memory load was taxed by parametrically manipulating the number of auditory tokens (letter sounds) held in memory. S...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

MPTP toxicity causes vocal, auditory, orientation and movement defects in the echolocation bat
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can damage dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in many mammals with biochemical and cellular changes that are relatively similar to those observed in Parkinson’s disease. Our study examined whether MPTP-treated echolocation bats can cause changes in bat echolocation system. By considering ultrasound spectrums, auditory brainstem-evoked potentials and flight trajectories of normal bats, we observed that the vocal, auditory, orientation and movement functions of MPTP-treated bats were significantly impaired, and they exhibited various symptoms resembling thos...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Sesamol alleviates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced cognitive deficits via inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in rats
This study aimed to explore whether sesamol can improve CIH-induced cognitive impairment and its relative mechanism in the model rats with OSA. Rats were exposed to CIH for 8 h a day for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks separately and concurrently were treated with sesamol (20 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal). The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate their learning and memory function. The activity of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the level of malondialdehyde were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress in the hippocampus of the rats. The levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inte...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Induced brain magnetic activities related to salient birdsong under noisy conditions
Conclusion These results indicate that frontal alpha activity is related to the salience of birdsong and that parietal gamma activity is related to differences in salience across noisy environments. These results suggest that salient birdsong under a noisy environment activates the bottom-up attention network. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Glutamate-induced modulation in energy metabolism contributes to protection of rat cortical slices against ischemia-induced damage
Conclusion These results indicate that glutamate probably increases alpha-ketoglutarate production as an alternative energy source for use in the TCA cycle under energy-depleted conditions. Thus, increasing the alpha-ketoglutarate production may represent a new therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative disorders, including cerebral ischemia. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Test of robustness of pharyngeal neural networks in Caenorhabditis elegans
The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is a model for deciphering the neural circuitry that transmits information from sensory organ to muscle tissue. It is also studied for disentangling the characteristics of the network, the efficiency of its design, and for testing theoretical models on how information is encoded. For this study, the efficiency of the synaptic connections was studied by testing the robustness of the neural network. A randomization test of robustness was applied to previously computed neural modules of the pharynx of C. elegans. The results support robustness as a reason for the observed over connecti...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Upregulation of silent information regulator 1 alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in a rat model of chronic migraine
Although the mechanism of chronic migraine is still unclear, more and more studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a possible role in migraine pathophysiology. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) plays a vital role in mitochondrial dysfunction in many diseases. However, there is no research on the role of SIRT1 in mitochondrial dysfunction of chronic migraine. The aim of this study was to explore the role of SIRT1 in mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic migraine. A rat model was established through repeated dural infusions of inflammatory soup for 7 days to simulate chronic migraine attacks. Cutan...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Upregulating miR-130a-5p relieves astrocyte over activation-induced neuropathic pain through targeting C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 12/C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 axis
Conclusion MiR-130a-5p inactivated astrocytes by targeting CXCL12/CXCR4, thus alleviating SCI-induced neuropathic pain. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tyrosinase deficiency increases protein carbonyl content in substantia nigra of mice administered retinol palmitate
Tyrosinase is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of melanin pigments in peripheral tissues such as skin and retina. Although tyrosinase activity is specifically detected in melanocytes, several studies have shown the expression and enzymatic activity of tyrosinase in the central nervous system, especially in the midbrain substantia nigra. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of tyrosinase on protein damage in the substantia nigra of mice. C57BL/10JMsHir (B10) and tyrosinase-deficient albino B10.C-Tyrc/Hir (B10-c) mice were intraperitoneally administered retinol palmitate to induce oxidative stress...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nuclear heme oxygenase-1 improved the hypoxia-mediated dysfunction of blood-spinal cord barrier via the miR-181c-5p/SOX5 signaling pathway
Our previous study demonstrated that adenovirus-delivered GFP nuclear heme oxygenase-1 (nuclear HO-1, NHO-1) fragments lacking 23 amino acids at the C-terminus (Ad-GFP-HO-1C[INCREMENT]23) showed the potential therapeutic effects mediated by its improvement of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) integrity. However, the NHO-1-mediated molecular mechanism in regulating the BSCB function remains unclear. The BSCB model in vitro was established via a coculture of primary rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) and spinal cord astrocytes on transwell system. NHO-1 markedly reduced the disruption of the BSCB integrity...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

MicroRNA-522-3p plays an oncogenic role in glioblastoma through activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway via targeting SFRP2
Conclusion MiR-522-3p is an oncogene in glioblastoma by targeting SFRP2 through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Isoflurane decreases substantia gelatinosa neuron excitability and synaptic transmission from periphery in the rat spinal dorsal horn
Isoflurane is an inhaled anesthetic, though its actions at the cellular level remain controversial. By using acute spinal cord slices from adult rats and the whole-cell recording technique, we found that aqueous isoflurane at the minimum alveolar concentration decreased postsynaptic neural excitability and enhanced membrane conductance, while suppressing glutamate release from presynaptic afferent onto substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) neurons in the dorsal horn. The data demonstrate that isoflurane modulates synaptic transmission from peripheral to the spinal cord via both pre- and postsynaptic effects and these actions m...
Source: NeuroReport - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examining state-dependent effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual search and executive function tasks
Conclusions This outcome does not provide direct support for state-dependency or activity-selectivity models of tDCS effects on cognitive outcomes. We discuss the possibility that behavioral patterns supporting these mechanistic models may only be found when the priming and outcome tasks share critical neurocognitive features. Overall, we found no evidence that offline (pretask) tDCS targeting the right parietal or left dorsolateral prefrontal induces reliable changes in visual search or inhibitory control behavior, and this pattern is not modulated by state-dependency induced by priming task-related activity. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tinnitus and auditory cortex: using adapted functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure resting-state functional connectivity
Conclusion While many areas for the adapted probes did not reach significance, these data using a highly innovative and newly created probe adapting fNIRS technology to the EAC substantiates our previously published data in human tinnitus and concurrently validates this technology as a useful and expanded brain imaging modality. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Systematic evaluation during early-phase ischemia predicts outcomes in middle cerebral artery occlusion mice
Identifying outcome predictors for ischemic stroke is beneficial for choosing correct intervention protocols. Thus, it is necessary to systemically evaluate histological outcome-associated changes such as hemodynamics, behavior, and body weight during the early phase of ischemia. Here, 50 mice were subjected to 45-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using Longa’s method. Hemodynamic changes were monitored by Doppler laser probe, and behaviors were evaluated by scales while the tissues were visualized by staining. The results by correlation analysis demonstrated that with a probe located near the posterior bou...
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

The effect of intracerebral structure volumes on idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Conclusion IIH arises from a chronic cause that does not impair the volumetric balance between structures inside the intracerebral cavity. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

MiR-124-3p alleviates the dezocine tolerance against pain by regulating TRAF6 in a rat model
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in drug tolerance and regulating pain. The purpose of the present study is to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-124-3p on dezocine tolerance against pain in a rat model. The expression of miR-124-3p and TRAF6 in spinal cord of rats was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and maximal potential efficiency % of rats were detected by PWL assay. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in spinal cord tissues of rats were measured by ELISA assay. The interaction between TRAF6 and miR-124-3p was predicted by TargetScan software (http://...
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Minocycline, but not doxycycline attenuates NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i and excitotoxicity
In this study, we determined whether minocycline and doxycycline could similarly protect neurons against excitotoxic insults. We treated cultured rat cortical neurons and cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) with excitotoxic concentrations of NMDA or glutamate in the presence or absence of minocycline or doxycycline. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was also measured using a Fluorescent Light Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR; Molecular Devices) with the calcium sensitive dye Fluo-3 AM. We found that minocycline and tetracycline markedly protected neurons against NMDA- and glutamate-induced neuronal death. In contrast, the...
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

The degeneration of upper and lower motor neuron from the perspective of clinical neurological examination and MRI-electromyography manifold detection in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Objective The aim of this study was to explore the upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN) degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from the perspective of the clinical neurological examination and MRI-electromyography manifold detection, respectively. Methods The clinical data, cortical thickness of corresponding areas in different body regions in MRI and electromyography data were collected from 108 classical ALS patients. Results The kappa value of UMN and LMN involvement signs in the bulbar region (0.31) was higher than that of the left upper limb (−0.13), right upper ...
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Isovaline efficacy in a rat pup model of infantile spasms
In conclusion, our data demonstrate a potential for isovaline to attenuate an aggressive form of epilepsy that typically requires highly toxic medications to treat in children. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lidocaine inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by modulating the circEZH2/miR-181b-5p pathway
Conclusion Lidocaine suppressed glioma progression by modulating the circEZH2/miR-181b-5p pathway. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Melatonin ameliorated CUMS-induced depression-like behavior via restoring endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat hippocampus
This study demonstrates that melatonin can improve depression-like behavior induced by CUMS, which may be related to the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and JNK phosphorylation in rat hippocampus. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - December 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 is involved in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced gonadotropin-releasing hormone decline
Previously, it has been demonstrated that aging is associated with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) decrease. The hypothalamus is one of the brain regions that are vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, it is unclear whether ischemia-reperfusion has an influence on the hypothalamic GnRH release. In the current study, GT1-7 cells, which are a cell line of hypothalamic GnRH neurons, were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation to mimic ischemia-reperfusion. The effect of hypoxia-reoxygenation on the hypothalamic GnRH release was investigated. It was fou...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Reduced structural covariance connectivity of defaut mode network and salience network in MRI-normal focal epilepsy
Neuroimaging studies have found altered functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) in patients with focal epilepsy (FE). However, the structural basis underlying the functional connectivity disturbance in the patients is still unclear. Sixteen MRI-normal FE and 22 healthy controls were included in the current study. The T1 structural image of each participant was obtained. Seed-based structural covariance connectivity was employed to investigate changes of structural covariance connectivity of DMN and SN in FE patients. We further evaluated gray matter volume changes of brain areas show...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Norepinephrine in the dentate gyrus is involved in spatial learning and memory alteration induced by chronic restraint stress in aged rats
The role of norepinephrine of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in spatial learning and memory alteration induced by chronic restraint stress (CRS, 3 h/day, 6 weeks) was investigated in aged rats. Spatial learning and memory were assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM), and the extracellular concentration of norepinephrine and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) were measured in the dentate gyrus during MWM test in freely-moving rats. Next, the involvement of β-adrenoceptors in spatial learning and memory of CRS rats was examined by microinjection of its antagonist (propranolol) into...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors modulate the binge-like feeding induced by µ-opioid receptor stimulation of the nucleus accumbens in the rat
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones affect food-directed motivation, in part, through actions on brain regions associated with reward processing. For instance, previous reports have shown that stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), an area that directs motivational processes towards food and drugs of abuse, has an anorectic effect. In contrast, µ-opioid receptor activation of the NAc increases feeding, particularly on highly palatable diets. While both neurotransmitters act within the NAc to impact food intake, it is not clear if and how they might interact to affect feed...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Protocatechuic acid attenuates brain edema and blood-brain barrier disruption after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice by promoting Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
The brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) plays a key role in the recovery process. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) has been proved possessing neuroprotection in ICH. Here we tried to explore its value in brain edema after ICH and reveal underlying mechanisms. ICH model was created in C57 mice using collagenase IV. PCA was injected intraperitoneally at 30 mg/kg every 24 h in PCA group. On day 3 after ICH, the water content of hemorrhagic ipsilateral hemisphere in PCA group was significantly reduced compared with vehicle group. AQP4, the main water channel, was remarkably decreased in PCA group. Additionally, ZO-1 ...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Effects of body weight-supported treadmill training at different speeds on the motor function and depressive behaviors after spinal cord injury in rats
In this study, fixed durations, frequencies, and percentages of BWSTT with different speeds of BWSTT (7, 15, and 21 cm/s) were chosen to explore the appropriate intensity, which affected the recovery of motor function and antidepressant effects on SCI rats. Based on our results, BWSTT at 21 cm/s produced the best outcomes for motor function recovery and the spinal cord levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB). The antidepressant effects of BWSTT at 15 and 21 cm/s were confirmed based on the increasing sucrose preference, the time spent in the central a...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of aromatic turmerone on activity deprivation-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons
This study reports a neuroprotective function for ar-turmerone, providing new insights into the potential therapeutic applications of ar-turmerone for neurological disorders. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated and single maternal separation specifically alter microglial morphology in the prefrontal cortex and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of 15-day-old male mice
Early-life adversity impairs neuronal plasticity of the developing brain. In rodents, brain maturation processes, including neuro- and synaptogenesis, myelination, microglial maturation, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis development continue in the postnatal period. In our study, two models of early-life stress were used: repeated maternal separation (MS) from postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND14 for 3 h daily and single maternal deprivation (MD) on PND9 for 24 h. Effects of each type of early-life stress on neuron density, neurogenesis, microglial morphology, and HPA axis programming were studied in 15-d...
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nicotine induces P2X4 receptor, interleukin-1 beta, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in BV2 microglia cells
Conclusion Nicotine may increase pain hypersensitivity by promoting the expression of P2X4R, BDNF, and IL-1β through modulation of IRF8 levels in microglial cells. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - November 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhanced functional connectivity between insular subregions correlates with the efficacy of music and instruction-guided relaxation in depression
Music and instruction-guided relaxation (MIGR) is a complementary therapeutic tool used in the treatment of the major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neural mechanism that underlies the effect of MIGR on MDD patients is not known. Twenty-three right-handed MDD patients and 23 age-, sex-, handedness-, and educational level-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from patients before and after MIGR and from healthy controls. The relationships between insular subregion-based functional connectivity and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

Propofol downregulates the activity of glutamatergic neurons in the basal forebrain via affecting intrinsic membrane properties and postsynaptic GABAARs
Propofol anesthesia rapidly causes loss of consciousness, while the neural mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unclear. Glutamatergic neurons in the basal forebrain play an important role in initiation and maintenance of wakefulness. Here, we selectively recorded the activity of glutamatergic neurons in vGlut-2-Cre mice. Propofol induced outward currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Bath application of propofol generated membrane hyperpolarization and suppressed the firing rates in these neurons. Propofol-induced stable outward currents persisted after blockade of the action potentials, implying a direct ...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

The relationship between perceptual priming and subsequent recognition memory: an event-related potential study
This study investigated the relationship between perceptual priming and subsequent recognition memory using conceptually impoverished kaleidoscope images as stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore the ERPs related to perceptual priming and their relationship with subsequent recognition memory. The results revealed that the early ERP perceptual priming effect between 100 and 300 ms, which might reflect perceptual fluency, was significant for both subsequent remembered and forgotten images. Both the latter ERP perceptual priming effects between 300–500 ms and 500–800 ms and the behaviora...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Gray matter changes in chronic heavy cannabis users: a voxel-level study using multivariate pattern analysis approach
Recent structural MRI studies on gray matter (GM) volumes using group-level mass-univariate statistical analysis suggest that chronic and heavy cannabis exposure may affect brain region-based morphology. In this prospective study, we use a multivariate pattern analysis approach to investigate the voxel-level change of GM densities in chronic heavy cannabis users. Principal component analysis and linear support vector machine are used in this study, resulting in an 88.1% separation between chronic heavy cannabis users (N = 20) and non-cannabis healthy controls (HCs, N = 22) through leave-one-out cross-validation. The model&...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

SNHG16 knockdown inhibits tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma in children via miR-15b-5p/PRPS1 axis
In conclusion, SNHG16 downregulation suppressed neuroblastoma tumorigenicity by regulating cell cycle, proliferation, and metastasis via miR-15b-5p/PRPS1 axis. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

BDNF and p-GSK3β in the hippocampus mediate the impairment of delay-based decision making in morphine-dependent rats
It has been shown that morphine addiction impairs cognitive brain functions. However, there is no document to consider the effect of morphine dependency and its withdrawal on cost-benefit decision making and its molecular pathways. The present study aimed to evaluate the influences of morphine dependency and its withdrawal on delay-based decision making and the BDNF, p-GSK3β, and p-CREB levels during the decision making in the hippocampus. Different groups of rats were trained in a T-maze with the delay-based cost-benefit decision-making paradigm. After that, the animals were dependent on morphine, and the percentage ...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nischarin downregulation attenuates cell injury induced by oxidative stress via Wnt signaling
Nischarin (NISCH) is a key protein functioning as a molecular scaffold and thereby hosting interactions with several protein partners. Here, we aimed to investigate whether NISCH downregulation could protect rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells against oxidative stress-induced injury using a model of cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell apoptosis rate was evaluated using flow cytometry. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and NISCH were examined via Western blot analysis and i...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells treated by cisplatin by targeting miR-326 through Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway
Neuroblastoma is a common malignancy and frequently affects children, leading to a low survival rate. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are reported to be closely related to cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to explore a novel mechanism of lncRNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in neuroblastoma. NEAT1 was upregulated in neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32 and SK-N-SH). Overexpression of NEAT1 increased proliferation inhibited by cisplatin and decreased apoptosis promoted by cisplatin. MicroRNA-326 (miR-326) was a target of NEAT1 and miR-326 reintroduction abolished the effects of NEAT1 overexpression...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

MiR-34a regulates Schwann cell proliferation and migration by targeting CNTN2
The proliferation and migration of Schwann cells contribute to axonal outgrowth and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Previously, several microRNAs were abnormally expressed after peripheral nerve injury and they played important roles in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the role and underlying mechanism of miR-34a in peripheral nerve injury remain largely unknown. The levels of miR-34a and contactin-2 (CNTN2) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide and transwell assays were used to examine cell proliferation and migration, respectiv...
Source: NeuroReport - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute damage to the blood–brain barrier and perineuronal net integrity in a clinically-relevant rat model of traumatic brain injury
Closed-head, frontal impacts in which the brain undergoes both lateral and rotational acceleration comprise the majority of human traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we utilize a clinically relevant model to examine the effects of a single concussion on aspects of brain integrity: the blood–brain barrier, the perineuronal nets (PNNs), and diffuse axonal injury. Adult, male Sprague–Dawley rats received either a frontal, closed-head concussive TBI, or no injury and were evaluated at 1- or 7-day post-injury. Using immunolabeling for albumin, we observed a significant increase in the permeability of the blood&ndash...
Source: NeuroReport - October 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism affects cortical thickness of rostral anterior cingulate in patients with major depressive disorder
Conclusion Our findings suggested that the BDNF gene polymorphism was associated with cortical thickness alterations of the left rACC in MDD patients, and genotype that carries Met may serve as a vulnerability factor in MDD regarding the cortical thickness loss in the left rACC. This finding can be considered as a supportive evidence for the neurotrophic factor hypothesis of depression. (Source: NeuroReport)
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research

The influence of the cross-modal emotional pre-preparation effect on audiovisual integration
Previous studies have shown that the cross-modal pre-preparation effect is an important factor for audiovisual integration. However, the facilitating influence of the pre-preparation effect on the integration of emotional cues remains unclear. Therefore, this study examined the emotional pre-preparation effect during the multistage process of audiovisual integration. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a synchronous or asynchronous integration task with fearful or neutral stimuli. The results indicated that, compared with the sum of the unisensory presentation of visual (V) and audito...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Brief mindfulness training increased glutamate metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex
Mindfulness meditation has become a promising intervention for promoting health and well-being. Neuroimaging studies have shown its beneficial effects on brain functional activity, connectivity, and structures following months to years of practice. A series of randomized controlled trials indicated that one form of mindfulness meditation, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) induces brain functional and structural changes in brain regions related to self-control networks such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) after 2–10 h of practice. However, whether IBMT could change brain metabolism in the ACC rem...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Integrative Systems Source Type: research

Acute damage to the blood–brain barrier and perineuronal net integrity in a clinically-relevant of rat model traumatic brain
Closed-head, frontal impacts in which the brain undergoes both lateral and rotational acceleration comprise the majority of human traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we utilize a clinically relevant model to examine the effects of a single concussion on aspects of brain integrity: the blood–brain barrier, the perineuronal nets (PNNs), and diffuse axonal injury. Adult, male Sprague–Dawley rats received either a frontal, closed-head concussive TBI, or no injury and were evaluated at 1- or 7-day post-injury. Using immunolabeling for albumin, we observed a significant increase in the permeability of the blood&ndash...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Rodent models for intravascular ischemic cerebral infarction: a review of influencing factors and method optimization
Rodent models for cerebral infarction are useful for studying human focal ischemic cerebral infarction, by simulating etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. However, differences in the selection of anesthetic drugs, surgical methods and other factors may affect the extent to which preclinical models reflect the human condition. This review summarizes these factors. We searched pertinent literature from the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases, and reviewed differences in rodent strain, anesthesia method, sex, surgical method, timing of surgery, and factors influencing postoperative evaluation. In particular, circad...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

The small molecule inhibitor PR-619 protects retinal ganglion cells against glutamate excitotoxicity
This study was designed to investigate the role of PR-619 in regulating mitophagy of RGCs under glutamate excitotoxicity. Primary cultured RGCs were incubated with PR-619 or vehicle control in the excitotoxicity model of 100 µM glutamate treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by JC-1 assay. Cytotoxicity of RGCs was measured by LDH activity. Proteins levels of parkin, optineurin, LAMP1, Bax, Bcl-2 and the LC3-II/I ratio were analyzed by western blot. The distribution and morphology of mitochondria in RGCs was stained by MitoTracker and antibody against mitochondria membrane protein, and examined by c...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Degeneration and Repair Source Type: research

Fluoxetine attenuates prepulse inhibition deficit induced by neonatal administration of MK-801 in mice
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect and underlying neuroprotective mechanism of fluoxetine on the sensorimotor gating deficit, a schizophrenia-like behavior in a neurodevelopmental schizophrenic mouse model induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist. On postnatal day 7, mouse pups were treated with a total seven subcutaneous daily injections of MK-801 (1 mg/kg/day), followed by intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (5 or 10 mg/kg/day) starting on postnatal day 14 in the MK-801-injected mice for 4 weeks. The sensorimotor gating deficit in mice wa...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peripheral vascular endothelial growth factor changes after transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment-resistant depression
Objectives To determine if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) changes with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Serum from a naturalistic population of 15 patients with MDD was collected at baseline and after standard TMS treatment. VEGF concentration was determined via ELISA. Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self Report and Patient Health Questionnaire were used as a measure of depression symptom severity, clinical response and remission. Mann–Whitney U and Kendall’s Tau Correlation were used for continuous variables. Results...
Source: NeuroReport - October 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research