Quantitative Knee Arthrography in a Large Animal Model of Osteoarthritis Using Photon-Counting Detector CT
Objective The aim of this study was to grade cartilage damage in a swine model of osteoarthritis using a whole-body photon-counting detector (PCD) CT. Materials and Methods A multienergy phantom containing gadolinium (Gd) (2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL) and hydroxyapatite (200 and 400 mg/cc) was scanned using a PCD-CT system (48 × 0.25 mm collimation, 80 kV, 800 mAs, D50 reconstruction kernel) to serve as calibration for material decomposition and to assess quantification accuracy. Osteoarthritis was induced in Yucatan miniswine (n = 8) using 1.2 mg monoiodoacetate (MIA) injected into a randomized knee, whereas the contralat...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Double Low-Dose Dual-Energy Liver CT in Patients at High-Risk of HCC: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Center Study
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of the simultaneous reduction of radiation and contrast doses using spectral computed tomography (CT) in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods Between May 2017 and March 2018, this prospective study recruited participants at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma with body mass indexes less than 30 and randomly assigned them to either the standard-dose group or the double low-dose group, which targeted 30% reductions in both radiation and contrast media (NCT03045445). Lesion conspicuity as a primary endpoint and ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Clinical and High-Resolution CT Features of the COVID-19 Infection: Comparison of the Initial and Follow-up Changes
Objectives In late December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China was caused by a novel coronavirus, newly named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to quantify the severity of COVID-19 infection on high-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) and to determine its relationship with clinical parameters. Materials and Methods From January 11, 2020, to February 5, 2020, the clinical, laboratory, and high-resolution CT features of 42 patients (26–75 years, 25 males) with COVID-19 were analyzed. The initial and follow-up CT, obtained a mean of 4.5 days and 11.6 days f...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Clinical and Chest CT Features Associated With Severe and Critical COVID-19 Pneumonia
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and computed tomography (CT) features associated with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Materials and Methods Eighty-three patients with COVID-19 pneumonia including 25 severe/critical cases and 58 ordinary cases were enrolled. The chest CT images and clinical data of them were reviewed and compared. The risk factors associated with disease severity were analyzed. Results Compared with the ordinary patients, the severe/critical patients had older ages, higher incidence of comorbidities, cough, expectoration, chest pain,...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Image Domain Transfer by Deep Learning is Feasible in Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Practice
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Deep-Learning Generated Synthetic Double Inversion Recovery Images Improve Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Detection
Objectives The aim of the study was to implement a deep-learning tool to produce synthetic double inversion recovery (synthDIR) images and compare their diagnostic performance to conventional sequences in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods For this retrospective analysis, 100 MS patients (65 female, 37 [22–68] years) were randomly selected from a prospective observational cohort between 2014 and 2016. In a subset of 50 patients, an artificial neural network (DiamondGAN) was trained to generate a synthetic DIR (synthDIR) from standard acquisitions (T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion reco...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Temperature-Sensitive Frozen-Tissue Imaging for Cryoablation Monitoring Using STIR-UTE MRI
Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a method to delineate the lethally frozen-tissue region (temperature less than −40°C) arising from interventional cryoablation procedures using a short tau inversion-recovery ultrashort echo-time (STIR-UTE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence. This method could serve as an intraprocedural validation of the completion of tumor ablation, reducing the number of local recurrences after cryoablation procedures. Materials and Methods The method relies on the short T1 and T2* relaxation times of frozen soft tissue. Pointwise Encoding Time with Radial Acquisition, a 3-dimen...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

HLA-DRB1*15: 02 Is Associated With Iodinated Contrast Media–Related Anaphylaxis
Background The incidence of severe reaction induced by iodinated contrast media (ICM) has increased over the years with an increasing use of imaging modalities. Although ICM anaphylaxis is rare, it can be life-threatening, but currently, there is no biomarker that can identify individuals at risk of ICM anaphylaxis. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic susceptibility of ICM anaphylaxis. Methods Patients who had ICM anaphylaxis were enrolled in the study, and their blood samples were collected for genotyping of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and -DR. The results were compared with ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrafast Intracranial Vessel Imaging With Non-Cartesian Spiral 3-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 1.5 T: An In Vitro and Clinical Study in Healthy Volunteers
Conclusions Spiral-TOFs may deliver high-quality intracranial vessel imaging thus matching the performance of conventional parallel imaging–accelerated TOFs (such as the SENSE). Specifically, imaging can be performed at unprecedented scan times as short as 1:32 minutes per sequence (70.12% scan time reduction compared with SENSE). Optionally, spiral imaging may also be used to increase spatial resolution while maintaining the scan time of a Cartesian-based acquisition schema. The CNR was decreased in spiral-TOF images. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Advanced Diffusion-Weighted Abdominal Imaging: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of High and Ultra-High: b: -Values for Lesion Detection and Image Quality
Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen increasingly incorporates diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. Whereas DWI can substantially aid in detecting and characterizing suspicious findings, it remains unclear to what extent the use of ultra-high b-value DWI might further be of aid for the radiologist especially when using DWI sequences with advanced processing. The target of this study was therefore to compare high and ultra-high b-value DWI in abdominal MRI examinations. Methods This institutional review board–approved, prospective study included abdominal MRI examinations of 70 oncologi...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Performance of an Automated Workflow for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate: Comparison With a Manual Workflow
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an automated workflow for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate compared with a manual mpMRI workflow. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the local ethics committee. Two MR technicians scanned 2 healthy volunteers with a prototypical highly automated workflow (Siemens Healthineers GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) and with a manually adjusted scan protocol each. Thirty patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 68 ± 11 years; range, 41–93 years) with suspected prostate cancer underwent mpMRI on a 3 T M...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Time-Harmonic Elastography of the Pancreas: Reference Values and Clinical Feasibility
Objectives Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a very aggressive tumor with a very low 5-year survival rate of 8%. The aims of this study are to determine reference values and physiologic confounders in healthy pancreas and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound time-harmonic elastography (THE) in the detection of PDAC. Materials and Methods From March 2017 through May 2019, a total of 54 study participants with healthy pancreas (n = 33, CTR) or PDAC (n = 21) were prospectively enrolled. Repeatability of THE was tested in a CTR subgroup (n = 5) undergoing repeat measurement on 4 different days. Interob...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Feasibility of Abbreviated Magnetic Resonance With Breath-Hold 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography for Surveillance of Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm
Objectives To determine the clinical feasibility of abbreviated magnetic resonance image (MRI) using breath-hold 3-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (3D-MRCP) (aMRI-BH) for pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) surveillance. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 123 patients with 158 pancreatic IPMNs (pathologically proven [n = 73] and typical image feature with ≥2-year stability [n = 85]) who underwent conventional MRI (cMRI) consisting of contrast-enhanced pancreatobiliary MRI with conventional and BH-3D-MRCP were included. Two readers independently evaluated ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Chest CT Findings in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Its Relationship With Clinical Features
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate its relationship with clinical features. Materials and Methods Study sample consisted of 80 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 from January to February 2020. The chest CT images and clinical data were reviewed, and the relationship between them was analyzed. Results Totally, 80 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. With regards to the clinical manifestations, 58 (73%) of the 80 patients had cough, and 61 (76%) of the 80 patients had high...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Deep Learning Approach for Generating MRA Images From 3D Quantitative Synthetic MRI Without Additional Scans
Objectives Quantitative synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables synthesis of various contrast-weighted images as well as simultaneous quantification of T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density. However, to date, it has been challenging to generate magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images with synthetic MRI. The purpose of this study was to develop a deep learning algorithm to generate MRA images based on 3D synthetic MRI raw data. Materials and Methods Eleven healthy volunteers and 4 patients with intracranial aneurysms were included in this study. All participants underwent a time-of-flight (TOF) M...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Notes Source Type: research