Artificial Intelligence in Chest Radiography Reporting Accuracy: Added Clinical Value in the Emergency Unit Setting Without 24/7 Radiology Coverage
Conclusions Our AI system matched RRs' performance, meanwhile significantly outperformed NRRs' diagnostic accuracy for most of considered CXR pathologies (pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and lung lesions) and therefore might serve as clinical decision support for NRRs. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 16, 2022 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Influence of Contrast Material Temperature on Patient Comfort and Image Quality in Computed Tomography of the Abdomen: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions Not prewarming iodinated CM was found noninferior in abdominal CT imaging. Prewarming conferred no beneficial effect on image quality, safety, and comfort, and might therefore no longer be considered a prerequisite in state-of-the art injection protocols for parenchymal imaging. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 16, 2022 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Noninvasive Detection of Intracranial Hypertension by Novel Ultrasound Time-Harmonic Elastography
Objective A method for measuring intracranial pressure (ICP) noninvasively has long been sought after in neurology and neurosurgery. Treatment failure in individuals presenting with unspecific symptoms such as headache, gait disturbance, or visual impairment occurring in response to increased ICP can lead to irreversible brain injury, progressive disability, and death. Guidelines for diagnostic ICP measurement recommend intracranial placement of pressure tip catheters or lumbar puncture (LP) despite their invasiveness and possible complications. As ICP fluctuations are closely associated with changes in brain stiffness...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 16, 2022 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dynamic Serial Cytokine Measurements During Intravenous Ca-DTPA Chelation in Gadolinium Deposition Disease and Gadolinium Storage Condition: A Pilot Study
Conclusions This pilot study describes precise temporal resolution (in the range of minutes) after a cytokine-inciting event. Select cytokines exhibited peak values at different time points. At this preliminary stage of investigation, peak cytokine release seems to reflect the amount of Gd mobilized rather than the severity of the patient symptomatic reaction. Too few subjects were studied to support statistical analysis between GDD and GSC groups, although differences were observed through visual data analysis. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Preliminary Report Source Type: research

Transient Severe Motion Artifact on Arterial Phase in Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of transient severe motion artifact (TSM) on arterial phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver and to investigate the causes of heterogeneity in the published literature. Materials and Methods Original studies reporting the incidence of TSM were identified in searches of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The pooled incidence of TSM was calculated using random-effects meta-analysis of single proportions. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore causes of heterogeneity. Results A total of 24 studi...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Virtual Unenhanced Images: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison Between Different Dual-Energy CT Scanners in a Patient and Phantom Study
Objectives Materials and Methods Forty-four patients with clinical contrast-enhanced abdominal examinations on each of the 3 DECT scanner types and a phantom scanned with the same protocols were included in this retrospective study. Qualitative and quantitative assessment was performed on VUE images. Quantitative evaluation included measurement of attenuation and image noise for various tissues and the phantom. Virtual unenhanced image attenuation and noise were compared between scanner types, and intrapatient interscanner reproducibility of virtual unenhanced image attenuation was calculated as the percentage of m...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting in Neonates: Quantifying Regional Difference and Maturation in the Brain
Objectives Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) allows the simultaneous measurement of multiple tissue properties in a single acquisition. Three-dimensional (3D) MRF with high spatial resolution can be used for neonatal brain imaging. The aim of this study is to apply 3D MRF to neonates and show regional differences and maturation in the brain. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 3D MRF using hybrid radial-interleaved acquisition was performed on phantoms and neonates from December 2019 to October 2020. For the reconstruction of 3D MRF, singular value decomposition was applied to reduce reconstru...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Whole-body Composition Profiling Using a Deep Learning Algorithm: Influence of Different Acquisition Parameters on Algorithm Performance and Robustness
Conclusions Body composition profiling from wbMRI by using a deep learning–based convolutional neuronal network algorithm for automated segmentation of body compartments is generally possible. First results indicate that robust and reproducible segmentations equally accurate to a manual expert may be expected also for a range of different acquisition parameters. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Diagnostic Performance of 9 Quantitative Ultrasound Parameters for Detection and Classification of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters based on radiofrequency raw data show promise in quantifying liver fat. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 9 QUS parameters compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in detecting and staging hepatic steatosis in patients with or suspected of NAFLD. Materials and Methods In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant institutional review board...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring: Toward a New Standard
Conclusions On state-of-the-art CT systems of 4 different vendors, a 25% reduced dose, thin-slice calcium scoring protocol led to improved intrascanner and interscanner reproducibility and increased detectability of small and low-density calcifications in this phantom. The protocol should be extensively validated before clinical use, but it could potentially improve clinical interscanner/interinstitutional reproducibility and enable more consistent risk assessment and treatment strategies. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Clinical Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging According to Field Strength, Specifically Addressing the Breadth of Current State-of-the-Art Systems, Which Include 0.55 T, 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T
This review provides a balanced perspective regarding the clinical utility of magnetic resonance systems across the range of field strengths for which current state-of-the-art units exist (0.55 T, 1.5 T, 3 T, and 7 T). Guidance regarding this issue is critical to appropriate purchasing, usage, and further dissemination of this important imaging modality, both in the industrial world and in developing nations. The review serves to provide an important update, although to a large extent this information has never previously been openly presented. In that sense, it serves also as a position paper, with statements and recommen...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of Multidimensional Diffusion MRI for Assessment of Tissue Heterogeneity in Prostate Cancer
The objectives of this exploratory study were to investigate the feasibility of multidimensional diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MddMRI) in assessing diffusion heterogeneity at both a macroscopic and microscopic level in prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods Informed consent was obtained from 46 subjects who underwent 3.0-T prostate multiparametric MRI, complemented with a prototype spin echo–based MddMRI sequence in this institutional review board–approved study. Prostate cancer tumors and comparative normal tissue from each patient were contoured on both apparent diffusion coefficient and MddMRI-d...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Real-Time Deformability Cytometry Detects Leukocyte Stiffening After Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent Exposure
Objectives Reports on gadolinium (Gd) retention in soft tissues after administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) raise concerns about Gd-induced changes in the biophysical properties of cells and tissues. Here, we investigate if clinical GBCAs of both classes of linear and macrocyclic structure cause changes in the mechanical properties of leukocytes in human blood samples. Material and Methods Real-time deformability cytometry was applied to human blood samples from 6 donors. The samples were treated with 1 mM gadoteric acid (Dotarem), gadopentetic acid (Magnevist), gadobutrol (Gadovist), or Gd trichlor...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Safety and Gadolinium Distribution of the New High-Relaxivity Gadolinium Chelate Gadopiclenol in a Rat Model of Severe Renal Failure
Conclusions No evidence of biochemical toxicity or pathological abnormalities of the skin was observed, and similar to other macrocyclic GBCAs, gadoterate and gadobutrol, tissue retention of Gd was found to be low (except in the liver) in renally impaired rats treated with the new high-relaxivity GBCA gadopiclenol. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Discriminative Power and Stability of Radiomics Features With Computed Tomography Variations: Task-Based Analysis in an Anthropomorphic 3D-Printed CT Phantom
Conclusions The differences in radiomics feature values obtained from different types of liver tissue are generally greater than the intraclass differences resulting from CT parameter variations. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research