Measuring Dynamic CT Perfusion Based on Time-Resolved Quantitative DECT Iodine Maps: Comparison to Conventional Perfusion at 80 kVp for Pancreatic Carcinoma
Discussion Iodine enhancement images can be used to calculate CT perfusion maps of blood flow, and compared with 80 kVp images, results showed only a small difference of 1 mL/100 mL/min in blood flow in healthy tissue, whereas patient radiation exposure was increased for dynamic DECT. Perfusion maps calculated based on iodine-enhancement images showed lower blood flow in fatty tissues surrounding the pancreas, indicating reduced susceptibility to residual patient breathing motion during the acquisition. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Magnetization Transfer Imaging Is Unaffected by Decreases in Renal Perfusion in Swine
Conclusions Renal MTI is insensitive to decreases in renal perfusion and may offer reliable assessment of renal structural changes. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Time-Harmonic Elastography of the Aorta: Effect of Age and Hypertension on Aortic Stiffness
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate ultrasound time-harmonic elastography for quantifying aortic stiffness in vivo in the context of aging and arterial hypertension. Materials and Methods Seventy-four participants (50 healthy participants and 24 participants with long-standing hypertension) were prospectively included between January 2018 and October 2018, and underwent ultrasound time-harmonic elastography of the upper abdominal aorta. Compound maps of shear-wave speed (SWS) as a surrogate of tissue stiffness were generated from multifrequency wave fields covering the full field-of-view of B-mode ultr...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Multiparametric Quantitative MRI for the Detection of IgA Nephropathy Using Tomoelastography, DWI, and BOLD Imaging
Objectives The aim of this study was to noninvasively evaluate changes in renal stiffness, diffusion, and oxygenation in patients with chronic, advanced stage immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging using tomoelastography, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) imaging. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 32 subjects (16 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls) underwent multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography with tomoelastography postprocessing at 4 frequencies from 40 to 70 Hz to ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computed Tomography for 4-Dimensional Angiography and Perfusion Imaging of the Prostate for Embolization Planning of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computed tomography (CT) protocol enabling the visualization of the prostatic artery (PA) before prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in benign prostatic hyperplasia, which provides quantitative perfusion information of the prostate gland. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved study, 22 consecutive patients (mean age, 67 ± 7 years) who were planned to undergo PAE underwent a dynamic CT scan of the pelvis (scan range, 22.4 cm; cycle time, 1.5 seconds; scan time, 44 seconds; 25 scan cycles; 70 kVp; 100 mAs) after the admi...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Virtual Contrast Enhancement in Brain MRI Replace Gadolinium?: A Feasibility Study
Conclusions The introduced model for virtual gadolinium enhancement demonstrates a very good quantitative and qualitative performance. Future systematic studies in larger patient collectives with varying neurological disorders need to evaluate if the introduced virtual contrast enhancement might reduce GBCA exposure in clinical practice. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rectal Cancer Specimens Improve the Mesorectal Lymph Node Yield for Pathological Examination?
Conclusions Ex vivo MRI visualizes more LNs than (MR-guided) pathology is able to harvest. Current pathological examination was not further improved by MR guidance. The majority of LNs or LN-like structures visible on ex vivo MRI below 2 mm in size remain unexplained, which warrants a 3-dimensional approach for pathological reconstruction of specimens. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative Assessment of Bone Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Using Synthetic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (SyMRI) for characterizing bone lesions in prostate cancer and to discriminate viable progressive osteoblastic bone metastasis from nonviable bone metastases with treatment-induced sclerosis during the treatment course. Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved prospective study included 96 consecutive prostate cancer patients who underwent whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging at the time of staging at diagnosis or starting a new line of anticancer treatment. Add...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Changing Contrast Media in Patients With A Prior Mild Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of changing the contrast agent and single-dose premedication for HSR recurrence prevention in patients with a history of mild immediate HSR to GBCA. Materials and Methods The outcomes of patients with mild immediate HSR to GBCA who subsequently underwent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging between October 2012 and July 2017 were analyzed. The institutional CM monitoring system was retrospectively reviewed, and data on the application of premedication and choice of CM were obtained. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents were classified into 3 classes according ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Pulmonary Fibrosis Using Deep Learning and CT Images
Conclusions We found that a computer-aided detection algorithm based on machine learning was able to classify idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with similar accuracy to a human reader. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased Retention of Gadolinium in the Inflamed Brain After Repeated Administration of Gadopentetate Dimeglumine: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Mice Combining ICP-MS and Micro– and Nano–SR-XRF
Conclusions After repeated administrations of Gd-DTPA, ongoing inflammation may facilitate the retention of Gd in the brain tissue. Thus, neuroinflammation should be considered as a risk factor in the recommendation on use of linear GBCA-enhanced MRI. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Back to the Future: Lipiodol in Lymphography—From Diagnostics to Theranostics
Lipiodol is an iodinated poppy seed oil first synthesized in 1901. Originally developed for therapeutic purposes, it has mainly become a diagnostic contrast medium since the 1920s. At the end of the 20th century, Lipiodol underwent a transition back to a therapeutic agent, as exemplified by its increasing use in lymphangiography and lymphatic interventions. Nowadays, indications for lymphangiography include chylothorax, chylous ascites, chyluria, and peripheral lymphatic fistula or lymphoceles. In these indications, Lipiodol alone has a therapeutic effect with clinical success in 51% to 100% of cases. The 2 main access sit...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Acute Adverse Reactions to Nonionic Iodinated Contrast Media: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusions The varying pooled incidences of overall and severe AARs to specific types of nonionic ICM do not remain as significant after adjusting confounders. Our results may support nonrestriction of certain types of nonionic ICM in the context of AAR avoidance. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Prophylaxis in High-Risk Patients With eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2: Get the Balance Right
Conclusions Based on this study, no standard recommendation with regard to giving or withholding prophylaxis can be given. Prophylactic fluids may confer some protection against postcontrast renal adverse events but may also contribute toward increased risk of short-term death. In this setting, benefits and risks of prophylaxis must be carefully weighed and cardiac parameters assessed for each individual patient. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computed Tomography Cholangiography Using the Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Gadoxetate Disodium: A Phantom Study
Objective The purpose of this work is to determine whether low doses of gadoxetate disodium (Eovist; Bayer Healthcare LLC, Whippany, NJ), a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for magnetic resonance liver imaging, can be visualized for computed tomography (CT) cholangiography using a phantom setup. Materials and Methods Vials containing 4 concentrations of gadoxetate disodium (1.9, 3.4, 4.8, and 9.6 mg Gd/mL) were placed in a 35 × 26-cm2 water phantom and imaged on 2 CT scanners: Siemens Somatom Flash and Force (Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). These concentrations correspond to the estimated concentration in...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research