A Practical Guide to Artificial Intelligence–Based Image Analysis in Radiology
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is a powerful tool for image analysis that is increasingly being evaluated by radiology professionals. However, due to the fact that these methods have been developed for the analysis of nonmedical image data and data structure in radiology departments is not “AI ready”, implementing AI in radiology is not straightforward. The purpose of this review is to guide the reader through the pipeline of an AI project for automated image analysis in radiology and thereby encourage its implementation in radiology departments. At the same time, this review aims to enable readers to critical...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Physicochemical and Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Gadopiclenol: A New Macrocyclic Gadolinium Chelate With High T1 Relaxivity: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Contrast Media Research 2019 “Ettore Majorana” Foundation and International Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice, Sicily, Italy, November 10–15, 2019 Conveners: Carlo C. Quattrocchi, MD, PhD and Silvio Aime, PhD
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Image Artifact Management for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging on a 7 T Scanner Using Single-Channel Radiofrequency Transmit Mode
Conclusions Challenges relating to severe image artifacts at 7 T using single-channel radiofrequency transmit functionality in the knee and brain were overcome using the approaches described in this article. The resultant high diagnostic image quality paves the way for incorporation of this technology into the routine clinical workflow. Further developmental efforts are required to expand the range of applications to other anatomical areas, and to expand the evidence- and knowledge-base relating to the safety of scanning patients with implanted metallic devices. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Report Source Type: research

Low-Radiation-Dose Stress Myocardial Perfusion Measurement Using First-Pass Analysis Dynamic Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Investigation in a Swine Model
Conclusions Accurate low-radiation-dose global stress perfusion measurement is feasible using a prospective FPA dynamic CT perfusion technique. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Breast Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T in Biopsy-Proven Breast Cancers: Does Choline Peak Correlate With Prognostic Factors?
Objectives The role of functional techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), as noninvasive tools to increase breast MR imaging reliability has been widely investigated during the last 2 decades. Considering the growing interest in tumor biology and its influence on functional parameters, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 1H-MRS parameters and breast cancer biomarkers and to evaluate whether the results of 1H-MRS at 3 T can correlate with established breast cancer prognostic factors in our clinical experience. Materials and Methods One hundred two patients with biopsy...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Radial Gradient-Echo Sequences With Nonlinear Inverse Reconstruction
Conclusions Real-time gradient-echo MRI with extreme radial undersampling and nonlinear inverse reconstruction allows for direct monitoring of arbitrary physiological processes and body functions. In many cases, pertinent applications offer hitherto impossible clinical studies (eg, of high-resolution swallowing dynamics) or bear the potential to replace existing MRI procedures (eg, electrocardiogram-gated cardiac examinations). As a consequence, many novel opportunities will require a change of paradigm in MRI-based radiology. At this stage, extended clinical trials are needed. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Free-Breathing Fast Low-Angle Shot Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Improved Detection of Vascular Stenoses in the Pelvis and Abdomen: Technical Development
Objectives Balanced steady-state free precession-based quiescent-interval slice-selective (bSSFP QISS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is accurate for the noncontrast evaluation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD); however, drawbacks include the need for breath-holding when imaging the abdomen and pelvis, and sensitivity to off-resonance artifacts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy in the pelvis and abdomen of free-breathing fast low-angle shot-based QISS (FLASH QISS) techniques in comparison to bSSFP QISS in patients with PAD, using computed tomographic angiography...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Improved Liver Diffusion-Weighted Imaging at 3 T Using Respiratory Triggering in Combination With Simultaneous Multislice Acceleration
Objectives The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare optimized respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging with simultaneous multislice acceleration (SMS-RT-DWI) of the liver with a standard free-breathing echo-planar DWI (s-DWI) protocol at 3 T with respect to the imaging artifacts inherent to DWI. Materials and Methods Fifty-two patients who underwent a magnetic resonance imaging study of the liver were included in this retrospective study. Examinations were performed on a 3 T whole-body magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Skyra; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). In all patients, both s-DWI and...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Hepatic Perfusion Using GRASP MRI: Bringing Liver MRI on a New Level
Conclusions Dynamic contrast-enhanced GRASP MRI allows for a reliable and robust assessment of hepatic perfusion parameters providing quantitative results comparable to VPCT and enables characterization of HCC before and after TACE, thus posing the potential to serve as an alternative to VPCT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Free-Breathing Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging of the Upper Abdomen Using a Cartesian Compressed-Sensing Sequence With Hard-Gated and Motion-State-Resolved Reconstruction
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare a compressed-sensing free-breathing VIBE (fbVIBE) with a conventional breath-hold VIBE (bhVIBE) for dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging of the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods In total, 70 datasets (bhVIBE, n = 30; fbVIBE n = 40; hard-gated [hg] reconstruction, n = 30; motion-state-resolved [mr] reconstruction, n = 10) were assessed by 2 experienced readers. Both sequences were performed on 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanners. The prototypical fbVIBE sequence acquired a navigation signal along with the imaging data and supported 2 different reconstructions: an hg...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Transcranial Shear Wave Elastography of Neonatal and Infant Brains for Quantitative Evaluation of Increased Intracranial Pressure
Objectives Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in neonates and infants is a severe disease state that requires adequate diagnosis and, depending on the clinical situation and whether it is increasing, a rapid and efficient therapy. Clinical evaluation, B-mode ultrasound, and Doppler ultrasound give rise to a basic noninvasive diagnosis of increased ICP. The purpose of this prospective study was 2-fold: first, to analyze the technical feasibility of obtaining shear wave elastography (SWE) measurements of an infant's brain, and second, to compare the values of healthy neonates to those who have hydrocephalus and are eith...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Three Tesla 3D High-Resolution Vessel Wall MRI of the Orbit may Differentiate Arteritic From Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Background Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is the most common cause of acute optic neuropathy in older patients. Distinguishing between arteritic AION (A-AION) and nonarteritic (NA-AION) is paramount for improved patient management. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional high-resolution vessel wall (HR-VW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T to discriminate A-AION from NA-AION. Materials and Methods This prospective single-center study was approved by a national research ethics board and included 27 patients (17 A-AION and 10 NA-AION) with 36 AIONs from December 2014 to August 201...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Modulating Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Screening in Oncologic Tertiary Prevention: A Prospective Ex Vivo and In Vivo Study
This study aims at prospectively evaluating an adapted DWI sequence ex vivo and in vivo in oncologic patients undergoing abdominal MRI. Methods This institutional review board–approved, prospective study included phantom measurements, volunteer examinations, and oncologic patient examinations of the abdomen. Fifty-seven MRI examinations in 54 patients (mean age, 58 years; range, 21–90 years) were included into the analysis. The MRI examination were performed at a 1.5 T MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Aera; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and included both a standard EPI-DWI (s-DWI; b = 50, 900 s/mm2) and an adapted DWI...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Tumor Contrast Enhancement and Whole-Body Elimination of the Manganese-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Mn-PyC3A
Objectives The goals of this study were to compare the efficacy of the new manganese-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Mn-PyC3A to the commercial gadolinium-based agents Gd-DOTA and to Gd-EOB-DTPA to detect tumors in murine models of breast cancer and metastatic liver disease, respectively, and to quantify the fractional excretion and elimination of Mn-PyC3A in rats. Methods T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI with 0.1 mmol/kg Mn-PyC3A was compared with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA in a breast cancer mouse model (n = 8) and to 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-EOB-DTPA in a liver metastasis mouse model (n = 6). The fractional...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research