Compressed Sensing and Parallel Imaging for Double Hepatic Arterial Phase Acquisition in Gadoxetate-Enhanced Dynamic Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of a combined compressed sensing and parallel imaging (C-SENSE) technique for single breath-hold, double arterial phase (AP) examinations in gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed single breath-hold, double AP images obtained by using a C-SENSE technique for gadoxetate-enhanced dynamic liver MRI in a total of 127 patients (89 men and 38 women; mean age, 62.6 ± 7.5 [range, 29–87] years). For qualitative analysis, 3 readers independently scored the timing of the AP im...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Novel Method for Segmentation-Based Semiautomatic Quantitative Evaluation of Metal Artifact Reduction Algorithms
Objectives The aim of this study was to establish an objective segmentation-based evaluation of metal artifact reduction algorithms in the context of percutaneous microwave ablation in a porcine model. Materials and Methods Five computed tomography acquisitions from a previous animal study on computed tomography–guided percutaneous applicator positioning for microwave antenna were reconstructed with 6 different algorithms (30 image series total): standard filtered backprojection (B30f) and iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE-I30–1, ADMIRE-I30–3), all with and without metal artifact reduction. For artifa...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Automated Detection and Segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Using Ultra–High-Field MP2RAGE
Conclusions We propose a new methodology to facilitate the segmentation of WM and cortical MS lesions at 7 T MRI, our approach uses a single MP2RAGE scan and may be of special interest to clinicians and researchers. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrashort Time to Echo Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition in Human Menisci
Objectives In human menisci, we aimed to investigate whether calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) affects biomechanical and quantitative MR properties, and their zonal distribution. Materials and Methods From 9 cadaveric knees, sectioned triangular meniscus pieces were harvested. Samples were classified into “normal” or “CPPD” groups based upon visual inspection. Micro computed tomography scan verified CPPD. Using magnetic resonance imaging, ultrashort echo time (UTE) T2* and spin echo (SE) T2, quantitative values in 3 zones (red, red-white, and white) were determined. Using biomecha...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Impact of Echo Time Shifts and Temporal Signal Fluctuations on BOLD Sensitivity in Presurgical Planning at 7 T
Conclusions Criterion standard BOLD sensitivity estimation using hypercapnic experiments is challenging, especially in patient populations. Taking into consideration the tSNR, commonly used for BOLD sensitivity estimation, but ignoring local reductions in the echo time (eg, from 22 to 11 milliseconds), would erroneously suggest functional sensitivity sufficient to map BOLD signal changes. It is therefore important to consider both local variations in the echo time and temporal variations in signal, using the product metric of these two indices for instance. This should ensure a reliable estimation of BOLD sensitivity and...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Instant Outcome Evaluation of Microwave Ablation With Subtraction CT in an In Vivo Porcine Model
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether the accuracy of multislice contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MS-CECT) may be improved by performing additional subtraction CT. Materials and Methods Thirty-five microwave ablations were performed under CT guidance in 12 healthy and anesthetized pigs. Preablation and postablation MS-CECT scans were obtained in arterial and venous contrast phases. These scans were reconstructed and subtracted from each other. Lesion size was measured in a region of interest drawn around the ablation area. Computed tomography measurements were compared with standardized mac...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence–Based Classification of Breast Lesions Imaged With a Multiparametric Breast MRI Protocol With Ultrafast DCE-MRI, T2, and DWI
Conclusions Use of adjunct imaging and PI has a significant contribution in diagnostic performance of ultrafast breast MRI. The developed AI system for interpretation of multiparametric ultrafast breast MRI may improve specificity. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Acceleration of Double Inversion Recovery Sequences in Multiple Sclerosis With Compressed Sensing
Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences accelerated by compressed sensing (CS) in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods We included 106 patients with MS (62 female [58%]; mean age, 44.9 ± 11.0 years) in this prospective study. In addition to a full magnetic resonance imaging protocol including a conventional SENSE accelerated DIR, we acquired a CS DIR (time reduction, 51%). We generated subtraction maps between the two DIR sequences to visualize focal intensity differences. Two neuroradiologists independently assessed these maps for intensit...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Negligible Risk of Acute Renal Failure Among Hospitalized Patients After Contrast-Enhanced Imaging With Iodinated Versus Gadolinium-Based Agents
Conclusions With the current precautions undertaken, the real-life risk of PC-AKI among inpatients undergoing CT is insignificant. Possible reasons for the diverse impact of blood pressure on the propensity to develop acute kidney failure after iodine-based but not gadolinium-based enhancement imaging are discussed. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Longitudinal Visualization of Viable Cancer Cell Intratumoral Distribution in Mouse Models Using Oatp1a1-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives Multimodality reporter gene imaging provides valuable, noninvasive information on the fate of engineered cell populations. To complement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of tumor volume and 2-dimensional reporter-based optical measures of cell viability, reporter-based MRI may offer 3-dimensional information on the distribution of viable cancer cells in deep tissues. Materials and Methods Here, we engineered human and murine triple-negative breast cancer cells with lentivirus encoding tdTomato and firefly luciferase for fluorescence imaging and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). A subset of these cells...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Iodinated Contrast Agents and Risk of Hypothyroidism in Young Children in the United States
This study included 2320 pediatric patients younger than 4 years of age who had a diagnostic procedure with an iodinated contrast agent during years 2008 to 2016. Results Among 2320 young children who met our study criteria, we identified 34 who met the initial criteria to be a case of hypothyroidism. The incidence density ratio for all hypothyroidism in iodine contrast agent–exposed patients was 1.33 per 1000 person months (95% confidence interval, 0.9–1.8). Most cases appeared to have subclinical hypothyroidism. The rate was higher for the probably iodine-induced cases (0.90 per 1000 person months) compare...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Matching and Homogenizing Convolution Kernels for Quantitative Studies in Computed Tomography
The sharpness of the kernels used for image reconstruction in computed tomography affects the values of the quantitative image features. We sought to identify the kernels that produce similar feature values to enable a more effective comparison of images produced using scanners from different manufactures. We also investigated a new image filter designed to change the kernel-related component of the frequency spectrum of a postreconstruction image from that of the initial kernel to that of a preferred kernel. A radiomics texture phantom was imaged using scanners from GE, Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba. Images were reconstru...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Futile Recanalization With Poor Clinical Outcome Is Associated With Increased Edema Volume After Ischemic Stroke
Conclusions Elevated EV after endovascular thrombectomy was associated with poor clinical outcome and may indicate futile recanalization. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Low-Dose Perfusion Computed Tomography for Breast Cancer to Quantify Tumor Vascularity: Correlation With Prognostic Biomarkers
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using low-dose perfusion computed tomography (CT) in breast cancers for quantification of tumor vascularity and to correlate perfusion indexes with prognostic biomarkers. Materials and Methods This preliminary study was approved by our institutional review board. Signed informed consent was obtained from all 70 enrolled patients with invasive breast cancers. Low-dose perfusion CT was performed with the patient in the prone position using a spectral CT device set at 80 kVp and 30 mAs (1.30–1.40 mSv). Images were analyzed using commercial softw...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Automatic Tube Current Modulation and Tube Voltage Selection in Pediatric Computed Tomography: A Phantom Study on Radiation Dose and Image Quality
Conclusions In pediatric CT, the use of ATCM significantly reduces radiation dose and maintains image noise. The additional use of ATVS reduces further the radiation dose for thorax and abdomen/pelvis, and maintains contrast-to-noise ratio for the specified clinical diagnostic task. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative Multiparametric Breast Ultrasound: Application of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Elastography Leads to an Improved Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Lesions
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate breast multiparametric ultrasound (mpUS) and its potential to reduce unnecessary breast biopsies with 1, 2, or 3 additional quantitative parameters (Doppler, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound [CEUS]) to B-mode and investigate possible variations with different reader experience. Materials and Methods This prospective study included 124 women (age range, 18–82 years; mean, 52 years), each with 1 new breast lesion, scheduled for ultrasound-guided biopsy between October 2015 and September 2016. Each lesion was examined with B-mode, elastography (Virtual ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Rapid Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain Without Susceptibility Artifacts: Single-Shot STEAM With Radial Undersampling and Iterative Reconstruction: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

7 T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis: How Does Spatial Resolution Affect the Detectability of Metabolic Changes in Brain Lesions?
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the utility of increased spatial resolution of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 T for the detection of neurochemical changes in multiple sclerosis (MS)–related brain lesions. Materials and Methods This prospective, institutional review board–approved study was performed in 20 relapsing-remitting MS patients (9 women/11 men; mean age ± standard deviation, 30.8 ± 7.7 years) after receiving written informed consent. Metabolic patterns in MS lesions were compared at 3 different spatial resolutions of free induction decay MRSI with...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Accelerated Segmented Diffusion-Weighted Prostate Imaging for Higher Resolution, Higher Geometric Fidelity, and Multi-b Perfusion Estimation
Conclusions The proposed accelerated segmented prostate diffusion imaging sequence achieved improvements in both spatial resolution and geometric fidelity, along with concurrent quantification of IVIM perfusion. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Glymphatic Pathway of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Through the Brain: Overlooked and Misinterpreted
Background The “glymphatic system” (GS), a brain-wide network of cerebrospinal fluid microcirculation, supplies a pathway through and out of the central nervous system (CNS); malfunction of the system is implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. In this exploratory study, we analyzed the potential of a new imaging approach that we coined delayed T2-weighted gadolinium-enhanced imaging to visualize the GS in vivo. Methods Heavily T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (hT2w-FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging was obtained before, and 3 hours and 24 hours after intravenous gadolinium-based co...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Robustness and Reproducibility of Radiomics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Phantom Study
Conclusions FLAIR delivers the most robust substrate for radiomic analyses. Only 15 of 45 features showed excellent robustness and reproducibility across all sequences. Care must be taken in the interpretation of clinical studies using nonrobust features. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

T1- and T2*-Mapping for Assessment of Tendon Tissue Biophysical Properties: A Phantom MRI Study
Objectives The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess changes in collagen structure using MR T1- and T2*-mapping in a novel controlled ex vivo tendon model setup. Materials and Methods Twenty-four cadaveric bovine flexor tendons underwent MRI at 3 T before and after chemical modifications, representing mechanical degeneration and augmentation. Collagen degradation (COL), augmenting collagen fiber cross-linking (CXL), and a control (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]) were examined in experimental groups, using histopathology as standard of reference. Variable echo-time and variable-flip angle gradient-echo sequen...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Reduction of Metal Artifacts and Improvement in Dose Efficiency Using Photon-Counting Detector Computed Tomography and Tin Filtration
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact on metal artifacts and dose efficiency of using a tin filter in combination with high-energy threshold (TH) images of a photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) system. Materials and Methods A 3D-printed spine with pedicle screws was scanned on a PCD-CT system with and without tin filtration. Image noise and severity of artifacts were measured for low-energy threshold (TL) and TH images. In a prospective, institutional review board–approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, 20 patients having a clini...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Tomoelastography for the Evaluation of Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Conclusions One mMRE measurement provides 2 independent parameters with very good diagnostic accuracy in detecting moderate and advanced fibrosis as well as moderate and severe steatosis in pediatric NAFLD. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Structured Survey on Adverse Events Occurring Within 24 Hours After Intravenous Exposure to Gadodiamide or Gadoterate Meglumine: A Controlled Prospective Comparison Study
This study compares the incidence of new-onset symptoms within 24 hours after enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) with intravenous administration of gadodiamide or gadoterate meglumine compared with a control group undergoing unenhanced MRI (uMRI). Materials and Methods A prospective cohort study (n = 1088 patients) was designed to assess the incidence of symptoms within 24 hours after administration of gadodiamide or gadoterate meglumine. The participants underwent a structured questionnaire by phone call before and 24 hours after the MRI scan to check for symptoms that were not present before the scan. The ques...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Personalized 3D-Printed Transparent Liver Model Using the Hepatobiliary Phase MRI: Usefulness in the Lesion-by-Lesion Imaging-Pathologic Matching of Focal Liver Lesions—Preliminary Results
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a personalized, 3-dimensional (3D)–printed, transparent liver model with focal liver lesions (FLLs) for lesion-by-lesion imaging-pathologic matching. Materials and Methods This preliminary, prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Twenty patients (male-to-female ratio, 13:7; mean age, 56 years) with multiple FLLs, including at least one presumed malignant, or an indeterminate lesion 10 mm or less on the preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - March 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Prediction of Lumbar Disk Herniation and Clinical Outcome Using Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of T2 mapping at baseline with regard to the development of disk herniation and clinical outcome at a 5-year follow-up in patients with low back pain. Materials and Methods Twenty-five symptomatic patients (13 male; mean age, 44.0 years; range, 24–64 years at baseline) were examined at 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, with a 5-year follow-up. Region of interest analysis was performed on 125 lumbar intervertebral disks on 2 central sagittal T2 maps. Absolute T2 relaxation times and a T2 value ratio of the posterior annulus fibrosus as a percentage...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Individually Body Weight–Adapted Contrast Media Application in Computed Tomography Imaging of the Liver at 90 kVp
Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the attenuation and image quality (IQ) of a body weight–adapted contrast media (CM) protocol compared with a fixed injection protocol in computed tomography (CT) of the liver at 90 kV. Materials and Methods One hundred ninety-nine consecutive patients referred for abdominal CT imaging in portal venous phase were included. Group 1 (n = 100) received a fixed CM dose with a total iodine load (TIL) of 33 g I at a flow rate of 3.5 mL/s, resulting in an iodine delivery rate (IDR) of 1.05 g I/s. Group 2 (n = 99) received a body weight–adapted CM protocol wit...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Impact of Different Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment and Scanning Parameters on Signal Intensity Ratio Measurements in Phantoms and Healthy Volunteers: Implications for Interpreting Gadolinium Signal Changes Within the Brain
Conclusions This study has demonstrated that SIR percentage changes from baseline of a similar magnitude to brain gadolinium contrast agent signal hyperintensities can be replicated in phantom models and HVs by altering common MR acquisition parameters and hardware. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee at 7 T: Optimization of Fat Suppression
This article is an ethical board–approved prospective study with written informed consent from 8 volunteers (mean, 31 ± 4 years). It included fat phantom and knee magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T (Magnetom Skyra; Siemens Healthcare) and at 7 T (Achieva, Philips Healthcare). At 3 T, an axial proton density-weighted turbo spin echo sequence with spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR) was acquired. At 7 T, a series of 5 proton density-weighted turbo spin echo sequences was acquired: (a) without fat suppression, (b) with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR), (c) with SPAIR, (d) with SSGR, ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Advanced Robotic Angiography Systems for Image Guidance During Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization: Impact on Radiation Dose and Image Quality
Conclusions Most recent generation robotic angiography equipment allows for considerable radiation dose reductions while improving IQ in fluoroscopy and DSA image guidance during C-TACE treatment. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

T2 Mapping in Prostate Cancer
Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the quantitative T2 values in prostate tissue and evaluate them for detection and grading of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods After approval from the local ethics committee, morphological T2-weighted (T2w) images, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps from diffusion-weighted images, quantitative T2 maps, and calculated T2w images from 75 men (median age, 66.3 years; median PSA, 8.2 ng/mL) were acquired at 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were retrospectively evaluated for their distinction between prostate pathologies. Eight hundred fifty-seven area...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Personalized 3D-Printed Transparent Liver Model Using the Hepatobiliary Phase MRI: Usefulness in the Lesion-by-Lesion Imaging-Pathologic Matching of Focal Liver Lesions—Preliminary Results
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a personalized, 3-dimensional (3D)–printed, transparent liver model with focal liver lesions (FLLs) for lesion-by-lesion imaging-pathologic matching. Materials and Methods This preliminary, prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Twenty patients (male-to-female ratio, 13:7; mean age, 56 years) with multiple FLLs, including at least one presumed malignant, or an indeterminate lesion 10 mm or less on the preoperative gadoxetic acid–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

High-Resolution Chest Computed Tomography Imaging of the Lungs: Impact of 1024 Matrix Reconstruction and Photon-Counting Detector Computed Tomography
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if a high-resolution photon-counting detector computed tomography (PCD-CT) system with a 1024×1024 matrix reconstruction can improve the visualization of fine structures in the lungs compared with conventional high-resolution CT (HRCT). Materials and Methods Twenty-two adult patients referred for clinical chest HRCT (mean CTDI vol, 13.58 mGy) underwent additional dose-matched PCD-CT (mean volume CT dose index, 13.37 mGy) after written informed consent. Computed tomography images were reconstructed at a slice thickness of 1.5 mm and an image increment of 1 mm with ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Native T1 Mapping as an In Vivo Biomarker for the Identification of Higher-Grade Renal Cell Carcinoma: Correlation With Histopathological Findings
Objectives The aims of this study were to identify higher-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) with native T1 mapping and to histologically correlate the results with the collagen volume fraction. Materials and Methods For this institutional review board–approved, single-center prospective study, 68 consecutive patients received abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scans at 1.5 T between January 2017 and July 2018, using a Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence. Thirty patients with cRCC (20 men; mean age, 61.9 ± 13.1 years) who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy and histol...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Machine Learning With Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast for Early Prediction of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Survival Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients
Conclusions Machine learning with mpMRI of the breast enables early prediction of pCR to NAC as well as survival outcomes in breast cancer patients with high accuracy and thus may provide valuable predictive information to guide treatment decisions. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Feasibility of Gadoxetic Acid–Enhanced Isotropic High-Resolution 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography Using an Iterative Denoising Algorithm for Evaluation of the Biliary Anatomy of Living Liver Donors
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of gadoxetic acid–enhanced isotropic high-resolution (IHR) 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) using an iterative denoising (ID) algorithm for evaluation of the biliary anatomy of living liver donors in comparison with conventional 3D multislice T2-weighted (T2W) MRC. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, a total of 75 living liver donors who underwent conventional 3D multislice T2W-MRC and IHR-3D-T1W-MRC on a 3 T scanner and subsequent right h...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Detectability of Brain Metastases by Using Frequency-Selective Nonlinear Blending in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography
Purpose The aim of this study to evaluate the role of frequency-selective nonlinear blending (FS-NLB) for the detectability of brain metastases with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Materials and Methods A retrospective patient data search at our institution yielded 91 patients who underwent both brain CECT and MRI for screening of brain metastases (n = 173) between 2014 and 2016 (mean time interval, 29 ± 37 [malignant: 15 ± 16/benign: 42 ± 47] days). A recently introduced FS-NLB postprocessing technique was applied to CE...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Tomoelastography Paired With T2* Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Lupus Nephritis With Normal Renal Function
Objectives The aim of this study was to test multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging including blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) imaging by T2* mapping, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) by tomoelastography, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detecting nephropathy in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Methods Forty-one subjects (25 patients with LN and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers; LN: mean age, 47.3 ± 14.8 years; 22 female subjects; volunteers: mean age, 43.9 ± 11.6 years; 13 female subjects) were prospectively enrolled. The LN group was further divided into subgroups...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Synthetic 2-Dimensional Mammography Can Replace Digital Mammography as an Adjunct to Wide-Angle Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection rate and diagnostic performance of 2-dimensional synthetic mammography (SM) as an adjunct to wide-angle digital breast tomosynthesis (WA-DBT) compared with digital mammography (DM) alone or to DM in combination with WA-DBT. Materials and Methods There were 205 women with 179 lesions included in this retrospective reader study. Patients underwent bilateral, 2-view (2v) DM and WA-DBT between March and June 2015. The standard of reference was histology and/or 1-year stability at follow-up. Four blinded readers randomly evaluated images according to the BI-RAD...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Treatment With Chelating Agents Depends on the Stability of Administered GBCAs: A Comparative Study in Rats
Conclusions Administration of the chelating agent Ca-DTPA 7 weeks after injection of linear gadodiamide induced relevant urinary Gd excretion. In parallel, the Gd amount in the brain tissue decreased. This indicates a dechelated pool among the chemical Gd forms present in the rat brain after linear gadodiamide administration that can be mobilized by chelation with Ca-DTPA. In contrast, Ca-DTPA did not mobilize Gd in animals that received macrocyclic gadobutrol, indicating that the Gd measured is intact gadobutrol. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Critical Need for Pediatric and Juvenile Animal Research Addressing Gadolinium Retention in the Developing Body
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

Does Age Interfere With Gadolinium Toxicity and Presence in Brain and Bone Tissues?: A Comparative Gadoterate Versus Gadodiamide Study in Juvenile and Adult Rats
Conclusions No T1 hyperintensity was observed in the DCN after administration of the macrocyclic GBCA gadoterate regardless of age as opposed to administration of the linear GBCA gadodiamide. Repeated administration of gadodiamide in neonatal and juvenile rats resulted in similar total Gd retention in the skin, brain, and bone to that in adult rats with sex having no effect, whereas Gd distribution in bone marrow was influenced by age. Further studies are required to assess the form of the retained Gd and to investigate the potential risks associated with Gd retention in bone marrow in juvenile animals treated with gadod...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 29, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Evaluation of an AI-Based Detection Software for Acute Findings in Abdominal Computed Tomography Scans: Toward an Automated Work List Prioritization of Routine CT Examinations
Conclusions The algorithm's autonomous detection of acute pathological abdominal findings demonstrated a high diagnostic performance, enabling guidance of the radiology workflow toward prioritization of abdominal CT examinations with acute conditions. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Notes Source Type: research

Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Healthy Skeletal Muscles: A Comparison Between 7 T and 3 T
Objective The aim of this study was to assess and compare the overall performance, reliability, variability, as well as the accuracy of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking metrics, for the muscles of the calf at 3 T and 7 T. Materials and Methods Ten volunteers (5 males; mean age, 29.1 ± 4.7 years), with no history of muscle disease, were examined twice at 3 T and 7 T, using a stimulated-echo acquisition mode DTI sequence. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and DTI metrics (track numbers [trn], length [trl], volume [trv], fractional anisotropy [FA], mean [MD], axial [AD], and radial diffusivity [RD]) of ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Notes Source Type: research

Linearity, Bias, Intrascanner Repeatability, and Interscanner Reproducibility of Quantitative Multidynamic Multiecho Sequence for Rapid Simultaneous Relaxometry at 3 T: A Validation Study With a Standardized Phantom and Healthy Controls
Conclusions Quantitative values derived from the MDME sequence are overall robust for brain relaxometry and volumetry on 3 T scanners from different vendors. Caution is warranted when applying MDME sequence on anatomies with relaxometry values outside the range of those typically observed in brain tissue. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrashort Time-to-Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 T for the Detection of Spondylolysis in Cadaveric Spines: Comparison With CT
The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance and confidence of conventional, optimized, and ultrashort time to echo (UTE) magnetic resonance (MR) protocols for detection of simulated lumbar spondylolysis in human cadavers. In addition, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility of the UTE technique in subjects with and without spondylolysis. Materials and Methods Four human lumbar spine specimens with 46 individual pars interarticularis were randomly left intact (n = 26) or received experimental osteotomy (n = 20) using a microsurgical saw to simulate spondylolysis. The specimens were imaged using...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Improved Visualization of Juxtaprosthetic Tissue Using Metal Artifact Reduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Experimental and Clinical Optimization of Compressed Sensing SEMAC
Conclusions Optimized advanced acceleration and reconstruction algorithms of CS-SEMAC have been identified to reduce metal artifacts in patients with THA enabling imaging with clinically feasible acquisition and reconstruction times. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Accurate Therapeutic Response Assessment of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Using Quantitative Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging With a Point-of-Care Perfusion Phantom: A Pilot Study
Objectives The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with concurrent perfusion phantom for monitoring therapeutic response in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and Methods A prospective pilot study was conducted with 8 patients (7 men and 1 woman) aged 46 to 78 years (mean age, 66 years). Participants had either locally advanced (n = 7) or metastatic (n = 1) PDAC, and had 2 DCE-MRI examinations: one before and one 8 ± 1 weeks after starting first-line chemotherapy. A small triplicate perfusion phantom was im...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Deep Learning in Diagnosis of Maxillary Sinusitis Using Conventional Radiography
Conclusions The deep learning algorithm could diagnose maxillary sinusitis on Waters’ view radiograph with superior AUC and comparable sensitivity and specificity to those of radiologists. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research