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Implementation of a 5-Minute Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening Protocol for Prostate Cancer in Men With Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen Before Biopsy
Conclusions A 5-minute MR screening protocol for prostate cancer in men with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels before biopsy is applicable for clinical routine with similar diagnostic performance as the full diagnostic mpMRI approach. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Analysis of Abdominal Organs: Application of Simultaneous Multislice Acquisition
Purpose The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the accuracy of quantitative intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) analysis of the upper abdomen applying simultaneous multislice (SMS) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to reduce acquisition time. Materials and Methods Diffusion-weighted imaging of parenchymal abdominal organs was performed in 8 healthy volunteers at 3 T using a standard DWI sequence (acceleration factor 1 [AF1]) and an SMS-accelerated echo planar imaging sequence with acceleration factors 2 and 3 (AF2/AF3). Intravoxel incoherent motion analysis was performed with a multistep algorithm for tru...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Iodine and Fat Quantification for Differentiation of Adrenal Gland Adenomas From Metastases Using Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy Computed Tomography
Conclusions Third-generation dual-source DECT iodine and fat quantification allow for differentiation between adrenal adenomas and metastases with high diagnostic accuracy. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Issue of Gadolinium Retained in Tissues: Insights on the Role of Metal Complex Stability by Comparing Metal Uptake in Murine Tissues Upon the Concomitant Administration of Lanthanum- and Gadolinium-Diethylentriamminopentaacetate
Discussion The departure from the 1:1 ratio in the amounts of La and Gd determined in the investigated tissues has been used to gain information on the role of the complex stability and “wash-out” kinetics. The behavior of the less s` La-DTPA highlights processes occurring for Gd-DTPA at a slower rate. The herein obtained results support the view that most of the La/Gd retained in the brain arises from the intact chelate that has extravasated immediately after the intravenous administration. Long-term deposition of metal ions from internal reservoirs seems particularly relevant for liver and spleen. (Source:...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Diagnostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Neurography in Cervical Radiculopathy: Plexus Patterns and Peripheral Nerve Lesions
Conclusions Complementing spine imaging in cervical radiculopathy with brachial plexus MRN can improve diagnostic accuracy by increasing specificity and positive predictive value. T2-weighted lesions of peripheral nerves can be caused by cervical radiculopathy, which must be considered a relevant diagnostic pitfall in MRN of peripheral neuropathies. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Compressed-Sensing Accelerated 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography: Application in Suspected Pancreatic Diseases
Objectives The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate image quality, duct visibility, and diagnostic performance in duct-related pathologies of compressed-sensing (CS) accelerated 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prototype protocols and compare these with those of conventional 3D MRCP protocol in patients with suspected pancreatic diseases. Material and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective study and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 80 patients (47 men and 33 women; median age, 57 years; age range, 24–87 years) u...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Photon-Counting CT: High-Resolution Imaging of Coronary Stents
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of coronary stents using a novel photon-counting detector (PCD) in comparison with a conventional energy-integrating detector (EID). Materials and Methods In this in vitro study, 18 different coronary stents were expanded in plastic tubes of 3 mm diameter, were filled with contrast agent (diluted to an attenuation of 250 Hounsfield units [HU] at 120 kVp), and were sealed. Stents were placed in an oil-filled custom phantom calibrated to an attenuation of −100 HU at 120 kVp for resembling pericardial fat. The phantom ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Photon-Counting Computed Tomography for Vascular Imaging of the Head and Neck: First In Vivo Human Results
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality of a spectral photon-counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) system for evaluation of major arteries of the head and neck compared with conventional single-energy CT scans using energy-integrating detectors (EIDs). Methods In this institutional review board–approved study, 16 asymptomatic subjects (7 men) provided informed consent and received both PCD and EID contrast-enhanced CT scans of the head and neck (mean age, 58 years; range, 46–75 years). Tube settings were (EID: 120 kVp/160 mA vs PCD: 140 kVp/108 mA) for all volunteers. Qua...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Contrast Media Research 2017 Durango, Colorado USA, October 22–25, 2017 Convener: Michael F. Tweedle, PhD Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Comparison of Unenhanced T1-Weighted Signal Intensities Within the Dentate Nucleus and the Globus Pallidus After Serial Applications of Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Versus Gadobutrol in a Pediatric Population
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) within the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in a pediatric population after serial applications of the linear gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine and the more stable macrocyclic agent gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained. Two similar pediatric patient cohorts who underwent at least 3 serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with sole application of gadopentetate dimeglumine or gadobutro...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effect of Perinatal Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Adult Mice Behavior
Conclusions In the present study, we showed that Gd was transferred to pups and was retained in their brain during postnatal development. Gadolinium retention may lead to impaired brain development. These findings indicate that the use of GBCAs in pregnant women should be avoided because it may have adverse effects on the fetus, particularly on brain development. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Advanced Calcium Subtraction Improves Luminal Visualization and Diagnostic Confidence in Dual-Energy Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography
Conclusions A prototype algorithm for calcium subtraction improves coronary lumen visualization and diagnostic confidence in patients with heavy coronary calcifications without differences in conventional subjective and objective measures of image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer Bone Disease: Correlation With Bone Biopsy Histological and Molecular Features
Objectives The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bone metastases with histological and molecular features of bone metastases. Materials and Methods Forty-three bone marrow biopsies from 33 metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients with multiparametric MRI and documented bone metastases were evaluated. A second cohort included 10 CRPC patients with no bone metastases. Associations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), normalized b900 diffusion-weighted imaging (nDWI) signal, and signal-weighted fat fraction (swFF) with bone marrow biopsy histolo...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative Proton Spectroscopy of the Testes at 3 T: Toward a Noninvasive Biomarker of Spermatogenesis
Conclusions Testicular metabolite concentrations, measured by proton spectroscopy at 3 T, may be valuable as noninvasive biomarkers of spermatogenesis. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Non contrast, Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling and Accelerated 3-Dimensional Radial Acquisition Intracranial 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography for the Detection and Classification of Intracranial Arteriovenous Shunts
Conclusion Noncontrast PCASL-MRA with 3D radial acquisition is a potential tool for the detection and characterization of intracranial AV shunts with a sensitivity and specificity equivalent or higher than routine clinical MRA. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety Study of Gadoterate Meglumine in Pediatric Subjects Aged Younger Than 2 Years
Conclusions The pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine after a single intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg was appropriately described in newborns and infants younger than 2 years, for whom no dose adjustment is required. The improved efficacy of gadoterate meglumine for contrast-enhanced MRI examination of brain, spine, and associated tissues, as well as its good safety profile, was also demonstrated in this population. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Unenhanced Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Visualization of Brain Edema
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging is superior to conventional noncontrast computed tomography (CT) imaging for the detection of acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study of 40 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a major, acute care, teaching center with signs and symptoms of acute stroke. Only those patients who presented to the ED within 4 hours of symptom onset were included in this study. All 40 patients received a noncontrast DECT of the head at the time of presentation. Each ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Contrast Media Research 2017 Durango, Colorado USA, October 22–25, 2017 Convener: Michael F. Tweedle, PhD Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Comparison of Unenhanced T1-Weighted Signal Intensities Within the Dentate Nucleus and the Globus Pallidus After Serial Applications of Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Versus Gadobutrol in a Pediatric Population
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare changes in T1-weighted signal intensity (SI) within the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) in a pediatric population after serial applications of the linear gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast medium gadopentetate dimeglumine and the more stable macrocyclic agent gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained. Two similar pediatric patient cohorts who underwent at least 3 serial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with sole application of gadopentetate dimeglumine or gadobutro...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effect of Perinatal Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Adult Mice Behavior
Conclusions In the present study, we showed that Gd was transferred to pups and was retained in their brain during postnatal development. Gadolinium retention may lead to impaired brain development. These findings indicate that the use of GBCAs in pregnant women should be avoided because it may have adverse effects on the fetus, particularly on brain development. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Advanced Calcium Subtraction Improves Luminal Visualization and Diagnostic Confidence in Dual-Energy Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography
Conclusions A prototype algorithm for calcium subtraction improves coronary lumen visualization and diagnostic confidence in patients with heavy coronary calcifications without differences in conventional subjective and objective measures of image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer Bone Disease: Correlation With Bone Biopsy Histological and Molecular Features
Objectives The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) bone metastases with histological and molecular features of bone metastases. Materials and Methods Forty-three bone marrow biopsies from 33 metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients with multiparametric MRI and documented bone metastases were evaluated. A second cohort included 10 CRPC patients with no bone metastases. Associations of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), normalized b900 diffusion-weighted imaging (nDWI) signal, and signal-weighted fat fraction (swFF) with bone marrow biopsy histolo...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative Proton Spectroscopy of the Testes at 3 T: Toward a Noninvasive Biomarker of Spermatogenesis
Conclusions Testicular metabolite concentrations, measured by proton spectroscopy at 3 T, may be valuable as noninvasive biomarkers of spermatogenesis. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Non contrast, Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling and Accelerated 3-Dimensional Radial Acquisition Intracranial 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography for the Detection and Classification of Intracranial Arteriovenous Shunts
Conclusion Noncontrast PCASL-MRA with 3D radial acquisition is a potential tool for the detection and characterization of intracranial AV shunts with a sensitivity and specificity equivalent or higher than routine clinical MRA. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety Study of Gadoterate Meglumine in Pediatric Subjects Aged Younger Than 2 Years
Conclusions The pharmacokinetic profile of gadoterate meglumine after a single intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg was appropriately described in newborns and infants younger than 2 years, for whom no dose adjustment is required. The improved efficacy of gadoterate meglumine for contrast-enhanced MRI examination of brain, spine, and associated tissues, as well as its good safety profile, was also demonstrated in this population. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Unenhanced Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Visualization of Brain Edema
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging is superior to conventional noncontrast computed tomography (CT) imaging for the detection of acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study of 40 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a major, acute care, teaching center with signs and symptoms of acute stroke. Only those patients who presented to the ED within 4 hours of symptom onset were included in this study. All 40 patients received a noncontrast DECT of the head at the time of presentation. Each ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of Transient Motion During Gadoxetic Acid–Enhanced Multiphasic Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Free-Breathing Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives The aims of this study were to observe the pattern of transient motion after gadoxetic acid administration including incidence, onset, and duration, and to evaluate the clinical feasibility of free-breathing gadoxetic acid–enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging using golden-angle radial sparse parallel (GRASP) imaging with respiratory gating. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved prospective study, 59 patients who provided informed consents were analyzed. Free-breathing dynamic T1-weighted images (T1WIs) were obtained using GRASP at 3 T after a standard dose of gad...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased Expiratory Computed Tomography Density Reveals Possible Abnormalities in Radiologically Preserved Lung Parenchyma in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Conclusions High CT attenuation changes between inspiration and expiration in IPF patients might suggest altered lung parenchyma in normal-appearing tissue on CT. Density changes during the respiratory cycle might be explained by alveolar collapse of radiologically unaffected lung tissue possibly preceding fibrosis. These results support the concept of alveolar collapse preceding lung fibrosis in IPF. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Motion-Corrected Real-Time Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Heart: Initial Clinical Experience
Objectives Free-breathing real-time (RT) imaging can be used in patients with difficulty in breath-holding; however, RT cine imaging typically experiences poor image quality compared with segmented cine imaging because of low resolution. Here, we validate a novel unsupervised motion-corrected (MOCO) reconstruction technique for free-breathing RT cardiac images, called MOCO-RT. Motion-corrected RT uses elastic image registration to generate a single heartbeat of high-quality data from a free-breathing RT acquisition. Materials and Methods Segmented balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine images and free-brea...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Structural Myocardial Alterations by Grating-Based Phase-Contrast Computed Tomography
Objectives Grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gb-PCCT) relies on x-ray refraction instead of absorption to generate high-contrast images in biological soft tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of gb-PCCT for the depiction of structural changes in heart disease. Materials and Methods Four human heart specimens from patients with hypertensive disease, ischemic disease, dilated heart disease, and cardiac lipomatosis were examined. The gb-PCCT setup consisted of an x-ray tube (40 kV, 70 mA), grating-interferometer, and detector, and allowed simultaneous acquisition of phase- and absor...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of Gadolinium Retention After Serial Administrations of a Macrocyclic Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent (Gadobutrol): A Single-Institution Experience With 189 Patients
Conclusions Serial administrations of gadobutrol did not result in signal increases in the DN or GP on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images due to gadolinium retention. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis: Improved Detection of Active Cerebral Lesions With 3-Dimensional T1 Black-Blood Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compared With Conventional 3-Dimensional T1 GRE Imaging
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a modified high-resolution whole-brain three-dimensional T1-weighted black-blood sequence (T1-weighted modified volumetric isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition [T1-mVISTA]) in comparison to a standard three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) sequence for detection of contrast-enhancing cerebral lesions in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods After institutional review board approval and informed consent, 22 patients (8 men; aged 31.0 ± 9.2 years) with r...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Iterative Reconstruction May Improve Diagnosis of Gout: An Ex Vivo (Bio)Phantom Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Study
Conclusions Iterative reconstruction has the potential to improve the sensitivity of a DECT scan for gouty tophi, to decrease radiation exposure, or to combine both options. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Accuracy and Repeatability of Automated Injector Versus Manual Administration of an MRI Contrast Agent—Results of a Laboratory Study
Objective The aim of this study was to compare flow rates over time and the deviations from the target flow rate of a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent achieved by an automated injector versus manual injection. Materials and Methods In this laboratory study, the magnetic resonance contrast agent gadobutrol was repeatedly injected by an injector and by 10 experienced technologists. Six scenarios with 2 different target flow rates (1 and 5 mL/s), 2 different contrast volumes (10 and 20 mL), and 2 different intravenous (IV) catheters (22 gauge and 20 gauge) were tested. The flow rates over time were recorded. The...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Contrast Media Research 2017 Durango, Colorado USA, October 22–25, 2017 Convener: Michael F. Tweedle, PhD
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion: Model-Free Determination of Tissue Type in Abdominal Organs Using Machine Learning
Conclusions: Machine learning allows for a model-free determination of tissue type using intra voxel incoherent motion signal decay curves as features. The technique may be useful for segmentation of abdominal organs or distinction between healthy and pathological tissues. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Somatotopic Fascicular Lesions of the Brachial Plexus Demonstrated by High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Neurography
Conclusions: Brachial plexus MRN is highly accurate for differentiating patients with symptomatic plexopathy from healthy controls and for distinguishing patients with compressive neuropathy and noncompressive plexopathy. Furthermore, BP MRN revealed evidence for somatotopic organization of the BP. Therefore, as an addition to functional information of electrodiagnostic studies, anatomical information gained by BP MRN may help to improve the efficiency and accuracy of patient care. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Diagnostic Value of 3-Dimensional Sampling Perfection With Application Optimized Contrasts Using Different Flip Angle Evolutions (SPACE) MRI in Evaluating Lower Extremity Deep Venous Thrombus
Conclusions: Non–contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional SPACE magnetic resonance imaging is highly accurate in detecting lower extremity DVT and reliable in the evaluation of clot burden. SPACE could serve as an important alternative for patients in whom US cannot be performed. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Lymphography at 9.4 T Using a Gadolinium-Based Nanoparticle in Rats: Investigations in Healthy Animals and in a Hindlimb Lymphedema Model
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that AGuIX is a suitable contrast agent for preclinical interstitial MRL in rodents. AGuIX yields anatomical imaging of lymphatic vessels with diameters greater than 200 μm. Moreover, it resides in the lymphatic system for a prolonged time. AGuIX may therefore facilitate high-resolution MRL-based analyses of the lymphatic system in rodents. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative Perfusion Analysis of the Rectum Using Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Initial Experience and Comparison to Time-Resolved Angiography With Interleaved Stochastic Trajectories
Objectives: Purpose of this study was to compare the quality of perfusion maps obtained from prototypical free-breathing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with continuous golden-angle radial sampling and iterative reconstruction (GRASP) to conventional acquisition using time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST) in patients with rectal cancer. Material and Methods: Forty cases were included for retrospective analysis. Twenty of the patients received routine multiparametric MRI at 3 T for rectal cancer staging, including perfusion measurement with GRASP or TWIST (10 patients for each techniqu...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Fourth Edition of The Physics of Clinical MR Taught Through Images
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Dynamic Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Free-Breathing: Feasibility of a Cartesian T1-Weighted Acquisition Technique With Compressed Sensing and Additional Self-Navigation Signal for Hard-Gated and Motion-Resolved Reconstruction
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a free-breathing dynamic liver imaging technique using a prototype Cartesian T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) sequence with compressed sensing and simultaneous acquisition of a navigation signal for hard-gated and motion state–resolved reconstruction. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 consecutive oncologic patients (mean age, 66 ± 11 years; 44% female) underwent free-breathing dynamic liver imaging for the evaluation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer using a prototype Cartesian VIBE sequence (field ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: Diagnostic Accuracy and Correlation With Electrophysiology
Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess diagnostic accuracy of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), to correlate DTI with electrophysiological parameters, and to evaluate whether radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) might serve as specific biomarkers of demyelinating and axonal pathology. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Magnetic resonance neurography of upper and lower extremity nerves (median, ulnar, radial, sciatic, ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Spatial Distribution of Iron Within the Normal Human Liver Using Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT Imaging
Conclusions: Dual-source dual-energy CT can be used to assess the uniformity of iron distribution in healthy subjects. Applying similar techniques to unhealthy livers, future research may focus on the impact of hepatic iron content and distribution for noninvasive assessment in diseased subjects. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Noninvasively Detects Renal Fibrosis in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis at 3.0 T
In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate imaging parameters for collagen detection at 3.0 T MRI and to test the utility of MT-MRI in measuring renal fibrosis in a swine model of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS). Materials and Methods: To select the appropriate offset frequency, an MT-MRI study was performed on a phantom containing 0% to 40% collagen I and III with offset frequencies from −1600 to +1600 Hz and other MT parameters empirically set as pulse width at 16 milliseconds and flip angle at 800 degrees. Then selected MT parameters were used in vivo on pigs 12 weeks after sham (n = 8) or RAS (n = 10) surgeries....
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Modified Dual-Energy Algorithm for Calcified Plaque Removal: Evaluation in Carotid Computed Tomography Angiography and Comparison With Digital Subtraction Angiography
Objectives: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a valuable tool for the assessment of carotid artery stenosis. However, blooming artifacts from calcified plaques might result in an overestimation of the stenosis grade. The aim of this study was to investigate a new dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) technique with a modified 3-material decomposition algorithm for calcium removal in extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 30 calcified carotid plaques in 22 patients (15 men; mean age, 73 ± 10 years) with clinical suspicion...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Renal Adiposity Confounds Quantitative Assessment of Markers of Renal Diffusion With MRI: A Proposed Correction Method
Conclusions: Excessive renal fat may cause underestimation of renal ADC and IVIM-derived pure-diffusivity, which may hinder detection of renal pathology. Models accounting for fat contribution may help reduce the variability of diffusivity calculated using DWI. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Seven-Tesla MRI of Hippocampal Sclerosis: An In Vivo Feasibility Study With Histological Correlations
Discussion: High-resolution, ultra-high-field MRI is a promising tool for the detection of subtle changes in the hippocampus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Large cohorts will be necessary to confirm the predictive value of 7 T MRI in the preoperative evaluation of TLE patients. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Virtual Monoenergetic Imaging and Iodine Perfusion Maps Improve Diagnostic Accuracy of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography With Suboptimal Contrast Attenuation
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) and dual-energy computed tomography perfusion maps (DECT-PMs) on reader confidence and diagnostic accuracy in dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) studies with suboptimal contrast attenuation, compared with standard linearly blended reconstruction series. Materials and Methods: Dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography examinations with suboptimal contrast attenuation of 68 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were included in this institutional review board–approv...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 11, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

SyMRI of the Brain: Rapid Quantification of Relaxation Rates and Proton Density, With Synthetic MRI, Automatic Brain Segmentation, and Myelin Measurement
Abstract: Conventional magnetic resonance images are usually evaluated using the image signal contrast between tissues and not based on their absolute signal intensities. Quantification of tissue parameters, such as relaxation rates and proton density, would provide an absolute scale; however, these methods have mainly been performed in a research setting. The development of rapid quantification, with scan times in the order of 6 minutes for full head coverage, has provided the prerequisites for clinical use. The aim of this review article was to introduce a specific quantification method and synthesis of contrast-weighted...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 7, 2017 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research