Fusion of Preinterventional MR Imaging With Liver Perfusion CT After RFA of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Early Quantitative Prediction of Local Recurrence
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fusion of pretreatment magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with posttreatment perfusion–CT (P-CT) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and to determine treatment success in an objective, quantitative way. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved study, 39 patients (78.4% male; mean age 68.2 ± 8.5 years) with a total of 43 HCCs, who underwent RFA at our institution and had diagnostic pre-RFA MR imaging and post-RFA P-CT, were included in the study. Post-RFA P-CT was performed ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Intraindividual Consistency of Iodine Concentration in Dual-Energy Computed Tomography of the Chest and Abdomen
This study investigates the longitudinal reproducibility of IC in organs, vessels, and lymph nodes in a large cohort of healthy patients who underwent repetitive DECT imaging. Materials and Methods A total of 159 patients, who underwent a total of 469 repetitive (range, 2–4), clinically indicated portal-venous phase DECT examinations of the chest and abdomen, were retrospectively included. At time of imaging, macroscopic tumor burden was excluded by follow-up imaging (≥3 months). Iodine concentration was measured region of interest-based (N = 43) in parenchymatous organs, vessels, lymph nodes, and connectiv...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Radiomics Signature to Distinguish Benign From Malignant Orbital Lesions
The objective was to differentiate benign from malignant orbital lesions using radiomics on 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved prospective single-center study enrolled consecutive patients presenting with an orbital lesion undergoing a 3 T MRI prior to surgery from December 2015 to July 2019. Radiomics features were extracted from 6 MRI sequences (T1-weighted images [WIs], DIXON-T2-WI, diffusion-WI, postcontrast DIXON-T1-WI) using the Pyradiomics software. Features were selected based on their intraobserver and interobserver reprodu...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Age-Related Changes in Relaxation Times, Proton Density, Myelin, and Tissue Volumes in Adult Brain Analyzed by 2-Dimensional Quantitative Synthetic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This study aimed to reveal the changes in tissue characteristics and volumes of the brain according to age and provide age-specific reference values obtained by quantitative synthetic MRI. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of healthy subjects with no history of brain diseases scanned with a multidynamic multiecho sequence for simultaneous measurement of relaxometry of T1, T2, and PD. We performed myelin estimation and brain volumetry based on these values. We performed volume-of-interest analysis on both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) regions for T1, T2, PD, and myelin volume fraction maps. ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Safety and Oncologic Outcomes of Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided Cryoablation of Renal Cell Carcinoma: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience
Objectives Magnetic resonance imaging guidance has been sporadically reported for renal tumor cryoablation (CA); therefore, clinical experience with this modality is still limited. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze our 10-year experience with renal tumor CA performed on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging unit with the intent of reporting procedural safety and oncologic outcomes. Materials and Methods We included 143 patients (102 men; 41 women; median age, 73 years; range, 34–91 years) with 149 tumors (median size, 2.6 cm; range, 0.6–6.0 cm), treated between 2009 and 2019. Patien...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Differentiation of Crystals Associated With Arthropathies by Spectral Photon-Counting Radiography: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Objectives The aims of this study were to test whether spectral photon-counting radiography (SPCR) is able to identify and distinguish different crystals associated with arthropathies in vitro and to validate findings in a gouty human third toe ex vivo. Materials and Methods Industry-standard calibration rods of calcium pyrophosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite (HA), and monosodium urate (MSU) were scanned with SPCR in an experimental setup. Each material was available at 3 different concentrations, and a dedicated photon-counting detector was used for SPCR, whereas validation scans were obtained on a clinical dual-...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound of Osseous Metastases: Treatment Parameters Associated With Successful Pain Reduction
Background A phase 3 multicenter trial demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–guided focused ultrasound (US) is a safe, noninvasive treatment that alleviated pain from bone metastases. However, outcomes varied among institutions (from 0%–100% treatment success). Purpose The aim of this study was to identify patient selection, technical treatment, and imaging parameters that predict successful pain relief of osseous metastases after MRI-guided focused US. Materials and Methods This was a secondary analysis of a phase 3 clinical study that included participants who received MRI-guide...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Proof of Concept: Phantom Study to Ensure Quality and Safety of Portable Chest Radiography Through Glass During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Conclusions Good-quality portable chest radiographs can be obtained safely through the smart glass doors of the isolation room. However, this technique does result in minor backscatter radiation. Modifications in the exposure factors (such as increasing milliampere seconds) may be required to optimize image quality while using this technique. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

T1-Based Synthetic Magnetic Resonance Contrasts Improve Multiple Sclerosis and Focal Epilepsy Imaging at 7 T
Objectives Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (≥7 T) is a unique opportunity to improve the clinical diagnosis of brain pathologies, such as multiple sclerosis or focal epilepsy. However, several shortcomings of 7 T MRI, such as radiofrequency field inhomogeneities, could degrade image quality and hinder radiological interpretation. To address these challenges, an original synthetic MRI method based on T1 mapping achieved with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) sequence was developed. The radiological quality of on-demand T1-based contrasts generated by this techniq...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Characterization of Leukoencephalopathy and Association With Later Neurocognitive Performance in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
This study aims to objectively characterize the prevalence, extent, and intensity of LE, and their association with later neurocognitive performance. Materials and Methods Pediatric patients (N = 377) treated for ALL without irradiation underwent MR neuroimaging at 4 time points throughout therapy (end of remission induction [MR1], end of consolidation [MR2], and week 31 [MR3] and week 120 [end therapy, MR4] of continuation treatment) and neurocognitive evaluations at the end of therapy and 2 years later. Generalized estimation equation models with logit link were developed to explore the association between LE prev...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Added Value of CT Arterial Subtraction Images in Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Treatment Response Categorization for Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization-Treated Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Conclusions The LR-TR viable category is highly specific but inadequately sensitive for detecting viable tumor in TACE-treated HCC on conventional multiphasic CT. Adding arterial subtraction images to the conventional CT images significantly increases sensitivity without compromising the specificity and improves the diagnostic confidence of LR-TR viable category. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can a Novel Deep Neural Network Improve the Computer-Aided Detection of Solid Pulmonary Nodules and the Rate of False-Positive Findings in Comparison to an Established Machine Learning Computer-Aided Detection?
Conclusions The new deep learning–based CAD software (VD20A) shows similar sensitivity with the conventional CAD software (VD10F), but a significantly higher specificity. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Measured Multipoint Ultra-High b-Value Diffusion MRI in the Assessment of MRI-Detected Prostate Lesions
Conclusions Despite evaluation of a large b-value range and inclusion of 2-point, multipoint, and kurtosis models, none of the parameters provided better predictive performance than standard 2-point ADC measurements using b-values 50/1000 or 50/1500. Our results suggest that most of the diagnostic benefits available in diffusion MRI are already represented in an ADC composed of one low and one 1000 to 1500 s/mm2 b-value. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Magnetization Transfer Imaging Predicts Porcine Kidney Recovery After Revascularization of Renal Artery Stenosis
Conclusions Renal STK-MTR, particularly at 600 Hz offset, is sensitive to hemodynamic changes after PTRA in swine RVD and capable of noninvasively predicting post-PTRA kidney perfusion, RBF, and fibrosis. Therefore, STK-MTR may be a valuable tool to predict renal hemodynamic and functional recovery, as well as residual kidney fibrosis after revascularization in RVD. Magnetization transfer imaging is a novel noninvasive tool for the detection of kidney fibrosis, but its association with kidney function and hemodynamics is unclear. Renovascular disease (RVD) associated with metabolic derangements elicits renal fibrosi...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Deep Learning Model for the Accurate and Reliable Classification of Disc Degeneration Based on MRI Data
Conclusions With a reliability of κ> 0.9, our system clearly outperforms average human interrater as well as intrarater reliability. With an average sensitivity of more than 90%, our classifier also surpasses state-of-the-art machine learning solutions for automatically grading disc degeneration. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Two-Minute Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping From Three-Dimensional Echo-Planar Imaging: Accuracy, Reliability, and Detection Performance in Patients With Cerebral Microbleeds
Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy, reliability, and cerebral microbleed (CMB) detection performance of 2-minute quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from 3-dimensional echo-planar imaging (3D-EPI). Materials and Methods Gadolinium phantom study was conducted using 3D-EPI, single–echo time (TE), and multi-TE gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences on two 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners to assess the accuracy between measured and theoretical susceptibility values. The institutional review board approved this prospective study, and 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled with wr...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

CT Dosimetry: What Has Been Achieved and What Remains to Be Done
Radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) has become a hot topic due to an upward trend in the number of CT procedures worldwide and the relatively high doses associated with these procedures. The main aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the most frequently used metrics for CT radiation dose characterization, discuss their strengths and limitations, and present patient dose assessment methods. Computed tomography dosimetry is still based on a CT dose index (CTDI) measured using 100-mm-long pencil ionization chambers and standard dosimetry phantoms (CTDI100). This dose index is easily measured but has i...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Contrast: Gas Microbubbles in the Vasculature
Gas-filled microbubbles are currently in clinical use as blood pool contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. The goal of this review is to discuss the trends and issues related to these relatively unusual intravascular materials, which are not small molecules per se, not polymers, not even nanoparticles, but larger micrometer size structures, compressible, flexible, elastic, and deformable. The intent is to connect current research and initial studies from 2 to 3 decades ago, tied to gas exchange between the bubbles and surrounding biological medium, in the following areas of focus: (1) parameters of microbubble movement in...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in (Future) Cancer Staging: Note the Nodes
The presence or absence of lymph node metastases is a very important prognostic factor in patients with solid tumors. Current invasive and noninvasive diagnostic methods for N-staging like lymph node dissection, morphologic computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or positron emission tomography–computed tomography have significant limitations because of technical, biological, or anatomical reasons. Therefore, there is a great clinical need for more precise, reliable, and noninvasive N-staging in patients with solid tumors. Using ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of ironoxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI of...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Alternatives to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been used in hundreds of millions of patients in the past 30 years, with an exemplary safety record. However, assumptions made at their inception have been recently challenged, rekindling innovation efforts. This critical review outlines the motivations, technical obstacles, problems, and the most recent published progress toward the creation of alternatives to the existing gadolinium-based contrast agent. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Molecular MR Contrast Agents
We describe the requirements for a successful molecular MR contrast agent and the challenges for clinical translation. The review highlights work from the last 5 years and places an emphasis on new contrast agents that have been validated in multiple preclinical models. Applications of molecular MR include imaging of inflammation, fibrosis, fibrogenesis, thromboembolic disease, and cancers. Molecular MR is positioned to move beyond detection of disease to the quantitative staging of disease and measurement of treatment response. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

A Comprehensive View on MRI Techniques for Imaging Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the interface between the blood and brain tissue, which regulates the maintenance of homeostasis within the brain. Impaired BBB integrity is increasingly associated with various neurological diseases. To gain a better understanding of the underlying processes involved in BBB breakdown, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are highly suitable for noninvasive BBB assessment. Commonly used MRI techniques to assess BBB integrity are dynamic contrast-enhanced and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI, both relying on leakage of gadolinium-based contrast agents. A number of conceptually diff...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Toward Quantification: Microstructure and Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a long-standing challenge. We advocate that the origin of the problem is the simplification applied in commonly used models of the MRI signal relation to the target parameters of biological tissues. Two research fields are briefly reviewed as ways to respond to the challenge of quantitative MRI, both experiencing an exponential growth right now. Microstructure MRI strives to build physiology-based models from cells to signal and, given the signal, back to the cells again. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting aims at efficient simultaneous determination of multiple signal parame...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Confounding Thoracic Tubes and Pleural Dehiscence Extent on Artificial Intelligence Pneumothorax Detection in Chest Radiographs
Conclusions Our detailed subgroup analysis demonstrated that the performance of established AI algorithms for PTX detection trained on public datasets strongly depends on PTX size and is significantly biased by confounding image features, such as inserted TTS. Our established, clinically relevant and radiologically annotated benchmarking cohort might be of great benefit for ongoing algorithm development. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Contrast Saline Mixture DualFlow Injection Protocols for Low-Kilovolt Computed Tomography Angiography: A Systematic Phantom and Animal Study
Conclusion DualFlow injection protocols can be tailored for low-kV CTA by reducing the IDR while overall flow rate remains unchanged. Although no differences in attenuation were found, DF injections offer a shorter time to peak closer to the reference 120 kV protocol. This allows the use of DF injection protocols to calibrate bolus density in low-kV CTA and yields the potential for a more individualized CM administration. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Spiral 3-Dimensional T1-Weighted Turbo Field Echo: Increased Speed for Magnetization-Prepared Gradient Echo Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives Spiral magnetic resonance imaging acquisition may enable improved image quality and higher scan speeds than Cartesian trajectories. We tested the performance of four 3D T1-weighted (T1w) TFE sequences (magnetization-prepared gradient echo magnetic resonance sequence) with isotropic spatial resolution for brain imaging at 1.5 T in a clinical patient cohort based on qualitative and quantitative image quality metrics. Two prototypical spiral TFE sequences (spiral 1.0 and spiral 0.85) and a Cartesian compressed sensing technology accelerated TFE sequence (CS 2.5; acceleration factor of 2.5) were compared with a ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Tomoelastography for Measurement of Tumor Volume Related to Tissue Stiffness in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas
Objectives Estimations of tumor volume and boundary in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are crucial for surgery planning. The aim of the study is to evaluate tomoelastography for detection of PDAC and quantification of PDAC volume based on tissue stiffness. Materials and Methods From March 2018 to December 2019, a total of 102 participants (30 healthy participants and 72 patients with histologically proven PDAC) were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter study. Multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was combined with tomoelastography postprocessing to generate maps of shear wave speed (SWS) depi...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Radiation Dose to the Fetus From Computed Tomography of Pregnant Patients—Development and Validation of a Web-Based Tool
Conclusions A tool for fetal dose assessments from CT of pregnant patients was developed and validated being freely available on a user-friendly web interface. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Limited Sensitivity of Chest Computed Tomography Relative to Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infection: A Systematic Review on COVID-19 Diagnostics
Conclusions The difference between the sensitivities of CT and RT-PCR for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is lower than previously thought, as after stratifying the studies, the true sensitivity for CT based on the unbiased studies is limited. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Advocating the Development of Next-Generation, Advanced-Design Low-Field Magnetic Resonance Systems
New next-generation low-field magnetic resonance imaging systems (operating in the range of 0.5 T) hold great potential for increasing access to clinical diagnosis and needed health care both in developed countries and worldwide. The relevant history concerning the choice of field strength, which resulted in 1.5 T still dominating today the number of installed systems, is considered, together with design advances possible because of interval developments, since low field was considered for clinical use in the 1980s, and current research. The potential impact of low-cost, advanced-generation low-field magnetic resonance ima...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Venous Stents at 1.5 T: Susceptibility Artifacts and Radiofrequency Shielding
Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging in the vicinity of commercially available venous stents is feasible at 1.5 T with no substantial susceptibility-induced artifacts but reduced transmit and receive B1 field strengths inside the stents. The strength and homogeneity of the intraluminal B1 depend on the stents’ fabrication (woven or laser-cut) and cell geometry. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Imaging of Tumor Vasculature With Positively Charged Microbubbles
We report the use of electrostatic interaction to achieve adherence of microbubbles to tumor vasculature and resulting tumor delineation by ultrasound imaging. Methods and Materials Microbubbles were prepared from decafluorobutane gas by amalgamation of aqueous micellar medium. Distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stearate were used as microbubble shell-forming lipids; cationic lipid distearoyl trimethylammoniumpropane (DSTAP) was included to introduce positive electrostatic charge. Microbubbles were subjected to flotation in normal gravity, to remove larger particles. Murine colon adenoca...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Inversion Recovery Susceptibility Weighted Imaging With Enhanced T2 Weighting at 3 T Improves Visualization of Subpial Cortical Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
Objectives Cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be extensive. Cortical lesions contribute to disability independently from white matter lesions and may form via a distinct mechanism. However, current magnetic resonance imaging methods at 3 T are insensitive to cortical, and especially subpial cortical, lesions. Subpial lesions are well seen on T2*-weighted imaging at 7 T, but T2*-weighted methods on 3 T scanners are limited by poor lesion-to-cortex and cerebrospinal fluid-to-lesion contrast. We aimed to develop and evaluate a cerebrospinal fluid–suppressed, T2*-weighted sequence optim...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quiet FLAIR at 7T MRI
Conclusions Reducing sound pressure by 80% in FLAIR imaging at 7T ultra-high-field MRI is feasible while maintaining high diagnostic image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Toward the Clinical Development and Validation of a Thy1-Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Agent for the Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Objectives Materials and Methods We recombinantly expressed the Thy1-scFv with a carboxy-terminus cysteine residue to facilitate its thioether conjugation to the PEGylated MBs presenting with maleimide functional groups. After the scFv-MB conjugations, we tested binding activity of the MBThy1-scFv to MS1 cells overexpressing human Thy1 (MS1Thy1) under liquid shear stress conditions in vitro using a flow chamber setup at 0.6 mL/min flow rate, corresponding to a wall shear stress rate of 100 seconds−1, similar to that in tumor capillaries. For in vivo Thy1 US molecular imaging, MBThy1-scFv was tested in the transge...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Susceptibility-Based Characterization of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations
Conclusions Susceptibility changes indicating blood deoxygenation across cerebral AVMs were shown for the first time in this study and were associated with the presence of perinidal blood products. Deoxygenation measures may serve as functional characterization of AVM vasculature and may offer the potential for individual treatment assessment and possible risk stratification. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Accelerated T2 Mapping of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc: Highly Undersampled K-Space Data for Robust T: 2: Relaxation Time Measurement in Clinically Feasible Acquisition Times
Objectives Materials and Methods Fifty-eight individuals (26 female; mean age, 23.3 ± 8.1 years) were prospectively studied at 3 T. GRAPPATINI was conducted with the same parameters as the 2D-MESE while shortening the acquisition time from 13:18 to 2:27 minutes. The setup was also validated in a phantom experiment using a 6.48-hour-long single echo-spin echo sequence as reference. The IVDs were manually segmented on 4 central slices. Results The median nucleus pulposus showed a strong Pearson correlation coefficient between T2GRAPPATINI and T2MESE (rp = 0.919; P (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Simultaneous Dual-Contrast Imaging of Small Bowel With Iodine and Bismuth Using Photon-Counting-Detector Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Animal Study
Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of iodine and bismuth in small bowel of swine using PCD-CT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury After Radiocontrast-Enhanced Computerized Tomography in Hospitalized Patients With Advanced Renal Failure: A Propensity-Score-Matching Analysis
Conclusion Although radiocontrast-enhanced CT is considered safe in most hospitalized patients and in ambulatory settings, the risk of PC-AKI remains significant among inpatients with substantial preimaging renal functional impairment. Caution is warranted using iodine-based enhanced CT in hospitalized patients with an eGFR of 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or lower. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Tailoring Contrast Media Protocols to Varying Tube Voltages in Vascular and Parenchymal CT Imaging: The 10-to-10 Rule
This article proposes a simple rule of thumb for how to adapt the contrast media protocol to any kV setting: the 10-to-10 rule. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A Solution for Homogeneous Liver Enhancement in Computed Tomography: Results From the COMpLEx Trial
Objectives The aim of the study was to reach homogeneous enhancement of the liver, irrespective of total body weight (TBW) or tube voltage. An easy-to-use rule of thumb, the 10-to-10 rule, which pairs a 10 kV reduction in tube voltage with a 10% decrease in contrast media (CM) dose, was evaluated. Materials and Methods A total of 256 patients scheduled for an abdominal CT in portal venous phase were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 64), a tube voltage of 120 kV and a TBW-adapted CM injection protocol was used: 0.521 g I/kg. In group 2 (n = 63), tube voltage was 90 kV and the TBW-adapted CM dosing f...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With BR55, a Predictive Tool of Antiangiogenic Treatment Efficacy in a Chemo-Induced Mammary Tumor Model
Conclusions Anatomical, functional, and molecular evaluations are feasible in a single examination using BR55 ultrasound targeted contrast agent. Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 can depict an early response to antiangiogenic treatment in a rat mammary tumor model. This imaging modality has a potential for early assessment of each patient's response, which could be useful to take decisions on therapeutic protocol, providing as such an imaging tool for personalized medicine. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Reproducibility of Bolus Transit Quantification With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Across Multiple Scanners and Analysis Software Packages—A Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance Study
Conclusions The present study will lay the groundwork for multicenter patient evaluations with CEUS quantification of perfusion-related parameters with the bolus transit technique. When using the protocol and method developed here, it is possible to perform perfusion quantification on different scanners and analysis software and be able to compare the results. The current work is the first study that presents a comparison of bolus transit parameters derived from multiple systems and software packages. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Human Hair as a Possible Surrogate Marker of Retained Tissue Gadolinium: A Pilot Autopsy Study Correlating Gadolinium Concentrations in Hair With Brain and Other Tissues Among Decedents Who Received Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Objectives We used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to quantify gadolinium in hair samples from autopsy cases with gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure. Hair gadolinium data were correlated with gadolinium concentrations in brain, skin, and bone tissues from the same case to investigate a potential noninvasive method for gadolinium quantification and monitoring. Materials and Methods Medical records from autopsy cases at our institution were screened for history of GBCA exposure. Cases with exposure to a single type of GBCA with the most recent injection occurring within 1 year we...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gray Matter Nucleus Hyperintensity After Monthly Triple-Dose Gadopentetate Dimeglumine With Long-term Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives Gadolinium deposition is widely believed to occur, but questions regarding accumulation pattern and permanence remain. We conducted a retrospective study of intracranial signal changes on monthly triple-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from the previously published Betaseron vs. Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis With Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-Tesla MRI Endpoints Trial (N = 67) to characterize the dynamics of gadolinium deposition in several deep brain nuclei and track persistence versus washout of gadolinium deposition on long-term follow-up (LTFU) examinations (N = 28) obta...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Radiology: Current State and Considerations for Routine Clinical Implementation
Although artificial intelligence (AI) has been a focus of medical research for decades, in the last decade, the field of radiology has seen tremendous innovation and also public focus due to development and application of machine-learning techniques to develop new algorithms. Interestingly, this innovation is driven simultaneously by academia, existing global medical device vendors, and—fueled by venture capital—recently founded startups. Radiologists find themselves once again in the position to lead this innovation to improve clinical workflows and ultimately patient outcome. However, although the end of toda...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Variability and Standardization of Quantitative Imaging
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Variability and Standardization of Quantitative Imaging: Monoparametric to Multiparametric Quantification, Radiomics, and Artificial Intelligence
Radiological images have been assessed qualitatively in most clinical settings by the expert eyes of radiologists and other clinicians. On the other hand, quantification of radiological images has the potential to detect early disease that may be difficult to detect with human eyes, complement or replace biopsy, and provide clear differentiation of disease stage. Further, objective assessment by quantification is a prerequisite of personalized/precision medicine. This review article aims to summarize and discuss how the variability of quantitative values derived from radiological images are induced by a number of factors a...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Future of Diagnostic Computed Tomography: An Update on Physicochemical Properties, Safety, and Development of X-ray Contrast Media
Iodinated contrast media (CM) are utilized in approximately 40% of the 300 million computed tomography (CT) scans undertaken annually. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties and safety of iodinated CM, and the development of new x-ray CM, and it explores methods to optimize CT scanning parameters. It concludes that good x-ray CM should have high structural stability, hydrophilicity, and CT attenuation; low viscosity, osmolality, and protein binding; no metabolism and tissue accumulation; and a complete elimination. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Developments in X-Ray Contrast Media and the Potential Impact on Computed Tomography
Over the past 120 years, continuous developments in medical imaging has improved diagnosis and treatment for many diseases and has thereby improved treatment outcome and quality of life of many patients. The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations is today increasing by 4% per year worldwide, for a total of approximately 300 million CT scans per year. About 40% of CT scans are contrast enhanced. Intravenous iodinated contrast media are commonly used for contrast enhancement in CT scans to evaluate diseases and determine treatment response. The current gold standards for intravenous x-ray contrast media in CT or int...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research