Ultrafast Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Neurological Emergencies: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Patient Management
Conclusions Ultrafast-MRI enables time-optimized diagnostic workup in acute neurological emergencies at high sensitivity and specificity compared with a standard-length protocol, with direct impact on patient management. Ultrafast MRI protocols are a powerful tool in the emergency setting and may be implemented on various scanner types based on the optimization of individual acquisition parameters. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantification of Aortic Stiffness by Ultrasound Time-Harmonic Elastography: The Effect of Intravascular Pressure on Elasticity Measures in a Porcine Model
Conclusions In our model, aortic stiffness measurements by ultrasound time-harmonic elastography are influenced to a small extent by mean arterial pressure in a range of 1.89% to 8.60%. These findings emphasize the potential of ultrasound THE for measuring the intrinsic stiffness of the aortic wall in clinical routine. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dual Plasma Sampling Method to Determine the Hepatic and Renal Clearance of the 2 Diastereoisomers of Gd-EOB-DTPA
Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine hepatic and renal clearance of the 2 diastereoisomers (Gd-A, Gd-B) of Gd-EOB-DTPA separately. Materials and Methods Between July 2017 and February 2018, 41 patients with hepatic disease were prospectively included. For each patient, 1 mL of iopromide (to determine glomerular filtration rate [GFR]) was coadministered with Gd-EOB-DTPA (Gd-A and Gd-B; 65:35 wt/wt). The plasma clearances of Gd-A (PCL-GdA) and Gd-B (PCL-GdB) as well as the iopromide (GFR) were generated by using dual plasma sampling method. Meanwhile, the patient's urine was collected fo...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw—Comparison of Bone Imaging Using Ultrashort Echo-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Objective The aim of this study was to compare bone imaging between ultrashort echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as the reference standard in patients with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Materials and Methods A 1-year retrospective, blinded, and randomized qualitative analysis of UTE MR images and CBCT from 19 patients with clinically diagnosed MRONJ was performed by 2 independent radiologists. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw imaging hallmarks such as osteolysis, periosteal thickening, and medullary osteosclerosis were rated visua...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Respiratory Motion Detection and Correction for MR Using the Pilot Tone: Applications for MR and Simultaneous PET/MR Examinations
Conclusions The presented method provides reliable respiratory motion tracking during arbitrary imaging sequences throughout a full PET/MR study. All results can directly be transferred to MR-only applications as well. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Safety Analysis of Iobitridol as a Nonionic Contrast Medium: A Postmarketing Multicenter Surveillance Study With 94,960 Patients Almost 20 Years After Introduction
Objectives Our study sought to reevaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of iobitridol as a nonionic contrast medium after almost 20 years of use. Materials and methods This noninterventional postmarketing surveillance noncontrolled, multicenter (168 centers in Germany) study enrolled 94,960 patients receiving intravenous or intra-arterial iobitridol. The majority of the adjusted population (n = 92,550, 98.2%) underwent either computed tomography examination (n = 46,502, 49.3%) or intravenous urography (n = 46,048, 48.8%). A standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain patient's information, known risk factors...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Long-Term Evaluation of Gadolinium Retention in Rat Brain After Single Injection of a Clinically Relevant Dose of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and chemical forms of residual gadolinium (Gd) in rat brain after a single dose of Gd-based contrast agent. Methods Four groups of healthy rats (2 sacrifice time-points, n = 10/group, 80 rats in total) were randomized to receive a single intravenous injection of 1 of the 3 Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) (gadoterate meglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, or gadodiamide) or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution. The injected concentration was 0.6 mmol/kg, corresponding to a concentration of 0.1 mmol/kg in humans after body surface normalization between rats a...
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dose Finding Study of Gadopiclenol, a New Macrocyclic Contrast Agent, in MRI of Central Nervous System
Conclusions Between the doses of 0.025 and 0.2 mmol/kg of gadopiclenol, the increase in CNR is linear. Compared with gadobenate dimeglumine at 0.1 mmol/kg, the doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mmol/kg of gadopiclenol gave similar or significantly greater contrast enhancement, respectively, and thus both doses can be considered for future phase III studies. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effect of Long-Term Retention of Gadolinium on Metabolism of Deep Cerebellar Nuclei After Repeated Injections of Gadodiamide in Rats
Conclusions Repeated administration of gadodiamide lead to a retention of gadolinium preferentially within DCN at 1 year postinjections. This retention did not lead to any detectable changes of the measured metabolic biomarkers nor histological alterations. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Detector Sampling on Noise Reduction in Clinical Photon-Counting Whole-Body Computed Tomography
Conclusions Reconstruction of UHR data with a modulation transfer function below the system's resolution limit reduces image noise for all patient sizes and tube voltages compared with standard acquisitions. Thus, a relevant dose reduction may be clinically possible while maintaining image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Using a Dual-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Automated Detection of Pediatric Supracondylar Fracture on Conventional Radiography
This study aimed to develop a dual-input convolutional neural network (CNN)–based deep-learning algorithm that utilizes both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral elbow radiographs for the automated detection of pediatric supracondylar fracture in conventional radiography, and assess its feasibility and diagnostic performance. Materials and Methods To develop the deep-learning model, 1266 pairs of AP and lateral elbow radiographs examined between January 2013 and December 2017 at a single institution were split into a training set (1012 pairs, 79.9%) and a validation set (254 pairs, 20.1%). We performed external tests ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dose Reduction for Sinus and Temporal Bone Imaging Using Photon-Counting Detector CT With an Additional Tin Filter
Conclusions Phantom and cadaver studies demonstrated dose reduction using Sn-100 kV PCD-CT compared with current clinical EID-CT while maintaining the desired image contrast. Dose reduction was further validated in sinus and temporal bone patient studies. The ultra-high resolution capability from PCD-CT allowed improved anatomical delineation for sinus imaging compared with current clinical standard. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Improved Detection of Benign and Malignant Rib Lesions in the Routine Computed Tomography Workup of Oncological Patients Using Automated Unfolded Rib Image Postprocessing
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the automated computed tomography (CT) postprocessing software unfolded rib images for improved detection of both benign and malignant rib lesions during routine diagnostic workup of oncological patients. Materials and Methods One thousand eight in-patients and out-patients (63.66 ± 14.25 years; range, 18.67–95.67 years; 405 females and 603 males), undergoing chest CT between July 2018 to January 2019 at our institution, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients underwent chest CT alone or as part of a whole-body CT staging/restaging. The C...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Development of Upright Computed Tomography With Area Detector for Whole-Body Scans: Phantom Study, Efficacy on Workflow, Effect of Gravity on Human Body, and Potential Clinical Impact
Objectives Multiple human systems are greatly affected by gravity, and many disease symptoms are altered by posture. However, the overall anatomical structure and pathophysiology of the human body while standing has not been thoroughly analyzed due to the limitations of various upright imaging modalities, such as low spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, limited scan range, or long examination time. Recently, we developed an upright computed tomography (CT), which enables whole-torso cross-sectional scanning with 3-dimensional acquisition within 15 seconds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Dedicated Spiral Breast Computed Tomography With a Single Photon-Counting Detector: Initial Results of the First 300 Women
Conclusions The dedicated B-CT provides high-quality images. It can be used as alternative particularly in those patients not otherwise willing to perform mammography because of the breast compression. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography for Coronary Stent Imaging: Evaluation of the Potential Clinical Impact for the Delineation of In-Stent Restenosis
Conclusions Spectral photon-counting CT allowed for the noninvasive evaluation of ISR with reliable results regarding the residual lumen for most tested stents and the clear identification or suspicion of stenosis for all stents. In contrast, the residual lumen could not be detected for a single stent using DLCT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Cloverleaf Sign in Pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Association With Longer Operation Times, Greater Blood Loss, and Higher Rates of Bowel Resection
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of a new imaging sign, the “cloverleaf sign,” in diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in concordance to intraoperative findings. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 103 patients operated during the January 2016 to June 2018 period with preoperative 1.5 T and 3 T MRI, with or without vaginal and rectal gel filling. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were read blinded to intraoperative findings by a specialized gynecologic radiologist and a junior radiologist, and then compare...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dual-Energy Low-keV or Single-Energy Low-kV CT for Endoleak Detection?: A 6-Reader Study in an Aortic Aneurysm Phantom
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare image quality, conspicuity, and endoleak detection between single-energy low-kV images (SEIs) and dual-energy low-keV virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs+) in computed tomography angiography of the aorta after endovascular repair. Materials and Methods An abdominal aortic aneurysm phantom simulating 36 endoleaks (2 densities; diameters: 2, 4, and 6 mm) in a medium- and large-sized patient was used. Each size was scanned using single-energy at 80 kVp (A) and 100 kVp (B), and dual-energy at 80/Sn150kVp for the medium (C) and 90/Sn150kVp for the large size (D). VMIs+ at 40 k...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Risk of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Iopromide After Intra-Arterial Versus Intravenous Administration: A Nested Case-Control Analysis of 133,331 Patients
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the risk of hypersensitivity reactions to iopromide after intra-arterial (IA) administration and intravenous (IV) administration. Materials and Methods Four observational studies were pooled. Almost half of the study population (48.1%) was from Europe, and one quarter each from China (27.6%) and other Asia countries (24.1%). All patients received iopromide either intra-arterially or intravenously for angiographic procedures (mostly cardio-angiography) or contrast-enhanced computed tomography. A nested case-control analysis, including a multivariable logistic regression mo...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gadolinium Retention in Erythrocytes and Leukocytes From Human and Murine Blood Upon Treatment With Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusions The detection of significant amounts of Gd in RBCs and WBCs indicates that GBCAs can cross blood cell membranes. This finding may play a role in our understanding of the processes that are at the basis of Gd retention in the tissues of patients who have received the administration of GBCAs. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased T1 Signal Intensity of the Anterior Pituitary Gland on Unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Images After Chronic Exposure to Gadodiamide
Objective The aim of this study was to assess the signal intensity of the anterior pituitary (AP) gland on unenhanced T1-weighted images in patients with history of serial intravenous injections of gadodiamide and normal renal function. Materials and Methods We included 53 patients who had undergone at least 5 injections of gadodiamide and a control group of 15 subjects who underwent at least 5 brain magnetic resonance imaging without gadolinium-based contrast agents. Using unenhanced sagittal T1-weighted images, values of mean signal intensity of the AP and of the central pons were obtained. Anterior pituitary–...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gadolinium Retention as a Safety Signal: Experience of a Manufacturer
Conclusions The manufacturers of GBCAs had to face different situations according to the countries, due to the different positions and expectations from regulatory agencies. They have adapted their responses to the different positions of the regulatory agencies and conducted specific preclinical and clinical investigations to provide the expected evidence. It is also their responsibility to continuously monitor the benefit-risk balance of the products and to propose risk minimization measures to the regulatory agencies. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Recent and Upcoming Technological Developments in Computed Tomography: High Speed, Low Dose, Deep Learning, Multienergy
The advent of computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized radiology, and this revolution is still going on. Starting as a pure head scanner, modern CT systems are now able to perform whole-body examinations within a couple of seconds in isotropic resolution, single-rotation whole-organ perfusion, and temporal resolution to fulfill the needs of cardiac CT. Because of the increasing number of CT examinations in all age groups and overall medical-driven radiation exposure, dose reduction remains a hot topic. Although fast gantry rotation, broad detector arrays, and different dual-energy solutions were main topics in the past ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

A Practical Guide to Artificial Intelligence–Based Image Analysis in Radiology
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) is a powerful tool for image analysis that is increasingly being evaluated by radiology professionals. However, due to the fact that these methods have been developed for the analysis of nonmedical image data and data structure in radiology departments is not “AI ready”, implementing AI in radiology is not straightforward. The purpose of this review is to guide the reader through the pipeline of an AI project for automated image analysis in radiology and thereby encourage its implementation in radiology departments. At the same time, this review aims to enable readers to ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Physicochemical and Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Gadopiclenol: A New Macrocyclic Gadolinium Chelate With High T1 Relaxivity: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Contrast Media Research 2019 “Ettore Majorana” Foundation and International Centre for Scientific Culture, Erice, Sicily, Italy, November 10–15, 2019 Conveners: Carlo C. Quattrocchi, MD, PhD and Silvio Aime, PhD
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Abstracts Source Type: research

Image Artifact Management for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging on a 7 T Scanner Using Single-Channel Radiofrequency Transmit Mode
Conclusions Challenges relating to severe image artifacts at 7 T using single-channel radiofrequency transmit functionality in the knee and brain were overcome using the approaches described in this article. The resultant high diagnostic image quality paves the way for incorporation of this technology into the routine clinical workflow. Further developmental efforts are required to expand the range of applications to other anatomical areas, and to expand the evidence- and knowledge-base relating to the safety of scanning patients with implanted metallic devices. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Report Source Type: research

Low-Radiation-Dose Stress Myocardial Perfusion Measurement Using First-Pass Analysis Dynamic Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Investigation in a Swine Model
Conclusions Accurate low-radiation-dose global stress perfusion measurement is feasible using a prospective FPA dynamic CT perfusion technique. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Breast Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T in Biopsy-Proven Breast Cancers: Does Choline Peak Correlate With Prognostic Factors?
Objectives The role of functional techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), as noninvasive tools to increase breast MR imaging reliability has been widely investigated during the last 2 decades. Considering the growing interest in tumor biology and its influence on functional parameters, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 1H-MRS parameters and breast cancer biomarkers and to evaluate whether the results of 1H-MRS at 3 T can correlate with established breast cancer prognostic factors in our clinical experience. Materials and Methods One hundred two patients with biopsy...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Radial Gradient-Echo Sequences With Nonlinear Inverse Reconstruction
Conclusions Real-time gradient-echo MRI with extreme radial undersampling and nonlinear inverse reconstruction allows for direct monitoring of arbitrary physiological processes and body functions. In many cases, pertinent applications offer hitherto impossible clinical studies (eg, of high-resolution swallowing dynamics) or bear the potential to replace existing MRI procedures (eg, electrocardiogram-gated cardiac examinations). As a consequence, many novel opportunities will require a change of paradigm in MRI-based radiology. At this stage, extended clinical trials are needed. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Free-Breathing Fast Low-Angle Shot Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Improved Detection of Vascular Stenoses in the Pelvis and Abdomen: Technical Development
Objectives Balanced steady-state free precession-based quiescent-interval slice-selective (bSSFP QISS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is accurate for the noncontrast evaluation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD); however, drawbacks include the need for breath-holding when imaging the abdomen and pelvis, and sensitivity to off-resonance artifacts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy in the pelvis and abdomen of free-breathing fast low-angle shot-based QISS (FLASH QISS) techniques in comparison to bSSFP QISS in patients with PAD, using computed tomographic angiography...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Improved Liver Diffusion-Weighted Imaging at 3 T Using Respiratory Triggering in Combination With Simultaneous Multislice Acceleration
Objectives The aim of this study was to retrospectively compare optimized respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted imaging with simultaneous multislice acceleration (SMS-RT-DWI) of the liver with a standard free-breathing echo-planar DWI (s-DWI) protocol at 3 T with respect to the imaging artifacts inherent to DWI. Materials and Methods Fifty-two patients who underwent a magnetic resonance imaging study of the liver were included in this retrospective study. Examinations were performed on a 3 T whole-body magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Skyra; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). In all patients, both s-DWI and...
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Hepatic Perfusion Using GRASP MRI: Bringing Liver MRI on a New Level
Conclusions Dynamic contrast-enhanced GRASP MRI allows for a reliable and robust assessment of hepatic perfusion parameters providing quantitative results comparable to VPCT and enables characterization of HCC before and after TACE, thus posing the potential to serve as an alternative to VPCT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - November 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Free-Breathing Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging of the Upper Abdomen Using a Cartesian Compressed-Sensing Sequence With Hard-Gated and Motion-State-Resolved Reconstruction
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare a compressed-sensing free-breathing VIBE (fbVIBE) with a conventional breath-hold VIBE (bhVIBE) for dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging of the upper abdomen. Materials and Methods In total, 70 datasets (bhVIBE, n = 30; fbVIBE n = 40; hard-gated [hg] reconstruction, n = 30; motion-state-resolved [mr] reconstruction, n = 10) were assessed by 2 experienced readers. Both sequences were performed on 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanners. The prototypical fbVIBE sequence acquired a navigation signal along with the imaging data and supported 2 different reconstructions: an hg...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Transcranial Shear Wave Elastography of Neonatal and Infant Brains for Quantitative Evaluation of Increased Intracranial Pressure
Objectives Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in neonates and infants is a severe disease state that requires adequate diagnosis and, depending on the clinical situation and whether it is increasing, a rapid and efficient therapy. Clinical evaluation, B-mode ultrasound, and Doppler ultrasound give rise to a basic noninvasive diagnosis of increased ICP. The purpose of this prospective study was 2-fold: first, to analyze the technical feasibility of obtaining shear wave elastography (SWE) measurements of an infant's brain, and second, to compare the values of healthy neonates to those who have hydrocephalus and are eith...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Three Tesla 3D High-Resolution Vessel Wall MRI of the Orbit may Differentiate Arteritic From Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Background Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is the most common cause of acute optic neuropathy in older patients. Distinguishing between arteritic AION (A-AION) and nonarteritic (NA-AION) is paramount for improved patient management. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional high-resolution vessel wall (HR-VW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T to discriminate A-AION from NA-AION. Materials and Methods This prospective single-center study was approved by a national research ethics board and included 27 patients (17 A-AION and 10 NA-AION) with 36 AIONs from December 2014 to August 201...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Modulating Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Screening in Oncologic Tertiary Prevention: A Prospective Ex Vivo and In Vivo Study
This study aims at prospectively evaluating an adapted DWI sequence ex vivo and in vivo in oncologic patients undergoing abdominal MRI. Methods This institutional review board–approved, prospective study included phantom measurements, volunteer examinations, and oncologic patient examinations of the abdomen. Fifty-seven MRI examinations in 54 patients (mean age, 58 years; range, 21–90 years) were included into the analysis. The MRI examination were performed at a 1.5 T MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Aera; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and included both a standard EPI-DWI (s-DWI; b = 50, 900 s/mm2) and an ada...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Tumor Contrast Enhancement and Whole-Body Elimination of the Manganese-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Mn-PyC3A
Objectives The goals of this study were to compare the efficacy of the new manganese-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Mn-PyC3A to the commercial gadolinium-based agents Gd-DOTA and to Gd-EOB-DTPA to detect tumors in murine models of breast cancer and metastatic liver disease, respectively, and to quantify the fractional excretion and elimination of Mn-PyC3A in rats. Methods T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI with 0.1 mmol/kg Mn-PyC3A was compared with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA in a breast cancer mouse model (n = 8) and to 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-EOB-DTPA in a liver metastasis mouse model (n = 6). The fractional...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Measuring Dynamic CT Perfusion Based on Time-Resolved Quantitative DECT Iodine Maps: Comparison to Conventional Perfusion at 80 kVp for Pancreatic Carcinoma
Discussion Iodine enhancement images can be used to calculate CT perfusion maps of blood flow, and compared with 80 kVp images, results showed only a small difference of 1 mL/100 mL/min in blood flow in healthy tissue, whereas patient radiation exposure was increased for dynamic DECT. Perfusion maps calculated based on iodine-enhancement images showed lower blood flow in fatty tissues surrounding the pancreas, indicating reduced susceptibility to residual patient breathing motion during the acquisition. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Magnetization Transfer Imaging Is Unaffected by Decreases in Renal Perfusion in Swine
Conclusions Renal MTI is insensitive to decreases in renal perfusion and may offer reliable assessment of renal structural changes. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Time-Harmonic Elastography of the Aorta: Effect of Age and Hypertension on Aortic Stiffness
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate ultrasound time-harmonic elastography for quantifying aortic stiffness in vivo in the context of aging and arterial hypertension. Materials and Methods Seventy-four participants (50 healthy participants and 24 participants with long-standing hypertension) were prospectively included between January 2018 and October 2018, and underwent ultrasound time-harmonic elastography of the upper abdominal aorta. Compound maps of shear-wave speed (SWS) as a surrogate of tissue stiffness were generated from multifrequency wave fields covering the full field-of-view of B-mode ultr...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Multiparametric Quantitative MRI for the Detection of IgA Nephropathy Using Tomoelastography, DWI, and BOLD Imaging
Objectives The aim of this study was to noninvasively evaluate changes in renal stiffness, diffusion, and oxygenation in patients with chronic, advanced stage immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging using tomoelastography, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) imaging. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 32 subjects (16 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls) underwent multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography with tomoelastography postprocessing at 4 frequencies from 40 to 70 Hz...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computed Tomography for 4-Dimensional Angiography and Perfusion Imaging of the Prostate for Embolization Planning of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computed tomography (CT) protocol enabling the visualization of the prostatic artery (PA) before prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in benign prostatic hyperplasia, which provides quantitative perfusion information of the prostate gland. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board–approved study, 22 consecutive patients (mean age, 67 ± 7 years) who were planned to undergo PAE underwent a dynamic CT scan of the pelvis (scan range, 22.4 cm; cycle time, 1.5 seconds; scan time, 44 seconds; 25 scan cycles; 70 kVp; 100 mAs) afte...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Virtual Contrast Enhancement in Brain MRI Replace Gadolinium?: A Feasibility Study
Conclusions The introduced model for virtual gadolinium enhancement demonstrates a very good quantitative and qualitative performance. Future systematic studies in larger patient collectives with varying neurological disorders need to evaluate if the introduced virtual contrast enhancement might reduce GBCA exposure in clinical practice. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Ex Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rectal Cancer Specimens Improve the Mesorectal Lymph Node Yield for Pathological Examination?
Conclusions Ex vivo MRI visualizes more LNs than (MR-guided) pathology is able to harvest. Current pathological examination was not further improved by MR guidance. The majority of LNs or LN-like structures visible on ex vivo MRI below 2 mm in size remain unexplained, which warrants a 3-dimensional approach for pathological reconstruction of specimens. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative Assessment of Bone Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Using Synthetic Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of quantitative synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (SyMRI) for characterizing bone lesions in prostate cancer and to discriminate viable progressive osteoblastic bone metastasis from nonviable bone metastases with treatment-induced sclerosis during the treatment course. Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved prospective study included 96 consecutive prostate cancer patients who underwent whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging at the time of staging at diagnosis or starting a new line of anticancer treatment....
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Changing Contrast Media in Patients With A Prior Mild Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of changing the contrast agent and single-dose premedication for HSR recurrence prevention in patients with a history of mild immediate HSR to GBCA. Materials and Methods The outcomes of patients with mild immediate HSR to GBCA who subsequently underwent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging between October 2012 and July 2017 were analyzed. The institutional CM monitoring system was retrospectively reviewed, and data on the application of premedication and choice of CM were obtained. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents were classified into 3 classes according ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Pulmonary Fibrosis Using Deep Learning and CT Images
Conclusions We found that a computer-aided detection algorithm based on machine learning was able to classify idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with similar accuracy to a human reader. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased Retention of Gadolinium in the Inflamed Brain After Repeated Administration of Gadopentetate Dimeglumine: A Proof-of-Concept Study in Mice Combining ICP-MS and Micro– and Nano–SR-XRF
Conclusions After repeated administrations of Gd-DTPA, ongoing inflammation may facilitate the retention of Gd in the brain tissue. Thus, neuroinflammation should be considered as a risk factor in the recommendation on use of linear GBCA-enhanced MRI. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Back to the Future: Lipiodol in Lymphography—From Diagnostics to Theranostics
Lipiodol is an iodinated poppy seed oil first synthesized in 1901. Originally developed for therapeutic purposes, it has mainly become a diagnostic contrast medium since the 1920s. At the end of the 20th century, Lipiodol underwent a transition back to a therapeutic agent, as exemplified by its increasing use in lymphangiography and lymphatic interventions. Nowadays, indications for lymphangiography include chylothorax, chylous ascites, chyluria, and peripheral lymphatic fistula or lymphoceles. In these indications, Lipiodol alone has a therapeutic effect with clinical success in 51% to 100% of cases. The 2 main access sit...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research