Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Venous Stents at 1.5 T: Susceptibility Artifacts and Radiofrequency Shielding
Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging in the vicinity of commercially available venous stents is feasible at 1.5 T with no substantial susceptibility-induced artifacts but reduced transmit and receive B1 field strengths inside the stents. The strength and homogeneity of the intraluminal B1 depend on the stents’ fabrication (woven or laser-cut) and cell geometry. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Imaging of Tumor Vasculature With Positively Charged Microbubbles
We report the use of electrostatic interaction to achieve adherence of microbubbles to tumor vasculature and resulting tumor delineation by ultrasound imaging. Methods and Materials Microbubbles were prepared from decafluorobutane gas by amalgamation of aqueous micellar medium. Distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-stearate were used as microbubble shell-forming lipids; cationic lipid distearoyl trimethylammoniumpropane (DSTAP) was included to introduce positive electrostatic charge. Microbubbles were subjected to flotation in normal gravity, to remove larger particles. Murine colon adenoca...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Inversion Recovery Susceptibility Weighted Imaging With Enhanced T2 Weighting at 3 T Improves Visualization of Subpial Cortical Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
Objectives Cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be extensive. Cortical lesions contribute to disability independently from white matter lesions and may form via a distinct mechanism. However, current magnetic resonance imaging methods at 3 T are insensitive to cortical, and especially subpial cortical, lesions. Subpial lesions are well seen on T2*-weighted imaging at 7 T, but T2*-weighted methods on 3 T scanners are limited by poor lesion-to-cortex and cerebrospinal fluid-to-lesion contrast. We aimed to develop and evaluate a cerebrospinal fluid–suppressed, T2*-weighted sequence optim...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quiet FLAIR at 7T MRI
Conclusions Reducing sound pressure by 80% in FLAIR imaging at 7T ultra-high-field MRI is feasible while maintaining high diagnostic image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Toward the Clinical Development and Validation of a Thy1-Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Agent for the Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Objectives Materials and Methods We recombinantly expressed the Thy1-scFv with a carboxy-terminus cysteine residue to facilitate its thioether conjugation to the PEGylated MBs presenting with maleimide functional groups. After the scFv-MB conjugations, we tested binding activity of the MBThy1-scFv to MS1 cells overexpressing human Thy1 (MS1Thy1) under liquid shear stress conditions in vitro using a flow chamber setup at 0.6 mL/min flow rate, corresponding to a wall shear stress rate of 100 seconds−1, similar to that in tumor capillaries. For in vivo Thy1 US molecular imaging, MBThy1-scFv was tested in the transge...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Susceptibility-Based Characterization of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations
Conclusions Susceptibility changes indicating blood deoxygenation across cerebral AVMs were shown for the first time in this study and were associated with the presence of perinidal blood products. Deoxygenation measures may serve as functional characterization of AVM vasculature and may offer the potential for individual treatment assessment and possible risk stratification. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Accelerated T2 Mapping of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc: Highly Undersampled K-Space Data for Robust T: 2: Relaxation Time Measurement in Clinically Feasible Acquisition Times
Objectives Materials and Methods Fifty-eight individuals (26 female; mean age, 23.3 ± 8.1 years) were prospectively studied at 3 T. GRAPPATINI was conducted with the same parameters as the 2D-MESE while shortening the acquisition time from 13:18 to 2:27 minutes. The setup was also validated in a phantom experiment using a 6.48-hour-long single echo-spin echo sequence as reference. The IVDs were manually segmented on 4 central slices. Results The median nucleus pulposus showed a strong Pearson correlation coefficient between T2GRAPPATINI and T2MESE (rp = 0.919; P (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Simultaneous Dual-Contrast Imaging of Small Bowel With Iodine and Bismuth Using Photon-Counting-Detector Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Animal Study
Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of iodine and bismuth in small bowel of swine using PCD-CT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury After Radiocontrast-Enhanced Computerized Tomography in Hospitalized Patients With Advanced Renal Failure: A Propensity-Score-Matching Analysis
Conclusion Although radiocontrast-enhanced CT is considered safe in most hospitalized patients and in ambulatory settings, the risk of PC-AKI remains significant among inpatients with substantial preimaging renal functional impairment. Caution is warranted using iodine-based enhanced CT in hospitalized patients with an eGFR of 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or lower. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Tailoring Contrast Media Protocols to Varying Tube Voltages in Vascular and Parenchymal CT Imaging: The 10-to-10 Rule
This article proposes a simple rule of thumb for how to adapt the contrast media protocol to any kV setting: the 10-to-10 rule. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A Solution for Homogeneous Liver Enhancement in Computed Tomography: Results From the COMpLEx Trial
Objectives The aim of the study was to reach homogeneous enhancement of the liver, irrespective of total body weight (TBW) or tube voltage. An easy-to-use rule of thumb, the 10-to-10 rule, which pairs a 10 kV reduction in tube voltage with a 10% decrease in contrast media (CM) dose, was evaluated. Materials and Methods A total of 256 patients scheduled for an abdominal CT in portal venous phase were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 64), a tube voltage of 120 kV and a TBW-adapted CM injection protocol was used: 0.521 g I/kg. In group 2 (n = 63), tube voltage was 90 kV and the TBW-adapted CM dosing f...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With BR55, a Predictive Tool of Antiangiogenic Treatment Efficacy in a Chemo-Induced Mammary Tumor Model
Conclusions Anatomical, functional, and molecular evaluations are feasible in a single examination using BR55 ultrasound targeted contrast agent. Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 can depict an early response to antiangiogenic treatment in a rat mammary tumor model. This imaging modality has a potential for early assessment of each patient's response, which could be useful to take decisions on therapeutic protocol, providing as such an imaging tool for personalized medicine. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Reproducibility of Bolus Transit Quantification With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Across Multiple Scanners and Analysis Software Packages—A Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance Study
Conclusions The present study will lay the groundwork for multicenter patient evaluations with CEUS quantification of perfusion-related parameters with the bolus transit technique. When using the protocol and method developed here, it is possible to perform perfusion quantification on different scanners and analysis software and be able to compare the results. The current work is the first study that presents a comparison of bolus transit parameters derived from multiple systems and software packages. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Human Hair as a Possible Surrogate Marker of Retained Tissue Gadolinium: A Pilot Autopsy Study Correlating Gadolinium Concentrations in Hair With Brain and Other Tissues Among Decedents Who Received Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Objectives We used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to quantify gadolinium in hair samples from autopsy cases with gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure. Hair gadolinium data were correlated with gadolinium concentrations in brain, skin, and bone tissues from the same case to investigate a potential noninvasive method for gadolinium quantification and monitoring. Materials and Methods Medical records from autopsy cases at our institution were screened for history of GBCA exposure. Cases with exposure to a single type of GBCA with the most recent injection occurring within 1 year we...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gray Matter Nucleus Hyperintensity After Monthly Triple-Dose Gadopentetate Dimeglumine With Long-term Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives Gadolinium deposition is widely believed to occur, but questions regarding accumulation pattern and permanence remain. We conducted a retrospective study of intracranial signal changes on monthly triple-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from the previously published Betaseron vs. Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis With Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-Tesla MRI Endpoints Trial (N = 67) to characterize the dynamics of gadolinium deposition in several deep brain nuclei and track persistence versus washout of gadolinium deposition on long-term follow-up (LTFU) examinations (N = 28) obta...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Radiology: Current State and Considerations for Routine Clinical Implementation
Although artificial intelligence (AI) has been a focus of medical research for decades, in the last decade, the field of radiology has seen tremendous innovation and also public focus due to development and application of machine-learning techniques to develop new algorithms. Interestingly, this innovation is driven simultaneously by academia, existing global medical device vendors, and—fueled by venture capital—recently founded startups. Radiologists find themselves once again in the position to lead this innovation to improve clinical workflows and ultimately patient outcome. However, although the end of toda...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Variability and Standardization of Quantitative Imaging
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Variability and Standardization of Quantitative Imaging: Monoparametric to Multiparametric Quantification, Radiomics, and Artificial Intelligence
Radiological images have been assessed qualitatively in most clinical settings by the expert eyes of radiologists and other clinicians. On the other hand, quantification of radiological images has the potential to detect early disease that may be difficult to detect with human eyes, complement or replace biopsy, and provide clear differentiation of disease stage. Further, objective assessment by quantification is a prerequisite of personalized/precision medicine. This review article aims to summarize and discuss how the variability of quantitative values derived from radiological images are induced by a number of factors a...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Future of Diagnostic Computed Tomography: An Update on Physicochemical Properties, Safety, and Development of X-ray Contrast Media
Iodinated contrast media (CM) are utilized in approximately 40% of the 300 million computed tomography (CT) scans undertaken annually. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties and safety of iodinated CM, and the development of new x-ray CM, and it explores methods to optimize CT scanning parameters. It concludes that good x-ray CM should have high structural stability, hydrophilicity, and CT attenuation; low viscosity, osmolality, and protein binding; no metabolism and tissue accumulation; and a complete elimination. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Developments in X-Ray Contrast Media and the Potential Impact on Computed Tomography
Over the past 120 years, continuous developments in medical imaging has improved diagnosis and treatment for many diseases and has thereby improved treatment outcome and quality of life of many patients. The number of computed tomography (CT) examinations is today increasing by 4% per year worldwide, for a total of approximately 300 million CT scans per year. About 40% of CT scans are contrast enhanced. Intravenous iodinated contrast media are commonly used for contrast enhancement in CT scans to evaluate diseases and determine treatment response. The current gold standards for intravenous x-ray contrast media in CT or int...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Current and Future MR Contrast Agents: Seeking a Better Chemical Stability and Relaxivity for Optimal Safety and Efficacy
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Current and Future MR Contrast Agents: Seeking a Better Chemical Stability and Relaxivity for Optimal Safety and Efficacy
This review summarizes 30 years of experience in the development and clinical use of magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. Despite their undisputable usefulness for disease diagnosis, gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have gone through 2 major safety crises. Approximately 10 years ago, the regulatory agencies decided to restrict the use of GBCAs to minimize the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Yet, following the recent discovery of Gd retention in brain, the same agencies adopted different positions ranging from suspension of marketing authorizations, changes...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Ultrasound Imaging: Something Old or Something New?
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

From Anatomy to Functional and Molecular Biomarker Imaging and Therapy: Ultrasound Is Safe, Ultrafast, Portable, and Inexpensive
Ultrasound is the most widely used medical imaging modality worldwide. It is abundant, extremely safe, portable, and inexpensive. In this review, we consider some of the current development trends for ultrasound imaging, which build upon its current strength and the popularity it experiences among medical imaging professional users. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Hounsfield's Legacy
Computed tomography (CT) has evolved over decades, offering superb morphologic imaging with isotropic resolution at rapid acquisition times. The latest developments in hardware, such as photon-counting and ultrahigh-resolution detectors, together with breakthroughs in software technology have further improved spatial and temporal resolution while steadily reducing radiation exposure. These achievements enable CT for functional imaging and make high-quality imaging more accessible through workflow automation. Radiomics, integrated diagnostics, and data science will further push CT applications beyond their current limits. (...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The Future of Computed Tomography: Personalized, Functional, and Precise
Modern medicine cannot be imagined without the diagnostic capabilities of computed tomography (CT). Although the past decade witnessed a tremendous increase in scan speed, volume coverage, and temporal resolution, along with a considerable reduction of radiation dose, current trends in CT aim toward more patient-centric, tailored imaging approaches that deliver diagnostic information being personalized to each individual patient. Functional CT with dual-and multienergy, as well as dynamic, perfusion imaging became clinical reality and will further prosper in the near future, and upcoming photon-counting detectors will deli...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Technological Advances of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Today's Healthcare Environment
Are we reacting adequately to a constantly changing clinical and scientific environment, regarding our patients, the economy, or new technologies, such as artificial intelligence? The authors of this review article have identified 3 major challenges regarding the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our clinical practice today and tomorrow: (1) the need for faster acquisitions, optimized workflows, and higher patient throughput, making MRI broadly available and applicable, also under the light of rising economic pressure; (2) adaptation to the demographic change, tailoring protocols, and procedures to the needs of an...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Technological Advances of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Today's Health Care Environment
Today's health care environment is shifting rapidly, driven by demographic change and high economic pressures on the system. Furthermore, modern precision medicine requires highly accurate and specific disease diagnostics in a short amount of time. Future imaging technology must adapt to these challenges. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

In Vivo Quantification of Water Diffusion, Stiffness, and Tissue Fluidity in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer
Objectives Water diffusion, tissue stiffness, and viscosity characterize the biophysical behavior of tumors. However, little is known about how these parameters correlate in prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, we paired tomoelastography of the prostate with diffusion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging for the quantitative mapping of biophysical parameters in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa. Materials and Methods Multifrequency magnetic resonance imaging elastography with tomoelastography processing was performed at 60, 70, and 80 Hz using externally placed compressed-air drivers. Shear-wave speed (SWS) and ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Lesion Detectability and Radiation Dose in Spiral Breast CT With Photon-Counting Detector Technology: A Phantom Study
Conclusions Optimizing tube current of spiral breast CT according to the breast size enables the visualization of microcalcifications as small as 196 μm while keeping dose values in the range of conventional mammography. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Influence of MRI Examinations on Animal Welfare and Study Results
Conclusions Repeated MRI did not influence the welfare of mice and did not affect tumor growth and therapy response of 4T1 tumors. However, systemic immunological effects of isoflurane anesthesia need to be considered to prevent potential bias. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Deep Convolutional Neural Network–Based Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: Performance Comparison of Homogenous Versus Heterogeneous Knee MRI Cohorts With Different Pulse Sequence Protocols and 1.5-T and 3-T Magnetic Field Strengths
Objectives The aim of this study was to clinically validate a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) for the detection of surgically proven anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in a large patient cohort and to analyze the effect of magnetic resonance examinations from different institutions, varying protocols, and field strengths. Materials and Methods After ethics committee approval, this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed on 512 consecutive subjects, who underwent knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a total of 59 different institutions followed by arthroscopic knee surgery ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

X-ray Dark-Field Radiography: Potential for Visualization of Monosodium Urate Deposition
Conclusions X-ray dark-field radiography enables the detection of MSU crystals in a mouse-based gout model. The simultaneous avaliability of a conventional attenuation image together with the dark-field image provides excellent detection rates of gout deposits with high specificity. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Super-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee Using 2-Dimensional Turbo Spin Echo Imaging
Conclusions We demonstrate the technical feasibility of SRR for high-resolution isotropic knee MRI. Our SRR results show superior image quality in terms of edge blurring, but lower image contrast and fluid brightness when compared with conventional 3D SPACE acquisitions. Further contrast optimization and shortening of the acquisition time with state-of-the-art acceleration techniques are necessary for future clinical validation of SRR knee MRI. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Is Small Fiber Neuropathy Induced by Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents?
Objectives In recent years, complaints of patients about burning pain in arms and legs after the injection of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been reported. In the current study, we investigated changes of small fibers in the epidermis as a potential cause of the patient complaints in a mouse model. Methods Six groups of 8 mice were intravenously injected with either a macrocyclic GBCA (gadoteridol, gadoterate meglumine, gadobutrol), a linear GBCA (gadodiamide or gadobenate dimeglumine) (1 mmol/kg body weight), or saline (NaCl 0.9%). Four weeks after injection, animals were euthanized, and footpads were ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

In Vivo Aortic Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Validation in an Animal Model
This study aims to evaluate noninvasive in vivo aortic MRE-derived stiffness in an AAA porcine model and investigate the relationships between MRE-derived AAA stiffness and (1) histopathology, (2) uniaxial tensile test, and (3) burst testing for assessing MRE's potential in evaluating AAA rupture risk. Materials and Methods Abdominal aortic aneurysm was induced in 31 Yorkshire pigs (n = 226 stiffness measurements). Animals were randomly divided into 3 cohorts: 2-week, 4-week, and 4-week-burst. Aortic MRE was sequentially performed. Histopathologic analyses were performed to quantify elastin, collagen, and mineral densit...
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantification of Avoidable Radiation Exposure in Interventional Fluoroscopy With Eye Tracking Technology
This study included 30 cardiovascular interventions performed by 5 different operators. A significant percentage of the administered radiation (mean [SD], 43.5% [12.6%]) was avoidable (t29 = 18.86, P (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Steady-State Multifrequency Magnetic Resonance Elastography of the Thoracic and Abdominal Human Aorta—Validation and Reference Values
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of stroboscopic-wavefield-sampling-based multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (sMRE) for quantifying the stiffness of the human thoracic and abdominal aorta in vivo. Materials and Methods The sMRE of the thoracic and abdominal aorta was performed at 1.5 T field strength in 20 healthy volunteers aged 27 to 77 years (3 women; median age, 33 years; interquartile range [IQR], 16 years). Compound maps of shear wave speed (SWS) were reconstructed and evaluated during the diastolic phase in 3 anatomical regions: ascending thoracic aorta (AA), descend...
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Novel Magnetic Resonance Late Gadolinium Enhancement With Fixed Short Inversion Time in Ischemic Myocardial Scars
Conclusions Short LGE is a fast, single breath-hold 3D LGE sequence with no need for myocardial nulling due to fixed inversion time with improved scar visibility, especially in subendocardial infarcts. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening of Women With Extremely Dense Breasts to Reduce False-Positive Diagnoses
Conclusions Dedicated multiparametric CAD of breast MRI for BI-RADS 3 and 4 lesions in screening of women with extremely dense breasts has the potential to reduce false-positive diagnoses and consequently to reduce the number of biopsies without missing cancers. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Low-Grade Focal Cartilage Lesions in the Knee With Sodium MRI at 7 T: Reproducibility and Short-Term, 6-Month Follow-up Data
Conclusions In vivo 23Na-MRI is a robust and reproducible method that allows to differentiate between low-grade, focal cartilage lesions and normal-appearing articular cartilage, which supports the concept that compositional cartilage changes can be found early, before the development of advanced morphological changes visible at clinical 3-T MRI. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Subregion Radiomics Analysis to Display Necrosis After Hepatic Microwave Ablation—A Proof of Concept Study
Conclusions Subregion radiomics analysis may improve visualization of coagulation necrosis after hepatic MWA in an in vivo porcine model. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Performance of Chest CT in Evaluating the Clinical Severity of COVID-19 Pneumonia: Identifying Critical Cases Based on CT Characteristics
Conclusions A rapid, accurate severity assessment of COVID-19 pneumonia based on chest CT would be feasible and could provide help for making management decisions, especially for the critical cases. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Establishing Reference Intervals for Gadolinium Concentrations in Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Individuals Not Previously Exposed to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Objectives Over the recent years, there have been increasing concerns that exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) may be associated with retention of Gd within the skin, bones, and solid organs in patients with normal renal function, although the clinical implications of this deposition remain to be established. There are no published data available to guide the development of reference intervals for Gd concentrations in biological samples from healthy people. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether healthy individuals who have not received GBCAs have detectable concentrations of Gd in their bl...
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Needle Heating During Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5- and 3.0-T Field Strengths
Conclusions Under the herein used experimental conditions, clinically used MR-conditional needles can heat to supraphysiologic temperatures during prolonged MRI at 1.5 and 3.0 T field strengths; however, the temperature rise can be balanced to physiological ranges with proper selection of needle length, needle orientation, and pulse sequence parameters. Caution must be exercised when using different MRI systems, as results may not directly translate. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Right-Angled Traction Bronchiectasis in Differentiating Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Without Honeycombing From Idiopathic Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia
Objectives The aim of this study was to conduct a radiopathologic evaluation of right-angled traction bronchiectasis to differentiate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) without honeycombing from idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Materials and Methods The derivation cohort included 78 consecutive patients with idiopathic NSIP (n = 39) or IPF (n = 39) without honeycombing who underwent preoperative thin-section computed tomography scans at a single tertiary hospital. The validation cohort comprised 22 patients (14 IPF and 8 NSIP) from another institution. We assessed conventional computed tomography...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

No Changes in T1 Relaxometry After a Mean of 11 Administrations of Gadobutrol
Objectives Quantitative T1 relaxometry is the benchmark in imaging potential gadolinium deposition and known to be superior to semiquantitative signal intensity ratio analyses. However, T1 relaxometry studies are rare, commonly limited to a few target structures, and reported results are inconsistent. We systematically investigated quantitative T1 relaxation times (qT1) of a variety of brain nuclei after serial application of gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Retrospectively, qT1 measurements were performed in a patient cohort with a mean number of 11 gadobutrol applications (n = 46) and compared with a control group...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Software Parameter Settings on Image Quality of Virtual Grid Processed Radiography Images: A Contrast-Detail Phantom Study
In this study, we compared image quality (IQ) with a contrast-detail phantom (CDRAD 2.0; Artinis Medical Systems, Zetten, the Netherlands) of digital radiographs acquired without any grid (gridless) with those corrected for scatter by either software (SW)-based scatter correction (Virtual Grid) or a physical grid (grid). Furthermore, we determined the optimal Virtual Grid settings that lead to the best contrast-detail IQ score (inverse IQ figure). Materials and Methods Images were obtained with a cassette spot film device with an inserted portable flat-panel detector (Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan). The CDRAD phantom was sandw...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Signal Enhancement and Enhancement Kinetics of Gadobutrol, Gadoteridol, and Gadoterate Meglumine in Various Body Regions: A Comparative Animal Study
Objectives The signal enhancement (SE) and enhancement kinetics of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images depend on the relaxivity of the GBCA and its pharmacokinetic profile. This in vivo study systematically compared the SE (technical efficacy) and the enhancement kinetics of the 3 macrocyclic GBCAs gadobutrol, gadoteridol, and gadoterate meglumine in various body regions. Materials and Methods A total of 15 healthy male white New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 5/group). The GBCAs were injected intravenously (0.1 mmol/kg body weight) and signa...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Fully Automated Segmentation of Connective Tissue Compartments for CT-Based Body Composition Analysis: A Deep Learning Approach
Conclusions Fully automated determination of body composition based on CT can be performed with excellent results using the open-source CNN DeepMedic. The trained model is made usable for research by a deployable and sharable application. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research