In Vivo Aortic Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Validation in an Animal Model
This study aims to evaluate noninvasive in vivo aortic MRE-derived stiffness in an AAA porcine model and investigate the relationships between MRE-derived AAA stiffness and (1) histopathology, (2) uniaxial tensile test, and (3) burst testing for assessing MRE's potential in evaluating AAA rupture risk. Materials and Methods Abdominal aortic aneurysm was induced in 31 Yorkshire pigs (n = 226 stiffness measurements). Animals were randomly divided into 3 cohorts: 2-week, 4-week, and 4-week-burst. Aortic MRE was sequentially performed. Histopathologic analyses were performed to quantify elastin, collagen, and mineral densit...
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quantification of Avoidable Radiation Exposure in Interventional Fluoroscopy With Eye Tracking Technology
This study included 30 cardiovascular interventions performed by 5 different operators. A significant percentage of the administered radiation (mean [SD], 43.5% [12.6%]) was avoidable (t29 = 18.86, P (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Steady-State Multifrequency Magnetic Resonance Elastography of the Thoracic and Abdominal Human Aorta—Validation and Reference Values
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of stroboscopic-wavefield-sampling-based multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (sMRE) for quantifying the stiffness of the human thoracic and abdominal aorta in vivo. Materials and Methods The sMRE of the thoracic and abdominal aorta was performed at 1.5 T field strength in 20 healthy volunteers aged 27 to 77 years (3 women; median age, 33 years; interquartile range [IQR], 16 years). Compound maps of shear wave speed (SWS) were reconstructed and evaluated during the diastolic phase in 3 anatomical regions: ascending thoracic aorta (AA), descend...
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Novel Magnetic Resonance Late Gadolinium Enhancement With Fixed Short Inversion Time in Ischemic Myocardial Scars
Conclusions Short LGE is a fast, single breath-hold 3D LGE sequence with no need for myocardial nulling due to fixed inversion time with improved scar visibility, especially in subendocardial infarcts. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening of Women With Extremely Dense Breasts to Reduce False-Positive Diagnoses
Conclusions Dedicated multiparametric CAD of breast MRI for BI-RADS 3 and 4 lesions in screening of women with extremely dense breasts has the potential to reduce false-positive diagnoses and consequently to reduce the number of biopsies without missing cancers. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Low-Grade Focal Cartilage Lesions in the Knee With Sodium MRI at 7 T: Reproducibility and Short-Term, 6-Month Follow-up Data
Conclusions In vivo 23Na-MRI is a robust and reproducible method that allows to differentiate between low-grade, focal cartilage lesions and normal-appearing articular cartilage, which supports the concept that compositional cartilage changes can be found early, before the development of advanced morphological changes visible at clinical 3-T MRI. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Subregion Radiomics Analysis to Display Necrosis After Hepatic Microwave Ablation—A Proof of Concept Study
Conclusions Subregion radiomics analysis may improve visualization of coagulation necrosis after hepatic MWA in an in vivo porcine model. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Performance of Chest CT in Evaluating the Clinical Severity of COVID-19 Pneumonia: Identifying Critical Cases Based on CT Characteristics
Conclusions A rapid, accurate severity assessment of COVID-19 pneumonia based on chest CT would be feasible and could provide help for making management decisions, especially for the critical cases. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Establishing Reference Intervals for Gadolinium Concentrations in Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Individuals Not Previously Exposed to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Objectives Over the recent years, there have been increasing concerns that exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) may be associated with retention of Gd within the skin, bones, and solid organs in patients with normal renal function, although the clinical implications of this deposition remain to be established. There are no published data available to guide the development of reference intervals for Gd concentrations in biological samples from healthy people. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether healthy individuals who have not received GBCAs have detectable concentrations of Gd in their bl...
Source: Investigative Radiology - June 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Needle Heating During Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5- and 3.0-T Field Strengths
Conclusions Under the herein used experimental conditions, clinically used MR-conditional needles can heat to supraphysiologic temperatures during prolonged MRI at 1.5 and 3.0 T field strengths; however, the temperature rise can be balanced to physiological ranges with proper selection of needle length, needle orientation, and pulse sequence parameters. Caution must be exercised when using different MRI systems, as results may not directly translate. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Right-Angled Traction Bronchiectasis in Differentiating Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Without Honeycombing From Idiopathic Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia
Objectives The aim of this study was to conduct a radiopathologic evaluation of right-angled traction bronchiectasis to differentiate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) without honeycombing from idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Materials and Methods The derivation cohort included 78 consecutive patients with idiopathic NSIP (n = 39) or IPF (n = 39) without honeycombing who underwent preoperative thin-section computed tomography scans at a single tertiary hospital. The validation cohort comprised 22 patients (14 IPF and 8 NSIP) from another institution. We assessed conventional computed tomography...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

No Changes in T1 Relaxometry After a Mean of 11 Administrations of Gadobutrol
Objectives Quantitative T1 relaxometry is the benchmark in imaging potential gadolinium deposition and known to be superior to semiquantitative signal intensity ratio analyses. However, T1 relaxometry studies are rare, commonly limited to a few target structures, and reported results are inconsistent. We systematically investigated quantitative T1 relaxation times (qT1) of a variety of brain nuclei after serial application of gadobutrol. Materials and Methods Retrospectively, qT1 measurements were performed in a patient cohort with a mean number of 11 gadobutrol applications (n = 46) and compared with a control group...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Impact of Software Parameter Settings on Image Quality of Virtual Grid Processed Radiography Images: A Contrast-Detail Phantom Study
In this study, we compared image quality (IQ) with a contrast-detail phantom (CDRAD 2.0; Artinis Medical Systems, Zetten, the Netherlands) of digital radiographs acquired without any grid (gridless) with those corrected for scatter by either software (SW)-based scatter correction (Virtual Grid) or a physical grid (grid). Furthermore, we determined the optimal Virtual Grid settings that lead to the best contrast-detail IQ score (inverse IQ figure). Materials and Methods Images were obtained with a cassette spot film device with an inserted portable flat-panel detector (Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan). The CDRAD phantom was sandw...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Signal Enhancement and Enhancement Kinetics of Gadobutrol, Gadoteridol, and Gadoterate Meglumine in Various Body Regions: A Comparative Animal Study
Objectives The signal enhancement (SE) and enhancement kinetics of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images depend on the relaxivity of the GBCA and its pharmacokinetic profile. This in vivo study systematically compared the SE (technical efficacy) and the enhancement kinetics of the 3 macrocyclic GBCAs gadobutrol, gadoteridol, and gadoterate meglumine in various body regions. Materials and Methods A total of 15 healthy male white New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 5/group). The GBCAs were injected intravenously (0.1 mmol/kg body weight) and signa...
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Fully Automated Segmentation of Connective Tissue Compartments for CT-Based Body Composition Analysis: A Deep Learning Approach
Conclusions Fully automated determination of body composition based on CT can be performed with excellent results using the open-source CNN DeepMedic. The trained model is made usable for research by a deployable and sharable application. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research