Quiet FLAIR at 7T MRI
Conclusions Reducing sound pressure by 80% in FLAIR imaging at 7T ultra-high-field MRI is feasible while maintaining high diagnostic image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Toward the Clinical Development and Validation of a Thy1-Targeted Ultrasound Contrast Agent for the Early Detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Objectives Materials and Methods We recombinantly expressed the Thy1-scFv with a carboxy-terminus cysteine residue to facilitate its thioether conjugation to the PEGylated MBs presenting with maleimide functional groups. After the scFv-MB conjugations, we tested binding activity of the MBThy1-scFv to MS1 cells overexpressing human Thy1 (MS1Thy1) under liquid shear stress conditions in vitro using a flow chamber setup at 0.6 mL/min flow rate, corresponding to a wall shear stress rate of 100 seconds−1, similar to that in tumor capillaries. For in vivo Thy1 US molecular imaging, MBThy1-scFv was tested in the transgenic ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Susceptibility-Based Characterization of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations
Conclusions Susceptibility changes indicating blood deoxygenation across cerebral AVMs were shown for the first time in this study and were associated with the presence of perinidal blood products. Deoxygenation measures may serve as functional characterization of AVM vasculature and may offer the potential for individual treatment assessment and possible risk stratification. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Accelerated T2 Mapping of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc: Highly Undersampled K-Space Data for Robust T: 2: Relaxation Time Measurement in Clinically Feasible Acquisition Times
Objectives Materials and Methods Fifty-eight individuals (26 female; mean age, 23.3 ± 8.1 years) were prospectively studied at 3 T. GRAPPATINI was conducted with the same parameters as the 2D-MESE while shortening the acquisition time from 13:18 to 2:27 minutes. The setup was also validated in a phantom experiment using a 6.48-hour-long single echo-spin echo sequence as reference. The IVDs were manually segmented on 4 central slices. Results The median nucleus pulposus showed a strong Pearson correlation coefficient between T2GRAPPATINI and T2MESE (rp = 0.919; P (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Simultaneous Dual-Contrast Imaging of Small Bowel With Iodine and Bismuth Using Photon-Counting-Detector Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Animal Study
Conclusions Our study demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of iodine and bismuth in small bowel of swine using PCD-CT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury After Radiocontrast-Enhanced Computerized Tomography in Hospitalized Patients With Advanced Renal Failure: A Propensity-Score-Matching Analysis
Conclusion Although radiocontrast-enhanced CT is considered safe in most hospitalized patients and in ambulatory settings, the risk of PC-AKI remains significant among inpatients with substantial preimaging renal functional impairment. Caution is warranted using iodine-based enhanced CT in hospitalized patients with an eGFR of 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or lower. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Tailoring Contrast Media Protocols to Varying Tube Voltages in Vascular and Parenchymal CT Imaging: The 10-to-10 Rule
This article proposes a simple rule of thumb for how to adapt the contrast media protocol to any kV setting: the 10-to-10 rule. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A Solution for Homogeneous Liver Enhancement in Computed Tomography: Results From the COMpLEx Trial
Objectives The aim of the study was to reach homogeneous enhancement of the liver, irrespective of total body weight (TBW) or tube voltage. An easy-to-use rule of thumb, the 10-to-10 rule, which pairs a 10 kV reduction in tube voltage with a 10% decrease in contrast media (CM) dose, was evaluated. Materials and Methods A total of 256 patients scheduled for an abdominal CT in portal venous phase were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 groups. In group 1 (n = 64), a tube voltage of 120 kV and a TBW-adapted CM injection protocol was used: 0.521 g I/kg. In group 2 (n = 63), tube voltage was 90 kV and the TBW-adapted CM dosing f...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With BR55, a Predictive Tool of Antiangiogenic Treatment Efficacy in a Chemo-Induced Mammary Tumor Model
Conclusions Anatomical, functional, and molecular evaluations are feasible in a single examination using BR55 ultrasound targeted contrast agent. Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 can depict an early response to antiangiogenic treatment in a rat mammary tumor model. This imaging modality has a potential for early assessment of each patient's response, which could be useful to take decisions on therapeutic protocol, providing as such an imaging tool for personalized medicine. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Reproducibility of Bolus Transit Quantification With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Across Multiple Scanners and Analysis Software Packages—A Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance Study
Conclusions The present study will lay the groundwork for multicenter patient evaluations with CEUS quantification of perfusion-related parameters with the bolus transit technique. When using the protocol and method developed here, it is possible to perform perfusion quantification on different scanners and analysis software and be able to compare the results. The current work is the first study that presents a comparison of bolus transit parameters derived from multiple systems and software packages. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Human Hair as a Possible Surrogate Marker of Retained Tissue Gadolinium: A Pilot Autopsy Study Correlating Gadolinium Concentrations in Hair With Brain and Other Tissues Among Decedents Who Received Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Objectives We used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to quantify gadolinium in hair samples from autopsy cases with gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure. Hair gadolinium data were correlated with gadolinium concentrations in brain, skin, and bone tissues from the same case to investigate a potential noninvasive method for gadolinium quantification and monitoring. Materials and Methods Medical records from autopsy cases at our institution were screened for history of GBCA exposure. Cases with exposure to a single type of GBCA with the most recent injection occurring within 1 year we...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gray Matter Nucleus Hyperintensity After Monthly Triple-Dose Gadopentetate Dimeglumine With Long-term Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Objectives Gadolinium deposition is widely believed to occur, but questions regarding accumulation pattern and permanence remain. We conducted a retrospective study of intracranial signal changes on monthly triple-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from the previously published Betaseron vs. Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis With Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-Tesla MRI Endpoints Trial (N = 67) to characterize the dynamics of gadolinium deposition in several deep brain nuclei and track persistence versus washout of gadolinium deposition on long-term follow-up (LTFU) examinations (N = 28) obta...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Radiology: Current State and Considerations for Routine Clinical Implementation
Although artificial intelligence (AI) has been a focus of medical research for decades, in the last decade, the field of radiology has seen tremendous innovation and also public focus due to development and application of machine-learning techniques to develop new algorithms. Interestingly, this innovation is driven simultaneously by academia, existing global medical device vendors, and—fueled by venture capital—recently founded startups. Radiologists find themselves once again in the position to lead this innovation to improve clinical workflows and ultimately patient outcome. However, although the end of today's radi...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Variability and Standardization of Quantitative Imaging
No abstract available (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Variability and Standardization of Quantitative Imaging: Monoparametric to Multiparametric Quantification, Radiomics, and Artificial Intelligence
Radiological images have been assessed qualitatively in most clinical settings by the expert eyes of radiologists and other clinicians. On the other hand, quantification of radiological images has the potential to detect early disease that may be difficult to detect with human eyes, complement or replace biopsy, and provide clear differentiation of disease stage. Further, objective assessment by quantification is a prerequisite of personalized/precision medicine. This review article aims to summarize and discuss how the variability of quantitative values derived from radiological images are induced by a number of factors a...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research