Development and Evaluation of Deep Learning-Accelerated Single-Breath-Hold Abdominal HASTE at 3 T Using Variable Refocusing Flip Angles
Conclusions The proposed single-breath-hold abdominal HASTEDL with variable refocusing FAs is feasible at 3 T within SAR limits and yields high image quality and diagnostic confidence as compared with a standard T2-weighted acquisition technique, at a 10th of the acquisition time. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of Iterative Denoising 3-Dimensional T2-Weighted Turbo Spin Echo for the Diagnosis of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis
Objectives The primary end point of this study was to evaluate the image quality and reliability of a highly accelerated 3-dimensional T2 turbo spin echo (3D-T2-TSE) sequence with prototype iterative denoising (ID) reconstruction compared with conventional 2D T2 sequences for the diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). The secondary end point was to demonstrate the 3D-T2-TSE sequence image quality improvement using ID reconstruction. Material and Methods Patients were prospectively enrolled to our institution for pelvis magnetic resonance imaging because of a suspicion of endometriosis over a 4-month...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Ultra-High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging-Based Abbreviated Protocols for Breast Cancer Detection
Conclusions A native abbreviated breast MRI protocol with advanced high b-value DWI might allow nearly equivalent diagnostic accuracy as CE breast MRI and seems to be well suited for lesion detection purposes. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance of Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance for the Diagnosis of Liver Metastases
Conclusions Contrast-enhanced PET/MR has a higher sensitivity and negative predictive value than either PET or MRI alone in the setting of suspected liver metastases. Fewer lesions were characterized as indeterminate by PET/MR in comparison with PET and MRI. This superior performance could potentially impact treatment and management decisions for patients with suspected liver metastases. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Bone Mineral Density From a Computed Tomography Topogram of Photon-Counting Detector Computed Tomography—Effect of Phantom Size and Tube Voltage
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and impact of different sizes and tube voltages on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment using a computed tomography (CT) topogram acquired with photon-counting detector CT in an osteopenic ex vivo animal spine. Materials and Methods The lumbar back of a piglet was used to simulate osteopenia of the lumbar spine. Five fat layers (each with a thickness of 3 cm) were consecutively placed on top of the excised spine to emulate a total of 5 different sizes. Each size was repeatedly imaged on (A) a conventional dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanner as the re...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Novel Deep Learning Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Improves the Accuracy and Efficiency of Radiologists in Reading Biparametric Magnetic Resonance Images of the Prostate: Results of a Multireader, Multicase Study
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (DL-CAD) system on radiologists' interpretation accuracy and efficiency in reading biparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging scans. Materials and Methods We selected 100 consecutive prostate magnetic resonance imaging cases from a publicly available data set (PROSTATEx Challenge) with and without histopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Seven board-certified radiologists were tasked to read each case twice in 2 reading blocks (with and without the assistance of a DL-CAD), with a separation be...
Source: Investigative Radiology - September 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

A Real-World Clinical Implementation of Automated Processing Using Intelligent Work Aid for Rapid Reformation at the Orbitomeatal Line in Head Computed Tomography
Conclusions The intelligent work aid can generate a fast and precise head CT image aligned at the orbitomeatal line, even in real-world clinical CTs. However, precise positioning remains essential. The aim was to investigate the time savings and plane accuracy of multivendor head computed tomography (CT) using the intelligent work aid with automatic reformatting of the axial head image at the orbitomeatal line. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation: Monitoring of Ablation-Induced Macrophage Recruitment in the Periablational Rim Using SPION-Enhanced Macrophage-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusions SPION-enhanced MRI enables noninvasive monitoring and quantification of ablation-induced macrophage recruitment in the periablational rim. Given the close interplay between ablation-induced perifocal inflammation and potential unwanted tumorigenic effects of RFA, SPION-enhanced MRI may serve as a valuable tool to guide and modulate adjuvant therapies after hepatic RFA. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Image Quality and Detection of Small Focal Liver Lesions in Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Comparison of Navigator Tracking and Free-Breathing Acquisition
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare intraindividual diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the liver acquired with free breathing (FB) versus navigator triggering (NT) for assessing small focal liver lesions (FLLs) in noncirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods Patients with known or suspected multiple FLLs were prospectively included, and spin-echo echo-planar DWI with NT and FB acquisition was performed (b-values, 50 and 800 s/mm2 [b50 and b800]). NT and FB DWI sequences with similar acquisitions times were used. Liver and lesion signal-to-noise ratios were measured at b800. The DWI scans were analyz...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Automated Pathology Detection and Patient Triage in Routinely Acquired Head Computed Tomography Scans
Conclusions Our study provides the first clinical evaluation of a weakly supervised anomaly detection system for brain imaging. In an unselected, consecutive patient cohort, definite classification into normal/diseased was feasible in approximately two thirds of scans, going along with an excellent diagnostic accuracy and perfect negative predictive value for excluding pathology. Moreover, anomaly heat maps provide important guidance toward pathology interpretation, also in cases with inconclusive ratings. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Photon-Counting Multienergy Computed Tomography With Spectrally Optimized Contrast Media for Plaque Removal and Stenosis Assessment
Purpose The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the potential to combine investigational contrast media with spectrally optimized energy-thresholding of photon-counting detector computed tomography (PCCT) for subtraction of calcified plaques in a coronary artery stenosis phantom. Methods A small vessel phantom containing 3 fillable tubes (diameter, 3 mm each) with calcified plaques was placed into an anthropomorphic chest phantom. The plaques had incremental thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 2.7 mm, simulating vessel stenoses ranging from 10% to 90% of the lumen diameter. The phantom was filled with 5...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Revisiting DCE-MRI: Classification of Prostate Tissue Using Descriptive Signal Enhancement Features Derived From DCE-MRI Acquisition With High Spatiotemporal Resolution
Purpose Methods A retrospective study (from January 2016 to July 2019) including 75 subjects (mean, 65 years; 46–80 years) with 2.5-second temporal resolution DCE-MRI and PIRADS 4 or 5 lesions was performed. Fifty-four subjects had biopsy-proven prostate cancer (Gleason 6, 15; Gleason 7, 20; Gleason 8, 13; Gleason 9, 6), whereas 21 subjects had negative MRI/ultrasound fusion-guided biopsies. Voxel-wise analysis of contrast signal enhancement was performed for all time points using custom-developed software, including automatic arterial input function detection. Seven descriptive parameter maps were calculated: no...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Controlling Through-Slice Chemical-Shift Artifacts for Improved Non-Fat-Suppressed Musculoskeletal Turbo-Spin-Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7 T
The objective of this work was to explore and reduce through-slice chemical shift artifacts in 2-dimensional (2D) TSE imaging at 7 T. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the local ethics board. The bandwidths of the excitation and refocusing radiofrequency (RF) pulses of a prototype 2D TSE sequence were individually modified and their effect on the slice profiles and relative slice locations of water and fat spins was assessed in an oil-water phantom. Based on these results, it was hypothesized that the combination of matched and increased excitation and refocusing RF pulse bandwidths (“MI...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Speciation Analysis of Gadolinium in the Water-Insoluble Rat Brain Fraction After Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Conclusions The sequential extraction of rat brain tissue with water and urea solution resulted in quasi-complete solubilization of the tissue and a considerable increase in the recoveries of Gd species in comparison with previous reports. The macrocyclic gadoterate was demonstrated to remain intact in the brain 1 week after administration to rats. The linear GBCAs gadobenate and gadodiamide underwent ligand exchange reactions resulting in the presence of a series of Gd3+ complexes of different strength with endogenous ligands. Ferritin was identified as one of the macromolecules reacting with Gd3+. For the linear GBCA...
Source: Investigative Radiology - August 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Deep-Learning-Based Diagnosis of Bedside Chest X-ray in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
Conclusions A deep learning model used specifically for bedside CXRs showed similar performance to expert radiologists. It could therefore be used to detect clinically relevant findings during after-hours and help emergency and intensive care physicians to focus on patient care. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - July 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research