Effect of Long-Term Retention of Gadolinium on Metabolism of Deep Cerebellar Nuclei After Repeated Injections of Gadodiamide in Rats
Conclusions Repeated administration of gadodiamide lead to a retention of gadolinium preferentially within DCN at 1 year postinjections. This retention did not lead to any detectable changes of the measured metabolic biomarkers nor histological alterations. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Detector Sampling on Noise Reduction in Clinical Photon-Counting Whole-Body Computed Tomography
Conclusions Reconstruction of UHR data with a modulation transfer function below the system's resolution limit reduces image noise for all patient sizes and tube voltages compared with standard acquisitions. Thus, a relevant dose reduction may be clinically possible while maintaining image quality. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Using a Dual-Input Convolutional Neural Network for Automated Detection of Pediatric Supracondylar Fracture on Conventional Radiography
This study aimed to develop a dual-input convolutional neural network (CNN)–based deep-learning algorithm that utilizes both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral elbow radiographs for the automated detection of pediatric supracondylar fracture in conventional radiography, and assess its feasibility and diagnostic performance. Materials and Methods To develop the deep-learning model, 1266 pairs of AP and lateral elbow radiographs examined between January 2013 and December 2017 at a single institution were split into a training set (1012 pairs, 79.9%) and a validation set (254 pairs, 20.1%). We performed external tests usin...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dose Reduction for Sinus and Temporal Bone Imaging Using Photon-Counting Detector CT With an Additional Tin Filter
Conclusions Phantom and cadaver studies demonstrated dose reduction using Sn-100 kV PCD-CT compared with current clinical EID-CT while maintaining the desired image contrast. Dose reduction was further validated in sinus and temporal bone patient studies. The ultra-high resolution capability from PCD-CT allowed improved anatomical delineation for sinus imaging compared with current clinical standard. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Improved Detection of Benign and Malignant Rib Lesions in the Routine Computed Tomography Workup of Oncological Patients Using Automated Unfolded Rib Image Postprocessing
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the automated computed tomography (CT) postprocessing software unfolded rib images for improved detection of both benign and malignant rib lesions during routine diagnostic workup of oncological patients. Materials and Methods One thousand eight in-patients and out-patients (63.66 ± 14.25 years; range, 18.67–95.67 years; 405 females and 603 males), undergoing chest CT between July 2018 to January 2019 at our institution, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients underwent chest CT alone or as part of a whole-body CT staging/restaging. The CT protocol...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Development of Upright Computed Tomography With Area Detector for Whole-Body Scans: Phantom Study, Efficacy on Workflow, Effect of Gravity on Human Body, and Potential Clinical Impact
Objectives Multiple human systems are greatly affected by gravity, and many disease symptoms are altered by posture. However, the overall anatomical structure and pathophysiology of the human body while standing has not been thoroughly analyzed due to the limitations of various upright imaging modalities, such as low spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, limited scan range, or long examination time. Recently, we developed an upright computed tomography (CT), which enables whole-torso cross-sectional scanning with 3-dimensional acquisition within 15 seconds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance...
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Dedicated Spiral Breast Computed Tomography With a Single Photon-Counting Detector: Initial Results of the First 300 Women
Conclusions The dedicated B-CT provides high-quality images. It can be used as alternative particularly in those patients not otherwise willing to perform mammography because of the breast compression. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Spectral Photon-Counting Computed Tomography for Coronary Stent Imaging: Evaluation of the Potential Clinical Impact for the Delineation of In-Stent Restenosis
Conclusions Spectral photon-counting CT allowed for the noninvasive evaluation of ISR with reliable results regarding the residual lumen for most tested stents and the clear identification or suspicion of stenosis for all stents. In contrast, the residual lumen could not be detected for a single stent using DLCT. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Special Issue on Advances in CT - Part II Source Type: research

Cloverleaf Sign in Pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Association With Longer Operation Times, Greater Blood Loss, and Higher Rates of Bowel Resection
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of a new imaging sign, the “cloverleaf sign,” in diagnosing deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in concordance to intraoperative findings. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 103 patients operated during the January 2016 to June 2018 period with preoperative 1.5 T and 3 T MRI, with or without vaginal and rectal gel filling. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were read blinded to intraoperative findings by a specialized gynecologic radiologist and a junior radiologist, and then compared with i...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Dual-Energy Low-keV or Single-Energy Low-kV CT for Endoleak Detection?: A 6-Reader Study in an Aortic Aneurysm Phantom
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare image quality, conspicuity, and endoleak detection between single-energy low-kV images (SEIs) and dual-energy low-keV virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs+) in computed tomography angiography of the aorta after endovascular repair. Materials and Methods An abdominal aortic aneurysm phantom simulating 36 endoleaks (2 densities; diameters: 2, 4, and 6 mm) in a medium- and large-sized patient was used. Each size was scanned using single-energy at 80 kVp (A) and 100 kVp (B), and dual-energy at 80/Sn150kVp for the medium (C) and 90/Sn150kVp for the large size (D). VMIs+ at 40 k...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Risk of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Iopromide After Intra-Arterial Versus Intravenous Administration: A Nested Case-Control Analysis of 133,331 Patients
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the risk of hypersensitivity reactions to iopromide after intra-arterial (IA) administration and intravenous (IV) administration. Materials and Methods Four observational studies were pooled. Almost half of the study population (48.1%) was from Europe, and one quarter each from China (27.6%) and other Asia countries (24.1%). All patients received iopromide either intra-arterially or intravenously for angiographic procedures (mostly cardio-angiography) or contrast-enhanced computed tomography. A nested case-control analysis, including a multivariable logistic regression mo...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gadolinium Retention in Erythrocytes and Leukocytes From Human and Murine Blood Upon Treatment With Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Conclusions The detection of significant amounts of Gd in RBCs and WBCs indicates that GBCAs can cross blood cell membranes. This finding may play a role in our understanding of the processes that are at the basis of Gd retention in the tissues of patients who have received the administration of GBCAs. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased T1 Signal Intensity of the Anterior Pituitary Gland on Unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Images After Chronic Exposure to Gadodiamide
Objective The aim of this study was to assess the signal intensity of the anterior pituitary (AP) gland on unenhanced T1-weighted images in patients with history of serial intravenous injections of gadodiamide and normal renal function. Materials and Methods We included 53 patients who had undergone at least 5 injections of gadodiamide and a control group of 15 subjects who underwent at least 5 brain magnetic resonance imaging without gadolinium-based contrast agents. Using unenhanced sagittal T1-weighted images, values of mean signal intensity of the AP and of the central pons were obtained. Anterior pituitary–to...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Gadolinium Retention as a Safety Signal: Experience of a Manufacturer
Conclusions The manufacturers of GBCAs had to face different situations according to the countries, due to the different positions and expectations from regulatory agencies. They have adapted their responses to the different positions of the regulatory agencies and conducted specific preclinical and clinical investigations to provide the expected evidence. It is also their responsibility to continuously monitor the benefit-risk balance of the products and to propose risk minimization measures to the regulatory agencies. (Source: Investigative Radiology)
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Recent and Upcoming Technological Developments in Computed Tomography: High Speed, Low Dose, Deep Learning, Multienergy
The advent of computed tomography (CT) has revolutionized radiology, and this revolution is still going on. Starting as a pure head scanner, modern CT systems are now able to perform whole-body examinations within a couple of seconds in isotropic resolution, single-rotation whole-organ perfusion, and temporal resolution to fulfill the needs of cardiac CT. Because of the increasing number of CT examinations in all age groups and overall medical-driven radiation exposure, dose reduction remains a hot topic. Although fast gantry rotation, broad detector arrays, and different dual-energy solutions were main topics in the past ...
Source: Investigative Radiology - December 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research