Clinical, Virological, and Immunological Profiles of DENV, ZIKV, and/or CHIKV-Infected Brazilian Patients
Conclusions: From all the circulating mediators measured, we detected differences of IL-10, TNF- α, and CCL2/MCP-1 between arbovirus groups. We hypothesize that CXC10/IP-10, CCL2/MCP-1, and MIF in the CHIKV-infected group could regulate the CHIKV viral load, while CXC10/IP-10, CCL2/MCP-1, and TNF-α in DENV/ZIKV, and CHIKV/ZIKV groups, could regulate ZIKV viral load.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - September 23, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus Infection Is a Risk Factor in Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Cross-Sectional and Meta-Analysis Study
This study was planned to investigate the association betweenhuman cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) risk, by undertaking a meta-analysis and case-control cross-sectional study.Summary: A cross-sectional study analysis of 160 GIC patients and 100 control subjects indicated significantly higher HCMV prevalence in GIC patients based on the HCMV IgM test. However, a similar analysis based on an IgG test revealed no significant relationship. Further meta-analysis of 11 studies, including 1,044 patients and 991 healthy subjects, displayed HCMV infection as an important risk factor for not only c...
Source: Intervirology - August 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contents
Intervirology 2019;62:I –IV (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 23, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Sequence Similarities between Viroids and Human MicroRNAs
Viroids are minute unencapsidated non-coding circular RNAs known to be present and to cause diseases only in plants. Infections were associated with the occurrence of specific single-stranded RNAs similar in size to miRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs, and viroid pathogenicity is suspected to occur through RNA interference. We looked for sequence similarities between viroids and the seed region of human microRNAs (hsa-miRNAs). Viroid genomes were retrieved from GenBank and mature hsa-mi ­RNAs were retrieved from miRBase. Two hundred 300-nucleotide-long sequences were randomly generated as controls. BLAST searc...
Source: Intervirology - July 8, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Anti-JC Virus Antibody Seropositivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-JCV antibody seropositivity is variable among MS patients in different countries, and the pooled estimate showed that this is 60% overall.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 3, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Identification of a Densovirus in Healthy and Diseased < b > < i > Zophobas morio < /i > < /b > (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)
Zophobas morio is a tropical darkling beetle which is widely exploited for commercial large-scale insect growing. Outbreaks of a disease may occur causing total devastation of cultures. In the present paper, samples of diseasedZ. morio were obtained and used for establishment of a laboratory model as they were found infective to the larvae of the same insect species from another source. It took about 1 month to develop symptoms of acute disease in mid-age larvae and about twice as much when younger larvae were used for infection. Affected larvae perished quickly, and within several days up to 90 –100% of the colony c...
Source: Intervirology - June 26, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Greece, 2016 –2018
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute bronchiolitis in infants and young children. Children under the age of 2 years, hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the pediatric clinic of a tertiary hospital in northern Greece, were tested for RSV infection during two RSV seasons (2016 –2017 and 2017–2018). RSV was detected in 37 of 71 (52.1%) patients, most of them younger than 6 months. Both RSV subtypes were detected – RSV-A (54.1%) and RSV-B (45.9%) – with predominance of RSV-A during the 2016–2017 and RSV-B during the 2017–2018 season. RSV-A and RSV-B sequences c...
Source: Intervirology - April 29, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

< b > < i > E3 < /i > < /b > Gene-Based Genetic Characterization of Canine Adenovirus-2 Isolated from Cases of Canine Gastroenteritis in India Revealed a Novel Group of the Virus
Canine adenovirus (CAV) circulates as two distinct serotypes, CAV-1 and CAV-2, which are antigenically related but differ in their clinical manifestations. CAV is one of the important viral agents in the etiology of canine gastroenteritis. Here, we report the molecular surveillance and genetic characterization of CAV from clinical cases of canine gastroenteritis. A total of 302 fecal/rectal swabs were collected from dogs presented with gastroenteritis at various clinics in and around Hyderabad, India during 2018 –19. These samples were tested for CAV using polymerase chain reaction with primers designed for the CAVE3...
Source: Intervirology - April 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus in Pregnant Women in the Asir Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Conclusions: In all age groups of females tested, the prevalence of seropositive for HCMV was high, i.e., in the range of 95.7 –100%.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 24, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Ovarian Cancer by Different Test Systems
Conclusion: These findings indicate the need to employ multiple PCR-based tests to detect all HPV-positive patients. The identification of viral DNA and oncogene transcripts in cancerous tissues indicate the possible role of HPV in ovarian carcinogenesis in Russia.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - February 21, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Variation in Hepatitis C Virus Subtype Distribution during 20 Years in Venezuela
Conclusions: Fluctuations in HCV subtype distribution have been observed over 2 decades in Venezuela. Different major mode of transmission and susceptibility to the available HCV treatment during each period might be playing a role in the observed fluctuations in HCV subtype distribution.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - December 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Influence of Antiretroviral Therapy on Hepatitis C Virus Viral Load and Liver Fibrosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Coinfected Patients: An Observational Study
Conclusion: The start and the suspension of ART significantly interferes with HCV-VL in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Human Parainfluenza Virus 3 (Phylogenetic Subcluster C5) Infection among Adults at a Residential Care Facility for the Disabled in Croatia, 2018
Conclusions: Our study has shown that this health care-associated outbreak of HPIV3 infection could have been linked to multiple importation events. Preventive measures in curbing such incidents should be enforced vigorously.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viral Metagenomics Revealed a Novel Cardiovirus in Feces of Wild Rats
Conclusion: The complete genome of a cardiovirus was determined from the feces of wild rats which belonged to a novel type of cardiovirus based on phylogenetic analysis. Whether it is associated with disease needs further investigation.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Mixed Hepatitis C Virus Genotype Infection and Its Effect on the Response to Direct-Acting Antivirals Therapy
Conclusions: Mixed genotype was rare, and hence the impact of mixed genotype on treatment outcome with DAA therapy is expected to be minimal.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Bacteriophage Preparations on Adenoviral Replication
Conclusion: Phage preparations show promise as novel antiviral agents. However, further studies are required to investigate their antiviral effects.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contents
Intervirology 2018;61:I –IV (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Infection of Rat Osteoblasts with Junin Virus Promotes the Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6, an Osteogenic Differentiation Inducer
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that JUNV is capable of infecting OBCs and point out BMP-6 as a key factor during this process.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - May 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epstein-Barr Virus Seroprevalence and Primary Infection at the University Hospital Luigi Vanvitelli of Naples from 2007 to 2017
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common herpesvirus that may cause asymptomatic infection or various diseases, such as mononucleosis, lymphoproliferative disorders and several cancers. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of EBV among patients hospitalized in “Luigi Vanvitelli” University Hospital in the last 10 years. Our results showed that EBV seroprevalence in our geographical area was 65%. Seroprevalence increased gradually with age with no significant difference between females (49.42%) and males (50.58%). The seropositivity for primary infecti on was higher in patients about 5 years old, while serop...
Source: Intervirology - May 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Epidemic Genotypes of Human Adenovirus in Outpatient Children with Adenoviral Conjunctivitis from 2011 to 2012 in Jiangxi, China
Conclusions: This is the first identification of HAdV-B55 relating to adenoviral conjunctivitis in China. These findings provide a firm basis for future surveillance of adenoviral conjunctivitis in China or other East Asian regions.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - May 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human Endogenous Retrovirus-H and K Expression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Potential Markers of Stemness
Conclusions: Our findings showed that HERV-K and H were concurrently expressed with pluripotency biomarkers NANOG, OCT-4, and SOX-2.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - May 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Basis for Arbovirus Transmission by < b > < i > Aedes aegypti < /i > < /b > Mosquitoes
Mosquitoes are considered the most important vectors for the transmission of pathogens to humans.Aedes aegypti is a unique species, not only by its highly anthropophilic and peridomestic habits but also because it can transmit an important variety of pathogenic viruses. Examples are dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika, and Mayaro viruses. After ingesting viremic blood, a wide range of mechanisms are activated in the mosquito to counteract viral infection. Nevertheless, these arboviruses possess strategies to overcome barriers in the mosquito and eventually reach the salivary glands to continue the transmission cycle. H...
Source: Intervirology - May 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Whole-Genome Sequencing and Genomic Analysis of a Virulent Bacteriophage Infecting < b > < i > Bacillus cereus < /i > < /b >
Conclusion: Because of characterization and genotyping of a new bacteriophage from soil samples containing earthworms, this study provides a baseline for the development of alternatives to antibiotics.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - May 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Investigation of an Outbreak of Dengue Virus Serotype 1 in a Rural Area of Kribi, South Cameroon: A Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion: The detection of DENV serotype 1 in an autochthonous population during this survey is a confirmation that the seaside city of Kribi is a risk area for contracting dengue infection in Cameroon.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - May 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

No Difference in Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance between Injection Drug Users and Non-Injection Drug Users: A Cross-Sectional Study among Antiretroviral Treatment-Na ïve HIV Patients
Conclusions: Injection drug use has little impact on TDR prevalence compared with other routes of transmission.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - April 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human Metapneumovirus: Laboratory Methods for Isolation, Propagation, and Plaque Titration
Conclusions: The isolation and propagation from patient-derived hMPV and the standardization of a practical, reliable, and inexpensive method of detection and quantification of hMPV were carried out, without the additional use of antibodies that had not been reported previously. These results offer some important insights for future studies of cellular and molecular biology of hMPV.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - April 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human Papillomavirus in Thai Women and Men with Anogenital Warts
Conclusion: Immunization with the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, and HPV18) could potentially prevent genital warts caused by HPV infection.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Analysis of Protein Expression in Human Cells Cocultured with Porcine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed differentially expressed proteins in HEK293 cells cocultured with porcine PBMCs and implied that these changes were probably induced by PERV infection. These results provide clues and potential links to understanding the molecular effect of the infection by human-tropic PERV.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Acquired HIV Drug Resistance among People Living with HIV Who Have Taken Antiretroviral Therapy for 9 –15 Months in 14 Triangular Clinics in Iran, 2015–2016
Conclusions: This is the first study to illuminate the emergence of the CPX genotype among Iranian patients. The drug resistance rate of NNRTIs was similar to that of NRTIs. By assessing drug resistance, it is possible to evaluate the efficacy of treatment and patient adherence to treatment.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Iterative Excretion of Human Cosaviruses from Different Genotypes Associated with Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder
Conclusions: This study describes excretion kinetics and genetic characteristics of HCoSVs in a patient with combined immunodeficiency due to MHC class II expression defect. The patient did not have concomitant symptoms related to the HCoSV infection.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - February 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of a SYBR Green II Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Clinical Detection of the Duck-Origin Goose Parvovirus in China
Conclusion: This test provides improved technical support for studies regarding the clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of the duck-origin goose parvovirus.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Physiological Proteins
Conclusion: Overall, initial evidence is provided on the antiviral activity of several peptides, as well as of their derivatives. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain the mechanism of action in order to develop new potential antiviral drugs.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The HPV16 E1 Carboxyl Domain Provides a Helper Function for Adeno-Associated Virus Replication
Conclusions: The aa 421 –649 helper domain of HPV16 E1 includes the ATP-binding/helicase region of E1 which boosts rAAV production and has homology with the analogous region of parvovirus NS-1/Rep78 by NCBI protein BLAST, suggesting these biochemistries are responsible for the mechanism of action in E1 helper function.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viral Exploration of Negative Acute Febrile Cases Observed during Chikungunya Outbreaks in Gabon
Non-malarial febrile illness outbreaks were documented in 2007 and 2010 in Gabon. After investigation, these outbreaks were attributed to the chikungunya and dengue viruses (CHIKV and DENV). However, for more than half of the samples analyzed, the causative agent was not identified. Given the geographical and ecological position of Gabon, where there is a great animal and microbial diversity, the circulation of other emerging viruses was suspected in these samples lacking aetiology. A total of 436 undiagnosed samples, collected between 2007 and 2013, and originating from 14 urban, suburban, and rural Gabonese locations wer...
Source: Intervirology - January 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that destruction of human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier could be an alternative invasion mechanism during herpes simplex virus infection.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - December 13, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High Herpesvirus Diversity in Wild Rodent and Shrew Species in Central Africa
Conclusion: The diversity of viruses detected is higher than in similar studies in Europe and Asia. The high diversity of rodent and shrew species occurring in central Africa may be the reason for a higher diversity in herpesviruses in this area.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 16, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High-Throughput Sequencing of Putative Novel microRNAs in Rhesus Monkey Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells following EV71 and CA16 Infection
Conclusion: Our results not only revealed potential biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis and treatment of HFMD, but also provided new insights to explore the mechanisms of EV71 and CA16 pathogenesis.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 7, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Carriage of the Adeno-Associated Virus in Murine Rodents and House Shrews in China
Conclusions: A high prevalence of rat AAV that was highly conserved within theCap gene was found in 3 common murine rodents and house shrews in China.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 7, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High Prevalence of HBV Lamivudine-Resistant Mutations in HBV/HIV Co-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Area with the Highest Prevalence of HIV/HBV Co-Infection in China
Conclusion: Treating HIV in HIV/HBV co-infection with antiretroviral agents may result in a very high prevalence of HBV 3TC-resistant mutations. TDF could not completely suppress HBV replication.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 26, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Effects of IL10 and NK Cells on the Susceptibility to Mouse Cytomegalovirus in BALB/c Mice despite the Compensation of IFN γ
Conclusion: The functional shortage of NK cells and inappropriate expression of IL10 result in the susceptibility to MCMV in BALB/c mice.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 18, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Expression of Duplex shRNAs through a Lentiviral Vector against Cellular and Viral Genes Inflicts Sustained Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus Replication
Conclusion: A lentiviral vector-based delivery system is a “single-shot” therapeutic strategy. It can express duplex shRNA for long-term synergistic inhibition of HCV and qualify as a promising therapeutic approach for sustained inhibition of HCV replication.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Genomes from RNA-Positive but Serologically Negative Plasma Donors Have CUG as the Start Codon for ORF3
This study was undertaken to characterize HEV genomes in asymptomatic plasma donors from Sweden and Germany lacking anti-HEV. Complete open reading frames (ORFs) were obtained from HEV strains in 5 out of 18 plasma donors who tested positive for HEV RNA. All strains had CUG as the start codon of ORF3, while 147 GenBank strains all had AUG as the start codon (p #x3c; 0.0001). This substitution was found in both interrelated and unrelated strains belonging to different phylogenetic clades. The HEV strains from the seronegative plasma donors had no other substitution in common, which may be why the CUG substitution seems to e...
Source: Intervirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 and Hepatitis A Virus Dual Infection in Pediatric Patients with a Low Socioeconomic Status from Mexico
Conclusions: An elevated rate of G1 RNA was detected. Hepatitis E seems to be a neglected disease in Mexico and epidemic strains of HEV are likely to play a role as causative agents of acute hepatitis in highly exposed children. Although HAV is endemic in Mexico, an HEV-RNA detection rate of 17% in co-infected samples shows the need for screening for HEV as a part of future vaccination strategies.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Three Main Inducers of Alphacoronavirus Infection of Enterocytes: Sialic Acid, Proteases, and Low pH
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are similar coronaviruses, causing diseases characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, and death from severe dehydration in piglets. Thus, they have caused huge losses to the swine-breeding industry worldwide. Nowadays, they are easily transmitted among the continents via vehicles, equipment, and cargo. Both viruses establish an infection in porcine enterocytes in the small intestine, and their spike (S) proteins play a key role in the virus-cell binding process under unfavorable conditions when the intestine with a low pH is filled with a thic...
Source: Intervirology - September 3, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

RNAi Targeting of Human Metapneumovirus < b > < i > P < /i > < /b > and < b > < i > N < /i > < /b > Genes Inhibits Viral Growth
Conclusion: The findings presented here confirmed the highly potent, sequence-specific antiviral effect of siRNAs targeting the N and P gene of hMPV. These results may facilitate the development of a novel therapeutic agent for hMPV control.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 24, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation and Quantification of Mimivirus-Like and Marseillevirus-Like Viruses from Soil Samples in An Aboriginal < b > < i > ( < /i > < /b > Orang asli < b > < i > ) < /i > < /b > Village in Peninsular Malaysia
Conclusion: The ubiquitous nature of both Mimivirus and Marseillevirus is further confirmed in our study as they are detected in higher quantity in soil that is near to water vicinities in an aboriginal village in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study is limited by our inability to investigate the impact of Mimivirus and Marseillevirus on the aboriginal villagers. More studies on the potential impact of these viruses on human health,  especially on the aborigines, are warranted.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 17, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Viral Clearance in Sixteen HIV-Infected Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C
Conclusion: A possible drug-induced liver injury and/or suspension of ART may, in some cases, contribute to increasing the chances of spontaneous HCV clearance in HIV-infected patients with CHC.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 16, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Association of the Aquaporin 3 Gene Polymorphism (rs2231231) with Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Cancers in China
Conclusions: TheAQP3 gene polymorphism is associated with a susceptibility to EBVaNPC and EBVaL, and the homozygous AA genotype is more frequently observed in individuals who develop EBVaNPC and EBVaL.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 15, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Ultraviolet Inactivation of Chikungunya Virus
Conclusions: The study concludes that the UV-inactivated virus is antigenically stable and could be used in biosafety level 2 settings for different experiments.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 26, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effect of Human Coronavirus OC43 Structural and Accessory Proteins on the Transcriptional Activation of Antiviral Response Elements
Conclusion: Both structural and accessory HCoV-OC43 proteins are able to inhibit antiviral response elements in HEK-293 cells, and to block the activation of different antiviral signaling pathways.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 24, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research