Iterative Excretion of Human Cosaviruses from Different Genotypes Associated with Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder
Conclusions: This study describes excretion kinetics and genetic characteristics of HCoSVs in a patient with combined immunodeficiency due to MHC class II expression defect. The patient did not have concomitant symptoms related to the HCoSV infection.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - February 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of a SYBR Green II Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Clinical Detection of the Duck-Origin Goose Parvovirus in China
Conclusion: This test provides improved technical support for studies regarding the clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of the duck-origin goose parvovirus.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Physiological Proteins
Conclusion: Overall, initial evidence is provided on the antiviral activity of several peptides, as well as of their derivatives. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain the mechanism of action in order to develop new potential antiviral drugs.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The HPV16 E1 Carboxyl Domain Provides a Helper Function for Adeno-Associated Virus Replication
Conclusions: The aa 421 –649 helper domain of HPV16 E1 includes the ATP-binding/helicase region of E1 which boosts rAAV production and has homology with the analogous region of parvovirus NS-1/Rep78 by NCBI protein BLAST, suggesting these biochemistries are responsible for the mechanism of action in E1 helper function.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viral Exploration of Negative Acute Febrile Cases Observed during Chikungunya Outbreaks in Gabon
Non-malarial febrile illness outbreaks were documented in 2007 and 2010 in Gabon. After investigation, these outbreaks were attributed to the chikungunya and dengue viruses (CHIKV and DENV). However, for more than half of the samples analyzed, the causative agent was not identified. Given the geographical and ecological position of Gabon, where there is a great animal and microbial diversity, the circulation of other emerging viruses was suspected in these samples lacking aetiology. A total of 436 undiagnosed samples, collected between 2007 and 2013, and originating from 14 urban, suburban, and rural Gabonese locations wer...
Source: Intervirology - January 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that destruction of human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier could be an alternative invasion mechanism during herpes simplex virus infection.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - December 13, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High Herpesvirus Diversity in Wild Rodent and Shrew Species in Central Africa
Conclusion: The diversity of viruses detected is higher than in similar studies in Europe and Asia. The high diversity of rodent and shrew species occurring in central Africa may be the reason for a higher diversity in herpesviruses in this area.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 16, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High-Throughput Sequencing of Putative Novel microRNAs in Rhesus Monkey Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells following EV71 and CA16 Infection
Conclusion: Our results not only revealed potential biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis and treatment of HFMD, but also provided new insights to explore the mechanisms of EV71 and CA16 pathogenesis.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 7, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

A Molecular Epidemiological Investigation of Carriage of the Adeno-Associated Virus in Murine Rodents and House Shrews in China
Conclusions: A high prevalence of rat AAV that was highly conserved within theCap gene was found in 3 common murine rodents and house shrews in China.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 7, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

High Prevalence of HBV Lamivudine-Resistant Mutations in HBV/HIV Co-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Area with the Highest Prevalence of HIV/HBV Co-Infection in China
Conclusion: Treating HIV in HIV/HBV co-infection with antiretroviral agents may result in a very high prevalence of HBV 3TC-resistant mutations. TDF could not completely suppress HBV replication.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 26, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Effects of IL10 and NK Cells on the Susceptibility to Mouse Cytomegalovirus in BALB/c Mice despite the Compensation of IFN γ
Conclusion: The functional shortage of NK cells and inappropriate expression of IL10 result in the susceptibility to MCMV in BALB/c mice.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 18, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Expression of Duplex shRNAs through a Lentiviral Vector against Cellular and Viral Genes Inflicts Sustained Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus Replication
Conclusion: A lentiviral vector-based delivery system is a “single-shot” therapeutic strategy. It can express duplex shRNA for long-term synergistic inhibition of HCV and qualify as a promising therapeutic approach for sustained inhibition of HCV replication.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 Genomes from RNA-Positive but Serologically Negative Plasma Donors Have CUG as the Start Codon for ORF3
This study was undertaken to characterize HEV genomes in asymptomatic plasma donors from Sweden and Germany lacking anti-HEV. Complete open reading frames (ORFs) were obtained from HEV strains in 5 out of 18 plasma donors who tested positive for HEV RNA. All strains had CUG as the start codon of ORF3, while 147 GenBank strains all had AUG as the start codon (p #x3c; 0.0001). This substitution was found in both interrelated and unrelated strains belonging to different phylogenetic clades. The HEV strains from the seronegative plasma donors had no other substitution in common, which may be why the CUG substitution seems to e...
Source: Intervirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 and Hepatitis A Virus Dual Infection in Pediatric Patients with a Low Socioeconomic Status from Mexico
Conclusions: An elevated rate of G1 RNA was detected. Hepatitis E seems to be a neglected disease in Mexico and epidemic strains of HEV are likely to play a role as causative agents of acute hepatitis in highly exposed children. Although HAV is endemic in Mexico, an HEV-RNA detection rate of 17% in co-infected samples shows the need for screening for HEV as a part of future vaccination strategies.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - October 4, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Three Main Inducers of Alphacoronavirus Infection of Enterocytes: Sialic Acid, Proteases, and Low pH
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are similar coronaviruses, causing diseases characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, and death from severe dehydration in piglets. Thus, they have caused huge losses to the swine-breeding industry worldwide. Nowadays, they are easily transmitted among the continents via vehicles, equipment, and cargo. Both viruses establish an infection in porcine enterocytes in the small intestine, and their spike (S) proteins play a key role in the virus-cell binding process under unfavorable conditions when the intestine with a low pH is filled with a thic...
Source: Intervirology - September 3, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

RNAi Targeting of Human Metapneumovirus < b > < i > P < /i > < /b > and < b > < i > N < /i > < /b > Genes Inhibits Viral Growth
Conclusion: The findings presented here confirmed the highly potent, sequence-specific antiviral effect of siRNAs targeting the N and P gene of hMPV. These results may facilitate the development of a novel therapeutic agent for hMPV control.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 24, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Isolation and Quantification of Mimivirus-Like and Marseillevirus-Like Viruses from Soil Samples in An Aboriginal < b > < i > ( < /i > < /b > Orang asli < b > < i > ) < /i > < /b > Village in Peninsular Malaysia
Conclusion: The ubiquitous nature of both Mimivirus and Marseillevirus is further confirmed in our study as they are detected in higher quantity in soil that is near to water vicinities in an aboriginal village in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study is limited by our inability to investigate the impact of Mimivirus and Marseillevirus on the aboriginal villagers. More studies on the potential impact of these viruses on human health,  especially on the aborigines, are warranted.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 17, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Viral Clearance in Sixteen HIV-Infected Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C
Conclusion: A possible drug-induced liver injury and/or suspension of ART may, in some cases, contribute to increasing the chances of spontaneous HCV clearance in HIV-infected patients with CHC.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 16, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Association of the Aquaporin 3 Gene Polymorphism (rs2231231) with Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Cancers in China
Conclusions: TheAQP3 gene polymorphism is associated with a susceptibility to EBVaNPC and EBVaL, and the homozygous AA genotype is more frequently observed in individuals who develop EBVaNPC and EBVaL.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - August 15, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Ultraviolet Inactivation of Chikungunya Virus
Conclusions: The study concludes that the UV-inactivated virus is antigenically stable and could be used in biosafety level 2 settings for different experiments.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 26, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effect of Human Coronavirus OC43 Structural and Accessory Proteins on the Transcriptional Activation of Antiviral Response Elements
Conclusion: Both structural and accessory HCoV-OC43 proteins are able to inhibit antiviral response elements in HEK-293 cells, and to block the activation of different antiviral signaling pathways.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 24, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

NS3 Variability in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1A Isolates from Liver Tissue and Serum Samples of Treatment-Na ïve Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C
Conclusions: Though the number of patients examined was limited, NS3 variants with RASs appear to be major components of both intrahepatic and circulating viral quasispecies populations in DAA-na ïve patients.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 18, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Clinical Profile of Human < b > < i > Salivirus < /i > < /b > in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Northern Italy, 2014 –2015
Conclusions: Our data show that the detection rate of SalV in diarrheal children (0.5%) is lower than that observed in other countries, where it is reported in diarrheal children in 8.6 –1.2% of patients.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 18, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contents
Intervirology 2017;60:I –IV (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 17, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of a New G (VP7) Genotype in Group B Porcine Rotavirus
In this study, we determined the VP7 nt and deduced amino acid sequences of one RVB strain (RB62) identified in a diarrheic fecal sample obtained from a piglet in Brazil in 2012. Comparative analysis of this strain and the strains of the other 21 previously identified VP7 ge­notypes showed that the highest nt identity (71.2%) was found with the porcine PB-70-H5 strain within the G4 genotype. However, when compared with the nonclassified Vietnamese RVB G genotype 14177_18 strain, the nt sequence identity was of 82.9%. These results led us to conclude that the Brazilian strain BR62 and the V ietnamese strain 14177_18 bel...
Source: Intervirology - July 16, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Parthenolide Influences < b > < i > Herpes simplex < /i > < /b > v < b > < i > irus 1 < /i > < /b > Replication in vitro
Conclusion: Parthenolide exerts anti-HSV-1 activity by impairing cell viability, which consequently interferes with the efficient infection and production of new viral particles.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 12, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Is HERV-K and HERV-W Expression Regulated by miR-155 in Kidney Transplant Patients with Human Cytomegalovirus Infection?
According to the latest update, 2,578 unique mature micro ­RNAs (miRNAs) are currently annotated in the human genome and participate in the regulation of multiple events, such as cellular proliferation or apoptosis. A previous study analyzing global miRNA expression patterns in GH cells (high human endogenous retrovirus, HERV, K vs. low) showed that 2 miR NAs (miR-663 and miR-638) are differentially regulated and exhibit expression parallel to that of HERV-K. The aim of this study was to evaluate HERV-K and -W pol gene and miR-155 expression in kidney transplant recipients and the possible relationship between them. Th...
Source: Intervirology - July 10, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Rotavirus in Kunming, China, in 2015
This study documents the molecular epidemiology, genetics, and diversity of rotavirus strains in children under 5 years of age in Kunming, China, and suggests that it may be important to offer RVA vaccination and scien tific evidence to stop and control RVA-related diarrhea.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - July 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Chikungunya Virus Interacts with Heat Shock Cognate 70 Protein to Facilitate Its Entry into Mosquito Cell Line
Conclusion: HSC 70 serves as a putative CHIKV receptor on C6/36 cells.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 28, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic Variability in E6 and E7 Oncogenes from Human Papillomavirus Type 58 in Mexican Women
Conclusion: The genetic variability of HPV58 from Mexico was described for the first time. E7 was more conserved than E6. New mutants present exclusively in Yucatan were identified.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 26, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Changes in Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes of pH1N1 Influenza Virus Strains Collected from a North Indian Tertiary Care Hospital during 2015
Conclusions: Strains of pH1N1 isolated during year 2015 diverged from previously circulating strains. Their association with severity of illness needs to be further studied.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 26, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Coxsackievirus A24 Variant Associated with Acute Haemorrhagic Conjunctivitis Cases, French Guiana, 2017
We report the full-length genomic sequences of 4 coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) isolates collected from AHC patients in French Guiana during this outbreak (May and June 2017). These isolates are very closely related and belong to the genotype IV of CV-A24 variant, which consists of strains sampled worldwide during AHC outbreaks in the 2000s and 2010s. No recombination events were detected within the genomic sequences, indicating that members of this genotype have continuously circulated worldwide for more than 10 years without undergoing recombination with other enteroviruses. This unusual trait could be due to their ocular t...
Source: Intervirology - June 13, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Launching a Global Network of Virologists: The World Society for Virology (WSV)
Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - June 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

< b > < i > Zika virus < /i > < /b > Pathogenesis in Infant Mice after Natural Transmission by the Bite of Infected Mosquitoes
Conclusions: This study demonstrates ZIKV pathogenesis in infant CD1 mice and that these mice are highly susceptible to natural infection with this ZIKV strain.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 29, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Membrane-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Glycoprotein B Promotes Cell Adhesion and Inhibits Migration of Cells via Upregulating IL-1 β and TNF-α
Conclusion: Our results provide novel evidence that demonstrates full-length gB expressed on cell membrane to mediate adhesion and inhibit migration of cells not only by autocrine mechanism mediated by RGD-based interactions [Hussein et al.: BMC Cancer 2016; 16: 148], but also by paracrine mechanism mediated by gB-induced IL-1 β and TNF-α.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 29, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development of an Immunoassay for Detection of Torque Teno Virus (TTV) Antibodies Using the N22 Expression Product from TTV Genotype 2
Conclusion: The present immunoassay using the N22 expression product may be used as an alternative to PCR to detect TTV infection in large populations.Intervirology 2017;60:207 –216 (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 27, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Genetic Variability and Sequence Relatedness of Matrix Protein in Viruses of the Families Paramyxoviridae and Pneumoviridae
Conclusion: While we have confirmed that M proteins were conserved among individual viruses, any changes that are observed should be given attention and further researched. Of special interest is inclusion of HPIV2 M proteins in this analysis, as these proteins have not been studied to the same extent as other paramyxoviruses.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Establishment of a Competitive Binding Assay Identifying the Different Characteristics of Neutralizing Epitopes of Hepatitis E Virus
Conclusion: The results of competitive binding assays revealed that the binding of HRP-conjugated 2B1 to p166W01 could not be inhibited by 5G5 or 3G1. Similarly, the binding of HRP-conjugated 4C5 to p166Chn could not be inhibited by 5G5 or 3G1. However, the mAbs 5G5 and 3G1 blocked each other ’s binding to p166W01 and p166Chn, suggesting that common and genotype-specific neutralizing mAbs recognize independent epitopes.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 6, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Aichivirus in Children with Diarrhea in Northern Italy
Conclusions: Our results indicate that AiV may be associated with a limited number of diarrhea cases in pediatric patients.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 2, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Elevated HPV16 E1 Expression Is Associated with Cervical Cancer Progression
Conclusion: E1 may play a role in cancer development. The detection of E1 mRNA and promoter methylation may be useful as cancer prognostic markers.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of Genotype 1a and 1f of Hepatitis E Virus in Patients Treated at Tertiary Care Hospitals in Central India
Conclusion: HEV is a major aetiological agent of viral hepatitis in central India with adults and males at higher risk of infection. Two subtypes of the virus were detected in the region. Continuous serological surveillance and molecular monitoring will help to understand the epidemiology of HEV infection, outbreak mitigation and aid in providing treatment.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - March 1, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Papillomatosis and Identification of Three Genotypes in Central Iraq
Conclusions: This study confirmed the presence of BPV-1, BPV-2, and BPV-13, which belong to theDeltapapillomavirus genera, for the first time in the DNA of Iraqi cattle. Understanding BPV diversity and epidemiology is of critical importance for starting prevention strategies.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - February 9, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B Genotype Distribution in Italian Transplant Patients
Conclusions: Mixed infections seem to be prevalent in Italian transplant patients; it is likely that mixed infections are more difficult to control by immunological response in comparison to single genotype infections. In this context, the genetic profile of infecting viruses and relation to clinical outcome should be investigated, also taking into account the CMV-specific cellular immune response.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - February 2, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Iranian Women with Normal Cervical Cytology: The Impact of Current HPV Vaccines
Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is currently not included in the national vaccination program in Iran. Regional data on the distribution of HPV types in women are important as they can predict the impact of currently available vaccines and help health policy makers to consider all the possibilities with regard to HPV vaccination.Methods: A total of 1,218 Iranian women with normal cervical cytology were included in this study. The presence of the HPV genome was investigated in all specimens by PCR assay, and all HPV-positive samples were genotyped.Results: Totally, HPV was detected in 88 samples (7.2%). Ac...
Source: Intervirology - January 24, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Survival of Viruses in Water
Water, a frequent vehicle for the transmission of viruses, may permit their survival, but many environmental factors will have an adverse effect on the viral population. Risk evaluation requires identification of these factors and assessment of the inactivation rate of infectious viruses. A higher temperature means a faster reduction of the viral population, as do increased sunlight, higher antimicrobial concentration, or higher oxygen levels. Another documented impact is linked to the presence of indigenous microbial populations: virus survival is higher in sterile water. Environmental factors inactivate viruses through d...
Source: Intervirology - January 9, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Preliminary Characterization of El Tor Vibriophage M4
Conclusions: M4 belongs to the Myoviridae family and it is generally thermostable. It is prone to destruction by alkali and UV. It also has a large DNA which is densely packed inside of a big capsid.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - January 5, 2018 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Resistance-Associated Mutations and Polymorphisms among Integrase Inhibitor-Na ïve HIV-1 Patients in Kuwait
Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of monitoring the emergence of INSTI-RAMS before and after the initiation of INSTI-based therapy.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - December 6, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

CRF35-AD as the Main Circulating Genotype of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Iran: A Phylogenetic and Demographic-Based Study
Finding the predominant circulating subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and surveying co-infection with other infectious viruses are crucial to making preventive decisions. To this end, 50 Iranian HIV-positive patients made up of 37 men and 13 women were selected. Most of the HIV-positive patients (70%) were intravenous drug users (IDUs), and 48 and 32% of patients were co-infected with HCV and HBV, respectively. The rate of simultaneous infection with HIV, HCV, and HBV was found to be 6%. The p17 region of thegag and the c2-v5 region of theenv genes were sequenced and then clustered by phylogenetic anal...
Source: Intervirology - November 29, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes and Subtypes in the Metropolitan Area of Naples, Italy, in the Era of Interferon-Free Regimens
The objective of this work was to study the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes from 2010 to 2015 in 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive specimens from patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples, since HCV genotypes and subtypes remain cornerstones in the management of chronic HCV infection even in the directly acting antivirals era.Methods: The study was carried out on 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive plasma samples collected between April 2010 and December 2015.Results: Of the 1,221 patients enrolled, 633 (51.9%) were males and 588 (48.1%) were females, with a mean age of 60 ± 13 (SD)...
Source: Intervirology - November 21, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Intergenotype Recombination among New Norovirus GII.4 Variants in the Complete Genome
In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants, Kawasaki194 and CA3477, were intergenotype recombination NoV strains with a GII.4 capsid and a GII.P16 polymerase gene. It has been reported for the first time that GII.4 new variant recombinants come from intergenotype recombination of GII.P16 and GII.4 strains in the complete genome.Intervirology (Source: Intervirology)
Source: Intervirology - November 21, 2017 Category: Virology Source Type: research