Role of FoxO1 in regulating autophagy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):707. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10139. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular recycling pathway and is involved in regulating intracellular homeostasis. Transcription factor Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) also regulates fundamental cellular processes, including cell differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis, and proliferation to cellular stress. Increasing evidence suggest that autophagy and FoxO1 are involved in the pathogenesis of T2...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Xiudan Li Tingting Wan Yanbo Li Source Type: research

Klotho alleviates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced genioglossus myocyte apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):708. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10140. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTChronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been shown to induce cell apoptosis in multiple organs of the human body. The present study aimed to assess the effects of exogenous klotho on CIH-induced genioglossus muscle injury, as well as the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in this process. A total of 36 adult C57BL/6 male mice were assigned to normoxia control (NC), CIH and CIH + klotho groups (n=12 mice/group). ELISA was performed to detect the level of klotho protein in the serum and in the genioglossus muscle tissue sampl...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Zhen Xue Wenxiao Ding Luyao Ge Qiang Zhang Source Type: research

Dihydroartemisinin inhibits endothelial cell migration via the TGF- β1/ALK5/SMAD2 signaling pathway
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):709. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10141. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTAnti-angiogenesis therapy is a novel treatment method for malignant tumors. Endothelial cell (EC) migration is an important part of angiogenesis. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibits strong anti-angiogenic and anti-EC migration effects; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. The TGF-β1/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/SMAD2 signaling pathway serves an important role in the regulation of migration. The present study aimed to explore the effects of DHA treatment on EC migration and the TGF-β1/ALK...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ling Guo Xiaoqing Wen Yinglong Hou Rong Sun Liang Zhang Fuhong Liu Ju Liu Source Type: research

Autophagy-related signaling pathways are involved in cancer (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):710. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10142. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTAutophagy is a self-digestion process in cells that can maintain energy homeostasis under normal circumstances. However, misfolded proteins, damaged mitochondria and other unwanted components in cells can be decomposed and reused via autophagy in some specific cases (including hypoxic stress, low energy states or nutrient deprivation). Therefore, autophagy serves a positive role in cell survival and growth. However, excessive autophagy may lead to apoptosis. Furthermore, abnormal autophagy may lead to carcinogenesis and promote tumorigen...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Caixia Chen Hui Gao Xiulan Su Source Type: research

Targeted inhibition of STAT3 in neural stem cells promotes neuronal differentiation and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):711. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10143. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTSTAT3 is expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs), where a number of studies have previously shown that STAT3 is involved in regulating NSC differentiation. However, the possible molecular mechanism and role of STAT3 in spinal cord injury (SCI) remain unclear. In the present study, the potential effect of STAT3 in NSCs was first investigated by using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated STAT3 knockdown in rat NSCs in vitro. Immunofluorescence of β3-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein staining and western blotting showed that knoc...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tingting Li Xiaoyang Zhao Jing Duan Shangbin Cui Kai Zhu Yong Wan Shaoyu Liu Zhiming Peng Le Wang Source Type: research

Tolerogenic dendritic cells suppress titanium particle-induced inflammation
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):712. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10144. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTAseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery. The leading cause of arthroplasty failure is particulate wear debris such as titanium particles. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one type of immune cells that play an important role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory processes. DCs can develop into tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs), which present an alternative therapeutic strategy for inflammatory disorders. Previously, antigen-specific tolDCs were generated, which showed a promising effect in treating inflammatory a...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wenzhao Wang Bing Han Jianan Chen Huichao Tian Mingjie Sun Yunpeng Jiang Wei Xie Source Type: research

Features of a simvastatin-loaded multi-layered co-electrospun barrier membrane for guided bone regeneration
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):713. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10145. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTA novel tri-layer membrane consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous sheets and structured nanofibers with a gelatin (Gt) shell and a simvastatin-containing PCL core (PCL-Gt/PCL-simvastatin membrane) was prepared. The soft external layer comprised of Gt/PCL-simvastatin, the external layer of PCL and the middle layer of both microfilaments, interwoven together. The membrane was designed to promote osteoinduction and act as a barrier against cells but not against water and molecules in order to promote guided bone regeneration. The stru...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Dan Yu Chongshang Huang Chu Jiang Huiyong Zhu Source Type: research

Morphine enhances LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism
In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that morphine significantly promoted LPS-induced BMDM apoptosis and caspase-3/9 activation. These results suggested that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis may be involved in the proapoptotic effects of morphine on LPS-stimulated BMDMs, which may be dependent, at least partially, on PPARγ activation.PMID:34007323 | PMC:PMC8120503 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10146 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mingying Lin Keqiong Deng Ya Li Jing Wan Source Type: research

SGLT2 promotes cardiac fibrosis following myocardial infarction and is regulated by miR-141
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):715. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10147. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTCardiac fibrosis is a primary event during myocardial infarction (MI) progression, which impairs cardiac function. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SGLT2 on cardiac fibrosis following MI. To validate the role of SGLT2 in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis in vivo, an MI rat model was established. Echocardiography was performed to determine cardiac function at 4 weeks post-MI. MI model rats were transfected with short hairpin RNA (sh)-SGLT2 or sh-negative control lentiviruses to investigate the effect of SGLT2 on rat ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gang Li Congchun Zhao Shanhua Fang Source Type: research

Maternal obesity accelerated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring mice by reducing autophagy
In conclusion, the current study provided a new direction for the treatment of NAFLD in offspring caused by maternal obesity.PMID:34007325 | PMC:PMC8120514 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10148 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shuguang Han Feng Zhu Xiaoxia Huang Panpan Yan Ke Xu Fangfang Shen Jiawen Sun Zeyu Yang Guoxi Jin Yiqun Teng Source Type: research

A novel diagnostic signature based on three circulating exosomal mircoRNAs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
In conclusion, the three circulating exosomal miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-221 and miR-574) may serve as novel circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of COPD. These results may also enhance our understanding and provide novel potential treatment options for patients with COPD.PMID:34007326 | PMC:PMC8120666 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10149 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yahui Shen Lina Wang Yunhui Wu Yingwei Ou Huiyu Lu Xin Yao Source Type: research

Chrysoeriol ameliorates COX-2 expression through NF- κB, AP-1 and MAPK regulation via the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):718. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10150. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTChrysoeriol is a flavonoid that has diverse biological properties, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, chemoprevention and immunomodulation. Despite its reported anti-inflammatory activity, the exact underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of chrysoeriol involving lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its upstream signaling molecules was investigated in RAW 264.7 cells. The mechanism was evaluated via ELISA and western blotting assay...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hyun-Seo Yoon Chung Mu Park Source Type: research

Effect of DNA methylation on gene transcription is associated with the distribution of methylation sites across the genome in osteoarthritis
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):719. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10151. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTGenetics and epigenetics are important subjects in the field of osteoarthritis (OA) research. DNA methylation may affect gene transcription, but the specific mechanisms have remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the ChAMP methylation analysis package was used to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs) from the dataset GSE63695 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The distribution of differentially methylated sites (DMS) and the total array sites across the genome were analyzed by enrichment analysis. ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Peng Yi Xiongfeng Xu Jiawei Yao Bo Qiu Source Type: research

Inhibition of Gabrp reduces the differentiation of airway epithelial progenitor cells into goblet cells
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):720. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10152. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTBronchial asthma is an intractable pulmonary disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide, with the overproduction of mucus contributing to high morbidity and mortality. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is associated with goblet cell hyperplasia in the lungs of primate models and Club cells serve as airway epithelial progenitor cells that may differentiate into goblet and ciliated cells. In the present study, it was investigated whether the GABAA receptor pi (Gabrp) is essential for Club cell proliferation and differentiation in ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: An Wang Qiuyang Zhang Yongmei Wang Xue Li Kuan Li Yu Li Jianhai Wang Li Li Huaiyong Chen Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging of activated platelets in the progression of atherosclerosis using microbubbles bearing the von Willebrand factor A1 domain
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):721. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10153. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTPlatelet-endothelial interactions have been linked to increased inflammatory activation and a prothrombotic state in atherosclerosis. The interaction between von Willebrand factor (vWF)-A1 domain and platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX plays a significant role in mediating the adhesion of platelets to the injured endothelium. In the present study, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging with microbubbles bearing the vWF-A1 domain was performed to non-invasively monitor activated platelets on the vascular endothelium in the proc...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jie Tian Yahui Weng Ruiying Sun Ying Zhu Jun Zhang Hongyun Liu Yani Liu Source Type: research

Prognostic value of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):722. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10154. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTEsophageal cancer has always been one of the major malignant tumor types affecting the health of the Chinese population. Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), SOX4 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) are all potent inducers of invasion and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the role of these signaling molecules and their implication in ESCC have remained largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2 on the prognosis of patients with ESCC were explored. Immunohistochemistry w...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wenying Liu Yu Xia Mengyan Li Gulinaer Abulajiang Hui Wang Liping Su Chao Li Yan Shi Wenjing Zhang Shanshan Xu Yuqing Ma Source Type: research

Histone demethylase KDM2A: Biological functions and clinical values (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):723. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10155. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTHistone lysine demethylation modification is a critical epigenetic modification. Lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A), a Jumonji C domain-containing demethylase, demethylates the dimethylated H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) residue and exerts little or no activity on monomethylated and trimethylated H3K36 residues. KDM2A expression is regulated by several factors, such as microRNAs, and the phosphorylation of KDM2A also plays a vital role in its function. KDM2A mainly recognizes the unmethylated region of CpG islands and subsequently demethylates histone ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Lisheng Liu Jiangnan Liu Qinghai Lin Source Type: research

Changes in NSE and S-100 β during the perioperative period and effects on brain injury in infants with biliary atresia undergoing parent donor liver transplantation
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):724. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10156. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTThe present study aimed to investigate the effects of parental donor liver transplantation on the perioperative changes of serum calcium-binding protein β (S-100β) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels, two markers of brain injury, and on postoperative cognitive function. The present study was a prospective observational study of infants with congenital biliary atresia who underwent selective liver transplantation in 2017 at Tianjin First Central Hospital (Tianjin, China). Blood samples were collected prior to, during and fo...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hongli Yu Wenli Yu Min Zhu Guicheng Zhang Yiwei Shi Ying Sun Source Type: research

MicroRNA-124-3p inhibits the differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells into nucleus pulposus-like cells via targeting FSTL1
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):725. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10157. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTMicroRNA (miRNA/miR)-124-3p has been extensively studied in tumor biology and stem cells. However, little is known regarding its functional roles in the differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) into nucleus pulposus-like cells (NPLCs). In the present study, using miRNA microarray screening, it was demonstrated that the miRNA expression profiles differed between rat primary PSCs and TGF-β1-induced differentiated NPLCs, and that miR-124-3p was significantly differentially expressed during the differentiation of PSCs to NP...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Qiong Wang Junfang Wang Xiaofeng Gu Dehong Feng Ding Li Tao Jiang Source Type: research

Abnormal expression of miR-135a in patients with depression and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of the condition
In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicate that miR-135a may be a novel potential target for the treatment of depression.PMID:34007335 | PMC:PMC8120643 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10158 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yinxia Ding Ming Zhong Bingjie Qiu Chuanpeng Liu Jinfeng Wang Jie Liang Source Type: research

Efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty for the relief of osteoblastic spinal metastasis pain
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):727. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10159. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTThe aim of the present manuscript was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for the relief of osteoblastic spinal metastases pain. PVP was performed in 39 consecutive patients with 82 osteoblastic metastatic spinal vertebras. 19 vertebras had pathologic compressive fracture and the other 63 vertebras had no compressive fracture with obvious imaging abnormalities. The ages of the patients ranged from 40 to 77 years with a mean age of 58.5±9.0 years. Visual analog scale (VAS...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Songfeng Xu Ting Liu Xinxin Zhang Huanmei Liu Zhenguo Zhao Libin Xu Shengji Yu Source Type: research

Exogenous BMP9 promotes lung fibroblast HFL-1 cell activation via ALK1/Smad1/5 signaling < em > in vitro < /em >
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):728. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10160. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTBone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) has recently been described as a crucial regulator in modulating fibroblast-type cell activation. Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a high affinity receptor for BMP9 that exerts its role via Smad1/5. However, the functional roles of BMP9 in activating lung fibroblasts and the underlying signaling pathway are not completely understood. The present study aimed to explore the effect of exogenous BMP9 on human lung fibroblast HFL-1 cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as the potential rol...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yaqun Wang Xiaonan Sima Ying Ying Yonghong Huang Source Type: research

Hedgehog signaling modulates cigarette-induced COPD development
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):729. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10161. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTHedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in early embryogenesis and maintains quiescence in the adult lungs. The interruption of Hh signaling may lead to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study aimed to assess whether the Hh pathway affects cigarette-induced emphysema and airway inflammation by regulating inflammatory cytokines. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control, cigarette smoke (CS) or CS + cyclopamine (CSC) groups. Control mice were exposed to normal room air, CS mice were exposed to tobac...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Fang Ying Lu Rong Chen Min Zhou Yi Guo Source Type: research

Preclinical study analysis of massive magnesium alloy graft for calcaneal fractures
In conclusion, artificial materials are the future in medicine, replacing the body-limiting capabilities of grafts. They are safe and incur less comorbidities. This method could pave the way for reducing patient discomfort and increasing patient satisfaction. Although further testing is required, this research represents a great starting point for calcaneal fractures.PMID:34007339 | PMC:PMC8120552 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10163 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Şerban Dragosloveanu Drago ş Corneliu Cotor Christiana D M Dragosloveanu C ătălin Stoian Cristian Ioan Stoica Source Type: research

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis mortality trends of cirrhotic patients in the last decade in Constanta County
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):732. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10164. Epub 2021 May 7.ABSTRACTSpontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication of liver cirrhosis with an increased in-hospital mortality rate. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to examine the main predictors of mortality in order to be able to identify high-risk patients in time and to guide the optimal treatment for prognosis improvement. We retrospectively collected demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data as well as data regarding length of stay and cost of hospitalization from 72 patients diagnosed with SBP between January 20...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Roxana-Emanuela Popoiag Eugenia Panaitescu Andra-Iulia Suceveanu Adrian-Paul Suceveanu Sergiu Ioan Micu Laura Mazilu Irinel Parepa Felix Voinea Daniel Ovidiu Costea Florin Enache Carmen Fierbin țeanu-Braticevici Source Type: research

Overexpression of < em > ING3 < /em > is associated with attenuation of migration and invasion in breast cancer
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):699. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10131. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTInhibitor of growth 3 (ING3) has been identified as a potential cancer drug target, but little is known about its role in breast cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate ING3 expression in breast cancer, its clinical value, and how ING3 influences the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. The Cancer Genome Atlas and UALCAN databases were used to analyze ING3 expression in cancer tissues and normal tissues. Survival analysis was performed using the UALCAN, UCSC Xena and KM-plot databases. In addition, reverse transcri...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Huimeng Li Hengyu Zhang Xin Tan Dequan Liu Rong Guo Maohua Wang Yiyin Tang Kai Zheng Wenlin Chen Hongwan Li Mingjian Tan Ke Wang Rui Liu Shicong Tang Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory activities of < em > Gardenia jasminoides < /em > extracts in retinal pigment epithelial cells and zebrafish embryos
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):700. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10132. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of visual impairment in developed countries. Inflammation serves a critical role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Gardenia jasminoides is found in several regions of China and is traditionally used as an organic yellow dye but has also been widely used as a therapeutic agent in numerous diseases, including inflammation, depression, hepatic and vascular disorders, which may reflect the variability of functional compounds that are present in Gardenia jasminoides extracts (GJE). To ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jianrong Chen Gabriel Mbuta Tchivelekete Xinzhi Zhou Weizhuo Tang Fang Liu Minzhuo Liu Chenxi Zhao Xinhua Shu Zhihong Zeng Source Type: research

Cis-acting: A pattern of lncRNAs for gene regulation in induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Down syndrome determined by integrative analysis of lncRNA and mRNA profiling data
In conclusion, this integrative analysis using lncRNA and mRNA profiling provided novel insight into the pathogenesis of DS and it may promote the diagnosis and development of novel therapeutics for this disease.PMID:34007310 | PMC:PMC8120638 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10133 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wenbo Ma Yanna Liu Houshi Ma Zhaorui Ren Jingbin Yan Source Type: research

The mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for myasthenia gravis via energy metabolism (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):702. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10134. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTMyasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoantibody-mediated autoimmune disease that is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. Traditional treatments for MG target the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) or the immune system. However, the efficacy of such treatments is limited, and novel therapeutic options for MG are urgently required. In the current review, a new therapeutic strategy is proposed based on the mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism pathway, as stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis and the energy metabolism might alleviate m...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Lingling Ke Qing Li Jingwei Song Wei Jiao Aidong Ji Tongkai Chen Huafeng Pan Yafang Song Source Type: research

MTHFD2 facilitates breast cancer cell proliferation via the AKT signaling pathway
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):703. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10135. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTMTHFD2 is a folate-coupled mitochondrial metabolic enzyme which has been extensively studied in breast cancer; however, its molecular functions in this cancer remain unclear. The current study aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism of breast cancer. MTHFD2 expression status and prognostic value were determined using the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis database. To determine the function of MTHFD2 in breast cancer, MCF-7 cells with stable overexpression of Flag-MTHFD2 or depletion of MTHFD2 were generated. Cell Counting K...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jun Huang Yinyin Qin Canfeng Lin Xiaoguang Huang Feiran Zhang Source Type: research

Prognostic value of microRNA-378 in esophageal cancer and its regulatory effect on tumor progression
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):704. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10136. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTThe incidence and mortality rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are high in China, which has increased the clinical and economic burden. The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA/miR)-378 in ESCC. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to detect miR-378 expression in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, while Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the prognostic value of miR-378 in ESCC. ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wei Jin Lixin Wang Sujie Cheng Hongmei Lv Source Type: research

HMGB1 enhances chemotherapy resistance in multiple myeloma cells by activating the nuclear factor- κB pathway
In conclusion, HMGB1 regulates drug resistance in MM cells by regulating NF-κB signaling pathway, suggesting that HMGB1 has the potential to serve as a target for MM treatment.PMID:34007314 | PMC:PMC8120504 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10137 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jing Ning Rui Yang Hainan Wang Lijuan Cui Source Type: research

Fatty acids and their role in type-2 diabetes (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):706. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10138. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTAge, lifestyle and diet are major risk factors for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin resistance (IR) and β-cell dysfunction underlie the pathophysiology of T2DM. Diabetic populations are also prone to lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities as an indirect effect of IR on key metabolic enzymes. However, recent studies suggested that lipid changes may not only be a consequence of impaired glucose metabolism but also a causative factor. Fatty acids (FAs) influence translocation of glucose transporters and insulin recept...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shilpa S Shetty Suchetha Kumari Source Type: research

Role of FoxO1 in regulating autophagy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):707. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10139. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular recycling pathway and is involved in regulating intracellular homeostasis. Transcription factor Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) also regulates fundamental cellular processes, including cell differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis, and proliferation to cellular stress. Increasing evidence suggest that autophagy and FoxO1 are involved in the pathogenesis of T2...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Xiudan Li Tingting Wan Yanbo Li Source Type: research

Klotho alleviates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced genioglossus myocyte apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):708. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10140. Epub 2021 May 2.ABSTRACTChronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been shown to induce cell apoptosis in multiple organs of the human body. The present study aimed to assess the effects of exogenous klotho on CIH-induced genioglossus muscle injury, as well as the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in this process. A total of 36 adult C57BL/6 male mice were assigned to normoxia control (NC), CIH and CIH + klotho groups (n=12 mice/group). ELISA was performed to detect the level of klotho protein in the serum and in the genioglossus muscle tissue sampl...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Zhen Xue Wenxiao Ding Luyao Ge Qiang Zhang Source Type: research

Dihydroartemisinin inhibits endothelial cell migration via the TGF- β1/ALK5/SMAD2 signaling pathway
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):709. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10141. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTAnti-angiogenesis therapy is a novel treatment method for malignant tumors. Endothelial cell (EC) migration is an important part of angiogenesis. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibits strong anti-angiogenic and anti-EC migration effects; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. The TGF-β1/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/SMAD2 signaling pathway serves an important role in the regulation of migration. The present study aimed to explore the effects of DHA treatment on EC migration and the TGF-β1/ALK...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ling Guo Xiaoqing Wen Yinglong Hou Rong Sun Liang Zhang Fuhong Liu Ju Liu Source Type: research

Autophagy-related signaling pathways are involved in cancer (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):710. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10142. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTAutophagy is a self-digestion process in cells that can maintain energy homeostasis under normal circumstances. However, misfolded proteins, damaged mitochondria and other unwanted components in cells can be decomposed and reused via autophagy in some specific cases (including hypoxic stress, low energy states or nutrient deprivation). Therefore, autophagy serves a positive role in cell survival and growth. However, excessive autophagy may lead to apoptosis. Furthermore, abnormal autophagy may lead to carcinogenesis and promote tumorigen...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Caixia Chen Hui Gao Xiulan Su Source Type: research

Targeted inhibition of STAT3 in neural stem cells promotes neuronal differentiation and functional recovery in rats with spinal cord injury
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):711. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10143. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTSTAT3 is expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs), where a number of studies have previously shown that STAT3 is involved in regulating NSC differentiation. However, the possible molecular mechanism and role of STAT3 in spinal cord injury (SCI) remain unclear. In the present study, the potential effect of STAT3 in NSCs was first investigated by using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated STAT3 knockdown in rat NSCs in vitro. Immunofluorescence of β3-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein staining and western blotting showed that knoc...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Tingting Li Xiaoyang Zhao Jing Duan Shangbin Cui Kai Zhu Yong Wan Shaoyu Liu Zhiming Peng Le Wang Source Type: research

Tolerogenic dendritic cells suppress titanium particle-induced inflammation
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):712. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10144. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTAseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery. The leading cause of arthroplasty failure is particulate wear debris such as titanium particles. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one type of immune cells that play an important role in the initiation and progression of inflammatory processes. DCs can develop into tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs), which present an alternative therapeutic strategy for inflammatory disorders. Previously, antigen-specific tolDCs were generated, which showed a promising effect in treating inflammatory a...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wenzhao Wang Bing Han Jianan Chen Huichao Tian Mingjie Sun Yunpeng Jiang Wei Xie Source Type: research

Features of a simvastatin-loaded multi-layered co-electrospun barrier membrane for guided bone regeneration
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):713. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10145. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTA novel tri-layer membrane consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous sheets and structured nanofibers with a gelatin (Gt) shell and a simvastatin-containing PCL core (PCL-Gt/PCL-simvastatin membrane) was prepared. The soft external layer comprised of Gt/PCL-simvastatin, the external layer of PCL and the middle layer of both microfilaments, interwoven together. The membrane was designed to promote osteoinduction and act as a barrier against cells but not against water and molecules in order to promote guided bone regeneration. The stru...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Dan Yu Chongshang Huang Chu Jiang Huiyong Zhu Source Type: research

Morphine enhances LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis through a PPAR γ-dependent mechanism
In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that morphine significantly promoted LPS-induced BMDM apoptosis and caspase-3/9 activation. These results suggested that the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis may be involved in the proapoptotic effects of morphine on LPS-stimulated BMDMs, which may be dependent, at least partially, on PPARγ activation.PMID:34007323 | PMC:PMC8120503 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10146 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Mingying Lin Keqiong Deng Ya Li Jing Wan Source Type: research

SGLT2 promotes cardiac fibrosis following myocardial infarction and is regulated by miR-141
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):715. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10147. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTCardiac fibrosis is a primary event during myocardial infarction (MI) progression, which impairs cardiac function. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SGLT2 on cardiac fibrosis following MI. To validate the role of SGLT2 in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis in vivo, an MI rat model was established. Echocardiography was performed to determine cardiac function at 4 weeks post-MI. MI model rats were transfected with short hairpin RNA (sh)-SGLT2 or sh-negative control lentiviruses to investigate the effect of SGLT2 on rat ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Gang Li Congchun Zhao Shanhua Fang Source Type: research

Maternal obesity accelerated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring mice by reducing autophagy
In conclusion, the current study provided a new direction for the treatment of NAFLD in offspring caused by maternal obesity.PMID:34007325 | PMC:PMC8120514 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10148 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Shuguang Han Feng Zhu Xiaoxia Huang Panpan Yan Ke Xu Fangfang Shen Jiawen Sun Zeyu Yang Guoxi Jin Yiqun Teng Source Type: research

A novel diagnostic signature based on three circulating exosomal mircoRNAs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
In conclusion, the three circulating exosomal miRNAs (miR-23a, miR-221 and miR-574) may serve as novel circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of COPD. These results may also enhance our understanding and provide novel potential treatment options for patients with COPD.PMID:34007326 | PMC:PMC8120666 | DOI:10.3892/etm.2021.10149 (Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine)
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Yahui Shen Lina Wang Yunhui Wu Yingwei Ou Huiyu Lu Xin Yao Source Type: research

Chrysoeriol ameliorates COX-2 expression through NF- κB, AP-1 and MAPK regulation via the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):718. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10150. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTChrysoeriol is a flavonoid that has diverse biological properties, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, chemoprevention and immunomodulation. Despite its reported anti-inflammatory activity, the exact underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of chrysoeriol involving lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its upstream signaling molecules was investigated in RAW 264.7 cells. The mechanism was evaluated via ELISA and western blotting assay...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Hyun-Seo Yoon Chung Mu Park Source Type: research

Effect of DNA methylation on gene transcription is associated with the distribution of methylation sites across the genome in osteoarthritis
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):719. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10151. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTGenetics and epigenetics are important subjects in the field of osteoarthritis (OA) research. DNA methylation may affect gene transcription, but the specific mechanisms have remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the ChAMP methylation analysis package was used to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs) from the dataset GSE63695 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The distribution of differentially methylated sites (DMS) and the total array sites across the genome were analyzed by enrichment analysis. ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Peng Yi Xiongfeng Xu Jiawei Yao Bo Qiu Source Type: research

Inhibition of Gabrp reduces the differentiation of airway epithelial progenitor cells into goblet cells
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):720. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10152. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTBronchial asthma is an intractable pulmonary disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide, with the overproduction of mucus contributing to high morbidity and mortality. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is associated with goblet cell hyperplasia in the lungs of primate models and Club cells serve as airway epithelial progenitor cells that may differentiate into goblet and ciliated cells. In the present study, it was investigated whether the GABAA receptor pi (Gabrp) is essential for Club cell proliferation and differentiation in ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: An Wang Qiuyang Zhang Yongmei Wang Xue Li Kuan Li Yu Li Jianhai Wang Li Li Huaiyong Chen Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging of activated platelets in the progression of atherosclerosis using microbubbles bearing the von Willebrand factor A1 domain
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):721. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10153. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTPlatelet-endothelial interactions have been linked to increased inflammatory activation and a prothrombotic state in atherosclerosis. The interaction between von Willebrand factor (vWF)-A1 domain and platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib/IX plays a significant role in mediating the adhesion of platelets to the injured endothelium. In the present study, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging with microbubbles bearing the vWF-A1 domain was performed to non-invasively monitor activated platelets on the vascular endothelium in the proc...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Jie Tian Yahui Weng Ruiying Sun Ying Zhu Jun Zhang Hongyun Liu Yani Liu Source Type: research

Prognostic value of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):722. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10154. Epub 2021 May 3.ABSTRACTEsophageal cancer has always been one of the major malignant tumor types affecting the health of the Chinese population. Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), SOX4 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) are all potent inducers of invasion and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the role of these signaling molecules and their implication in ESCC have remained largely elusive. In the present study, the effects of MTA1, SOX4 and EZH2 on the prognosis of patients with ESCC were explored. Immunohistochemistry w...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Wenying Liu Yu Xia Mengyan Li Gulinaer Abulajiang Hui Wang Liping Su Chao Li Yan Shi Wenjing Zhang Shanshan Xu Yuqing Ma Source Type: research

Histone demethylase KDM2A: Biological functions and clinical values (Review)
Exp Ther Med. 2021 Jul;22(1):723. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10155. Epub 2021 May 4.ABSTRACTHistone lysine demethylation modification is a critical epigenetic modification. Lysine demethylase 2A (KDM2A), a Jumonji C domain-containing demethylase, demethylates the dimethylated H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) residue and exerts little or no activity on monomethylated and trimethylated H3K36 residues. KDM2A expression is regulated by several factors, such as microRNAs, and the phosphorylation of KDM2A also plays a vital role in its function. KDM2A mainly recognizes the unmethylated region of CpG islands and subsequently demethylates histone ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - May 19, 2021 Category: General Medicine Authors: Lisheng Liu Jiangnan Liu Qinghai Lin Source Type: research