Amyloid precursor protein products concentrate in a subset of exosomes specifically endocytosed by neurons.
Abstract Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease brains, is produced by sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its C-terminal fragments (CTFs). An unanswered question is how amyloidogenic peptides spread throughout the brain during the course of the disease. Here, we show that small lipid vesicles called exosomes, secreted in the extracellular milieu by cortical neurons, carry endogenous APP and are strikingly enriched in CTF-α and the newly characterized CTF-η. Exosomes from N2a cells expressing human APP with the autosomal domin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Laulagnier K, Javalet C, Hemming FJ, Chivet M, Lachenal G, Blot B, Chatellard C, Sadoul R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Vascular stem/progenitor cells: functions and signaling pathways.
Abstract Vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) are an important source of all types of vascular cells needed to build, maintain, repair, and remodel blood vessels. VSCs, therefore, play critical roles in the development, normal physiology, and pathophysiology of numerous diseases. There are four major types of VSCs, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). VSCs can be found in bone marrow, circulating blood, vessel walls, and other extravascular tissues. During the past two decades, considerable progress has been achieved i...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lu W, Li X Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Anatomy of autophagy: from the beginning to the end.
Abstract Autophagy is a highly regulated process in eukaryotes to maintain homeostasis and manage stress responses. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms and key players involved in autophagy will provide critical insights into disease-related pathogenesis and potential clinical treatments. In this review, we describe the hallmark events involved in autophagy, from its initiation, to the final destruction of engulfed targets. Furthermore, based on structural and biochemical data, we evaluate the roles of key players in these processes and provide rationale as to how they control autophagic events in a highly ord...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 22, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhi X, Feng W, Rong Y, Liu R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high  fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo.
Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Sep 20;: Authors: Zieger K, Weiner J, Kunath A, Gericke M, Krause K, Kern M, Stumvoll M, Klöting N, Blüher M, Heiker JT Abstract Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 20, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Zieger K, Weiner J, Kunath A, Gericke M, Krause K, Kern M, Stumvoll M, Klöting N, Blüher M, Heiker JT Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Crystal structures of eukaryote glycosyltransferases reveal biologically relevant enzyme homooligomers.
Abstract Glycosyltransferases (GTases) transfer sugar moieties to proteins, lipids or existing glycan or polysaccharide molecules. GTases form an important group of enzymes in the Golgi, where the synthesis and modification of glycoproteins and glycolipids take place. Golgi GTases are almost invariably type II integral membrane proteins, with the C-terminal globular catalytic domain residing in the Golgi lumen. The enzymes themselves are divided into 103 families based on their sequence homology. There is an abundance of published crystal structures of GTase catalytic domains deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PD...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 20, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Harrus D, Kellokumpu S, Glumoff T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta identifies mesenchymal stem cells with enhanced engraftment to tissue injury and pro-angiogenic property.
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous likely consisting of subpopulations with various therapeutic potentials. Here we attempted to acquire a subset of MSCs with enhanced effect in wound healing. We found that human placental MSCs expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR)-β exhibited greater proliferation rates and generated more colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F), compared to PDGFR-β(-) MSCs. Notably, PDGFR-β(+) MSCs expressed higher levels of pro-angiogenic factors such as Ang1, Ang2, VEGF, bFGF and PDGF. When 10(6) GFP-expressing MSCs were topically ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 19, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang S, Mo M, Wang J, Sadia S, Shi B, Fu X, Yu L, Tredget EE, Wu Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

TUSC3: functional duality of a cancer gene.
rak P, Vaňhara P Abstract Two decades ago, following a systematic screening of LOH regions on chromosome 8p22, TUSC3 has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancers. Since then, a growing body of evidence documented its clinical importance in various other types of cancers, and first initial insights into its molecular function and phenotypic effects have been gained, though the precise role of TUSC3 in different cancers remains unclear. As a part of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, TUSC3 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and functions in final steps...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 19, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Vašíčková K, Horak P, Vaňhara P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

C3aR and C5aR1 act as key regulators of human and mouse β-cell function.
CONCLUSIONS: Our observations demonstrate a functional link between activation of components of the innate immune system and improved β-cell function, suggesting that low-level chronic inflammation may improve glucose homeostasis through direct effects on β-cells. PMID: 28921001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 18, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Atanes P, Ruz-Maldonado I, Pingitore A, Hawkes R, Liu B, Zhao M, Huang GC, Persaud SJ, Amisten S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The role of periostin in lung fibrosis and airway remodeling.
Abstract Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 16, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: O'Dwyer DN, Moore BB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin in the pathogenesis of skin diseases.
Abstract Skin is an organ that is susceptible to damage by external injury, chronic inflammation, and autoimmunity. Tissue damage causes alterations in both the configuration and type of cells in lesional skin. This phenomenon, called tissue remodeling, is a universal biological response elicited by programmed cell death, inflammation, immune disorders, and tumorigenic, tumor proliferative, and cytoreductive activity. In this process, changes in the components of the extracellular matrix are required to provide an environment that facilitates tissue remodeling. Among these extracellular matrix components, periosti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 15, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Murota H, Lingli Y, Katayama I Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin in vitreoretinal diseases.
Abstract Proliferative vitreoretinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and age-related macular degeneration are a leading cause of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. In these diseases, retinal fibro(vascular) membrane (FVM) formation above and beneath the retina plays an important role. Gene expression profiling of human FVMs revealed significant upregulation of periostin. Subsequent analyses demonstrated increased periostin expression in the vitreous of patients with both proliferative diabetic retinopathy and PVR. Immunohistochemical analysis showed...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Yoshida S, Nakama T, Ishikawa K, Nakao S, Sonoda KH, Ishibashi T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The function of endocytosis in Wnt signaling.
Abstract Wnt growth factors regulate one of the most important signaling networks during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. Despite the biological importance of Wnt signaling, the mechanism of endocytosis during this process is ill described. Wnt molecules can act as paracrine signals, which are secreted from the producing cells and transported through neighboring tissue to activate signaling in target cells. Endocytosis of the ligand is important at several stages of action: One central function of endocytic trafficking in the Wnt pathway occurs in the source cell. Furthermore, the β-catenin-depend...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Brunt L, Scholpp S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Role of noncoding RNAs in regulation of cardiac cell death and cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract Loss of functional cardiomyocytes is a major underlying mechanism for myocardial remodeling and heart diseases, due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult myocardium. Apoptosis, programmed necrosis, and autophagy contribute to loss of cardiac myocytes that control the balance of cardiac cell death and cell survival through multiple intricate signaling pathways. In recent years, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have received much attention to uncover their roles in cell death of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, based on the view tha...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Dong Y, Liu C, Zhao Y, Ponnusamy M, Li P, Wang K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Erratum to: Stress and the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors in the section entitled "NMD in stress responses in plants". PMID: 28905073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 13, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Goetz AE, Wilkinson M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation and control of miRNA-like off-target repression for RNA interference.
Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely adopted to repress specific gene expression and is easily achieved by designing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with perfect sequence complementarity to the intended target mRNAs. Although siRNAs direct Argonaute (Ago), a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to recognize and silence target mRNAs, they also inevitably function as microRNAs (miRNAs) and suppress hundreds of off-targets. Such miRNA-like off-target repression is potentially detrimental, resulting in unwanted toxicity and phenotypes. Despite early recognition of the severity of miR...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 13, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Seok H, Lee H, Jang ES, Chi SW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate cures experimental visceral leishmaniasis by redox modulation of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase and inhibiting host integrin linked PI3K/Akt pathway.
Abstract In an endeavor to search for affordable and safer therapeutics against debilitating visceral leishmaniasis, we examined antileishmanial potential of ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101); a tellurium based non toxic immunomodulator. AS101 showed significant in vitro efficacy against both Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes at sub-micromolar concentrations. AS101 could also completely eliminate organ parasite load from L. donovani infected Balb/c mice along with significant efficacy against infected hamsters (˃93% inhibition). Analyzing mechanistic details revealed th...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 12, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Vishwakarma P, Parmar N, Chandrakar P, Sharma T, Kathuria M, Agnihotri PK, Siddiqi MI, Mitra K, Kar S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Functions of Periostin in dental tissues and its role in periodontal tissues' regeneration.
Abstract The goal of periodontal regenerative therapy is to predictably restore the tooth's supporting periodontal tissues and form a new connective tissue attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers and new alveolar bone. Periostin is a matricellular protein so named for its expression primarily in the periosteum and PDL of adult mice. Its biological functions have been widely studied in areas such as cardiovascular physiology and oncology. Despite being initially identified in the dental tissues and bone, investigations of Periostin functions in PDL and alveolar-bone-related physiopathology are less abundant...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 9, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Du J, Li M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin and its interacting proteins in the construction of extracellular architectures.
Abstract Periostin is a matricellular protein that is composed of a multi-domain structure with an amino-terminal EMI domain, a tandem repeat of four FAS 1 domains, and a carboxyl-terminal domain. These distinct domains have been demonstrated to bind to many proteins including extracellular matrix proteins (Collagen type I and V, fibronectin, tenascin, and laminin), matricellular proteins (CCN3 and βig-h3), and enzymes that catalyze covalent crosslinking between extracellular matrix proteins (lysyl oxidase and BMP-1). Adjacent binding sites on periostin have been suggested to put the interacting proteins in c...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 8, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Kii I, Ito H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin in inflammation and allergy.
Abstract We found for the first time that IL-4 and IL-13, signature type 2 cytokines, are able to induce periostin expression. We and others have subsequently shown that periostin is highly expressed in chronic inflammatory diseases-asthma, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilc chronic sinusitis/chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp, and allergic conjunctivitis-and that periostin plays important roles in the pathogenesis of these diseases. The epithelial/mesenchymal interaction via periostin is important for the onset of allergic inflammation, in which periostin derived from fibroblasts acts on epithelial cells or fibr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 8, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Izuhara K, Nunomura S, Nanri Y, Ogawa M, Ono J, Mitamura Y, Yoshihara T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Introductory review: periostin-gene and protein structure.
Abstract Although many studies have described the role of periostin in various diseases, the function of the periostin protein structures derived from alternative splicing and proteinase cleavage at the C-terminal remain unknown. Further experiments revealing the protein structures that are highly related to diseases are essential to understand the function of periostin in depth, which would accelerate its clinical application by establishing new approaches for curing intractable diseases. Furthermore, this understanding would enhance our knowledge of novel functions of periostin related to stemness and response t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 7, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Kudo A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin in kidney diseases.
Abstract Chronic kidney disease is an incurable to date pathology, with renal replacement therapy through dialysis or transplantation being the only available option for end-stage patients. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the progression of kidney diseases will permit the identification of unknown mediators and potential novel markers or targets of therapy which promise more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Over the last years, periostin was established by several studies as a novel key player in the progression of renal disease. Periostin is de novo expressed focally...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 7, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Prakoura N, Chatziantoniou C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The multifaceted role of periostin in priming the tumor microenvironments for tumor progression.
Abstract Tumor microenvironment consists of tumor cells, stromal cells, extracellular matrix and a plethora of soluble components. The complex array of interactions between tumor cells and their surrounding tumor microenvironments contribute to the determination of the fate of tumor cells during tumorigenesis and metastasis. Matricellular protein periostin is generally absent in most adult tissues but is highly expressed in tumor microenvironments. Current evidence reveals that periostin plays a critical role in establishing and remodeling tumor microenvironments such as the metastatic niche, cancer stem cell nich...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 7, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Cui D, Huang Z, Liu Y, Ouyang G Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

CBP-mediated SMN acetylation modulates Cajal body biogenesis and the cytoplasmic targeting of SMN.
Abstract The survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs and the molecular assembly of Cajal bodies (CBs). Deletion of or mutations in the SMN1 gene cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with degeneration and loss of motor neurons. Reduced SMN levels in SMA lead to deficient snRNP biogenesis with consequent splicing pathology. Here, we demonstrate that SMN is a novel and specific target of the acetyltransferase CBP (CREB-binding protein). Furthermore, we identify lysine (K) 119 as the main acetylation site in SMN. Importantly, SMN acetylation enhances its c...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 6, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lafarga V, Tapia O, Sharma S, Bengoechea R, Stoecklin G, Lafarga M, Berciano MT Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Autophagy in diabetic kidney disease: regulation, pathological role and therapeutic potential.
Abstract Diabetic kidney disease, a leading cause of end-stage renal disease, has become a serious public health problem worldwide and lacks effective therapies. Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that removes protein aggregates and damaged organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis. As important stress-responsive machinery, autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysregulated autophagy may contribute to both glomerular and tubulointerstitial pathologies in kidneys under diabetic conditions. This review summarizes the rece...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 4, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Yang D, Livingston MJ, Liu Z, Dong G, Zhang M, Chen JK, Dong Z Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

ALK1 signaling in development and disease: new paradigms.
Abstract Activin A receptor like type 1 (ALK1) is a transmembrane serine/threonine receptor kinase in the transforming growth factor-beta receptor family that is expressed on endothelial cells. Defects in ALK1 signaling cause the autosomal dominant vascular disorder, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is characterized by development of direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Although previous studies have implicated ALK1 in various aspects of sprouting angiogenesis, including tip/stalk cell selection, migration, and proliferation, recent work suggests a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 4, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Roman BL, Hinck AP Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Transcriptional regulation of CRMP5 controls neurite outgrowth through Sox5.
;on R Abstract Transcriptional regulation of proteins involved in neuronal polarity is a key process that underlies the ability of neurons to transfer information in the central nervous system. The Collapsin Response Mediator Protein (CRMP) family is best known for its role in neurite outgrowth regulation conducting to neuronal polarity and axonal guidance, including CRMP5 that drives dendrite differentiation. Although CRMP5 is able to control dendritic development, the regulation of its expression remains poorly understood. Here we identify a Sox5 consensus binding sequence in the putative promoter sequence upstr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Naudet N, Moutal A, Vu HN, Chounlamountri N, Watrin C, Cavagna S, Malleval C, Benetollo C, Bardel C, Dronne MA, Honnorat J, Meissirel C, Besançon R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant: one of evolution's best ideas.
Abstract Melatonin is an ancient antioxidant. After its initial development in bacteria, it has been retained throughout evolution such that it may be or may have been present in every species that have existed. Even though it has been maintained throughout evolution during the diversification of species, melatonin's chemical structure has never changed; thus, the melatonin present in currently living humans is identical to that present in cyanobacteria that have existed on Earth for billions of years. Melatonin in the systemic circulation of mammals quickly disappears from the blood presumably due to its uptake b...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Reiter RJ, Rosales-Corral S, Tan DX, Jou MJ, Galano A, Xu B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Gene therapy for chondral and osteochondral regeneration: is the future now?
Abstract Gene therapy might represent a promising strategy for chondral and osteochondral defects repair by balancing the management of temporary joint mechanical incompetence with altered metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. This review analysed preclinical and clinical studies on gene therapy for the repair of articular cartilage defects performed over the last 10 years, focussing on expression vectors (non-viral and viral), type of genes delivered and gene therapy procedures (direct or indirect). Plasmids (non-viral expression vectors) and adenovirus (viral vectors) were the most employed vectors in pre...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 1, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Bellavia D, Veronesi F, Carina V, Costa V, Raimondi L, De Luca A, Alessandro R, Fini M, Giavaresi G Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Vertebrate GAF/ThPOK: emerging functions in chromatin architecture and transcriptional regulation.
Abstract GAGA factor of Drosophila melanogaster (DmGAF) is a multifaceted transcription factor with diverse roles in chromatin regulation. Recently, ThPOK/c-Krox was identified as its vertebrate homologue (vGAF), which has a basic domain structure similar to DmGAF and is decorated with a number of post-translationally modified residues. In vertebrate genomes, vGAF associates with purine-rich GAGA sequences and performs diverse chromatin-mediated functions, viz., gene activation, repression and enhancer blocking. Expansion of regulatory chromatin proteins with the acquisition of PTMs appears to be the general trend...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 30, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Srivastava A, Kumar AS, Mishra RK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Secretogranin III: a diabetic retinopathy-selective angiogenic factor.
Abstract Secretogranin III (Scg3) is a member of the granin protein family that regulates the biogenesis of secretory granules. Scg3 was recently discovered as an angiogenic factor, expanding its functional role to extrinsic regulation. Unlike many other known angiogenic factors, the pro-angiogenic actions of Scg3 are restricted to pathological conditions. Among thousands of quantified endothelial ligands, Scg3 has the highest binding activity ratio to diabetic vs. healthy mouse retinas and lowest background binding to normal vessels. In contrast, vascular endothelial growth factor binds to and stimulates angiogen...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 30, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Li W, Webster KA, LeBlanc ME, Tian H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Erratum to: Ablation of cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2) leads to cardiomyopathy.
AA PMID: 28852764 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 29, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Peche VS, Holak TA, Burgute BD, Kosmas K, Kale SP, Wunderlich FT, Elhamine F, Stehle R, Pfitzer G, Nohroudi K, Addicks K, Stöckigt F, Schrickel JW, Gallinger J, Schleicher M, Noegel AA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mechanisms of ciliary targeting: entering importins and Rabs.
Abstract Primary cilium is a rod-like plasma membrane protrusion that plays important roles in sensing the cellular environment and initiating corresponding signaling pathways. The sensory functions of the cilium critically depend on the unique enrichment of ciliary residents, which is maintained by the ciliary diffusion barrier. It is still unclear how ciliary cargoes specifically enter the diffusion barrier and accumulate within the cilium. In this review, the organization and trafficking mechanism of the cilium are compared to those of the nucleus, which are much better understood at the moment. Though the cili...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 29, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lu L, Madugula V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pathogenic mutation in the ALS/FTD gene, CCNF, causes elevated Lys48-linked ubiquitylation and defective autophagy.
This study also demonstrates that a single missense mutation in cyclin F causes hyper-ubiquitylation of proteins that can indirectly impair the autophagy degradation pathway, which is implicated in ALS pathogenesis. PMID: 28852778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 29, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lee A, Rayner SL, Gwee SSL, De Luca A, Shahheydari H, Sundaramoorthy V, Ragagnin A, Morsch M, Radford R, Galper J, Freckleton S, Shi B, Walker AK, Don EK, Cole NJ, Yang S, Williams KL, Yerbury JJ, Blair IP, Atkin JD, Molloy MP, Chung RS Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Protein levels of clusterin and glutathione  synthetase in platelets allow for early detection of colorectal cancer.
Protein levels of clusterin and glutathione synthetase in platelets allow for early detection of colorectal cancer. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Aug 28;: Authors: Strohkamp S, Gemoll T, Humborg S, Hartwig S, Lehr S, Freitag-Wolf S, Becker S, Franzén B, Pries R, Wollenberg B, Roblick UJ, Bruch HP, Keck T, Auer G, Habermann JK Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies in the Western world. Early tumor detection and intervention are important determinants on CRC patient survival. During early tumor proliferation, dissemination and angiogenesis, platelets store and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 28, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Strohkamp S, Gemoll T, Humborg S, Hartwig S, Lehr S, Freitag-Wolf S, Becker S, Franzén B, Pries R, Wollenberg B, Roblick UJ, Bruch HP, Keck T, Auer G, Habermann JK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Interaction and cross-talk between non-coding RNAs.
Abstract Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been shown to regulate diverse cellular processes and functions through controlling gene expression. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) where microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs regulate each other through their biding sites. Interactions of miRNAs and lncRNAs have been reported to trigger decay of the targeted lncRNAs and have important roles in target gene regulation. These interactions form complicated and intertwined networks. Certain lncRNAs encode miRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and may regulate expression of these small RNAs a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 24, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Yamamura S, Imai-Sumida M, Tanaka Y, Dahiya R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Access to the odor world: olfactory receptors and their role for signal transduction in insects.
Abstract The sense of smell enables insects to recognize and discriminate a broad range of volatile chemicals in their environment originating from prey, host plants and conspecifics. These olfactory cues are received by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that relay information about food sources, oviposition sites and mates to the brain and thus elicit distinct odor-evoked behaviors. Research over the last decades has greatly advanced our knowledge concerning the molecular basis underlying the reception of odorous compounds and the mechanisms of signal transduction in OSNs. The emerging picture clearly indicates th...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 21, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Fleischer J, Pregitzer P, Breer H, Krieger J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin transport into mitochondria.
a-Cernuda R Abstract Melatonin is a well-known, nighttime-produced indole found in bacteria, eukaryotic unicellulars, animals or vascular plants. In vertebrates, melatonin is the major product of the pineal gland, which accounts for its increase in serum during the dark phase, but it is also produced by many other organs and cell types. Such a wide distribution is consistent with its multiple and well-described functions which include from the circadian regulation and adaptation to seasonal variations to immunomodulatory and oncostatic actions in different types of tumors. The discovery of its antioxidant properti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 21, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Mayo JC, Sainz RM, González-Menéndez P, Hevia D, Cernuda-Cernuda R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Coordination of cardiac rhythmic output and circadian metabolic regulation in the heart.
Abstract Over the course of a 24-h day, demand on the heart rises and falls with the sleep/wake cycles of the organism. Cardiac metabolism oscillates appropriately, with the relative contributions of major energy sources changing in a circadian fashion. The cardiac peripheral clock is hypothesized to drive many of these changes, yet the precise mechanisms linking the cardiac clock to metabolism remain a source of intense investigation. Here we summarize the current understanding of circadian alterations in cardiac metabolism and physiology, with an emphasis on novel findings from unbiased transcriptomic studies. A...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 21, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Hsieh PN, Zhang L, Jain MK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Exploiting non-canonical translation to identify new targets for T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Cryptic MHC I-associated peptides (MAPs) are produced via two mechanisms: translation of protein-coding genes in non-canonical reading frames and translation of allegedly non-coding sequences. In general, cryptic MAPs are coded by relatively short open reading frames whose translation can be regulated at the level of initiation, elongation or termination. In contrast to conventional MAPs, the processing of cryptic MAPs is frequently proteasome independent. The existence of cryptic MAPs derived from allegedly non-coding regions enlarges the scope of CD8 T cell immunosurveillance from a mere ~2% to as much ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 19, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Laumont CM, Perreault C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Developmentally regulated signaling pathways in glioma invasion.
Abstract Malignant gliomas are the most common, infiltrative, and lethal primary brain tumors affecting the adult population. The grim prognosis for this disease is due to a combination of the presence of highly invasive tumor cells that escape surgical resection and the presence of a population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells found within these tumors. Several studies suggest that glioma cells have cleverly hijacked the normal developmental program of neural progenitor cells, including their transcriptional programs, to enhance gliomagenesis. In this review, we summarize the role of developmentally regulat...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 18, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Mehta S, Lo Cascio C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Molecular processes involved in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Abstract B cell leukaemia is one of the most frequent malignancies in the paediatric population, but also affects a significant proportion of adults in developed countries. The majority of infant and paediatric cases initiate the process of leukaemogenesis during foetal development (in utero) through the formation of a chromosomal translocation or the acquisition/deletion of genetic material (hyperdiploidy or hypodiploidy, respectively). This first genetic insult is the major determinant for the prognosis and therapeutic outcome of patients. B cell leukaemia in adults displays similar molecular features as it...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 17, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Malouf C, Ottersbach K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin, mitochondria, and the metabolic syndrome.
Abstract A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS....
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 17, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Cardinali DP, Vigo DE Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin, mitochondria, and the skin.
Abstract The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors. Moreover, they attenuate the pathological processes including...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 12, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Slominski AT, Zmijewski MA, Semak I, Kim TK, Janjetovic Z, Slominski RM, Zmijewski JW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

IP3 receptor signaling and endothelial barrier function.
Abstract The endothelium, a monolayer of endothelial cells lining vessel walls, maintains tissue-fluid homeostasis by restricting the passage of the plasma proteins and blood cells into the interstitium. The ion Ca(2+), a ubiquitous secondary messenger, initiates signal transduction events in endothelial cells that is critical to control of vascular tone and endothelial permeability. The ion Ca(2+) is stored inside the intracellular organelles and released into the cytosol in response to environmental cues. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) messenger facilitates Ca(2+) release through IP3 receptors which are ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 12, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Sun MY, Geyer M, Komarova YA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Expression profiling of Tas2r genes reveals a complex pattern along the mouse GI tract and the presence of Tas2r131 in a subset of intestinal Paneth cells.
Abstract The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region. I...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 11, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Prandi S, Voigt A, Meyerhof W, Behrens M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Dimerization leads to changes in APP (amyloid precursor protein) trafficking mediated by LRP1 and SorLA.
Abstract Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-, β- and γ-secretases is a determining factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Imbalances in the activity of all three enzymes can result in alterations towards pathogenic Aβ production. Proteolysis of APP is strongly linked to its subcellular localization as the secretases involved are distributed in different cellular compartments. APP has been shown to dimerize in cis-orientation, affecting Aβ production. This might be explained by different substrate properties defined by the APP oligomerization state or alternativ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 10, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Eggert S, Gonzalez AC, Thomas C, Schilling S, Schwarz SM, Tischer C, Adam V, Strecker P, Schmidt V, Willnow TE, Hermey G, Pietrzik CU, Koo EH, Kins S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin and mitochondrial function during ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many organs and tissues, and contributes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Melatonin, an endogenously produced indolamine, provides a strong defense against IR injury. Mitochondrion, an organelle for ATP production and a decider for cell fate, has been validated to be a crucial target for melatonin to exert its protection against IR injury. In this review, we first clarify the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction during IR and melatonin's protection of mitochondria under this condition. Thereafter, special focus is placed on the protective actions ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 9, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Ma Z, Xin Z, Di W, Yan X, Li X, Reiter RJ, Yang Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin as a mitochondrial protector in neurodegenerative diseases.
This article reviews mechanisms which melatonin exerts its protective roles on mitochondria as a potential therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 28791420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 8, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Wongprayoon P, Govitrapong P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Melatonin, mitochondria and hypertension.
Abstract Melatonin, due to its multiple means and mechanisms of action, plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the organismal physiology by fine tunning several functions. The cardiovascular system is an important site of action as melatonin regulates blood pressure both by central and peripheral interventions, in addition to its relation with the renin-angiotensin system. Besides, the systemic management of several processes, melatonin acts on mitochondria regulation to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. Hypertension affects target organs in different ways and cellular energy metabolism is frequentl...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 8, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Baltatu OC, Amaral FG, Campos LA, Cipolla-Neto J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Rab44, a novel large Rab GTPase, negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation by modulating intracellular calcium levels followed by NFATc1 activation.
Abstract Rab44 is an atypical Rab GTPase that contains some additional domains such as the EF-hand and coiled-coil domains as well as Rab-GTPase domain. Although Rab44 genes have been found in mammalian genomes, no studies concerning Rab44 have been reported yet. Here, we identified Rab44 as an upregulated protein during osteoclast differentiation. Knockdown of Rab44 by small interfering RNA promotes RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of the murine monocytic cell line, RAW-D or of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). In contrast, overexpression of Rab44 prevents osteoclast differentiation. Rab44 was local...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - August 8, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Yamaguchi Y, Sakai E, Okamoto K, Kajiya H, Okabe K, Naito M, Kadowaki T, Tsukuba T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research