The contribution of environmental exposure to the etiology of autism spectrum disorder.
This article reviews our current understanding of environmental risk factors of ASD and their presumed adverse physiological mechanisms. It comprehensively maps the significance of parental age, teratogenic compounds, perinatal risks, medication, smoking and alcohol use, nutrition, vaccination, toxic exposures, as well as the role of extreme psychosocial factors. Further, we consider the role of potential protective factors such as folate and fatty acid intake. Evidence indicates an increased offspring vulnerability to ASD through advanced maternal and paternal age, valproate intake, toxic chemical exposure, maternal diabe...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Bölte S, Girdler S, Marschik PB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Endothelial cell apoptosis and the role of endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles in the progression of atherosclerosis.
Abstract To maintain physiological homeostasis, cell turnover occurs every day in the body via a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis. During apoptosis, cells undergo distinct morphological changes culminating in the disassembly of the dying cell into smaller fragments known as apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs). Dysregulation of apoptosis is associated with diseases including infection, cancer and atherosclerosis. Although the development of atherosclerosis is largely attributed to the accumulation of lipids and inflammatory debris in vessel walls, it is also associated with apoptosis of macrophages, smooth musc...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Paone S, Baxter AA, Hulett MD, Poon IKH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Meiotic spindle assembly checkpoint and aneuploidy in males versus females.
Abstract The production of gametes (sperm and eggs in mammals) involves two sequential cell divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes segregate to different daughter cells, and meiosis II resembles mitotic divisions in that sister chromatids separate. While in principle the process is identical in males and females, the time frame and susceptibility to chromosomal defects, including achiasmy and cohesion weakening, and the response to mis-segregating chromosomes are not. In this review, we compare and contrast meiotic spindle assembly checkpoint function and aneuploidy in the two se...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 18, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Lane S, Kauppi L Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

How many cadherins do human endothelial cells express?
án J Abstract The vasculature is the paradigm of a compartment generated by parallel cellular barriers that aims to transport oxygen, nutrients and immune cells in complex organisms. Vascular barrier dysfunction leads to fatal acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The endothelial barrier lines the inner side of vessels and is the main regulator of vascular permeability. Cadherins comprise a superfamily of 114 calcium-dependent adhesion proteins that contain conserved cadherin motifs and form cell-cell junctions in metazoans. In mature human endothelial cells, only VE (vascular endothelial)-cadherin and N...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 14, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Colás-Algora N, Millán J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Increases in cytosolic Ca2+ induce dynamin- and calcineurin-dependent internalisation of CFTR.
Abstract The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated, apical anion channel that regulates ion and fluid transport in many epithelia including the airways. We have previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to airway epithelia causes a reduction in plasma membrane CFTR expression which correlated with a decrease in airway surface hydration. The effect of CS on CFTR was dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. However, the underlying mechanism for this Ca2+-dependent, internalisation of CFTR is unknown. To gain a better understanding of the effect of Ca2+ on CFTR, w...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Patel W, Moore PJ, Sassano MF, Lopes-Pacheco M, Aleksandrov AA, Amaral MD, Tarran R, Gray MA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Intricate role of mitochondrial lipid in mitophagy and mitochondrial apoptosis: its implication in cancer therapeutics.
Abstract The efficacy of chemotherapy is mostly restricted by the drug resistance developed during the course of cancer treatment. Mitophagy, as a pro-survival mechanism, crucially maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and it is one of the mechanisms that cancer cells adopt for their progression. On the other hand, mitochondrial apoptosis, a precisely regulated form of cell death, acts as a tumor-suppressive mechanism by targeting cancer cells. Mitochondrial lipids, such as cardiolipin, ceramide, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, act as a mitophageal signal for the clearance of damaged mitochondria by interacting with mi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 11, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Praharaj PP, Naik PP, Panigrahi DP, Bhol CS, Mahapatra KK, Patra S, Sethi G, Bhutia SK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

HIF-1 α-derived cell-penetrating peptides inhibit ERK-dependent activation of HIF-1 and trigger apoptosis of cancer cells under hypoxia.
HIF-1α-derived cell-penetrating peptides inhibit ERK-dependent activation of HIF-1 and trigger apoptosis of cancer cells under hypoxia. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Dec 10;: Authors: Karagiota A, Kourti M, Simos G, Mylonis I Abstract Hypoxia is frequently encountered in the microenvironment of solid tumors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), the main effectors of cell response to hypoxia, promote cancer cell survival and progression. HIF-1α, the oxygen-regulated subunit of HIF-1, is often correlated with oncogenesis and represents an attractive therapeutic target. We have previously reported tha...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 10, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Karagiota A, Kourti M, Simos G, Mylonis I Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Adaptive responses to low doses of radiation or chemicals: their cellular and molecular mechanisms.
This article reviews the current knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation or chemical exposure. A better knowledge of these mechanisms is needed to improve our understanding of health risks at low levels of environmental or occupational exposure and their involvement in cancer or non-cancer diseases. This response is orchestrated through a multifaceted cellular program involving the concerted action of diverse stress response pathways. These evolutionary highly conserved defense mechanisms determine the cellular response to chemical and physical aggression. They include DNA damage...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 8, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Guéguen Y, Bontemps A, Ebrahimian TG Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Hindbrain induction and patterning during early vertebrate development.
Abstract The hindbrain is a key relay hub of the central nervous system (CNS), linking the bilaterally symmetric half-sides of lower and upper CNS centers via an extensive network of neural pathways. Dedicated neural assemblies within the hindbrain control many physiological processes, including respiration, blood pressure, motor coordination and different sensations. During early development, the hindbrain forms metameric segmented units known as rhombomeres along the antero-posterior (AP) axis of the nervous system. These compartmentalized units are highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and act as the tem...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 5, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Frank D, Sela-Donenfeld D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Coupling factors involved in preserving bone balance.
Abstract Coupling during bone remodeling refers to the spatial and temporal coordination of bone resorption with bone formation. Studies have assessed the subtle interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts to preserve bone balance. Traditionally, coupling research related to osteoclast function has focused on bone resorption activity causing the release of growth factors embedded in the bone matrix. However, considerable evidence from in vitro, animal, and human studies indicates the importance of the osteoclasts themselves in coupling phenomena, and many osteoclast-derived coupling factors have been identifi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - December 4, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Kim BJ, Koh JM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The carotid body: a physiologically relevant germinal niche in the adult peripheral nervous system.
Abstract Oxygen constitutes a vital element for the survival of every single cell in multicellular aerobic organisms like mammals. A complex homeostatic oxygen-sensing system has evolved in these organisms, including detectors and effectors, to guarantee a proper supply of the element to every cell. The carotid body represents the most important peripheral arterial chemoreceptor organ in mammals and informs about hypoxemic situations to the effectors at the brainstem cardiorespiratory centers. To optimize organismal adaptation to maintained hypoxemic situations, the carotid body has evolved containing a niche of a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Sobrino V, Annese V, Navarro-Guerrero E, Platero-Luengo A, Pardal R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Applications of PNA-laden nanoparticles for hematological disorders.
Abstract Safe and efficient genome editing has been an unmitigated goal for biomedical researchers since its inception. The most prevalent strategy for gene editing is the use of engineered nucleases that induce DNA damage and take advantage of cellular DNA repair machinery. This includes meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) systems. However, the clinical viability of these nucleases is marred by their off-target cleavage activity (≥ 50% in RNA-guided endonucleases). In addition, ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Malik S, Oyaghire S, Bahal R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Identification of CD36 as a new interaction partner of membrane NEU1: potential implication in the pro-atherogenic effects of the elastin receptor complex.
Abstract In addition to its critical role in lysosomes for catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates, NEU1 is expressed at the plasma membrane and regulates a myriad of receptors by desialylation, playing a key role in many pathophysiological processes. Here, we developed a proteomic approach dedicated to the purification and identification by LC-MS/MS of plasma membrane NEU1 interaction partners in human macrophages. Already known interaction partners were identified as well as several new candidates such as the class B scavenger receptor CD36. Interaction between NEU1 and CD36 was confirmed by complementary approaches....
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Kawecki C, Bocquet O, Schmelzer CEH, Heinz A, Ihling C, Wahart A, Romier B, Bennasroune A, Blaise S, Terryn C, Linton KJ, Martiny L, Duca L, Maurice P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The inflammatory function of human IgA.
Abstract The prevailing concept regarding the immunological function of immunoglobulin A (IgA) is that it binds to and neutralizes pathogens to prevent infection at mucosal sites of the body. However, recently, it has become clear that in humans IgA is also able to actively contribute to the initiation of inflammation, both at mucosal and non-mucosal sites. This additional function of IgA is initiated by the formation of immune complexes, which trigger Fc alpha Receptor I (FcαRI) to synergize with various other receptors to amplify inflammatory responses. Recent findings have demonstrated that co-stimulation...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Hansen IS, Baeten DLP, den Dunnen J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Targeting autophagy using metallic nanoparticles: a promising strategy for cancer treatment.
cute; Abstract Despite the extensive genetic and phenotypic variations present in the different tumors, they frequently share common metabolic alterations, such as autophagy. Autophagy is a self-degradative process in response to stresses by which damaged macromolecules and organelles are targeted by autophagic vesicles to lysosomes and then eliminated. It is known that autophagy dysfunctions can promote tumorigenesis and cancer development, but, interestingly, its overstimulation by cytotoxic drugs may also induce cell death and chemosensitivity. For this reason, the possibility to modulate autophagy may represen...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 27, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Cordani M, Somoza Á Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

H19X-encoded miR-424(322)/-503 cluster: emerging roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, plasticity and metabolism.
Abstract miR-424(322)/-503 are mammal-specific members of the extended miR-15/107 microRNA family. They form a co-expression network with the imprinted lncRNA H19 in tetrapods. miR-424(322)/-503 regulate fundamental cellular processes including cell cycle, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, hypoxia and other stress response. They control tissue differentiation (cardiomyocyte, skeletal muscle, monocyte) and remodeling (mammary gland involution), and paradoxically participate in tumor initiation and progression. Expression of miR-424(322)/-503 is governed by unique mechanisms involving sex hormones. Here, we summ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang F, Liang R, Tandon N, Matthews ER, Shrestha S, Yang J, Soibam B, Yang J, Liu Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Transcription factor Ptf1a in development, diseases and reprogramming.
Abstract The transcription factor Ptf1a is a crucial helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein selectively expressed in the pancreas, retina, spinal cord, brain, and enteric nervous system. Ptf1a is preferably assembled into a transcription trimeric complex PTF1 with an E protein and Rbpj (or Rbpjl). In pancreatic development, Ptf1a is indispensable in controlling the expansion of multipotent progenitor cells as well as the specification and maintenance of the acinar cells. In neural tissues, Ptf1a is transiently expressed in the post-mitotic cells and specifies the inhibitory neuronal cell fates, mostly mediated by downstr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 23, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Jin K, Xiang M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) can take part in cell division: inside and outside.
Abstract Prior to the cytokinesis, the cell-matrix interactions should be disrupted, and the mitotic cells round up. Prerequisite of mitosis, the centrosomes duplicate, spindle fibers are generated and move away from each other to opposite sides of the cells marking the cell poles. Later, an invagination in the plasma membrane is formed a few minutes after anaphase. This furrow ingression is driven by a contractile actomyosin ring, whose assembly is regulated by RhoA GTPase. At the completion of cytokinesis, the two daughter cells are still connected by a thin intercellular bridge, which is subjected to abscission...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 21, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ughy B, Schmidthoffer I, Szilak L Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Modeling elastin-associated vasculopathy with patient induced pluripotent stem cells and tissue engineering.
Abstract Elastin-associated vasculopathies are life-threatening conditions of blood vessel dysfunction. The extracellular matrix protein elastin endows the recoil and compliance required for physiologic arterial function, while disruption of function can lead to aberrant vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation manifesting through stenosis, aneurysm, or vessel dissection. Although research efforts have been informative, they remain incomplete as no viable therapies exist outside of a heart transplant. Induced pluripotent stem cell technology may be uniquely suited to address current obstacles as these present a r...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ellis MW, Luo J, Qyang Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Developmental and functional characteristics of the thoracic aorta perivascular adipocyte.
Abstract Thoracic aorta perivascular adipose tissue (T-PVAT) has critical roles in regulating vascular homeostasis. However, the developmental characteristics and cellular lineage of adipocyte in the T-PVAT remain unclear. We show that T-PVAT contains three long strip-shaped fat depots, anterior T-PVAT (A-T-PVAT), left lateral T-PVAT (LL-T-PVAT), and right lateral T-PVAT (RL-T-PVAT). A-T-PVAT displays a distinct transcriptional profile and developmental origin compared to the two lateral T-PVATs (L-T-PVAT). Lineage tracing studies indicate that A-T-PVAT adipocytes are primarily derived from SM22α+ progenitor...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 17, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ye M, Ruan CC, Fu M, Xu L, Chen D, Zhu M, Zhu D, Gao P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Bardet-Biedl Syndrome proteins regulate cilia disassembly during tissue maturation.
HL Abstract Primary cilia are conserved organelles that mediate cellular communication crucial for organogenesis and homeostasis in numerous tissues. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a ciliated monolayer in the eye that borders the retina and is vital for visual function. Maturation of the RPE is absolutely critical for visual function and the role of the primary cilium in this process has been largely ignored to date. We show that primary cilia are transiently present during RPE development and that as the RPE matures, primary cilia retract, and gene expression of ciliary disassembly components decline. W...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Patnaik SR, Kretschmer V, Brücker L, Schneider S, Volz AK, Oancea-Castillo LDR, May-Simera HL Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Structural disorder in the proteome and interactome of Alkhurma virus (ALKV).
Abstract Infection by the Alkhurma virus (ALKV) leading to the Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever is a common thread in Saudi Arabia, with no efficient treatment or prevention available as of yet. Although the rational drug design traditionally uses information on known 3D structures of viral proteins, intrinsically disordered proteins (i.e., functional proteins that do not possess unique 3D structures), with their multitude of disorder-dependent functions, are crucial for the biology of viruses. Here, viruses utilize disordered regions in their invasion of the host organisms and in hijacking and repurposing of different ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 15, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Redwan EM, AlJaddawi AA, Uversky VN Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitochondrial functions and melatonin: a tour of the reproductive cancers.
Abstract Cancers of the reproductive organs have a strong association with mitochondrial defects, and a deeper understanding of the role of this organelle in preneoplastic-neoplastic changes is important to determine the appropriate therapeutic intervention. Mitochondria are involved in events during cancer development, including metabolic and oxidative status, acquisition of metastatic potential, resistance to chemotherapy, apoptosis, and others. Because of their origin from melatonin-producing bacteria, mitochondria are speculated to produce melatonin and its derivatives at high levels; in addition, exogenously ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 14, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: de Almeida Chuffa LG, Seiva FRF, Cucielo MS, Silveira HS, Reiter RJ, Lupi LA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum-targeting doxorubicin: a new tool effective against doxorubicin-resistant osteosarcoma.
Abstract Doxorubicin is one of the most effective drugs for the first-line treatment of high-grade osteosarcoma. Several studies have demonstrated that the major cause for doxorubicin resistance in osteosarcoma is the increased expression of the drug efflux transporter ABCB1/P-glycoprotein (Pgp). We recently identified a library of H2S-releasing doxorubicins (Sdox) that were more effective than doxorubicin against resistant osteosarcoma cells. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the higher efficacy of Sdox in human osteosarcoma cells with increasing resistance to doxorubicin. Differently from doxorubi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 14, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Buondonno I, Gazzano E, Tavanti E, Chegaev K, Kopecka J, Fanelli M, Rolando B, Fruttero R, Gasco A, Hattinger C, Serra M, Riganti C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Transition of inner cell mass to embryonic stem cells: mechanisms, facts, and hypotheses.
Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are immortal stem cells that own multi-lineage differentiation potential. ESCs are commonly derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of pre-implantation embryos. Due to their tremendous developmental capacity and unlimited self-renewal, ESCs have diverse biomedical applications. Different culture media have been developed to procure and maintain ESCs in a state of naïve pluripotency, and to preserve a stable genome and epigenome during serial passaging. Chromatin modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications along with microRNA activity and different signal...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 12, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Hassani SN, Moradi S, Taleahmad S, Braun T, Baharvand H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitochondrial dynamics and metastasis.
Abstract Changes in cellular metabolism are now a recognized hallmark of cancer. Although this process is ripe with therapeutic potential in the clinic, its complexity and extraordinary plasticity have systematically defied dogmas and oversimplifications. Perhaps, best exemplifying this intricacy is the role of mitochondria in cancer, which in just a few years has gone from largely unnoticed to pivotal disease driver. The underlying mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. However, there is now clear evidence linking the dynamic nature of mitochondria to the machinery of tumor cell motility and metastatic spreadin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 10, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Altieri DC Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Unprecedented high catecholamine production causing hair pigmentation after urinary excretion in red deer.
la Peña E, Carranza J Abstract Hormones have not been found in concentrations of orders of magnitude higher than nanograms per milliliter. Here, we report urine concentrations of a catecholamine (norepinephrine) ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 g/l, and concentrations of its metabolite DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (DOPEG) ranging from 1.0 to 44.5 g/l, in wild male red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus after LC-MS analyses. The dark ventral patch of male red deer, a recently described sexually selected signal, contains high amounts of DOPEG (0.9-266.9 mg/l) stuck in the hairs, while DOPEG is not presen...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Galván I, Solano F, Zougagh M, de Andrés F, Murtada K, Ríos Á, de la Peña E, Carranza J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

How toll-like receptors reveal monocyte plasticity: the cutting edge of antiinflammatory therapy.
Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are central in immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)s. If they are essential to eliminate pathogens in earlier stages of infection, they also might play a role in homeostasis and tissue repair. TLR versatility parallels the plasticity of monocytes, which represent an heterogeneous population of immune cells. They are rapidly recruited to sites of infection and involved in clearance of pathogens and in tissue healing. This review underlines how TLRs have proved to be an interesting tool to study the properties of monocytes and why different ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ropert C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Deciphering biased inverse agonism of cangrelor and ticagrelor at P2Y12 receptor.
s C, Pons V Abstract P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) is one of the major targets for drug inhibiting platelet aggregation in the treatment/prevention of arterial thrombosis. However, the clinical use of P2Y12-R antagonists faces some limitations, such as a delayed onset of action (clopidogrel) or adverse effect profile (ticagrelor, cangrelor), justifying the development of a new generation of P2Y12-R antagonists with a better clinical benefit-risk balance. Although the recent concept of biased agonism offers the possibility to alleviate undesirable adverse effects while preserving therapeutic outcomes, it has never been ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 7, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Garcia C, Maurel-Ribes A, Nauze M, N'Guyen D, Martinez LO, Payrastre B, Sénard JM, Galés C, Pons V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Induction of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by miR-493-3p directly targeting AKT2, STK38L, HMGA2, ETS1 and E2F5.
Abstract Apoptosis is a form of directed programmed cell death with a tightly regulated signalling cascade for the destruction of single cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as fine tuners in the regulation of apoptotic processes. MiR-493-3p mimic transfection leads to the induction of apoptosis causing the breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of Caspases resulting in the fragmentation of DNA in several ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Ovarian cancer shows with its pronounced heterogeneity a very high death-to-incidence ratio. A target gene analysis for miR-493-3p was performed...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 3, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Kleemann M, Schneider H, Unger K, Bereuther J, Fischer S, Sander P, Marion Schneider E, Fischer-Posovszky P, Riedel CU, Handrick R, Otte K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The relationship between substrate topography and stem cell differentiation in the musculoskeletal system.
Abstract It is well known that biomaterial topography can exert a profound influence on various cellular functions such as migration, polarization, and adhesion. With the development and refinement of manufacturing technology, much research has recently been focused on substrate topography-induced cell differentiation, particularly in the field of tissue engineering. Even without biological and chemical stimuli, the differentiation of stem cells can also be initiated by various biomaterials with different topographic features. However, the underlying mechanisms of this biological phenomenon remain elusive. During ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 2, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Huang J, Chen Y, Tang C, Fei Y, Wu H, Ruan D, Paul ME, Chen X, Yin Z, Heng BC, Chen W, Shen W Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Comprehensive review on how platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy of ovarian cancer affects biology of normal cells.
Abstract One of the most neglected aspects of chemotherapy are changes, and possible consequences of these changes, that occur in normal somatic cells. In this review, we summarize effects of selected drugs used to treat ovarian cancer (platin derivatives-cisplatin and carboplatin; and taxanes-paclitaxel and docetaxel) on cellular metabolism, acquisition of reactive stroma features, cellular senescence, inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, autophagy, mitophagy, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and angiogenesis in various types of normal cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. The...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 31, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Witucka A, Pakuła M, Uruski P, Begier-Krasińska B, Niklas A, Tykarski A, Książek K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pathological effects of ionizing radiation: endothelial activation and dysfunction.
Abstract The endothelium, a tissue that forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especially the heart and blood as well as lymphatic vessels, plays a complex role in vascular biology. It contributes to key aspects of vascular homeostasis and is also involved in pathophysiological processes, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and hypertension. Epidemiological data show that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to cardiovascular disease over time. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on endothelial cell activation and dysfunction after ionizing radiation e...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 30, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Baselet B, Sonveaux P, Baatout S, Aerts A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The regulatory role of Toll-like receptors after ischemic stroke: neurosteroids as TLR modulators with the focus on TLR2/4.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease and considered as a worldwide leading cause of death. After cerebral ischemia, different pathophysiological processes including neuroinflammation, invasion and aggregation of inflammatory cells and up-regulation of cytokines occur simultaneously. In this respect, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first identified important mediators for the activation of the innate immune system and are widely expressed in glial cells and neurons following brain trauma. TLRs are also able to interact with endogenous and exogenous molecules released during ischemi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 30, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Tajalli-Nezhad S, Karimian M, Beyer C, Atlasi MA, Azami Tameh A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Chemokine-like receptor 1 deficiency leads to lower bone mass in male mice.
Abstract The adipokine Chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), are associated with osteoblastogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoclastogenic differentiation of osteoclast precursors in vitro, suggesting that CMKLR1 would affect the bone mineral density (BMD). However, the role of CMKLR1 on BMD in vivo remains unknown. Here, using CMKLR1 knockout mouse model, we unveiled that CMKLR1 effected the amount of Leydig cells in testis and regulated androgen-dependent bone maintenance in male mice, which exhibited lower serum testosterone levels, thereby reducing the trab...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhao H, Yan D, Xiang L, Huang C, Li J, Yu X, Huang B, Wang B, Chen J, Xiao T, Ren PG, Zhang JV Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cannabinoid exposure during pregnancy and its impact on immune function.
Abstract Cannabinoids are the most commonly abused illicit drugs worldwide. While cannabis can be beneficial for certain heath conditions, abuse of potent synthetic cannabinoids has been on the rise. Exposure to cannabinoids is also prevalent in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. These compounds can cross the placental barrier and directly affect the fetus. They mediate their effects primarily through G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. In addition to significant neurological effects, cannabinoids can trigger robust immunomodulation by altering cytokine levels, causing apoptosis of ly...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Dong C, Chen J, Harrington A, Vinod KY, Hegde ML, Hegde VL Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Regulatory network of miRNA on its target: coordination between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that participate in a majority of biological processes via regulating target gene expression. The post-transcriptional repression through miRNA seed region binding to 3' UTR of target mRNA is considered as the canonical mode of miRNA-mediated gene regulation. However, emerging evidence suggests that other regulatory modes exist beyond the canonical mechanism. In particular, the function of intranuclear miRNA in gene transcriptional regulation is gradually revealed, with evidence showing their contribution to gene silencing or activating. Th...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Pu M, Chen J, Tao Z, Miao L, Qi X, Wang Y, Ren J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

NudCL2 is an Hsp90 cochaperone to regulate sister chromatid cohesion by stabilizing cohesin subunits.
Abstract Sister chromatid cohesion plays a key role in ensuring precise chromosome segregation during mitosis, which is mediated by the multisubunit cohesin complex. However, the molecular regulation of cohesin subunits stability remains unclear. Here, we show that NudCL2 (NudC-like protein 2) is essential for the stability of cohesin subunits by regulating Hsp90 ATPase activity in mammalian cells. Depletion of NudCL2 induces mitotic defects and premature sister chromatid separation and destabilizes cohesin subunits that interact with NudCL2. Similar defects are also observed upon inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 27, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Yang Y, Wang W, Li M, Gao Y, Zhang W, Huang Y, Zhuo W, Yan X, Liu W, Wang F, Chen D, Zhou T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

APC/CCdh1 regulates the balance between maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
l;sch R Abstract Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) represent the lifelong source of all blood cells and continuously regenerate the hematopoietic system through differentiation and self-renewal. The process of differentiation is initiated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, when stem cells leave their quiescent state. During G1, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome associated with the coactivator Cdh1 is highly active and marks proteins for proteasomal degradation to regulate cell proliferation. Following Cdh1 knockdown in HSPCs, we analyzed human and mouse hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo in...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ewerth D, Kreutmair S, Schmidts A, Ihorst G, Follo M, Wider D, Felthaus J, Schüler J, Duyster J, Illert AL, Engelhardt M, Wäsch R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

TGF- β signaling pathway mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes.
TGF-β signaling pathway mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Oct 22;: Authors: Kim SY, Baek KH Abstract Ubiquitination is a reversible cellular process mediated by ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, whereas deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) detach the covalently conjugated ubiquitin from target substrates to counter ubiquitination. DUBs play a crucial role in regulating various signal transduction pathways and biological processes including apoptosis, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, metastasis, differentiation, etc. Since the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 22, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Kim SY, Baek KH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Immediate early genes in social insects: a tool to identify brain regions involved in complex behaviors and molecular processes underlying neuroplasticity.
e J Abstract Social insects show complex behaviors and master cognitive tasks. The underlying neuronal mechanisms, however, are in most cases only poorly understood due to challenges in monitoring brain activity in freely moving animals. Immediate early genes (IEGs) that get rapidly and transiently expressed following neuronal stimulation provide a powerful tool for detecting behavior-related neuronal activity in vertebrates. In social insects, like honey bees, and in insects in general, this approach is not yet routinely established, even though these genes are highly conserved. First studies revealed a vast pote...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 22, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Sommerlandt FMJ, Brockmann A, Rössler W, Spaethe J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The master regulator FUBP1: its emerging role in normal cell function and malignant development.
Abstract The human Far Upstream Element (FUSE) Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) is a multifunctional DNA- and RNA-binding protein involved in diverse cellular processes. FUBP1 is a master regulator of transcription, translation, and RNA splicing. FUBP1 has been identified as a potent pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic factor by modulation of complex networks. FUBP1 is also described either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor. Especially, FUBP1 overexpression is observed in a growing number of cancer and leads to a deregulation of targets that includes the fine-tuned MYC oncogene. Moreover, recent loss-of-...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Debaize L, Troadec MB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Molecular pathways of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development and progression.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Bessone F, Razori MV, Roma MG Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Revisiting Dscam diversity: lessons from clustered protocadherins.
This article reviews new insights into the evolution, regulatory mechanisms, and functions of Dscam and Pcdh isoform diversity. In particular, the convergence of clustered Dscams and Pcdhs is highlighted. PMID: 30343321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Jin Y, Li H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pluripotent stem cell-derived cochlear cells: a challenge in constant progress.
Abstract Hearing loss is a common affection mainly resulting from irreversible loss of the sensory hair cells of the cochlea; therefore, developing therapies to replace missing hair cells is essential. Understanding the mechanisms that drive their formation will not only help to unravel the molecular basis of deafness, but also give a roadmap for recapitulating hair cells development from cultured pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in hair cell production from both human and mouse embryonic stem cells. We then provide insights how this knowledge has ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Czajkowski A, Mounier A, Delacroix L, Malgrange B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNAs involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming.
Abstract Metabolic reprogramming has now been accepted as a hallmark of cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells exhibit different metabolic features, including increased glucose uptake, aerobic glycolysis, enhanced glutamine uptake and glutaminolysis, altered lipid metabolism, and so on. Cancer metabolic reprogramming, which supports excessive cell proliferation and growth, has been widely regulated by activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. Here, we review that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can affect cancer metabolism by mutual regulation with oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Additionally, t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu H, Luo J, Luan S, He C, Li Z Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

mRNA as novel technology for passive immunotherapy.
Abstract While active immunization elicits a lasting immune response by the body, passive immunotherapy transiently equips the body with exogenously generated immunological effectors in the form of either target-specific antibodies or lymphocytes functionalized with target-specific receptors. In either case, administration or expression of recombinant proteins plays a fundamental role. mRNA prepared by in vitro transcription (IVT) is increasingly appreciated as a drug substance for delivery of recombinant proteins. With its biological role as transient carrier of genetic information translated into protein in the ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 17, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Schlake T, Thess A, Thran M, Jordan I Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular disorders associated with genetic lesions.
Abstract Cerebrovascular disorders are underlain by perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of select cerebrovascular disorders that are associated with genetic lesions and connect genomic findings with analyses aiming to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. We argue that a mechanistic understanding of genetic (familial) forms of cerebrovascular disease is a prerequisite for the development of rational therapeutic approaches, and has wider implications for treatment of sporadic (non-f...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Karschnia P, Nishimura S, Louvi A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pathological processes activated by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection in the cornea.
Abstract Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects a large majority of the human population worldwide. It is also a leading cause of infection-related blindness in the developed world. HSV-1 infection of the cornea begins with viral entry into resident cells via a multistep process that involves interaction of viral glycoproteins and host cell surface receptors. Once inside, HSV-1 infection induces a chronic immune-inflammatory response resulting in corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularization. This leads to development of various ocular diseases such as herpes stromal keratiti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Koujah L, Suryawanshi RK, Shukla D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Deficiency of lrp4 in zebrafish and human LRP4 mutation induce aberrant activation of Jagged-Notch signaling in fin and limb development.
Abstract Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is a multi-functional protein implicated in bone, kidney and neurological diseases including Cenani-Lenz syndactyly (CLS), sclerosteosis, osteoporosis, congenital myasthenic syndrome and myasthenia gravis. Why different LRP4 mutation alleles cause distinct and even contrasting disease phenotypes remain unclear. Herein, we utilized the zebrafish model to search for pathways affected by a deficiency of LRP4. The lrp4 knockdown in zebrafish embryos exhibits cyst formations at fin structures and the caudal vein plexus, malformed pectoral fins, defectiv...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Tian J, Shao J, Liu C, Hou HY, Chou CW, Shboul M, Li GQ, El-Khateeb M, Samarah OQ, Kou Y, Chen YH, Chen MJ, Lyu Z, Chen WL, Chen YF, Sun YH, Liu YW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research