Unprecedented high catecholamine production causing hair pigmentation after urinary excretion in red deer.
la Peña E, Carranza J Abstract Hormones have not been found in concentrations of orders of magnitude higher than nanograms per milliliter. Here, we report urine concentrations of a catecholamine (norepinephrine) ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 g/l, and concentrations of its metabolite DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol (DOPEG) ranging from 1.0 to 44.5 g/l, in wild male red deer Cervus elaphus hispanicus after LC-MS analyses. The dark ventral patch of male red deer, a recently described sexually selected signal, contains high amounts of DOPEG (0.9-266.9 mg/l) stuck in the hairs, while DOPEG is not presen...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Galván I, Solano F, Zougagh M, de Andrés F, Murtada K, Ríos Á, de la Peña E, Carranza J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

How toll-like receptors reveal monocyte plasticity: the cutting edge of antiinflammatory therapy.
Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLR)s are central in immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)s. If they are essential to eliminate pathogens in earlier stages of infection, they also might play a role in homeostasis and tissue repair. TLR versatility parallels the plasticity of monocytes, which represent an heterogeneous population of immune cells. They are rapidly recruited to sites of infection and involved in clearance of pathogens and in tissue healing. This review underlines how TLRs have proved to be an interesting tool to study the properties of monocytes and why different ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ropert C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Deciphering biased inverse agonism of cangrelor and ticagrelor at P2Y12 receptor.
s C, Pons V Abstract P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12-R) is one of the major targets for drug inhibiting platelet aggregation in the treatment/prevention of arterial thrombosis. However, the clinical use of P2Y12-R antagonists faces some limitations, such as a delayed onset of action (clopidogrel) or adverse effect profile (ticagrelor, cangrelor), justifying the development of a new generation of P2Y12-R antagonists with a better clinical benefit-risk balance. Although the recent concept of biased agonism offers the possibility to alleviate undesirable adverse effects while preserving therapeutic outcomes, it has never been ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 7, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Garcia C, Maurel-Ribes A, Nauze M, N'Guyen D, Martinez LO, Payrastre B, Sénard JM, Galés C, Pons V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Induction of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by miR-493-3p directly targeting AKT2, STK38L, HMGA2, ETS1 and E2F5.
Abstract Apoptosis is a form of directed programmed cell death with a tightly regulated signalling cascade for the destruction of single cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as fine tuners in the regulation of apoptotic processes. MiR-493-3p mimic transfection leads to the induction of apoptosis causing the breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of Caspases resulting in the fragmentation of DNA in several ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Ovarian cancer shows with its pronounced heterogeneity a very high death-to-incidence ratio. A target gene analysis for miR-493-3p was performed...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 3, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Kleemann M, Schneider H, Unger K, Bereuther J, Fischer S, Sander P, Marion Schneider E, Fischer-Posovszky P, Riedel CU, Handrick R, Otte K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The relationship between substrate topography and stem cell differentiation in the musculoskeletal system.
Abstract It is well known that biomaterial topography can exert a profound influence on various cellular functions such as migration, polarization, and adhesion. With the development and refinement of manufacturing technology, much research has recently been focused on substrate topography-induced cell differentiation, particularly in the field of tissue engineering. Even without biological and chemical stimuli, the differentiation of stem cells can also be initiated by various biomaterials with different topographic features. However, the underlying mechanisms of this biological phenomenon remain elusive. During ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 2, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Huang J, Chen Y, Tang C, Fei Y, Wu H, Ruan D, Paul ME, Chen X, Yin Z, Heng BC, Chen W, Shen W Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Comprehensive review on how platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy of ovarian cancer affects biology of normal cells.
Abstract One of the most neglected aspects of chemotherapy are changes, and possible consequences of these changes, that occur in normal somatic cells. In this review, we summarize effects of selected drugs used to treat ovarian cancer (platin derivatives-cisplatin and carboplatin; and taxanes-paclitaxel and docetaxel) on cellular metabolism, acquisition of reactive stroma features, cellular senescence, inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, autophagy, mitophagy, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and angiogenesis in various types of normal cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. The...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 31, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Witucka A, Pakuła M, Uruski P, Begier-Krasińska B, Niklas A, Tykarski A, Książek K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pathological effects of ionizing radiation: endothelial activation and dysfunction.
Abstract The endothelium, a tissue that forms a single layer of cells lining various organs and cavities of the body, especially the heart and blood as well as lymphatic vessels, plays a complex role in vascular biology. It contributes to key aspects of vascular homeostasis and is also involved in pathophysiological processes, such as thrombosis, inflammation, and hypertension. Epidemiological data show that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to cardiovascular disease over time. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on endothelial cell activation and dysfunction after ionizing radiation e...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 30, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Baselet B, Sonveaux P, Baatout S, Aerts A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The regulatory role of Toll-like receptors after ischemic stroke: neurosteroids as TLR modulators with the focus on TLR2/4.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease and considered as a worldwide leading cause of death. After cerebral ischemia, different pathophysiological processes including neuroinflammation, invasion and aggregation of inflammatory cells and up-regulation of cytokines occur simultaneously. In this respect, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the first identified important mediators for the activation of the innate immune system and are widely expressed in glial cells and neurons following brain trauma. TLRs are also able to interact with endogenous and exogenous molecules released during ischemi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 30, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Tajalli-Nezhad S, Karimian M, Beyer C, Atlasi MA, Azami Tameh A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Chemokine-like receptor 1 deficiency leads to lower bone mass in male mice.
Abstract The adipokine Chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), are associated with osteoblastogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoclastogenic differentiation of osteoclast precursors in vitro, suggesting that CMKLR1 would affect the bone mineral density (BMD). However, the role of CMKLR1 on BMD in vivo remains unknown. Here, using CMKLR1 knockout mouse model, we unveiled that CMKLR1 effected the amount of Leydig cells in testis and regulated androgen-dependent bone maintenance in male mice, which exhibited lower serum testosterone levels, thereby reducing the trab...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhao H, Yan D, Xiang L, Huang C, Li J, Yu X, Huang B, Wang B, Chen J, Xiao T, Ren PG, Zhang JV Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cannabinoid exposure during pregnancy and its impact on immune function.
Abstract Cannabinoids are the most commonly abused illicit drugs worldwide. While cannabis can be beneficial for certain heath conditions, abuse of potent synthetic cannabinoids has been on the rise. Exposure to cannabinoids is also prevalent in women of child-bearing age and pregnant women. These compounds can cross the placental barrier and directly affect the fetus. They mediate their effects primarily through G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. In addition to significant neurological effects, cannabinoids can trigger robust immunomodulation by altering cytokine levels, causing apoptosis of ly...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Dong C, Chen J, Harrington A, Vinod KY, Hegde ML, Hegde VL Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Regulatory network of miRNA on its target: coordination between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that participate in a majority of biological processes via regulating target gene expression. The post-transcriptional repression through miRNA seed region binding to 3' UTR of target mRNA is considered as the canonical mode of miRNA-mediated gene regulation. However, emerging evidence suggests that other regulatory modes exist beyond the canonical mechanism. In particular, the function of intranuclear miRNA in gene transcriptional regulation is gradually revealed, with evidence showing their contribution to gene silencing or activating. Th...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Pu M, Chen J, Tao Z, Miao L, Qi X, Wang Y, Ren J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

NudCL2 is an Hsp90 cochaperone to regulate sister chromatid cohesion by stabilizing cohesin subunits.
Abstract Sister chromatid cohesion plays a key role in ensuring precise chromosome segregation during mitosis, which is mediated by the multisubunit cohesin complex. However, the molecular regulation of cohesin subunits stability remains unclear. Here, we show that NudCL2 (NudC-like protein 2) is essential for the stability of cohesin subunits by regulating Hsp90 ATPase activity in mammalian cells. Depletion of NudCL2 induces mitotic defects and premature sister chromatid separation and destabilizes cohesin subunits that interact with NudCL2. Similar defects are also observed upon inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 27, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Yang Y, Wang W, Li M, Gao Y, Zhang W, Huang Y, Zhuo W, Yan X, Liu W, Wang F, Chen D, Zhou T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

APC/CCdh1 regulates the balance between maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
l;sch R Abstract Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) represent the lifelong source of all blood cells and continuously regenerate the hematopoietic system through differentiation and self-renewal. The process of differentiation is initiated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, when stem cells leave their quiescent state. During G1, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome associated with the coactivator Cdh1 is highly active and marks proteins for proteasomal degradation to regulate cell proliferation. Following Cdh1 knockdown in HSPCs, we analyzed human and mouse hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo in...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Ewerth D, Kreutmair S, Schmidts A, Ihorst G, Follo M, Wider D, Felthaus J, Schüler J, Duyster J, Illert AL, Engelhardt M, Wäsch R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

TGF- β signaling pathway mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes.
TGF-β signaling pathway mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Oct 22;: Authors: Kim SY, Baek KH Abstract Ubiquitination is a reversible cellular process mediated by ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, whereas deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) detach the covalently conjugated ubiquitin from target substrates to counter ubiquitination. DUBs play a crucial role in regulating various signal transduction pathways and biological processes including apoptosis, cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, metastasis, differentiation, etc. Since the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 22, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Kim SY, Baek KH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Immediate early genes in social insects: a tool to identify brain regions involved in complex behaviors and molecular processes underlying neuroplasticity.
e J Abstract Social insects show complex behaviors and master cognitive tasks. The underlying neuronal mechanisms, however, are in most cases only poorly understood due to challenges in monitoring brain activity in freely moving animals. Immediate early genes (IEGs) that get rapidly and transiently expressed following neuronal stimulation provide a powerful tool for detecting behavior-related neuronal activity in vertebrates. In social insects, like honey bees, and in insects in general, this approach is not yet routinely established, even though these genes are highly conserved. First studies revealed a vast pote...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 22, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Sommerlandt FMJ, Brockmann A, Rössler W, Spaethe J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The master regulator FUBP1: its emerging role in normal cell function and malignant development.
Abstract The human Far Upstream Element (FUSE) Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) is a multifunctional DNA- and RNA-binding protein involved in diverse cellular processes. FUBP1 is a master regulator of transcription, translation, and RNA splicing. FUBP1 has been identified as a potent pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic factor by modulation of complex networks. FUBP1 is also described either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor. Especially, FUBP1 overexpression is observed in a growing number of cancer and leads to a deregulation of targets that includes the fine-tuned MYC oncogene. Moreover, recent loss-of-...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Debaize L, Troadec MB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Molecular pathways of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development and progression.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a main hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. It represents a wide spectrum of histopathological abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While hepatic simple steatosis seems to be a rather benign manifestation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation, the buildup of highly toxic free fatty acids associated with insulin resistance-induced massive free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and the increased de novo hepatic fatty...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Bessone F, Razori MV, Roma MG Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Revisiting Dscam diversity: lessons from clustered protocadherins.
This article reviews new insights into the evolution, regulatory mechanisms, and functions of Dscam and Pcdh isoform diversity. In particular, the convergence of clustered Dscams and Pcdhs is highlighted. PMID: 30343321 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Jin Y, Li H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pluripotent stem cell-derived cochlear cells: a challenge in constant progress.
Abstract Hearing loss is a common affection mainly resulting from irreversible loss of the sensory hair cells of the cochlea; therefore, developing therapies to replace missing hair cells is essential. Understanding the mechanisms that drive their formation will not only help to unravel the molecular basis of deafness, but also give a roadmap for recapitulating hair cells development from cultured pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in hair cell production from both human and mouse embryonic stem cells. We then provide insights how this knowledge has ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Czajkowski A, Mounier A, Delacroix L, Malgrange B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNAs involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming.
Abstract Metabolic reprogramming has now been accepted as a hallmark of cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells exhibit different metabolic features, including increased glucose uptake, aerobic glycolysis, enhanced glutamine uptake and glutaminolysis, altered lipid metabolism, and so on. Cancer metabolic reprogramming, which supports excessive cell proliferation and growth, has been widely regulated by activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. Here, we review that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can affect cancer metabolism by mutual regulation with oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Additionally, t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu H, Luo J, Luan S, He C, Li Z Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

mRNA as novel technology for passive immunotherapy.
Abstract While active immunization elicits a lasting immune response by the body, passive immunotherapy transiently equips the body with exogenously generated immunological effectors in the form of either target-specific antibodies or lymphocytes functionalized with target-specific receptors. In either case, administration or expression of recombinant proteins plays a fundamental role. mRNA prepared by in vitro transcription (IVT) is increasingly appreciated as a drug substance for delivery of recombinant proteins. With its biological role as transient carrier of genetic information translated into protein in the ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 17, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Schlake T, Thess A, Thran M, Jordan I Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular disorders associated with genetic lesions.
Abstract Cerebrovascular disorders are underlain by perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of select cerebrovascular disorders that are associated with genetic lesions and connect genomic findings with analyses aiming to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. We argue that a mechanistic understanding of genetic (familial) forms of cerebrovascular disease is a prerequisite for the development of rational therapeutic approaches, and has wider implications for treatment of sporadic (non-f...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Karschnia P, Nishimura S, Louvi A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Pathological processes activated by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection in the cornea.
Abstract Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects a large majority of the human population worldwide. It is also a leading cause of infection-related blindness in the developed world. HSV-1 infection of the cornea begins with viral entry into resident cells via a multistep process that involves interaction of viral glycoproteins and host cell surface receptors. Once inside, HSV-1 infection induces a chronic immune-inflammatory response resulting in corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularization. This leads to development of various ocular diseases such as herpes stromal keratiti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Koujah L, Suryawanshi RK, Shukla D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Deficiency of lrp4 in zebrafish and human LRP4 mutation induce aberrant activation of Jagged-Notch signaling in fin and limb development.
Abstract Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is a multi-functional protein implicated in bone, kidney and neurological diseases including Cenani-Lenz syndactyly (CLS), sclerosteosis, osteoporosis, congenital myasthenic syndrome and myasthenia gravis. Why different LRP4 mutation alleles cause distinct and even contrasting disease phenotypes remain unclear. Herein, we utilized the zebrafish model to search for pathways affected by a deficiency of LRP4. The lrp4 knockdown in zebrafish embryos exhibits cyst formations at fin structures and the caudal vein plexus, malformed pectoral fins, defectiv...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Tian J, Shao J, Liu C, Hou HY, Chou CW, Shboul M, Li GQ, El-Khateeb M, Samarah OQ, Kou Y, Chen YH, Chen MJ, Lyu Z, Chen WL, Chen YF, Sun YH, Liu YW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Investigating the aetiology of adverse events following HPV vaccination with systems vaccinology.
Abstract In contrast to the insidious and poorly immunogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, vaccination with the HPV virus-like particles (vlps) is non-infectious and stimulates a strong neutralizing-antibody response that protects HPV-naïve vaccinees from viral infection and associated cancers. However, controversy about alleged adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with the vlps have led to extensive reductions in vaccine acceptance, with countries like Japan dropping it altogether. The AEFIs are grouped into chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). In this review, we pres...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Campbell-Tofte J, Vrahatis A, Josefsen K, Mehlsen J, Winther K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Reciprocal regulations between miRNAs and HIF-1 α in human cancers.
Reciprocal regulations between miRNAs and HIF-1α in human cancers. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Oct 13;: Authors: Yang W, Ma J, Zhou W, Cao B, Zhou X, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Hong L, Fan D Abstract Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a central molecule involved in mediating cellular processes. Alterations of HIF-1α and hypoxically regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) are correlated with patients' outcome in various cancers, indicating their crucial roles on cancer development. Recently, an increasing number of studies have revealed the intricate regulations between miRNAs and HIF-1α in m...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Yang W, Ma J, Zhou W, Cao B, Zhou X, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Hong L, Fan D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

DYRK1B regulates Hedgehog-induced microtubule acetylation.
Lauth M Abstract The posttranslational modification (PTM) of tubulin subunits is important for the physiological functions of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Although major advances have been made in the identification of enzymes carrying out MT-PTMs, little knowledge is available on how intercellular signaling molecules and their associated pathways regulate MT-PTM-dependent processes inside signal-receiving cells. Here we show that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a paradigmatic intercellular signaling system, affects the MT acetylation state in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, Hh pathway activity increases the leve...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Singh R, Holz PS, Roth K, Hupfer A, Meissner W, Müller R, Buchholz M, Gress TM, Elsässer HP, Jacob R, Lauth M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Disassembly of dying cells in diverse organisms.
Abstract Programmed cell death (PCD) is a conserved phenomenon in multicellular organisms required to maintain homeostasis. Among the regulated cell death pathways, apoptosis is a well-described form of PCD in mammalian cells. One of the characteristic features of apoptosis is the change in cellular morphology, often leading to the fragmentation of the cell into smaller membrane-bound vesicles through a process called apoptotic cell disassembly. Interestingly, some of these morphological changes and cell disassembly are also noted in cells of other organisms including plants, fungi and protists while undergoing 'a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Tixeira R, Poon IKH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

An insight into gut microbiota and its functionalities.
Abstract Gut microbiota has evolved along with their hosts and is an integral part of the human body. Microbiota acquired at birth develops in parallel as the host develops and maintains its temporal stability and diversity through adulthood until death. Recent developments in genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and culturomics have enabled researchers to explore the microbiota and in particular their functions at more detailed level than before. The accumulated evidences suggest that though a part of the microbiota is conserved, the dynamic members vary along the gastrointestinal tract, from infants to...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Adak A, Khan MR Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Bioengineering human vascular networks: trends and directions in endothelial and perivascular cell sources.
This study provides an illustrating discussion on how each alternative source of cells has come to be used in the field. Our intention was to reveal trends and to provide new insights into the trajectory of vascular network bioengineering with regard to cellular sources. PMID: 30315324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 12, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang K, Lin RZ, Melero-Martin JM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Parallel generation of easily selectable multiple nephronal cell types from human pluripotent stem cells.
Abstract Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide a source for the generation of defined kidney cells and renal organoids applicable in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening. These applications require the provision of hPSC-derived renal cells by reproducible, scalable, and efficient methods. We established a chemically defined protocol by application of Activin A, BMP4, and Retinoic acid followed by GDNF, which steered hPSCs to the renal lineage and resulted in populations of SIX2+/CITED1+ metanephric mesenchyme- (MM) and of HOXB7+/GRHL2+ ureteric bud (UB)-like cells already by 6 da...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 11, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Hariharan K, Stachelscheid H, Rossbach B, Oh SJ, Mah N, Schmidt-Ott K, Kurtz A, Reinke P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Stem cells under the influence of alcohol: effects of ethanol consumption on stem/progenitor cells.
Abstract Stem cells drive embryonic and fetal development. In several adult tissues, they retain the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of specialized cells, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life span. Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk for several diseases and conditions. Growing and developing tissues are particularly vulnerable to alcohol's influence, suggesting that stem- and progenitor-cell function could be affected. Accordingly, recent studies have revealed the possible relevance of alcohol exposure in impairing stem-cell properties, con...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 10, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Di Rocco G, Baldari S, Pani G, Toietta G Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The Janus face of HMGB1 in heart disease: a necessary update.
Abstract High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein involved in transcription regulation, DNA replication and repair and nucleosome assembly. HMGB1 is passively released by necrotic tissues or actively secreted by stressed cells. Extracellular HMGB1 acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule and gives rise to several redox forms that by binding to different receptors and interactors promote a variety of cellular responses, including tissue inflammation or regeneration. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 in experimental models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, myoc...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 10, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Raucci A, Di Maggio S, Scavello F, D'Ambrosio A, Bianchi ME, Capogrossi MC Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Evolvability of the actin cytoskeleton in oligodendrocytes during central nervous system development and aging.
Abstract The organization of actin filaments into a wide range of subcellular structures is a defining feature of cell shape and dynamics, important for tissue development and homeostasis. Nervous system function requires morphological and functional plasticity of neurons and glial cells, which is largely determined by the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to intrinsic and extracellular signals. Oligodendrocytes are specialized glia that extend multiple actin-based protrusions to form the multilayered myelin membrane that spirally wraps around axons, increasing conduction speed and promo...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Seixas AI, Azevedo MM, Paes de Faria J, Fernandes D, Mendes Pinto I, Relvas JB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The role of P2Y12 receptor in ischemic stroke of atherosclerotic origin.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive disease of the arterial walls and a leading cause of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. P2Y12 is a well-recognized receptor that is expressed on platelets and is a target of thienopyridine-type antiplatelet drugs. In the last few decades, P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, such as clopidogrel, have been applied for the secondary prevention of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Recent clinical studies have suggested that these P2Y12 receptor inhibitors may be more effective than other antiplatelet drugs in patients with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack of ather...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Gao Y, Yu C, Pi S, Mao L, Hu B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

A-to-I mRNA editing in fungi: occurrence, function, and evolution.
Abstract A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification that converts adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in RNA molecules via hydrolytic deamination. Although editing of mRNAs catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in metazoans, organisms outside the animal kingdom lacking ADAR orthologs were thought to lack A-to-I mRNA editing. However, recent discoveries of genome-wide A-to-I mRNA editing during the sexual stage of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum, model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, Sordaria macrospora, and an early dive...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 9, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Bian Z, Ni Y, Xu JR, Liu H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 plays an oncogenic role in promoting cell migration in non-small cell lung cancer.
In this study, we conducted global lncRNA profiling and identified that AFAP1-AS1 is significantly upregulated in NSCLC, suggesting that AFAP1-AS1 may be important for lung cancer development. For the first time, the transcription initiation and termination sites of AFAP1-AS1 were identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology, and the sequencing data indicated that AFAP1-AS1 in lung cancer cells is a novel transcript variant. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, AFAP1-AS1 was demonstrated to promote cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, AFAP1-AS1 functions through positively regulating the expres...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 6, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: He J, Wu K, Guo C, Zhou JK, Pu W, Deng Y, Zuo Y, Zhao Y, Liu L, Wei YQ, Peng Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Potential application of cell reprogramming techniques for cancer research.
Abstract The ability to control the transition from an undifferentiated stem cell to a specific cell fate is one of the key techniques that are required for the application of interventional technologies to regenerative medicine and the treatment of tumors and metastases and of neurodegenerative diseases. Reprogramming technologies, which include somatic cell nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cells, and the direct reprogramming of specific cell lineages, have the potential to alter cell plasticity in translational medicine for cancer treatment. The characterization of cancer stem cells (CSCs), the identif...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 3, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Saito S, Lin YC, Nakamura Y, Eckner R, Wuputra K, Kuo KK, Lin CS, Yokoyama KK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Dynamics and mechanisms of posterior axis elongation in the vertebrate embryo.
acute;raf B Abstract During development, the vertebrate embryo undergoes significant morphological changes which lead to its future body form and functioning organs. One of these noticeable changes is the extension of the body shape along the antero-posterior (A-P) axis. This A-P extension, while taking place in multiple embryonic tissues of the vertebrate body, involves the same basic cellular behaviors: cell proliferation, cell migration (of new progenitors from a posterior stem zone), and cell rearrangements. However, the nature and the relative contribution of these different cellular behaviors to A-P extensio...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 3, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Bénazéraf B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

PUM1 and PUM2 exhibit different modes of regulation for SIAH1 that involve cooperativity with NANOS paralogues.
Abstract Pumilio (PUM) proteins are RNA-binding proteins that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression in many organisms. Their PUF domain recognizes specific PUM-binding elements (PBE) in the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs while engaging protein cofactors such as NANOS that repress the expression of target mRNAs through the recruitment of effector complexes. Although the general process whereby PUM recognizes individual mRNAs has been studied extensively, the particulars of the mechanism underlying PUM-NANOS cooperation in mRNA regulation and the functional overlap among PUM and NANOS paralogues in ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 29, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Sajek M, Janecki DM, Smialek MJ, Ginter-Matuszewska B, Spik A, Oczkowski S, Ilaslan E, Kusz-Zamelczyk K, Kotecki M, Blazewicz J, Jaruzelska J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitophagy-driven metabolic switch reprograms stem cell fate.
Abstract "Cellular reprogramming" facilitates the generation of desired cellular phenotype through the cell fate transition by affecting the mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic reshuffle in the embryonic and somatic stem cells. Interestingly, both the processes of differentiation and dedifferentiation witness a drastic and dynamic alteration in the morphology, number, distribution, and respiratory capacity of mitochondria, which are tightly regulated by the fission/fusion cycle, and mitochondrial clearance through autophagy following mitochondrial fission. Intriguingly, mitophagy is said to be essential...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 28, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Naik PP, Birbrair A, Bhutia SK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Comparative properties and functions of type 2 and type 4 pigeon cryptochromes.
Abstract Two types of vertebrate cryptochromes (Crys) are currently recognized. Type 2 Crys function in the molecular circadian clock as light-independent transcriptional repressors. Type 4 Crys are a newly discovered group with unknown function, although they are flavoproteins, and therefore, may function as photoreceptors. It has been postulated that Crys function in light-dependent magnetoreception, which is thought to contribute towards homing and migratory behaviors. Here we have cloned and annotated the full-length pigeon ClCry1, ClCry2, and ClCry4 genes, and characterized the full-length proteins and severa...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 27, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang X, Jing C, Selby CP, Chiou YY, Yang Y, Wu W, Sancar A, Wang J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Editing porcine IGF2 regulatory element improved meat production in Chinese Bama pigs.
Abstract Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is an important growth factor, which promotes growth and development in mammals during fetal and postnatal stages. Using CRISPR-Cas9 system, we generated multiple founder pigs containing 12 different mutant alleles around a regulatory element within the intron 3 of IGF2 gene. Crossing two male founders passed four mutant alleles onto F1 generation, and these mutations abolished repressor ZBED6 binding and rendered this regulatory element nonfunctional. Both founders and F1 animals showed significantly faster growth, without affecting meat quality. These results indicate...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 26, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Xiang G, Ren J, Hai T, Fu R, Yu D, Wang J, Li W, Wang H, Zhou Q Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Parvalbumin alters mitochondrial dynamics and affects cell morphology.
Abstract The Ca2+-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) and mitochondria play important roles in Ca2+ signaling, buffering and sequestration. Antagonistic regulation of PV and mitochondrial volume is observed in in vitro and in vivo model systems. Changes in mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial volume and dynamics (fusion, fission, mitophagy) resulting from modulation of PV were investigated in MDCK epithelial cells with stable overexpression/downregulation of PV. Increased PV levels resulted in smaller, roundish cells and shorter mitochondria, the latter phenomenon related to reduced fusion rates and decreased expr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 25, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Lichvarova L, Henzi T, Safiulina D, Kaasik A, Schwaller B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Lysophosphatidylcholine induces cyclooxygenase-2-dependent IL-6 expression in human cardiac fibroblasts.
Abstract Lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) has been shown to induce the expression of inflammatory proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with cardiac fibrosis. Here, we demonstrated that LysoPC-induced COX-2 and IL-6 expression was inhibited by silencing NADPH oxidase 1, 2, 4, 5; p65; and FoxO1 in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs). LysoPC-induced IL-6 expression was attenuated by a COX-2 inhibitor. LysoPC-induced responses were mediated via the NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK1/2 phosphorylation pathway, leading to NF-κB and FoxO1 activatio...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 18, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Tseng HC, Lin CC, Wang CY, Yang CC, Hsiao LD, Yang CM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mechanisms for establishment of the placental glucocorticoid barrier, a guard for life.
Abstract The fetus is shielded from the adverse effects of excessive maternal glucocorticoids by 11β-HSD2, an enzyme which is expressed in the syncytial layer of the placental villi and is capable of converting biologically active cortisol into inactive cortisone. Impairment of this placental glucocorticoid barrier is associated with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and development of chronic diseases in later life. Ontogeny studies show that the expression of 11β-HSD2 is initiated at a very early stage after conception and increases with gestational age but declines around term. The promoter...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 17, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhu P, Wang W, Zuo R, Sun K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Crosstalk of protein kinase C ε with Smad2/3 promotes tumor cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells by enhancing aerobic glycolysis.
Crosstalk of protein kinase C ε with Smad2/3 promotes tumor cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells by enhancing aerobic glycolysis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Sep 12;: Authors: Xu W, Zeng F, Li S, Li G, Lai X, Wang QJ, Deng F Abstract Protein kinase C ε (PKCε) has emerged as an oncogenic protein kinase and plays important roles in cancer cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. It is, however, still unknown whether PKCε affects cell proliferation via glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Here we report a novel function of PKCε that provides growth advantages ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 12, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu W, Zeng F, Li S, Li G, Lai X, Wang QJ, Deng F Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Transcriptional effects of actin-binding compounds: the cytoplasm sets the tone.
Abstract Actin has emerged as a versatile regulator of gene transcription. Cytoplasmatic actin regulates mechanosensitive-signaling pathways such as MRTF-SRF and Hippo-YAP/TAZ. In the nucleus, both polymerized and monomeric actin directly interfere with transcription-associated molecular machineries. Natural actin-binding compounds are frequently used tools to study actin-related processes in cell biology. However, their influence on transcriptional regulation and intranuclear actin polymerization is poorly understood to date. Here, we analyze the effects of two representative actin-binding compounds, Miuraenamide...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 11, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Gegenfurtner FA, Zisis T, Al Danaf N, Schrimpf W, Kliesmete Z, Ziegenhain C, Enard W, Kazmaier U, Lamb DC, Vollmar AM, Zahler S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Integrin and microtubule crosstalk in the regulation of cellular processes.
Abstract Integrins engage components of the extracellular matrix, and in collaboration with other receptors, regulate signaling cascades that impact cell behavior in part by modulating the cell's cytoskeleton. Integrins have long been known to function together with the actin cytoskeleton to promote cell adhesion, migration, and invasion, and with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to mediate the strong adhesion needed for the maintenance and integrity of epithelial tissues. Recent studies have shed light on the crosstalk between integrin and the microtubule cytoskeleton. Integrins promote microtubule nucleati...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 11, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: LaFlamme SE, Mathew-Steiner S, Singh N, Colello-Borges D, Nieves B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Correction to: Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains regulate digitation junctions.
Abstract In the original publication, abstract text, one of the co-author's name and the legend to Table 1 were incorrectly published. PMID: 30196315 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 8, 2018 Category: Cytology Authors: Huang C, Fu C, Wren JD, Wang X, Zhang F, Zhang YH, Connell SA, Chen T, Zhang XA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research