R-catcher, a potent molecular tool to unveil the arginylome
This study presents the first molecular tool that allows the unbiased identification of arginylated proteins, thereby unlocking the arginylome and provide a new path to disease biomarker discovery.PMID:33687501 | DOI:10.1007/s00018-021-03805-x (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Taewook Seo Jihyo Kim Ho-Chul Shin Jung Gi Kim Shinyeong Ju Laxman Nawale Goeun Han Hye Seon Lee Geul Bang Jin Young Kim Jeong Kyu Bang Kyung Ho Lee Nak-Kyun Soung Joonsung Hwang Cheolju Lee Seung Jun Kim Bo Yeon Kim Hyunjoo Cha-Molstad Source Type: research

Design of an improved universal signal peptide based on the α-factor mating secretion signal for enzyme production in yeast
We describe here the optimisation of the α-factor preproleader to improve recombinant enzyme production in S. cerevisiae through two parallel engineering strategies: a bottom-up design over the native α-factor preproleader (αnat) and a top-down design over the fittest evolved signal peptide obtained in our lab (α9H2 leader). The goal was to analyse the effect of mutations accumulated in the signal sequence throughout iterations of directed evolution, or of other reported mutations, and their possible epistatic interactions. Both approaches agreed in the positive synergism of four mutations (Aα...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Pablo Aza Gonzalo Molpeceres Felipe de Salas Susana Camarero Source Type: research

R-catcher, a potent molecular tool to unveil the arginylome
This study presents the first molecular tool that allows the unbiased identification of arginylated proteins, thereby unlocking the arginylome and provide a new path to disease biomarker discovery.PMID:33687501 | DOI:10.1007/s00018-021-03805-x (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Taewook Seo Jihyo Kim Ho-Chul Shin Jung Gi Kim Shinyeong Ju Laxman Nawale Goeun Han Hye Seon Lee Geul Bang Jin Young Kim Jeong Kyu Bang Kyung Ho Lee Nak-Kyun Soung Joonsung Hwang Cheolju Lee Seung Jun Kim Bo Yeon Kim Hyunjoo Cha-Molstad Source Type: research

The circadian clock and metabolic homeostasis: entangled networks
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Mar 8. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03800-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe circadian clock exerts an important role in systemic homeostasis as it acts a keeper of time for the organism. The synchrony between the daily challenges imposed by the environment needs to be aligned with biological processes and with the internal circadian clock. In this review, it is provided an in-depth view of the molecular functioning of the circadian molecular clock, how this system is organized, and how central and peripheral clocks communicate with each other. In this sense, we provide an overview of the neuro-hormona...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Leonardo Vin ícius Monteiro de Assis Henrik Oster Source Type: research

Thm2 interacts with paralog, Thm1, and sensitizes to Hedgehog signaling in postnatal skeletogenesis
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Mar 8. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03806-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMutations in the intraflagellar transport-A (IFT-A) gene, THM1, have been identified in skeletal ciliopathies. Here, we report a genetic interaction between Thm1, and its paralog, Thm2, in postnatal skeletogenesis. THM2 localizes to primary cilia, but Thm2 deficiency does not affect ciliogenesis and Thm2-null mice survive into adulthood. However, by postnatal day 14, Thm2-/-; Thm1aln/+ mice exhibit small stature and small mandible. Radiography and microcomputed tomography reveal Thm2-/-; Thm1aln/+ tibia are less opaque and have re...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Bailey A Allard Wei Wang Tana S Pottorf Hammad Mumtaz Brittany M Jack Henry H Wang Luciane M Silva Damon T Jacobs Jinxi Wang Erin E Bumann Pamela V Tran Source Type: research

Apical-basal polarity regulators are essential for slit diaphragm assembly and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes
In this study, we used expansion microscopy and found the apical polarity determinants of the PAR/aPKC and Crb-complexes to be predominantly targeted to the cell cortex in proximity to the nephrocyte diaphragm, whereas basolateral regulators also accumulate intracellularly. Knockdown of PAR-complex proteins results in severe endocytosis and nephrocyte diaphragm defects, which is due to impaired aPKC recruitment to the plasma membrane. Similar, downregulation of most basolateral polarity regulators disrupts Nephrin localization but had surprisingly divergent effects on endocytosis. Our findings suggest that morphology and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Stefanie Heiden Rebecca Siwek Marie-Luise Lotz Sarah Borkowsky Rita Schr öter Pavel Nedvetsky Astrid Rohlmann Markus Missler Michael P Krahn Source Type: research

Apical-basal polarity regulators are essential for slit diaphragm assembly and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes
In this study, we used expansion microscopy and found the apical polarity determinants of the PAR/aPKC and Crb-complexes to be predominantly targeted to the cell cortex in proximity to the nephrocyte diaphragm, whereas basolateral regulators also accumulate intracellularly. Knockdown of PAR-complex proteins results in severe endocytosis and nephrocyte diaphragm defects, which is due to impaired aPKC recruitment to the plasma membrane. Similar, downregulation of most basolateral polarity regulators disrupts Nephrin localization but had surprisingly divergent effects on endocytosis. Our findings suggest that morphology and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Stefanie Heiden Rebecca Siwek Marie-Luise Lotz Sarah Borkowsky Rita Schr öter Pavel Nedvetsky Astrid Rohlmann Markus Missler Michael P Krahn Source Type: research

Apical-basal polarity regulators are essential for slit diaphragm assembly and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes
In this study, we used expansion microscopy and found the apical polarity determinants of the PAR/aPKC and Crb-complexes to be predominantly targeted to the cell cortex in proximity to the nephrocyte diaphragm, whereas basolateral regulators also accumulate intracellularly. Knockdown of PAR-complex proteins results in severe endocytosis and nephrocyte diaphragm defects, which is due to impaired aPKC recruitment to the plasma membrane. Similar, downregulation of most basolateral polarity regulators disrupts Nephrin localization but had surprisingly divergent effects on endocytosis. Our findings suggest that morphology and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Stefanie Heiden Rebecca Siwek Marie-Luise Lotz Sarah Borkowsky Rita Schr öter Pavel Nedvetsky Astrid Rohlmann Markus Missler Michael P Krahn Source Type: research

Apical-basal polarity regulators are essential for slit diaphragm assembly and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes
In this study, we used expansion microscopy and found the apical polarity determinants of the PAR/aPKC and Crb-complexes to be predominantly targeted to the cell cortex in proximity to the nephrocyte diaphragm, whereas basolateral regulators also accumulate intracellularly. Knockdown of PAR-complex proteins results in severe endocytosis and nephrocyte diaphragm defects, which is due to impaired aPKC recruitment to the plasma membrane. Similar, downregulation of most basolateral polarity regulators disrupts Nephrin localization but had surprisingly divergent effects on endocytosis. Our findings suggest that morphology and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Stefanie Heiden Rebecca Siwek Marie-Luise Lotz Sarah Borkowsky Rita Schr öter Pavel Nedvetsky Astrid Rohlmann Markus Missler Michael P Krahn Source Type: research

Apical-basal polarity regulators are essential for slit diaphragm assembly and endocytosis in Drosophila nephrocytes
In this study, we used expansion microscopy and found the apical polarity determinants of the PAR/aPKC and Crb-complexes to be predominantly targeted to the cell cortex in proximity to the nephrocyte diaphragm, whereas basolateral regulators also accumulate intracellularly. Knockdown of PAR-complex proteins results in severe endocytosis and nephrocyte diaphragm defects, which is due to impaired aPKC recruitment to the plasma membrane. Similar, downregulation of most basolateral polarity regulators disrupts Nephrin localization but had surprisingly divergent effects on endocytosis. Our findings suggest that morphology and s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - March 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Stefanie Heiden Rebecca Siwek Marie-Luise Lotz Sarah Borkowsky Rita Schr öter Pavel Nedvetsky Astrid Rohlmann Markus Missler Michael P Krahn Source Type: research

Speaking the language of lipids: the cross-talk between plants and pathogens in defence and disease
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03791-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLipids and fatty acids play crucial roles in plant immunity, which have been highlighted over the past few decades. An increasing number of studies have shown that these molecules are pivotal in the interactions between plants and their diverse pathogens. The roles played by plant lipids fit in a wide spectrum ranging from the first physical barrier encountered by the pathogens, the cuticle, to the signalling pathways that trigger different immune responses and expression of defence-related genes, mediated by several lipid molecu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ana Rita Cavaco Ana Rita Matos Andreia Figueiredo Source Type: research

Histone acetylation dynamics regulating plant development and stress responses
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03794-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCrop productivity is directly dependent on the growth and development of plants and their adaptation during different environmental stresses. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates numerous genes essential for various biological processes, including development and stress responses. Here, we have mainly discussed the impact of histone acetylation dynamics on vegetative growth, flower development, fruit ripening, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Besides, we have also emphasized the information gaps wh...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Verandra Kumar Jitendra K Thakur Manoj Prasad Source Type: research

Speaking the language of lipids: the cross-talk between plants and pathogens in defence and disease
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03791-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLipids and fatty acids play crucial roles in plant immunity, which have been highlighted over the past few decades. An increasing number of studies have shown that these molecules are pivotal in the interactions between plants and their diverse pathogens. The roles played by plant lipids fit in a wide spectrum ranging from the first physical barrier encountered by the pathogens, the cuticle, to the signalling pathways that trigger different immune responses and expression of defence-related genes, mediated by several lipid molecu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ana Rita Cavaco Ana Rita Matos Andreia Figueiredo Source Type: research

Histone acetylation dynamics regulating plant development and stress responses
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03794-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCrop productivity is directly dependent on the growth and development of plants and their adaptation during different environmental stresses. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates numerous genes essential for various biological processes, including development and stress responses. Here, we have mainly discussed the impact of histone acetylation dynamics on vegetative growth, flower development, fruit ripening, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Besides, we have also emphasized the information gaps wh...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Verandra Kumar Jitendra K Thakur Manoj Prasad Source Type: research

Speaking the language of lipids: the cross-talk between plants and pathogens in defence and disease
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03791-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLipids and fatty acids play crucial roles in plant immunity, which have been highlighted over the past few decades. An increasing number of studies have shown that these molecules are pivotal in the interactions between plants and their diverse pathogens. The roles played by plant lipids fit in a wide spectrum ranging from the first physical barrier encountered by the pathogens, the cuticle, to the signalling pathways that trigger different immune responses and expression of defence-related genes, mediated by several lipid molecu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ana Rita Cavaco Ana Rita Matos Andreia Figueiredo Source Type: research

Histone acetylation dynamics regulating plant development and stress responses
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03794-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCrop productivity is directly dependent on the growth and development of plants and their adaptation during different environmental stresses. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates numerous genes essential for various biological processes, including development and stress responses. Here, we have mainly discussed the impact of histone acetylation dynamics on vegetative growth, flower development, fruit ripening, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Besides, we have also emphasized the information gaps wh...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Verandra Kumar Jitendra K Thakur Manoj Prasad Source Type: research

Speaking the language of lipids: the cross-talk between plants and pathogens in defence and disease
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03791-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLipids and fatty acids play crucial roles in plant immunity, which have been highlighted over the past few decades. An increasing number of studies have shown that these molecules are pivotal in the interactions between plants and their diverse pathogens. The roles played by plant lipids fit in a wide spectrum ranging from the first physical barrier encountered by the pathogens, the cuticle, to the signalling pathways that trigger different immune responses and expression of defence-related genes, mediated by several lipid molecu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Ana Rita Cavaco Ana Rita Matos Andreia Figueiredo Source Type: research

Histone acetylation dynamics regulating plant development and stress responses
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03794-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCrop productivity is directly dependent on the growth and development of plants and their adaptation during different environmental stresses. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that regulates numerous genes essential for various biological processes, including development and stress responses. Here, we have mainly discussed the impact of histone acetylation dynamics on vegetative growth, flower development, fruit ripening, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Besides, we have also emphasized the information gaps wh...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 27, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Verandra Kumar Jitendra K Thakur Manoj Prasad Source Type: research

Ubiquitin-related processes and innate immunity in C. elegans
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03787-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInnate immunity is an evolutionary ancient defence strategy that serves to eliminate infectious agents while maintaining host health. It involves a complex network of sensors, signaling proteins and immune effectors that detect the danger, then relay and execute the immune programme. Post-translational modifications relying on conserved ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are an integral part of the system. Studies using invertebrate models of infection, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have greatly contributed to o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 25, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Juan A Garcia-Sanchez Jonathan J Ewbank Orane Visvikis Source Type: research

Ubiquitin-related processes and innate immunity in C. elegans
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03787-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInnate immunity is an evolutionary ancient defence strategy that serves to eliminate infectious agents while maintaining host health. It involves a complex network of sensors, signaling proteins and immune effectors that detect the danger, then relay and execute the immune programme. Post-translational modifications relying on conserved ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are an integral part of the system. Studies using invertebrate models of infection, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have greatly contributed to o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 25, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Juan A Garcia-Sanchez Jonathan J Ewbank Orane Visvikis Source Type: research

Evolution, structure and emerging roles of C1ORF112 in DNA replication, DNA damage responses, and cancer
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03789-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe C1ORF112 gene initially drew attention when it was found to be strongly co-expressed with several genes previously associated with cancer and implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation, such as RAD51 and the BRCA genes. The molecular functions of C1ORF112 remain poorly understood, yet several studies have uncovered clues as to its potential functions. Here, we review the current knowledge on C1ORF112 biology, its evolutionary history, possible functions, and its potential relevance to cancer. C1ORF112 is conserved thr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Jacob Edogbanya Daniela Tejada-Martinez Nigel J Jones Amit Jaiswal Sarah Bell Rui Cordeiro Sipko van Dam Daniel J Rigden Jo ão Pedro de Magalhães Source Type: research

Evolution, structure and emerging roles of C1ORF112 in DNA replication, DNA damage responses, and cancer
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03789-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe C1ORF112 gene initially drew attention when it was found to be strongly co-expressed with several genes previously associated with cancer and implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation, such as RAD51 and the BRCA genes. The molecular functions of C1ORF112 remain poorly understood, yet several studies have uncovered clues as to its potential functions. Here, we review the current knowledge on C1ORF112 biology, its evolutionary history, possible functions, and its potential relevance to cancer. C1ORF112 is conserved thr...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Jacob Edogbanya Daniela Tejada-Martinez Nigel J Jones Amit Jaiswal Sarah Bell Rui Cordeiro Sipko van Dam Daniel J Rigden Jo ão Pedro de Magalhães Source Type: research

Function of Drosophila Synaptotagmins in membrane trafficking at synapses
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03788-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe Synaptotagmin (SYT) family of proteins play key roles in regulating membrane trafficking at neuronal synapses. Using both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent interactions, several SYT isoforms participate in synchronous and asynchronous fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) while preventing spontaneous release that occurs in the absence of stimulation. Changes in the function or abundance of the SYT1 and SYT7 isoforms alter the number and route by which SVs fuse at nerve terminals. Several SYT family members also regulate traffic...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: M ónica C Quiñones-Frías J Troy Littleton Source Type: research

Links between mitochondrial retrograde response and mitophagy in pathogenic cell signalling
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 23. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03770-5. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPreservation of mitochondrial quality is paramount for cellular homeostasis. The integrity of mitochondria is guarded by the balanced interplay between anabolic and catabolic mechanisms. The removal of bio-energetically flawed mitochondria is mediated by the process of mitophagy; the impairment of which leads to the accumulation of defective mitochondria which signal the activation of compensatory mechanisms to the nucleus. This process is known as the mitochondrial retrograde response (MRR) and is enacted by Reactive Oxygen Spec...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 23, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Daniela Strobbe Soumya Sharma Michelangelo Campanella Source Type: research

Non-canonical roles of canonical telomere binding proteins in cancers
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 18. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03783-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTReactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark observed in 90% of all cancers. Yet paradoxically, enhanced telomerase activity does not correlate with telomere length and cancers often possess short telomeres; suggestive of supplementary non-canonical roles that telomerase might play in the development of cancer. Moreover, studies have shown that aberrant expression of shelterin proteins coupled with their release from shortening telomeres can further promote cancer by mechanisms independent of their telomeric role. While targeti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Semih Can Akincilar Claire Hian Tzer Chan Qin Feng Ng Kerem Fidan Vinay Tergaonkar Source Type: research

Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress: a dynamic duo in multiple myeloma
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 18. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03756-3. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTUnder physiological and pathological conditions, cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to deal with the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy arising from immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. MM cells are subject to continual ER stress and highly dependent on the UPR signaling activation due to overproduction of paraproteins. Mounting evidence suggests the close linkage between ER stress and oxidative stress, demonstrated by ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Sinan Xiong Wee-Joo Chng Jianbiao Zhou Source Type: research

An unusual thioredoxin system in the facultative parasite Acanthamoeba castellanii
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 18. doi: 10.1007/s00018-021-03786-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii occurs worldwide in soil and water and feeds on bacteria and other microorganisms. It is, however, also a facultative parasite and can cause serious infections in humans. The annotated genome of A. castellanii (strain Neff) suggests the presence of two different thioredoxin reductases (TrxR), of which one is of the small bacterial type and the other of the large vertebrate type. This combination is highly unusual. Similar to vertebrate TrxRases, the gene coding for the large TrxR in...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: David Leitsch Alvie Loufouma Mbouaka Martina K öhsler Norbert M üller Julia Walochnik Source Type: research

Non-canonical roles of canonical telomere binding proteins in cancers.
Abstract Reactivation of telomerase is a major hallmark observed in 90% of all cancers. Yet paradoxically, enhanced telomerase activity does not correlate with telomere length and cancers often possess short telomeres; suggestive of supplementary non-canonical roles that telomerase might play in the development of cancer. Moreover, studies have shown that aberrant expression of shelterin proteins coupled with their release from shortening telomeres can further promote cancer by mechanisms independent of their telomeric role. While targeting telomerase activity appears to be an attractive therapeutic option, this a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Akincilar SC, Chan CHT, Ng QF, Fidan K, Tergaonkar V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress: a dynamic duo in multiple myeloma.
Abstract Under physiological and pathological conditions, cells activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to deal with the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy arising from immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. MM cells are subject to continual ER stress and highly dependent on the UPR signaling activation due to overproduction of paraproteins. Mounting evidence suggests the close linkage between ER stress and oxidative stress, demonstrated by overlapping signaling pathways and inter-organelle communication pivotal to c...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xiong S, Chng WJ, Zhou J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

An unusual thioredoxin system in the facultative parasite Acanthamoeba castellanii.
chnik J Abstract The free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii occurs worldwide in soil and water and feeds on bacteria and other microorganisms. It is, however, also a facultative parasite and can cause serious infections in humans. The annotated genome of A. castellanii (strain Neff) suggests the presence of two different thioredoxin reductases (TrxR), of which one is of the small bacterial type and the other of the large vertebrate type. This combination is highly unusual. Similar to vertebrate TrxRases, the gene coding for the large TrxR in A. castellanii contains a UGA stop codon at the C-terminal active si...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Leitsch D, Mbouaka AL, Köhsler M, Müller N, Walochnik J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Insect antimicrobial peptides: potential weapons to counteract the antibiotic resistance.
Abstract Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have contributed in the last decades to a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance which is currently considered one of the principal threats to global public health by the World Health Organization. The aim to find alternative drugs has been demonstrated as a real challenge. Thanks to their biodiversity, insects represent the largest class of organisms in the animal kingdom. The humoral immune response includes the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are released into the insect hemolymph after microbial infection. In this review, we have focused on insect ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 17, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Manniello MD, Moretta A, Salvia R, Scieuzo C, Lucchetti D, Vogel H, Sgambato A, Falabella P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Approaches to characterize the transcriptional trajectory of human myogenesis.
Abstract Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have attracted considerable interest in understanding the cellular fate determination processes and modeling a number of intractable diseases. In vitro generation of skeletal muscle tissues using hPSCs provides an essential model to identify the molecular functions and gene regulatory networks controlling the differentiation of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Such a genetic roadmap is not only beneficial to understanding human myogenesis but also to decipher the molecular pathology of many skeletal muscle diseases. The combination of established human in vitro myogen...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 15, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Lim H, Choi IY, Hyun SH, Kim H, Lee G Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitochondrial dynamics in cancer stem cells.
Abstract Many tumors are now understood to be heterogenous cell populations arising from a minority of epithelial-like cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs demonstrate distinctive metabolic signatures from the more differentiated surrounding tumor bulk that confer resistance to traditional chemotherapeutic regimens and potential for tumor relapse. Many CSC phenotypes including metabolism, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cellular signaling pathway activity, and others, arise from altered mitochondrial function and turnover, which are regulated by constant cycles of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Further, recycli...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 13, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Sessions DT, Kashatus DF Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitophagy in tumorigenesis and metastasis.
Abstract Cells use mitophagy to remove dysfunctional or excess mitochondria, frequently in response to imposed stresses, such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Mitochondrial cargo receptors (MCR) induced by these stresses target mitochondria to autophagosomes through interaction with members of the LC3/GABARAP family. There are a growing number of these MCRs, including BNIP3, BNIP3L, FUNDC1, Bcl2-L-13, FKBP8, Prohibitin-2, and others, in addition to mitochondrial protein targets of PINK1/Parkin phospho-ubiquitination. There is also an emerging link between mitochondrial lipid signaling and mitophagy where ceram...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 13, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Poole LP, Macleod KF Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Structure and function of adenosine receptor heteromers.
G, Pardo L Abstract Adenosine is one of the most ancient signaling molecules and has receptors in both animals and plants. In mammals there are four specific receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, which belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Evidence accumulated in the last 20 years indicates that GPCRs are often expressed as oligomeric complexes formed by a number of equal (homomers) or different (heteromers) receptors. This review presents the data showing the occurrence of heteromers formed by A1 and A2A, A2A and A2B, and A2A and A3 receptors highlighting (i) their tetrameric structur...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Franco R, Cordomí A, Llinas Del Torrent C, Lillo A, Serrano-Marín J, Navarro G, Pardo L Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization at the single molecule level.
We report key single-molecule studies applied to decipher the composition, assembly mechanism and structure of protein complexes involved in MOMP regulation. PMID: 33576840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Dadsena S, Jenner A, García-Sáez AJ Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mitochondrial dynamics, positioning and function mediated by cytoskeletal interactions.
Abstract The ability of a mitochondrion to undergo fission and fusion, and to be transported and localized within a cell are central not just to proper functioning of mitochondria, but also to that of the cell. The cytoskeletal filaments, namely microtubules, F-actin and intermediate filaments, have emerged as prime movers in these dynamic mitochondrial shape and position transitions. In this review, we explore the complex relationship between the cytoskeleton and the mitochondrion, by delving into: (i) how the cytoskeleton helps shape mitochondria via fission and fusion events, (ii) how the cytoskeleton facilitat...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 12, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shah M, Chacko LA, Joseph JP, Ananthanarayanan V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Morphogens and growth factor signalling in the myeloma bone-lining niche.
Abstract Multiple myeloma is a malignancy caused by the clonal expansion of abnormal plasma cells. Myeloma cells have proven to be incredibly successful at manipulating their microenvironment to promote growth and to evade modern therapies. They have evolved to utilise the integral signalling pathways of the bone and bone marrow to drive disease progression. The bone marrow is often described in the context of a single structure that fills the bone cavity and supports normal haematopoiesis. However, within that structure exists two anatomically different niches, the perivascular niche and the endosteal niche. Thes...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 11, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Morris EV, Edwards CM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Contribution of ADAM17 and related ADAMs in cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) are key mediators of cell signaling by ectodomain shedding of various growth factors, cytokines, receptors and adhesion molecules at the cellular membrane. ADAMs regulate cell proliferation, cell growth, inflammation, and other regular cellular processes. ADAM17, the most extensively studied ADAM family member, is also known as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α converting enzyme (TACE). ADAMs-mediated shedding of cytokines such as TNF-α orchestrates immune system or inflammatory cascades and ADAMs-mediated shedding of growth factors causes cell growth or ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 11, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Kawai T, Elliott KJ, Scalia R, Eguchi S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The hemogenic endothelium: a critical source for the generation of PSC-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
Abstract In vitro generation of hematopoietic cells and especially hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are subject to intensive research in recent decades, as these cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine and autologous cell replacement therapies. Despite many attempts, in vitro, de novo generation of bona fide HSCs remains challenging, and we are still far away from their clinical use, due to insufficient functionality and quantity of the produced HSCs. The challenges of generating PSC-derived HSCs are already apparent in early stages of hemato-endothelial specifi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Lange L, Morgan M, Schambach A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The "STK38-XPO1 axis": its general relevance and mechanistic underpinnings remain to be further characterized.
The "STK38-XPO1 axis": its general relevance and mechanistic underpinnings remain to be further characterized. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2021 Feb 09;: Authors: Rodriguez JA PMID: 33559690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 9, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Rodriguez JA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The Gb3-enriched CD59/flotillin plasma membrane domain regulates host cell invasion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In this study, we define the LecA-associated host cell membrane domain by pull-down and mass spectrometry analysis. We unraveled a predilection of LecA for binding to saturated, long fatty acyl chain-containing Gb3 species in the extracellular membrane leaflet and an induction of dynamic phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) clusters at the intracellular leaflet co-localizing with sites of LecA binding. We found flotillins and the GPI-anchored protein CD59 not only to be an integral part of the LecA-interacting membrane domain, but also majorly influencing bacterial invasion as depletion of either of these...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Brandel A, Aigal S, Lagies S, Schlimpert M, Meléndez AV, Xu M, Lehmann A, Hummel D, Fisch D, Madl J, Eierhoff T, Kammerer B, Römer W Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

FUCCI-Red: a single-color cell cycle indicator for fluorescence lifetime imaging.
Abstract The phase of the cell cycle determines numerous aspects of cancer cell behaviour including invasiveness, ability to migrate and responsiveness to cytotoxic drugs. To non-invasively monitor progression of cell cycle in vivo, a family of genetically encoded fluorescent indicators, FUCCI (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator), has been developed. Existing versions of FUCCI are based on fluorescent proteins of two or more different colors fused to cell-cycle-dependent degradation motifs. Thus, FUCCI-expressing cells emit light of different colors in different phases providing a robust way to ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Shirmanova MV, Gorbachev DA, Sarkisyan KS, Parnes AP, Gavrina AI, Polozova AV, Kovaleva TF, Snopova LB, Dudenkova VV, Zagaynova EV, Lukyanov KA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Expression and function of circular RNAs in the mammalian brain.
Abstract Mammalian brain presents extraordinary complexity reflected in the structure, function, and dynamic changes in the biological and physiological processes of development, maturity, and aging. Recent transcriptomic profiles from the brain tissues of distinct species have described a novel class of transcripts with a covalently closed-loop structure, called circular RNAs (circRNAs), which are produced by alternative back-splicing and derived from genes associated with synaptogenesis and neural activities. Brain is a tightly regulated and largely unexplored organ where circRNAs are highly enriched and express...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Xu K, Zhang Y, Li J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

At the heart of mitochondrial quality control: many roads to the top.
Abstract Mitochondrial quality control depends upon selective elimination of damaged mitochondria, replacement by mitochondrial biogenesis, redistribution of mitochondrial components across the network by fusion, and segregation of damaged mitochondria by fission prior to mitophagy. In this review, we focus on mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission), mitophagy, and other mechanisms supporting mitochondrial quality control including maintenance of mtDNA and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, particularly in the context of the heart. PMID: 33544154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Gottlieb RA, Piplani H, Sin J, Sawaged S, Hamid SM, Taylor DJ, de Freitas Germano J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The dark-side of the outside: how extracellular heat shock proteins promote cancer.
cio M Abstract In addition to exerting several essential house-keeping activities in the cell, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are crucial players in a well-structured molecular program activated in response to stressful challenges. Among the different activities carried out by HSPs during emergency, they reach the extracellular milieu, from where they scout the surroundings, regulate extracellular protein activity and send autocrine and paracrine signals. Cancer cells permanently experience stress conditions due to their altered equilibrium and behaviour, and constantly secrete heat shock proteins as a result. Ot...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Seclì L, Fusella F, Avalle L, Brancaccio M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Regulatory mechanisms of neutrophil migration from the circulation to the airspace.
Abstract The neutrophil, a short-lived effector leukocyte of the innate immune system best known for its proteases and other degradative cargo, has unique, reciprocal physiological interactions with the lung. During health, large numbers of 'marginated' neutrophils reside within the pulmonary vasculature, where they patrol the endothelial surface for pathogens and complete their life cycle. Upon respiratory infection, rapid and sustained recruitment of neutrophils through the endothelial barrier, across the extravascular pulmonary interstitium, and again through the respiratory epithelium into the airspace lumen, ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 5, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Lin WC, Fessler MB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Antiviral activities and applications of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs).
Abstract The emergence and re-emergence of viral epidemics and the risks of antiviral drug resistance are a serious threat to global public health. New options to supplement or replace currently used drugs for antiviral therapy are urgently needed. The research in the field of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) has been booming in the last few decades, in particular in view of their strong antimicrobial activities and high stability. The RiPPs with antiviral activity, especially those against enveloped viruses, are now also gaining more interest. RiPPs have a number of advan...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Fu Y, Jaarsma AH, Kuipers OP Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

GAGA factor: a multifunctional pioneering chromatin protein.
Abstract The Drosophila GAGA factor (GAF) is a multifunctional protein implicated in nucleosome organization and remodeling, activation and repression of gene expression, long distance enhancer-promoter communication, higher order chromosome structure, and mitosis. This broad range of activities poses questions about how a single protein can perform so many seemingly different and unrelated functions. Current studies argue that GAF acts as a "pioneer" factor, generating nucleosome-free regions of chromatin for different classes of regulatory elements. The removal of nucleosomes from regulatory elements i...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Chetverina D, Erokhin M, Schedl P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Animal regeneration in the era of transcriptomics.
Abstract Animal regeneration, the ability to restore a lost body part, is a process that has fascinated scientists for centuries. In this review, we first present what regeneration is and how it relates to development, as well as the widespread and diverse nature of regeneration in animals. Despite this diversity, animal regeneration includes three common mechanistic steps: initiation, induction and activation of progenitors, and morphogenesis. In this review article, we summarize and discuss, from an evolutionary perspective, the recent data obtained for a variety of regeneration models which have allowed to iden...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - January 30, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: Bideau L, Kerner P, Hui J, Vervoort M, Gazave E Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research