Master regulatory role of p63 in epidermal development and disease.
Abstract The transcription factor p63 is a master regulator of epidermal development. Mutations in p63 give rise to human developmental diseases that often manifest epidermal defects. In this review, we summarize major p63 isoforms identified so far and p63 mutation-associated human diseases that show epidermal defects. We discuss key roles of p63 in epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, emphasizing its master regulatory control of the gene expression pattern and epigenetic landscape that define epidermal fate. We subsequently review the essential function of p63 during epidermal commitment and...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 4, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Soares E, Zhou H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Neurotrophin-conjugated nanoparticles prevent retina damage induced by oxidative stress.
Abstract Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies are characterized by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a cell layer located in the posterior eye segment. Several preclinical studies demonstrate that neurotrophins (NTs) prevent RGC loss. However, NTs are rarely investigated in the clinic due to various issues, such as difficulties in reaching the retina, the very short half-life of NTs, and the need for multiple injections. We demonstrate that NTs can be conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which act as smart drug carriers. This combines the advantages of the self-localization of the drug in the retin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 2, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Giannaccini M, Usai A, Chiellini F, Guadagni V, Andreazzoli M, Ori M, Pasqualetti M, Dente L, Raffa V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

SUMOylation controls stem cell proliferation and regional cell death through Hedgehog signaling in planarians.
We present evidence indicating that Ubc9-induced regional cell death is preceded by alterations in transcription and spatial expression of repressors and activators of the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that SUMOylation acts as a regional-specific cue to regulate cell fate during tissue renewal and regeneration. PMID: 29098326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - November 2, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Thiruvalluvan M, Barghouth PG, Tsur A, Broday L, Oviedo NJ Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Characterizations of PMCA2-interacting complex and its role as a calcium oxalate crystal-binding protein.
Abstract Three isoforms of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) are expressed in the kidney. While PMCA1 and PMCA4 play major role in regulating Ca(2+) reabsorption, the role for PMCA2 remains vaguely defined. To define PMCA2 function, PMCA2-interacting complex was characterized by immunoprecipitation followed by nanoLC-ESI-Qq-TripleTOF MS/MS (IP-MS). After subtracting non-specific binders using isotype-controlled IP-MS, 474 proteins were identified as PMCA2-interacting partners. Among these, eight were known and 20 were potential PMCA2-interacting partners based on bioinformatic prediction, whereas other 446 were...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 30, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Vinaiphat A, Thongboonkerd V Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Shedding light on mitophagy in neurons: what is the evidence for PINK1/Parkin mitophagy in vivo?
z J Abstract Neurons are highly specialised cells with a large bioenergetic demand, and so require a healthy mitochondrial network to function effectively. This network is compromised in many neurological disorders, in which damaged mitochondria accumulate. Dysfunctional mitochondria can be removed via an organelle-specific autophagic pathway, a process known as mitophagy. The canonical mitophagy pathway is dependent on the actions of PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) and Parkin and has been well studied in immortalised cells and cultured neurons. However, evidence for a role of this mitophagy pathway in the ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 30, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Cummins N, Götz J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Human endoglin as a potential new partner involved in platelet-endothelium interactions.
Bernabeu C Abstract Complex interactions between platelets and activated endothelium occur during the thrombo-inflammatory reaction at sites of vascular injuries and during vascular hemostasis. The endothelial receptor endoglin is involved in inflammation through integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion and transmigration; and heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1. This vascular disease is characterized by a bleeding tendency that is postulated to be a consequence of telangiectasia fragility rather than a platelet defect, since platelets display normal function...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 28, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Rossi E, Pericacho M, Bachelot-Loza C, Pidard D, Gaussem P, Poirault-Chassac S, Blanco FJ, Langa C, González-Manchón C, Novoa JML, Smadja DM, Bernabeu C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Downregulation of p53 drives autophagy during human trophoblast differentiation.
Abstract The placental barrier is crucial for the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and is maintained by differentiation and fusion of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts into the syncytiotrophoblast, a process only partially understood. Here transcriptome and pathway analyses during differentiation and fusion of cultured trophoblasts yielded p53 signaling as negative upstream regulator and indicated an upregulation of autophagy-related genes. We further showed p53 mRNA and protein levels decreased during trophoblast differentiation. Reciprocally, autophagic flux increased and cytoplasmic LC3B-GFP ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Gauster M, Maninger S, Siwetz M, Deutsch A, El-Heliebi A, Kolb-Lenz D, Hiden U, Desoye G, Herse F, Prokesch A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Flagellin glycosylation with pseudaminic acid in Campylobacter and Helicobacter: prospects for development of novel therapeutics.
Abstract Many pathogenic bacteria require flagella-mediated motility to colonise and persist in their hosts. Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni are flagellated epsilonproteobacteria associated with several human pathologies, including gastritis, acute diarrhea, gastric carcinoma and neurological disorders. In both species, glycosylation of flagellin with an unusual sugar pseudaminic acid (Pse) plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of functional flagella, and thereby in bacterial motility and pathogenesis. Pse is found only in pathogenic bacteria. Its biosynthesis via six consecutive enzymatic steps ha...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Salah Ud-Din AIM, Roujeinikova A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Post-translational add-ons mark the path in exosomal protein sorting.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by cells to the extracellular environment to mediate inter-cellular communication. Proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and metabolites shuttled in these vesicles modulate specific functions in recipient cells. The enrichment of selected sets of proteins in EVs compared with global cellular levels suggests the existence of specific sorting mechanisms to specify EV loading. Diverse post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins participate in the loading of specific elements into EVs. In this review, we offer a perspective on PTMs found in EVs and discuss the speci...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Moreno-Gonzalo O, Fernandez-Delgado I, Sanchez-Madrid F Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Microcystin-leucine-arginine causes blood-testis barrier disruption and degradation of occludin mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-8.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MC-LR on the integrity of blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the related molecular mechanisms. Both transepithelial electrical resistance measurement in vitro and electron microscope observation ex vivo revealed that MC-LR caused disruption of the tight junction between Sertoli cells, which was paralleled by the degradation of occludin. We observed increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) upon exposure to MC-LR, and confirmed that abrogation of MMP-8 activity by specific inhibitors as well as transfection with MMP-8 shRNA could abolish the degradation of o...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 25, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Chen Y, Wang J, Pan C, Li D, Han X Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Protein kinase D inhibitor CRT0066101 suppresses bladder cancer growth in vitro and xenografts via blockade of the cell cycle at G2/M.
Abstract The protein kinase D (PKD) family of proteins are important regulators of tumor growth, development, and progression. CRT0066101, an inhibitor of PKD, has antitumor activity in multiple types of carcinomas. However, the effect and mechanism of CRT0066101 in bladder cancer are not understood. In the present study, we show that CRT0066101 suppressed the proliferation and migration of four bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. We also demonstrate that CRT0066101 blocked tumor growth in a mouse flank xenograft model of bladder cancer. To further assess the role of PKD in bladder carcinoma, we examined the three...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 25, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Li QQ, Hsu I, Sanford T, Railkar R, Balaji N, Sourbier C, Vocke C, Balaji KC, Agarwal PK Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cadherin 22 participates in the self-renewal of mouse female germ line stem cells via interaction with JAK2 and β-catenin.
Cadherin 22 participates in the self-renewal of mouse female germ line stem cells via interaction with JAK2 and β-catenin. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Oct 24;: Authors: Zhang X, Yang Y, Xia Q, Song H, Wei R, Wang J, Zou K Abstract The self-renewal capacity of the stem cell pool determines tissue function and health. Cadherin-22 (Cdh22), a member of the cadherin superfamily, has two splicing patterns in rats, and the short type that lacks a catenin binding domain is closely related to spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal. Previously, we reported that CDH22 was highly expressed in mouse ovary germ cel...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 24, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang X, Yang Y, Xia Q, Song H, Wei R, Wang J, Zou K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Resculpting the binding pocket of APC superfamily LeuT-fold amino acid transporters.
Abstract Amino acid transporters are essential components of prokaryote and eukaryote cells, possess distinct physiological functions, and differ markedly in substrate specificity. Amino acid transporters can be both drug targets and drug transporters (bioavailability, targeting) with many monogenic disorders resulting from dysfunctional membrane transport. The largest collection of amino acid transporters (including the mammalian SLC6, SLC7, SLC32, SLC36, and SLC38 families), across all kingdoms of life, is within the Amino acid-Polyamine-organoCation (APC) superfamily. The LeuT-fold is a paradigm structure for A...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 23, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Edwards N, Anderson CMH, Conlon NJ, Watson AK, Hall RJ, Cheek TR, Embley TM, Thwaites DT Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

WNT signaling, the development of the sympathoadrenal-paraganglionic system and neuroblastoma.
Abstract Neuroblastoma (NB) is a tumor of the sympathoadrenal system arising in children under 15 years of age. In Germany, NB accounts for 7% of childhood cancer cases, but 11% of cancer deaths. It originates from highly migratory progenitor cells that leave the dorsal neural tube and contribute neurons and glial cells to sympathetic ganglia, and chromaffin and supportive cells to the adrenal medulla and paraganglia. Clinically, histologically and molecularly, NBs present as extremely heterogeneous, ranging from very good to very poor prognosis. The etiology of NB still remains unclear and needs to be elucid...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 22, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Becker J, Wilting J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Characterization of a set of abdominal neuroendocrine cells that regulate stress physiology using colocalized diuretic peptides in Drosophila.
DR Abstract Multiple neuropeptides are known to regulate water and ion balance in Drosophila melanogaster. Several of these peptides also have other functions in physiology and behavior. Examples are corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (diuretic hormone 44; DH44) and leucokinin (LK), both of which induce fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs), but also regulate stress responses, feeding, circadian activity and other behaviors. Here, we investigated the functional relations between the LK and DH44 signaling systems. DH44 and LK peptides are only colocalized in a set of abdominal neurosecretor...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 17, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Zandawala M, Marley R, Davies SA, Nässel DR Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulators: multifunctional proteins modulating hypoxia-inducible factor- α protein stability and activity.
Epigenetic regulators: multifunctional proteins modulating hypoxia-inducible factor-α protein stability and activity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Oct 14;: Authors: Luo W, Wang Y Abstract The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor governing a transcriptional program in response to reduced O2 availability in metazoans. It contributes to physiology and pathogenesis of many human diseases through its downstream target genes. Emerging studies have shown that the transcriptional activity of HIF is highly regulated at multiple levels and the epigenetic regulators are essenti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Luo W, Wang Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Gut microbiota changes in the extreme decades of human life: a focus on centenarians.
Abstract The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex, evolutionarily molded ecological system, which contributes to a variety of physiological functions. The GM is highly dynamic, being sensitive to environmental stimuli, and its composition changes over the host's entire lifespan. However, the basic question of how much these changes may be ascribed to variables such as population, diet, genetics and gender, and/or to the aging process per se is still largely unanswered. We argue that comparison among studies on centenarians-the best model of healthy aging and longevity-recruited from different geographical areas/popula...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Santoro A, Ostan R, Candela M, Biagi E, Brigidi P, Capri M, Franceschi C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte interplay in controlling tumor growth.
r N Abstract The outstanding clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade has revived the interest in underlying mechanisms of the immune system that are capable of eliminating tumors even in advanced stages. In this scenario, CD4 and CD8 T cell responses are part of the cancer immune cycle and both populations significantly influence the clinical outcome. In general, the immune system has evolved several mechanisms to protect the host against cancer. Each of them has to be undermined or evaded during cancer development to enable tumor outgrowth. In this review, we give an overview of T lymphocyte-driven co...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Ostroumov D, Fekete-Drimusz N, Saborowski M, Kühnel F, Woller N Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Role of gut microbiota in aging-related health decline: insights from invertebrate models.
Abstract Studies in mammals, including humans, have reported age-related changes in microbiota dynamics. A major challenge, however, is to dissect the cause and effect relationships involved. Invertebrate model organisms such as the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have been invaluable in studies of the biological mechanisms of aging. Indeed, studies in flies and worms have resulted in the identification of a number of interventions that can slow aging and prolong life span. In this review, we discuss recent work using invertebrate models to provide insight into the interplay between mi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 12, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Clark RI, Walker DW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Author Correction: Molecular basis of mycobacterial survival in macrophages.
Abstract One of the author affiliations was missed to include in the original publication. The correct information is given below. PMID: 29022045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 11, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Awuh JA, Flo TH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Differential gene regulatory networks in development and disease.
Abstract Gene regulatory networks, in which differential expression of regulator genes induce differential expression of their target genes, underlie diverse biological processes such as embryonic development, organ formation and disease pathogenesis. An archetypical systems biology approach to mapping these networks involves the combined application of (1) high-throughput sequencing-based transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of biopsies under diverse network perturbations and (2) network inference based on gene-gene expression correlation analysis. The comparative analysis of such correlation networks across cell ty...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 10, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Singh AJ, Ramsey SA, Filtz TM, Kioussi C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Molecular components and polarity of radial glial cells during cerebral cortex development.
Abstract Originating from ectodermal epithelium, radial glial cells (RGCs) retain apico-basolateral polarity and comprise a pseudostratified epithelial layer in the developing cerebral cortex. The apical endfeet of the RGCs faces the fluid-filled ventricles, while the basal processes extend across the entire cortical span towards the pial surface. RGC functions are largely dependent on this polarized structure and the molecular components that define it. In this review, we will dissect existing molecular evidence on RGC polarity establishment and during cerebral cortex development and provide our perspective on th...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 10, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Chou FS, Li R, Wang PS Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Do anti-stroma therapies improve extrinsic resistance to increase the efficacy of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer?
Abstract Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most devastating human malignancies, with approximately 20-30% of PDAC patients receiving the surgical resection with curative intent. Although many studies have focused on finding ideal "drug chaperones" that facilitate and/or potentiate the effects of gemcitabine (GEM) in pancreatic cancer, a significant benefit in overall survival could not be demonstrated for any of these combination therapies in PDAC. Given that pancreatic cancer is characterized by desmoplasia and the dual biological roles of stroma in pancreatic cancer, we reassess the ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 9, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Liang C, Shi S, Meng Q, Liang D, Ji S, Zhang B, Qin Y, Xu J, Ni Q, Yu X Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

iPSC-derived neural precursor cells: potential for cell transplantation therapy in spinal cord injury.
Abstract A number of studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the NPCs had been mostly harvested from embryonic stem cells or fetal tissue, raising the ethical concern. Yamanaka and his colleagues established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which could be generated from somatic cells, and this innovative development has made rapid progression in the field of SCI regeneration. We and other groups succeeded in producing NPCs from iPSCs, and demonstrated beneficial effects after transplantation for anim...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 9, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Nagoshi N, Okano H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Early microbiota, antibiotics and health.
acute;n CG, Gueimonde M Abstract The colonization of the neonatal digestive tract provides a microbial stimulus required for an adequate maturation towards the physiological homeostasis of the host. This colonization, which is affected by several factors, begins with facultative anaerobes and continues with anaerobic genera. Accumulating evidence underlines the key role of the early neonatal period for this microbiota-induced maturation, being a key determinant factor for later health. Therefore, understanding the factors that determine the establishment of the microbiota in the infant is of critical importance. E...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 7, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Nogacka AM, Salazar N, Arboleya S, Suárez M, Fernández N, Solís G, de Los Reyes-Gavilán CG, Gueimonde M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Role of cell cycle regulators in adipose tissue and whole body energy homeostasis.
Abstract In the course of the last decades, metabolism research has demonstrated that adipose tissue is not an inactive tissue. Rather, adipocytes are key actors of whole body energy homeostasis. Numerous novel regulators of adipose tissue differentiation and function have been identified. With the constant increase of obesity and associated disorders, the interest in adipose tissue function alterations in the XXIst century has become of paramount importance. Recent data suggest that adipocyte differentiation, adipose tissue browning and mitochondrial function, lipogenesis and lipolysis are strongly modulated by t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 7, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lopez-Mejia IC, Castillo-Armengol J, Lagarrigue S, Fajas L Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Control of HIV infection by IFN- α: implications for latency and a cure.
Control of HIV infection by IFN-α: implications for latency and a cure. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Oct 07;: Authors: Bourke NM, Napoletano S, Bannan C, Ahmed S, Bergin C, McKnight Á, Stevenson NJ Abstract Viral infections, including HIV, trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. Mounting evidence suggests that type I IFNs, in particular IFN-α, play a pivotal role in limiting acute HIV infection. Highly active anti-retroviral treatment reduces viral load and inc...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 7, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Bourke NM, Napoletano S, Bannan C, Ahmed S, Bergin C, McKnight Á, Stevenson NJ Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Microbiome-health interactions in older people.
Abstract Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiome have been implicated in a range of conditions and diseases. Culture-dependent and culture-independent studies both showed that older people harbour a gut microbiome that differs in composition from that of younger adults. Detailed analyses have identified discrete microbiota subtypes that characterize intermediates between a high diversity microbiota found in healthy community-dwelling subjects and a low diversity microbiota typical for elderly living in long-term residential care. There are also alterations in the microbiome composition as...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 6, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: O'Toole PW, Jeffery IB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Selected aspects of the human gut microbiota.
Abstract The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut microbiota research. PMID: 28986602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 6, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Ventura M, O'Toole PW, de Vos WM, van Sinderen D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Bifidobacteria and the infant gut: an example of co-evolution and natural selection.
Abstract Throughout the human life, the gut microbiota interacts with us in a number of different ways, thereby influencing our health status. The acquisition of such an interactive gut microbiota commences at birth. Medical and environmental factors including diet, antibiotic exposure and mode of delivery are major factors that shape the composition of the microbial communities in the infant gut. Among the most abundant members of the infant microbiota are species belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus, which are believed to confer beneficial effects upon their host. Bifidobacteria may be acquired directly from t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 5, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Turroni F, Milani C, Duranti S, Ferrario C, Lugli GA, Mancabelli L, van Sinderen D, Ventura M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

A double dealing tale of p63: an oncogene or a tumor suppressor.
Abstract As a member of tumor suppressor p53 family, p63, a gene encoding versatile protein variant, has been documented to correlate with cancer formation and progression, though it is rarely mutated in cancer patients. However, it has long been controversial on whether p63 is an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Here, we comprehensively reviewed reports on roles of p63 in development, tumorigenesis and tumor progression. According to data from molecular cell biology, genetic models and clinic research, we conclude that p63 may act as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor gene in different scenarios: TA isoforms...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 3, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Chen Y, Peng Y, Fan S, Li Y, Xiao ZX, Li C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cells from preterm to term newborns undergo a significant switch from anaerobic glycolysis to the oxidative phosphorylation.
oni F Abstract We evaluated the energy metabolism of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from umbilical cord (UC) of preterm (
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 3, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Ravera S, Podestà M, Sabatini F, Fresia C, Columbaro M, Bruno S, Fulcheri E, Ramenghi LA, Frassoni F Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The impact of thyroid hormone in seasonal breeding has a restricted transcriptional signature.
nte H Abstract Thyroid hormone (TH) directs seasonal breeding through reciprocal regulation of TH deiodinase (Dio2/Dio3) gene expression in tanycytes in the ependymal zone of the medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH). Thyrotropin secretion by the pars tuberalis (PT) is a major photoperiod-dependent upstream regulator of Dio2/Dio3 gene expression. Long days enhance thyrotropin production, which increases Dio2 expression and suppresses Dio3 expression, thereby heightening TH signaling in the MBH. Short days appear to exert the converse effect. Here, we combined endocrine profiling and transcriptomics to understand how phot...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - October 3, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lomet D, Cognié J, Chesneau D, Dubois E, Hazlerigg D, Dardente H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Phoenixin-14: detection and novel physiological implications in cardiac modulation and cardioprotection.
This study aimed to quantify PNX expression in the rat heart, and to evaluate whether the peptide influences the myocardial function under basal condition and in the presence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). By ELISA the presence of PNX was detected in both hypothalamus and heart. In plasma of normal, but not of obese rats, the peptide concentrations increased after meal. Exposure of the isolated and Langendorff perfused rat heart to exogenous PNX induces a reduction of contractility and relaxation, without effects on coronary pressure and heart rate. As revealed by immunoblotting, these effects were accompanied by an increa...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 30, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Rocca C, Scavello F, Granieri MC, Pasqua T, Amodio N, Imbrogno S, Gattuso A, Mazza R, Cerra MC, Angelone T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The peritoneal "soil" for a cancerous "seed": a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis of intraperitoneal cancer metastases.
The peritoneal "soil" for a cancerous "seed": a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis of intraperitoneal cancer metastases. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Sep 27;: Authors: Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Uruski P, Tykarski A, Książek K Abstract Various types of tumors, particularly those originating from the ovary and gastrointestinal tract, display a strong predilection for the peritoneal cavity as the site of metastasis. The intraperitoneal spread of a malignancy is orchestrated by a reciprocal interplay between invading cancer cells and resident normal peritoneal cells. In this review, we a...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Mikuła-Pietrasik J, Uruski P, Tykarski A, Książek K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Amyloid precursor protein products concentrate in a subset of exosomes specifically endocytosed by neurons.
Abstract Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), the main component of senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease brains, is produced by sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and of its C-terminal fragments (CTFs). An unanswered question is how amyloidogenic peptides spread throughout the brain during the course of the disease. Here, we show that small lipid vesicles called exosomes, secreted in the extracellular milieu by cortical neurons, carry endogenous APP and are strikingly enriched in CTF-α and the newly characterized CTF-η. Exosomes from N2a cells expressing human APP with the autosomal domin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Laulagnier K, Javalet C, Hemming FJ, Chivet M, Lachenal G, Blot B, Chatellard C, Sadoul R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Vascular stem/progenitor cells: functions and signaling pathways.
Abstract Vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) are an important source of all types of vascular cells needed to build, maintain, repair, and remodel blood vessels. VSCs, therefore, play critical roles in the development, normal physiology, and pathophysiology of numerous diseases. There are four major types of VSCs, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). VSCs can be found in bone marrow, circulating blood, vessel walls, and other extravascular tissues. During the past two decades, considerable progress has been achieved i...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 27, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Lu W, Li X Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Anatomy of autophagy: from the beginning to the end.
Abstract Autophagy is a highly regulated process in eukaryotes to maintain homeostasis and manage stress responses. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms and key players involved in autophagy will provide critical insights into disease-related pathogenesis and potential clinical treatments. In this review, we describe the hallmark events involved in autophagy, from its initiation, to the final destruction of engulfed targets. Furthermore, based on structural and biochemical data, we evaluate the roles of key players in these processes and provide rationale as to how they control autophagic events in a highly ord...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 22, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhi X, Feng W, Rong Y, Liu R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high  fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo.
Ablation of kallikrein 7 (KLK7) in adipose tissue ameliorates metabolic consequences of high fat diet-induced obesity by counteracting adipose tissue inflammation in vivo. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Sep 20;: Authors: Zieger K, Weiner J, Kunath A, Gericke M, Krause K, Kern M, Stumvoll M, Klöting N, Blüher M, Heiker JT Abstract Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 20, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Zieger K, Weiner J, Kunath A, Gericke M, Krause K, Kern M, Stumvoll M, Klöting N, Blüher M, Heiker JT Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Crystal structures of eukaryote glycosyltransferases reveal biologically relevant enzyme homooligomers.
Abstract Glycosyltransferases (GTases) transfer sugar moieties to proteins, lipids or existing glycan or polysaccharide molecules. GTases form an important group of enzymes in the Golgi, where the synthesis and modification of glycoproteins and glycolipids take place. Golgi GTases are almost invariably type II integral membrane proteins, with the C-terminal globular catalytic domain residing in the Golgi lumen. The enzymes themselves are divided into 103 families based on their sequence homology. There is an abundance of published crystal structures of GTase catalytic domains deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PD...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 20, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Harrus D, Kellokumpu S, Glumoff T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta identifies mesenchymal stem cells with enhanced engraftment to tissue injury and pro-angiogenic property.
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous likely consisting of subpopulations with various therapeutic potentials. Here we attempted to acquire a subset of MSCs with enhanced effect in wound healing. We found that human placental MSCs expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR)-β exhibited greater proliferation rates and generated more colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F), compared to PDGFR-β(-) MSCs. Notably, PDGFR-β(+) MSCs expressed higher levels of pro-angiogenic factors such as Ang1, Ang2, VEGF, bFGF and PDGF. When 10(6) GFP-expressing MSCs were topically ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 19, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang S, Mo M, Wang J, Sadia S, Shi B, Fu X, Yu L, Tredget EE, Wu Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

TUSC3: functional duality of a cancer gene.
rak P, Vaňhara P Abstract Two decades ago, following a systematic screening of LOH regions on chromosome 8p22, TUSC3 has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancers. Since then, a growing body of evidence documented its clinical importance in various other types of cancers, and first initial insights into its molecular function and phenotypic effects have been gained, though the precise role of TUSC3 in different cancers remains unclear. As a part of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, TUSC3 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and functions in final steps...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 19, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Vašíčková K, Horak P, Vaňhara P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

C3aR and C5aR1 act as key regulators of human and mouse β-cell function.
CONCLUSIONS: Our observations demonstrate a functional link between activation of components of the innate immune system and improved β-cell function, suggesting that low-level chronic inflammation may improve glucose homeostasis through direct effects on β-cells. PMID: 28921001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 18, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Atanes P, Ruz-Maldonado I, Pingitore A, Hawkes R, Liu B, Zhao M, Huang GC, Persaud SJ, Amisten S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The role of periostin in lung fibrosis and airway remodeling.
Abstract Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 16, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: O'Dwyer DN, Moore BB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin in the pathogenesis of skin diseases.
Abstract Skin is an organ that is susceptible to damage by external injury, chronic inflammation, and autoimmunity. Tissue damage causes alterations in both the configuration and type of cells in lesional skin. This phenomenon, called tissue remodeling, is a universal biological response elicited by programmed cell death, inflammation, immune disorders, and tumorigenic, tumor proliferative, and cytoreductive activity. In this process, changes in the components of the extracellular matrix are required to provide an environment that facilitates tissue remodeling. Among these extracellular matrix components, periosti...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 15, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Murota H, Lingli Y, Katayama I Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Periostin in vitreoretinal diseases.
Abstract Proliferative vitreoretinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), and age-related macular degeneration are a leading cause of decreased vision and blindness in developed countries. In these diseases, retinal fibro(vascular) membrane (FVM) formation above and beneath the retina plays an important role. Gene expression profiling of human FVMs revealed significant upregulation of periostin. Subsequent analyses demonstrated increased periostin expression in the vitreous of patients with both proliferative diabetic retinopathy and PVR. Immunohistochemical analysis showed...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Yoshida S, Nakama T, Ishikawa K, Nakao S, Sonoda KH, Ishibashi T Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The function of endocytosis in Wnt signaling.
Abstract Wnt growth factors regulate one of the most important signaling networks during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. Despite the biological importance of Wnt signaling, the mechanism of endocytosis during this process is ill described. Wnt molecules can act as paracrine signals, which are secreted from the producing cells and transported through neighboring tissue to activate signaling in target cells. Endocytosis of the ligand is important at several stages of action: One central function of endocytic trafficking in the Wnt pathway occurs in the source cell. Furthermore, the β-catenin-depend...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Brunt L, Scholpp S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Role of noncoding RNAs in regulation of cardiac cell death and cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract Loss of functional cardiomyocytes is a major underlying mechanism for myocardial remodeling and heart diseases, due to the limited regenerative capacity of adult myocardium. Apoptosis, programmed necrosis, and autophagy contribute to loss of cardiac myocytes that control the balance of cardiac cell death and cell survival through multiple intricate signaling pathways. In recent years, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have received much attention to uncover their roles in cell death of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. In addition, based on the view tha...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 14, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Dong Y, Liu C, Zhao Y, Ponnusamy M, Li P, Wang K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Erratum to: Stress and the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors in the section entitled "NMD in stress responses in plants". PMID: 28905073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 13, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Goetz AE, Wilkinson M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation and control of miRNA-like off-target repression for RNA interference.
Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely adopted to repress specific gene expression and is easily achieved by designing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) with perfect sequence complementarity to the intended target mRNAs. Although siRNAs direct Argonaute (Ago), a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), to recognize and silence target mRNAs, they also inevitably function as microRNAs (miRNAs) and suppress hundreds of off-targets. Such miRNA-like off-target repression is potentially detrimental, resulting in unwanted toxicity and phenotypes. Despite early recognition of the severity of miR...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - September 13, 2017 Category: Cytology Authors: Seok H, Lee H, Jang ES, Chi SW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research