Formation of starch in plant cells.
Abstract Starch-rich crops form the basis of our nutrition, but plants have still to yield all their secrets as to how they make this vital substance. Great progress has been made by studying both crop and model systems, and we approach the point of knowing the enzymatic machinery responsible for creating the massive, insoluble starch granules found in plant tissues. Here, we summarize our current understanding of these biosynthetic enzymes, highlighting recent progress in elucidating their specific functions. Yet, in many ways we have only scratched the surface: much uncertainty remains about how these components...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 11, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Pfister B, Zeeman SC Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Hepatitis B virus inhibits insulin receptor signaling and impairs liver regeneration via intracellular retention of the insulin receptor.
This study aims to investigate the impact of HBV on liver regeneration and hepatic insulin receptor signaling. After carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, liver regeneration is delayed in HBV transgenic mice. These mice show diminished hepatocyte proliferation and increased expression of fibrosis markers. This is in accordance with a reduced activation of the insulin receptor although HBV induces expression of the insulin receptor via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2. This leads to increased intracellular amounts of insulin receptor in HBV expressing hepatocytes. However, intracellular retention of the receptor si...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 7, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Barthel SR, Medvedev R, Heinrich T, Büchner SM, Kettern N, Hildt E Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Quality control of chemically damaged RNA.
Abstract The "central dogma" of molecular biology describes how information contained in DNA is transformed into RNA and finally into proteins. In order for proteins to maintain their functionality in both the parent cell and subsequent generations, it is essential that the information encoded in DNA and RNA remains unaltered. DNA and RNA are constantly exposed to damaging agents, which can modify nucleic acids and change the information they encode. While much is known about how cells respond to damaged DNA, the importance of protecting RNA has only become appreciated over the past decade. Modification ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 7, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Simms CL, Zaher HS Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Structure-function relationships of family GH70 glucansucrase and 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes, and their evolutionary relationships with family GH13 enzymes.
Structure-function relationships of family GH70 glucansucrase and 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes, and their evolutionary relationships with family GH13 enzymes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 May 7; Authors: Meng X, Gangoiti J, Bai Y, Pijning T, Van Leeuwen SS, Dijkhuizen L Abstract Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce large amounts of α-glucan exopolysaccharides. Family GH70 glucansucrase (GS) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of these α-glucans from sucrose. The elucidation of the crystal structures of representative GS enzymes has advanced our understanding of their reaction me...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 7, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Meng X, Gangoiti J, Bai Y, Pijning T, Van Leeuwen SS, Dijkhuizen L Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Modeling head and neck cancer stem cell-mediated tumorigenesis.
JE Abstract A large body of literature has emerged supporting the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the pathogenesis of head and neck cancers. CSCs are a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that share the properties of self-renewal and multipotency with stem cells from normal tissue. Their functional relevance to the pathobiology of cancer arises from the unique properties of tumorigenicity, chemotherapy resistance, and their ability to metastasize and invade distant tissues. Several molecular profiles have been used to discriminate a stem cell from a non-stem cell. CSCs can be grown for study and furth...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 5, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Pearson AT, Jackson TL, Nör JE Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Adherens Junction and E-Cadherin complex regulation by epithelial polarity.
Abstract E-Cadherin-based Adherens Junctions (AJs) are a defining feature of all epithelial sheets. Through the homophilic association of E-Cadherin molecules expressed on neighboring cells, they ensure intercellular adhesion amongst epithelial cells, and regulate many key aspects of epithelial biology. While their adhesive role requires these structures to remain stable, AJs are also extremely plastic. This plasticity allows for the adaptation of the cell to its changing environment: changes in neighbors after cell division, cell death, or cell movement, and changes in cell shape during differentiation. In this r...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 5, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Coopman P, Djiane A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The third dimension: new developments in cell culture models for colorectal research.
Abstract Cellular models are important tools in various research areas related to colorectal biology and associated diseases. Herein, we review the most widely used cell lines and the different techniques to grow them, either as cell monolayer, polarized two-dimensional epithelia on membrane filters, or as three-dimensional spheres in scaffold-free or matrix-supported culture conditions. Moreover, recent developments, such as gut-on-chip devices or the ex vivo growth of biopsy-derived organoids, are also discussed. We provide an overview on the potential applications but also on the limitations for each of these t...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Pereira JF, Awatade NT, Loureiro CA, Matos P, Amaral MD, Jordan P Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Starch phosphorylation: insights and perspectives.
Abstract During starch metabolism, the phosphorylation of glucosyl residues of starch, to be more precise of amylopectin, is a repeatedly observed process. This phosphorylation is mediated by dikinases, the glucan, water dikinase (GWD) and the phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD). The starch-related dikinases utilize ATP as dual phosphate donor transferring the terminal γ-phosphate group to water and the β-phosphate group selectively to either C6 position or C3 position of a glucosyl residue within amylopectin. By the collaborative action of both enzymes, the initiation of a transition of α-glucans...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Mahlow S, Orzechowski S, Fettke J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Unique carbohydrate binding platforms employed by the glucan phosphatases.
Abstract Glucan phosphatases are a family of enzymes that are functionally conserved at the enzymatic level in animals and plants. These enzymes bind and dephosphorylate glycogen in animals and starch in plants. While the enzymatic function is conserved, the glucan phosphatases employ distinct mechanisms to bind and dephosphorylate glycogen or starch. The founding member of the family is a bimodular human protein called laforin that is comprised of a carbohydrate binding module 20 (CBM20) followed by a dual specificity phosphatase domain. Plants contain two glucan phosphatases: Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) and Like Sex F...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Emanuelle S, Brewer MK, Meekins DA, Gentry MS Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The role of post-translational modifications in hearing and deafness.
nge B Abstract Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key molecular events that modify proteins after their synthesis and modulate their ultimate functional properties by affecting their stability, localisation, interaction potential or activity. These chemical changes expand the size of the proteome adding diversity to the molecular pathways governing the biological outcome of cells. PTMs are, thus, crucial in regulating a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation and have been shown to be instrumental during embryonic development. In addition, alterations in protein ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Mateo Sánchez S, Freeman SD, Delacroix L, Malgrange B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cold-inducible proteins CIRP and RBM3, a unique couple with activities far beyond the cold.
n S Abstract Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) and RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) are two evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins that are transcriptionally upregulated in response to low temperature. Featuring an RNA-recognition motif (RRM) and an arginine-glycine-rich (RGG) domain, these proteins display many similarities and specific disparities in the regulation of numerous molecular and cellular events. The resistance to serum withdrawal, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or other harsh conditions conferred by RBM3 has led to its reputation as a survival gene. Once CIRP protein is released ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhu X, Bührer C, Wellmann S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Regulation of actin nucleation and autophagosome formation.
Abstract Autophagy is a process of self-eating, whereby cytosolic constituents are enclosed by a double-membrane vesicle before delivery to the lysosome for degradation. This is an important process which allows for recycling of nutrients and cellular components and thus plays a critical role in normal cellular homeostasis as well as cell survival during stresses such as starvation or hypoxia. A large number of proteins regulate various stages of autophagy in a complex and still incompletely understood series of events. In this review, we will discuss recent studies which provide a growing body of evidence that ac...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Coutts AS, La Thangue NB Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Stable intronic sequence RNAs (sisRNAs): a new layer of gene regulation.
Abstract Upon splicing, introns are rapidly degraded. Hence, RNAs derived from introns are commonly deemed as junk sequences. However, the discoveries of intronic-derived small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), small Cajal body associated RNAs (scaRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) suggested otherwise. These non-coding RNAs are shown to play various roles in gene regulation. In this review, we highlight another class of intron-derived RNAs known as stable intronic sequence RNAs (sisRNAs). sisRNAs have been observed since the 1980 s; however, we are only beginning to understand their biological significance. Recent studies ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 4, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Osman I, Tay ML, Pek JW Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

GFAP isoforms control intermediate filament network dynamics, cell morphology, and focal adhesions.
Abstract Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the characteristic intermediate filament (IF) protein in astrocytes. Expression of its main isoforms, GFAPα and GFAPδ, varies in astrocytes and astrocytoma implying a potential regulatory role in astrocyte physiology and pathology. An IF-network is a dynamic structure and has been functionally linked to cell motility, proliferation, and morphology. There is a constant exchange of IF-proteins with the network. To study differences in the dynamic properties of GFAPα and GFAPδ, we performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 3, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Moeton M, Stassen OM, Sluijs JA, van der Meer VW, Kluivers LJ, van Hoorn H, Schmidt T, Reits EA, van Strien ME, Hol EM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

GH13 amylosucrases and GH70 branching sucrases, atypical enzymes in their respective families.
eon M Abstract Amylosucrases and branching sucrases are α-retaining transglucosylases found in the glycoside-hydrolase families 13 and 70, respectively, of the clan GH-H. These enzymes display unique activities in their respective families. Using sucrose as substrate and without mediation of nucleotide-activated sugars, amylosucrase catalyzes the formation of an α-(1 → 4) linked glucan that resembles amylose. In contrast, the recently discovered branching sucrases are unable to catalyze polymerization of glucosyl units as they are rather specific for dextran branching through α-(1&...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 3, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Moulis C, André I, Remaud-Simeon M Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Distribution of glucan-branching enzymes among prokaryotes.
Abstract Glucan-branching enzyme plays an essential role in the formation of branched polysaccharides, glycogen, and amylopectin. Only one type of branching enzyme, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), is found in eukaryotes, while two types of branching enzymes (GH13 and GH57) occur in prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea). Both of these types are the members of protein families containing the diverse specificities of amylolytic glycoside hydrolases. Although similarities are found in the catalytic mechanism between the two types of branching enzyme, they are highly distinct from each other in terms of...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 3, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Suzuki E, Suzuki R Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations: phenotype, property and therapeutic potential.
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of differentiating into cells of multiple cell lineages and have potent paracrine effects. Due to their easy preparation and low immunogenicity, MSC have emerged as an extremely promising therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine for diverse diseases. However, MSC are heterogeneous with respect to phenotype and function in current isolation and cultivation regimes, which often lead to incomparable experimental results. In addition, there may be specific stem cell subpopulations with definite differentiation capacity toward certain lineages in addition to...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 3, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Mo M, Wang S, Zhou Y, Li H, Wu Y Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Coupling end resection with the checkpoint response at DNA double-strand breaks.
Abstract DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a nasty form of damage that needs to be repaired to ensure genome stability. The DSB ends can undergo a strand-biased nucleolytic processing (resection) to generate 3'-ended single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that channels DSB repair into homologous recombination. Generation of ssDNA also triggers the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, which couples cell cycle progression with DSB repair. The checkpoint response is intimately linked to DSB resection, as some checkpoint proteins regulate the resection process. The present review will highlight recent works on the mechanis...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 3, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Villa M, Cassani C, Gobbini E, Bonetti D, Longhese MP Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Oligodendroglial membrane dynamics in relation to myelin biogenesis.
Abstract In the central nervous system, oligodendrocytes synthesize a specialized membrane, the myelin membrane, which enwraps the axons in a multilamellar fashion to provide fast action potential conduction and to ensure axonal integrity. When compared to other membranes, the composition of myelin membranes is unique with its relatively high lipid to protein ratio. Their biogenesis is quite complex and requires a tight regulation of sequential events, which are deregulated in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. To devise strategies for remedying such defects, it is crucial to understand molecular m...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 3, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Ozgen H, Baron W, Hoekstra D, Kahya N Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The Sus operon: a model system for starch uptake by the human gut Bacteroidetes.
Abstract Resident bacteria in the densely populated human intestinal tract must efficiently compete for carbohydrate nutrition. The Bacteroidetes, a dominant bacterial phylum in the mammalian gut, encode a plethora of discrete polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) that are selectively activated to facilitate glycan capture at the cell surface. The most well-studied PUL-encoded glycan-uptake system is the starch utilization system (Sus) of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The Sus includes the requisite proteins for binding and degrading starch at the surface of the cell preceding oligosaccharide transport across the ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 2, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Foley MH, Cockburn DW, Koropatkin NM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Structure and function of α-glucan debranching enzymes.
Structure and function of α-glucan debranching enzymes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 May 2; Authors: Møller MS, Henriksen A, Svensson B Abstract α-Glucan debranching enzymes hydrolyse α-1,6-linkages in starch/glycogen, thereby, playing a central role in energy metabolism in all living organisms. They belong to glycoside hydrolase families GH13 and GH57 and several of these enzymes are industrially important. Nine GH13 subfamilies include α-glucan debranching enzymes; isoamylase and glycogen debranching enzymes (GH13_11); pullulanase type I/limit dextrinase (GH13_12-14); pullu...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 2, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Møller MS, Henriksen A, Svensson B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

MicroRNA regulation of macrophages in human pathologies.
Abstract Macrophages play a crucial role in the innate immune system and contribute to a broad spectrum of pathologies, like in the defence against infectious agents, in inflammation resolution, and wound repair. In the past several years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in immune diseases by regulating macrophage functions. In this review, we will summarize the role of miRNAs in the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, in the classical and alternative activation of macrophages, and in the regulation of phagocytosis and apoptosis. Notably, miRNAs preferentially target ge...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 2, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Wei Y, Schober A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

SOCS3 revisited: a broad regulator of disease, now ready for therapeutic use?
Abstract Since their discovery, SOCS have been characterised as regulatory cornerstones of intracellular signalling. While classically controlling the JAK/STAT pathway, their inhibitory effects are documented across several cascades, underpinning their essential role in homeostatic maintenance and disease. After 20 years of extensive research, SOCS3 has emerged as arguably the most important family member, through its regulation of both cytokine- and pathogen-induced cascades. In fact, low expression of SOCS3 is associated with autoimmunity and oncogenesis, while high expression is linked to diabetes and path...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 2, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Mahony R, Ahmed S, Diskin C, Stevenson NJ Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Intestinal stem cell response to injury: lessons from Drosophila.
Abstract Many adult tissues and organs are maintained by resident stem cells that are activated in response to injury but the mechanisms that regulate stem cell activity during regeneration are still poorly understood. An emerging system to study such problem is the Drosophila adult midgut. Recent studies have identified both intrinsic factors and extrinsic niche signals that control the proliferation, self-renewal, and lineage differentiation of Drosophila adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs). These findings set up the stage to interrogate how niche signals are regulated and how they are integrated with cell-intrin...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 2, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Jiang H, Tian A, Jiang J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The recognition of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome.
Abstract The ability of ubiquitin to form up to eight different polyubiquitin chain linkages generates complexity within the ubiquitin proteasome system, and accounts for the diverse roles of ubiquitination within the cell. Understanding how each type of ubiquitin linkage is correctly interpreted by ubiquitin binding proteins provides important insights into the link between chain recognition and cellular fate. A major function of ubiquitination is to signal degradation of intracellular proteins by the 26S proteasome. Lysine-48 (K48) linked polyubiquitin chains are well established as the canonical signal for prot...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - May 2, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Grice GL, Nathan JA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

α-Glucosidases and α-1,4-glucan lyases: structures, functions, and physiological actions.
α-Glucosidases and α-1,4-glucan lyases: structures, functions, and physiological actions. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Apr 30; Authors: Okuyama M, Saburi W, Mori H, Kimura A Abstract α-Glucosidases (AGases) and α-1,4-glucan lyases (GLases) catalyze the degradation of α-glucosidic linkages at the non-reducing ends of substrates to release α-glucose and anhydrofructose, respectively. The AGases belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 13 and 31, and the GLases belong to GH31 and share the same structural fold with GH31 AGases. GH13 and GH31 AGases show diverse functions...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 30, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Okuyama M, Saburi W, Mori H, Kimura A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

HSP70 regulates the function of mitotic centrosomes.
In this study, we showed that heat shock protein (HSP) 70 considerably accumulates at the mitotic centrosome during prometaphase to metaphase and is required for bipolar spindle assembly. Inhibition or depletion of HSP70 impaired the function of mitotic centrosome and disrupted MT nucleation and polymerization from the spindle pole, and may thus result in formation of abnormal mitotic spindles. In addition, HSP70 may associate with NEDD1 and γ-tubulin, two pericentriolar material (PCM) components essential for centrosome maturation and MT nucleation. Loss of HSP70 function disrupted the interaction between NEDD1 and ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 30, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Fang CT, Kuo HH, Pan TS, Yu FC, Yih LH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Unique patterns of CD8+ T-cell-mediated organ damage in the Act-mOVA/OT-I model of acute graft-versus-host disease.
Matolcsy A, Buzás EI, Pós Z Abstract T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic models of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) offer a straightforward and highly controlled approach to study the mechanisms and consequences of T-cell activation following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Here, we report that aHSCT involving OT-I mice as donors, carrying an ovalbumin-specific CD8+ TCR, and Act-mOVA mice as recipients, expressing membrane-bound ovalbumin driven by the β-actin promoter, induces lethal aGvHD in a CD8+ T-cell-dependent, highly reproducible manner, within 4-7 da...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 30, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Érsek B, Lupsa N, Pócza P, Tóth A, Horváth A, Molnár V, Bagita B, Bencsik A, Hegyesi H, Matolcsy A, Buzás EI, Pós Z Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Amylolytic glycoside hydrolases.
son B PMID: 27130913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 29, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Janeček Š, Svensson B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The growth determinants and transport properties of tunneling nanotube networks between B lymphocytes.
meth P, Kellermayer M, Nyitrai M, Matko J Abstract Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long intercellular connecting structures providing a special transport route between two neighboring cells. To date TNTs have been reported in different cell types including immune cells such as T-, NK, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Here we report that mature, but not immature, B cells spontaneously form extensive TNT networks under conditions resembling the physiological environment. Live-cell fluorescence, structured illumination, and atomic force microscopic imaging provide new insights into the structure and dynamics of B cell...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 28, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Osteikoetxea-Molnár A, Szabó-Meleg E, Tóth EA, Oszvald Á, Izsépi E, Kremlitzka M, Biri B, Nyitray L, Bozó T, Németh P, Kellermayer M, Nyitrai M, Matko J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Capsid-deficient alphaviruses generate propagative infectious microvesicles at the plasma membrane.
Abstract Alphavirus budding is driven by interactions between nucleocapsids assembled in the cytoplasm and envelope proteins present at the plasma membrane. So far, the expression of capsid and envelope proteins in infected cells has been considered an absolute requirement for alphavirus budding and propagation. In the present study, we show that Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus lacking the capsid gene can propagate in mammalian and insect cells. This propagation is mediated by the release of infectious microvesicles (iMVs), which are pleomorphic and have a larger size and density than wild-type virus. iMVs,...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 27, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Ruiz-Guillen M, Gabev E, Quetglas JI, Casales E, Ballesteros-Briones MC, Poutou J, Aranda A, Martisova E, Bezunartea J, Ondiviela M, Prieto J, Hernandez-Alcoceba R, Abrescia NG, Smerdou C Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The fine-tuning of proteolytic pathways in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Several integrated proteolytic systems contribute to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis through the continuous removal of misfolded, aggregated or oxidized proteins and damaged organelles. Among these systems, the proteasome and autophagy play the major role in protein quality control, which is a fundamental issue in non-proliferative cells such as neurons. Disturbances in the functionality of these two pathways are frequently observed in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, and reflect the accumulation of protease-resistant, deleterious protein aggregates. In this review, we explore...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 27, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Cecarini V, Bonfili L, Cuccioloni M, Mozzicafreddo M, Angeletti M, Keller JN, Eleuteri AM Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Akt1 promotes stimuli-induced endothelial-barrier protection through FoxO-mediated tight-junction protein turnover.
Abstract Vascular permeability regulated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through endothelial-barrier junctions is essential for inflammation. Mechanisms regulating vascular permeability remain elusive. Although 'Akt' and 'Src' have been implicated in the endothelial-barrier regulation, it is puzzling how both agents that protect and disrupt the endothelial-barrier activate these kinases to reciprocally regulate vascular permeability. To delineate the role of Akt1 in endothelial-barrier regulation, we created endothelial-specific, tamoxifen-inducible Akt1 knockout mice and stable ShRNA-mediated Akt...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 25, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Gao F, Artham S, Sabbineni H, Al-Azayzih A, Peng XD, Hay N, Adams RH, Byzova TV, Somanath PR Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

A synopsis of factors regulating beta cell development and beta cell mass.
Abstract The insulin-secreting beta cells in the endocrine pancreas regulate blood glucose levels, and loss of functional beta cells leads to insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and diabetes mellitus. Current treatment strategies for type-1 (autoimmune) diabetes are islet transplantation, which has significant risks and limitations, or normalization of blood glucose with insulin injections, which is clearly not ideal. The type-1 patients can lack insulin counter-regulatory mechanism; therefore, hypoglycemia is a potential risk. Hence, a cell-based therapy offers a better alternative for the trea...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 22, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Prasadan K, Shiota C, Xiangwei X, Ricks D, Fusco J, Gittes G Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton during dendritic spine morphological remodeling.
Abstract In the central nervous system, most excitatory post-synapses are small subcellular structures called dendritic spines. Their structure and morphological remodeling are tightly coupled to changes in synaptic transmission. The F-actin cytoskeleton is the main driving force of dendritic spine remodeling and sustains synaptic plasticity. It is therefore essential to understand how changes in synaptic transmission can regulate the organization and dynamics of actin binding proteins (ABPs). In this review, we will provide a detailed description of the organization and dynamics of F-actin and ABPs in dendritic s...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 22, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Chazeau A, Giannone G Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Erratum to: Dendritic cells as therapeutic targets in neuroinflammation.
PMID: 27105624 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 22, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Luessi F, Zipp F, Witsch E Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Fibronectin maintains the balance between hemostasis and thrombosis.
Abstract Fibronectin is a dimeric protein widely distributed in solid tissues and blood. This major extracellular matrix protein is indispensable for embryogenesis and plays crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Fibronectin pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing to generate over 20 splicing variants, which are categorized as either plasma fibronectin (pFn) or cellular fibronectin (cFn). All fibronectin variants contain integrin binding motifs, as well as N-terminus collagen and fibrin binding motifs. With motifs that can be recognized by platelet integrins and coagulation factors, fibron...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 21, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Wang Y, Ni H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Role of Nrf2/HO-1 system in development, oxidative stress response and diseases: an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.
Abstract The multifunctional regulator nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is considered not only as a cytoprotective factor regulating the expression of genes coding for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and detoxifying proteins, but it is also a powerful modulator of species longevity. The vertebrate Nrf2 belongs to Cap 'n' Collar (Cnc) bZIP family of transcription factors and shares a high homology with SKN-1 from Caenorhabditis elegans or CncC found in Drosophila melanogaster. The major characteristics of Nrf2 are to some extent mimicked by Nrf2-dependent genes and their proteins including heme oxyg...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 21, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Loboda A, Damulewicz M, Pyza E, Jozkowicz A, Dulak J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Genome maintenance in the context of 4D chromatin condensation.
Abstract The eukaryotic genome is packaged in the three-dimensional nuclear space by forming loops, domains, and compartments in a hierarchical manner. However, when duplicated genomes prepare for segregation, mitotic cells eliminate topologically associating domains and abandon the compartmentalized structure. Alongside chromatin architecture reorganization during the transition from interphase to mitosis, cells halt most DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. The intrinsically condensed chromatin serves as a sophisticated signaling module subjected to selective relaxation for programmed genomi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 20, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Yu S, Yang F, Shen WH Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Cellular response to DNA interstrand crosslinks: the Fanconi anemia pathway.
Abstract Interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are a highly toxic form of DNA damage. ICLs can interfere with vital biological processes requiring separation of the two DNA strands, such as replication and transcription. If ICLs are left unrepaired, it can lead to mutations, chromosome breakage and mitotic catastrophe. The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway can repair this type of DNA lesion, ensuring genomic stability. In this review, we will provide an overview of the cellular response to ICLs. First, we will discuss the origin of ICLs, comparing various endogenous and exogenous sources. Second, we will describe FA proteins as...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 19, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Lopez-Martinez D, Liang CC, Cohn MA Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Ebola virus encodes a miR-155 analog to regulate importin-α5 expression.
Ebola virus encodes a miR-155 analog to regulate importin-α5 expression. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Apr 19; Authors: Liu Y, Sun J, Zhang H, Wang M, Gao GF, Li X Abstract The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus caused more than 10,000 human deaths. Current knowledge of suitable drugs, clinical diagnostic biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus infection is either absent or insufficient. By screening stem-loop structures from the viral genomes of four virulence species, we identified a novel, putative viral microRNA precursor that is specifically expressed by the Ebola virus. The sequence of the ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 19, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Liu Y, Sun J, Zhang H, Wang M, Gao GF, Li X Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Nucleoside modifications in the regulation of gene expression: focus on tRNA.
Abstract Both, DNA and RNA nucleoside modifications contribute to the complex multi-level regulation of gene expression. Modified bases in tRNAs modulate protein translation rates in a highly dynamic manner. Synonymous codons, which differ by the third nucleoside in the triplet but code for the same amino acid, may be utilized at different rates according to codon-anticodon affinity. Nucleoside modifications in the tRNA anticodon loop can favor the interaction with selected codons by stabilizing specific base pairs. Similarly, weakening of base pairing can discriminate against binding to near-cognate codons. mRNAs...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 19, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Duechler M, Leszczyńska G, Sochacka E, Nawrot B Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Ion channels in regulated cell death.
Abstract Activation of ion channels and pores are essential steps during regulated cell death. Channels and pores participate in execution of apoptosis, necroptosis and other forms of caspase-independent cell death. Within the program of regulated cell death, these channels are strategically located. Ion channels can shrink cells and drive them towards apoptosis, resulting in silent, i.e. immunologically unrecognized cell death. Alternatively, activation of channels can induce cell swelling, disintegration of the cell membrane, and highly immunogenic necrotic cell death. The underlying cell death pathways are not ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 18, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Kunzelmann K Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Hypoxia-regulated mechanisms in the pathogenesis of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Abstract The pandemic rise in obesity has resulted in an increased incidence of metabolic complications. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and has become the most common chronic liver disease in large parts of the world. The adipose tissue expansion and hepatic fat accumulation characteristics of these disorders compromise local oxygen homeostasis. The resultant tissue hypoxia induces adaptive responses to restore oxygenation and tissue metabolism and cell survival. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) function as master regulators of this hypoxia adaptive respons...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 18, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Lefere S, Van Steenkiste C, Verhelst X, Van Vlierberghe H, Devisscher L, Geerts A Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

HspB5/αB-crystallin increases dendritic complexity and protects the dendritic arbor during heat shock in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
In conclusion, we identified regulation of dendritic complexity as a new function of HspB5 in hippocampal neurons. PMID: 27085702 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS)
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 16, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Bartelt-Kirbach B, Moron M, Glomb M, Beck CM, Weller MP, Golenhofen N Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The final cut: cell polarity meets cytokinesis at the bud neck in S. cerevisiae.
Abstract Cell division is a fundamental but complex process that gives rise to two daughter cells. It includes an ordered set of events, altogether called "the cell cycle", that culminate with cytokinesis, the final stage of mitosis leading to the physical separation of the two daughter cells. Symmetric cell division equally partitions cellular components between the two daughter cells, which are therefore identical to one another and often share the same fate. In many cases, however, cell division is asymmetrical and generates two daughter cells that differ in specific protein inheritance, cell size, or...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 16, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Juanes MA, Piatti S Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Role of tau in the spatial organization of axonal microtubules: keeping parallel microtubules evenly distributed despite macromolecular crowding.
, Pastré D Abstract Opposing views have been proposed regarding the role of tau, the principal microtubule-associated protein in axons. On the one hand, tau forms cross-bridges at the interface between microtubules and induces microtubule bundling in neurons. On the other hand, tau is also considered a polymer brush which efficiently separates microtubules. In mature axons, microtubules are indeed arranged in parallel arrays and are well separated from each other. To reconcile these views, we developed a mechanistic model based on in vitro and cellular approaches combined to analytical and numerical an...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 13, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Méphon-Gaspard A, Boca M, Pioche-Durieu C, Desforges B, Burgo A, Hamon L, Piétrement O, Pastré D Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Biomarkers for the detection of necroptosis.
Abstract Necroptosis has been extensively studied recently, and the receptor-interacting kinase 3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) and its substrate, the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein, have been discovered to be core components of this process. Classical necroptosis requires RIP1 (or RIPK1) for the activation of RIP3 through the induction of RIP1/RIP3 necrosomes. Increasing evidence from genetic and pharmacological studies has been expanding the view that necroptosis plays important roles in the etiology and/or progression of many human diseases, such as pancreatitis, ischemic injury, and neurodegenerative ...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 11, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: He S, Huang S, Shen Z Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

Poly-ubiquitination in TNFR1-mediated necroptosis.
Abstract Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a master pro-inflammatory cytokine, and inappropriate TNF signaling is implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases. Ligation of TNF to its receptor TNFR1 induces the transient formation of a primary membrane-bound signaling complex, known as complex I, that drives expression of pro-survival genes. Defective complex I activation results in induction of cell death, in the form of apoptosis or necroptosis. This switch occurs via internalization of complex I components and assembly and activation of secondary cytoplasmic death complexes, respectively known as compl...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 11, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Dondelinger Y, Darding M, Bertrand MJ, Walczak H Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

The intersection of cell death and inflammasome activation.
Abstract Inflammasomes sense cellular danger to activate the cysteine-aspartic protease caspase-1, which processes precursor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 into their mature bioactive fragments. In addition, activated caspase-1 or the related inflammatory caspase, caspase-11, can cleave gasdermin D to induce a lytic cell death, termed pyroptosis. The intertwining of IL-1β activation and cell death is further highlighted by research showing that the extrinsic apoptotic caspase, caspase-8, may, like caspase-1, directly process IL-1β, activate the NLRP3 inflammasome itself, or bind to inflammaso...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - April 11, 2016 Category: Cytology Authors: Vince JE, Silke J Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research