On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease
In the emerging landscape of cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials evaluating the effects of blood glucose lowering drugs in individuals with type 2 diabetes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that since the promising signals coming from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) no unequivocal benefits have been established for any single therapy thus far. There is an unmet need for introducing an effective pharmacological agent which could target both correlates of glycaemic regulation and CV risk factors, to ameliorate the enormous burden of fatal and non-fatal CV events in diabetic patients. Acarbose, like o...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 16, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eberhard StandlMichael TheodorakisMichael ErbachOliver SchnellJaakko Tuomilehto Source Type: research

Streptozotocin-induced diabetes prolongs twitch duration without affecting the energetics of isolated ventricular trabeculae
Conclusions: Diabetes prolongs twitch duration without having an effect on work output or heat production, and hence efficiency, of isolated ventricular trabeculae. Collectively, our results, arising from isolated trabeculae, reconcile the discrepancy between the mechanical performance of the whole heart and its tissues. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: June-Chiew HanKenneth TranPoul NielsenAndrew TabernerDenis Loiselle Source Type: research

Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle
Conclusions: GKA RO-28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells indicating the absence of GK in those cells. No direct deleterious actions, in terms of atherogenic changes or excessive vasoactive effects were seen on cells or vessels of the cardiovascular system in response to GKAs. If reflected in vivo, these drugs are unlikely to have their use compromised by direct cardiovascular toxicity. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sefaa Al-aryahiDanielle KamatoRobel GetachewWenhua ZhengSimon PotocnikNeale CohenDaniel GuidoneNarin OsmanPeter Little Source Type: research

Advanced glycation endproducts trigger autophagy in cadiomyocyte Via RAGE/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that AGEs induces cardiomyocyte autophagy by, at least in part, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway via RAGE. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xuwei HouZhaohui HuHanying XuJian XuShunrong ZhangYigang ZhongXiuying HeNingfu Wang Source Type: research

Analysis of common and coding variants with cardiovascular disease in the diabetes heart study
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Identification of genetic risk factors for CVD is important to understand disease risk. Two recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium detected CVD-associated loci. Methods: Variants identified in CHARGE were tested for association with CVD phenotypes, including vascular calcification, and conventional CVD risk factors, in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) (n = 1208;>80% T2DM affected). This included 36 genotyped or imputed si...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jeremy AdamsLaura RaffieldBarry FreedmanCarl LangefeldMaggie NgJ CarrAmanda CoxDonald Bowden Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis of circulating adipokines and HsCRP association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Arabs
In this study, for the first time, the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and circulating level of adipokines in Arab ethnicity was investigated. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey on 379 adult Arab participants living in Kuwait. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Plasma levels of circulating Leptin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and adipsin were assessed using the multiplexing immunobead-based...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 9, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohamed Abu-FarhaKazem BehbehaniNaser Elkum Source Type: research

Progressive decay of Ca2+ homeostasis in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy
Conclusions: Ca2+ sparks exhibited a time-dependent decay with progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, which may partly contribute to cardiac dysfunction. This abnormality may be attributable to alterations in the expressions of some Ca2+-associated proteins. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 9, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shu-Mei ZhaoYong-Liang WangChun-Yan GuoJin-Ling ChenYong-Quan Wu Source Type: research

Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jianxin DouHuating LiXiaojing MaMingliang ZhangQichen FangMeiyun NieYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelial-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jianxin DouHuating LiXiaojing MaMingliang ZhangQichen FangMeiyun NieYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Impaired relaxation despite upregulated calcium-handling protein atrial myocardium from type 2 diabetic patients with preserved ejection fraction
In patients with coronary disease and preserved ejection fraction, T2DM results in impaired relaxation and increased fibrosis of the right atrium, with preserved myocardial contractile function. The novel finding of increased expression of SERCA2a:phospholamban ratio suggests a compensatory mechanism to enhance relaxation and maintain diastolic function of the fibrotic atrial myocardium. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Regis LambertsShivanjali LingamHeng-Yu WangIlse BollenGillian HughesIvor GalvinRichard BuntonAndrew BahnRajesh KatareJ BaldiMichael WilliamsPankaj SaxenaSean CoffeyPeter Jones Source Type: research

Acute insulin resistance in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients is associated with incomplete myocardial reperfusion and impaired coronary microcirculatory function
In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods: In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and f...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Danijela TrifunovicSanja StankovicDragana Sobic-SaranovicJelena MarinkovicMarija PetrovicDejan OrlicBranko BeleslinMarko BanovicBosiljka Vujisic-TesicMilan PetrovicIvana NedeljkovicJelena StepanovicAna Djordjevic-DikicMilorad TesicNina DjukanovicOlga Petr Source Type: research

Impaired relaxation despite upregulated calcium-handling pro in atrial myocardium from type 2 diabetic patients with preserved ejection fraction
In patients with coronary disease and preserved ejection fraction, T2DM results in impaired relaxation and increased fibrosis of the right atrium, with preserved myocardial contractile function. The novel finding of increased expression of SERCA2a:phospholamban ratio suggests a compensatory mechanism to enhance relaxation and maintain diastolic function of the fibrotic atrial myocardium. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Regis LambertsShivanjali LingamHeng-Yu WangIlse BollenGillian HughesIvor GalvinRichard BuntonAndrew BahnRajesh KatareJ BaldiMichael WilliamsPankaj SaxenaSean CoffeyPeter Jones Source Type: research

Bezafibrate improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and associated endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study
Background: Postprandial elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impairs endothelial function, which can initiate atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bezafibrate on postprandial endothelial dysfunction and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Ten patients with metabolic syndrome were treated with 400 mg/day bezafibrate or untreated for 4 weeks in a randomized crossover study. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and lipid profiles were assessed during fasting and after consumption of a standardized snack. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol contents of lipoprotein fractions we...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuko OhnoToru MiyoshiYoko NodaHiroki OeNorihisa TohKazufumi NakamuraKunihisa KohnoHiroshi MoritaHiroshi Ito Source Type: research

Subclinical vascular inflammation in subjects with normal weight obesity and its association with body Fat: an 18 F-FDG-PET/CT study
Normal weight obesity subjects (NWO), having increased body fat percent compared to normal weight lean subjects, show a higher degree of subclinical vascular inflammation using the 18F-FDG-PET/CT technique. NWO subjects, formerly classified as non-obese with the conventional BMI criteria, may represent a unique subset of patients with a higher risk for future cardiovascular events. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shinae KangChanhee KyungJong ParkSohee KimSeung-Pyo LeeMin KimHye KimKyung KimTae JeonChul Ahn Source Type: research

Exenatide induces aortic vasodilation increasing hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide production
Conclusions: Exenatide induces vasodilation in rat thoracic aorta with the contribution of all three gasotransmitters. We provide in vitro evidence for the potential ability of exenatide to lower central (aortic) blood pressure, which could have relevant clinical importance. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eszter SélleySzilárd KunIstván SzijártóBoglárka LaczyTibor KovácsFerenc FülöpIstván WittmannGerg¿ Molnár Source Type: research

Cardiovascular guidelines: separate career may help attenuate controversy
The release of recent guidelines for high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes in the U.S. has been accompanied by great noise and concerns, both in the academic circuits and the lay press. For persons aged 40 to75 years, with LDL cholesterol levels between 70-189 mg/dL and 7.5% or higher estimated 10-year risk, the peril of a global "statinization" has been advocated, predicting a 70% increase of statin use in this otherwise healthy people. A minority of the Eight Joint National Committee panel disagreed with the recommendation to increase the target systolic blood pressure from 140 to 150 mmHg in persons aged...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katherine EspositoAntonio CerielloStefano GenoveseDario Giugliano Source Type: research

Contribution of subcutaneous abdominal fat on ultrasonography to carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: Whereas visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with cardiometabolic risk, there is debate regarding the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 234 patients (men 131, women 103, mean age: 53 years) with T2DM were enrolled. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) were assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonogr...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chan-Hee JungBo-Yeon KimKyu-Jin KimSang-Hee JungChul-Hee KimSung-Koo KangJi-Oh Mok Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study
We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once dai...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kohei KakuHirotaka WatadaYasuhiko IwamotoKazunori UtsunomiyaYasuo TerauchiKazuyuki TobeYukio TanizawaEiichi ArakiMasamichi UedaHideki SuganamiDaisuke Watanabe Source Type: research

Gender disparity in LDL-induced cardiovascular damage and the protective role of estrogens against electronegative LDL
DNA damage and endothelial senescence observed in male db/db mice maybe partly attributed to the presence of more electronegative LDL. Furthermore, estrogens provide hormonal protection against the harmful effects of electronegative LDL, and gender disparities in LDL electronegativity may impact the development of coronary disease. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: An-Sheng LeeWei-Yu ChenHua-Chen ChanJing-Fang HsuMing-Yi ShenChia-Ming ChangHenry BairMing-Jai SuKuan-Cheng ChangChu-Huang Chen Source Type: research

Predictive value of high-sensitivity troponin-I for future adverse cardiovascular outcome in stable patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that elevated hs-TnI in patients with T2DM is associated with increased MACE, HF, MI and cardiovascular mortality. Importantly, a normal hs-TnI level has an excellent negative predictive value for future adverse cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kai-Hang YiuKui-Kai LauChun-Ting ZhaoYap-Hang ChanYan ChenZhe ZhenArthur WongChu-Pak LauHung-Fat Tse Source Type: research

Myocardial blood flow under general anaesthesia with sevoflurane in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot study
Conclusion: These pilot data in type 2 diabetic patients show that sevoflurane anaesthesia decreases resting myocardial blood flow compared to healthy controls. Further, we observed a trend towards a lower endothelium-independent vasodilation capacity in diabetic patients under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not affected by sevoflurane in diabetic patients. These data provide preliminary insight into myocardial responses in type 2 diabetic patients under general anaesthesia.Trial registration: www.clinialtrials.gov, NCT00866801 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 23, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carolien BulteCharissa van den BromStephan LoerChrista BoerR Bouwman Source Type: research

Differential association of visceral adipose tissue with coronary plaque characteristics in patients with and without diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: The VAT area is associated with the characteristics of coronary plaques on CTA in patients without DM, but not in patients with DM. VAT may be a significant cardiometabolic risk factor that is associated with plaque vulnerability before the development of DM. CTA findings may help to improve risk stratification in such patients. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kazuhiro OsawaToru MiyoshiYasushi KoyamaShuhei SatoNoriaki AkagiYusuke MorimitsuMotoki KuboHiroki SugiyamaKazufumi NakamuraHiroshi MoritaSusumu KanazawaHiroshi Ito Source Type: research

Advanced glycation end products potentiate citrated plasma-evoked oxidative and inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells by up-regulating protease-activated receptor-1 expression
In this study, we investigated the effects of rivaroxaban, an inhibitor of factor Xa on 3% citrated human plasma-evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and RAGE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene expression in AGE-exposed ECs. We further examined whether FR171113, an inhibitor of PAR-1 blocked the plasma-induced EC damage and if AGEs increased PAR-1 expression in ECs. Human citrated plasma stimulated ROS generation and RAGE, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression in ECs, all of which were potentiated by the treatment with AGEs. Rivaroxaban or FR171113 significantly...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 13, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuji IshibashiTakanori MatsuiSeiji UedaKei FukamiSho-ichi Yamagishi Source Type: research

Distribution of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes according to different classification systems for chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study
Conclusions: Though the new systems perform better than the NKF's KDOQI in grading complications and identifying diabetic subjects without complications, they might underestimate CVD burden in patients assigned to lower risk categories and should be tested in large prospective studies.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00715481 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 13, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe PuglieseAnna SoliniEnzo BonoraEmanuela OrsiGianpaolo ZerbiniCecilia FondelliGabriella GrudenFranco CavalotOlga LamacchiaRoberto TrevisanMonica VedovatoGiuseppe Penno Source Type: research

Differential impact of subclinical carotid artery disease on cerebral structure and functioning in type 1 diabetes patients with versus those without proliferative retinopathy
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with cerebral compromise, typically found in patients with microangiopathy. Associations between subclinical macroangiopathy and the brain, whether or not in the presence of microangiopathy, have not been fully explored in T1DM. We hypothesized that subclinical macroangiopathy in adult T1DM may affect the brain and interacts with microangiopathy. Methods: In 51 asymptomatic T1DM patients with, 53 without proliferative retinopathy and 51 controls, right common carotid artery ultrasound was used to assess intima media thickness (cIMT) and distensibility (cD). Neuropsy...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eelco van DuinkerkenRichard IJzermanNynke van der ZijlFrederik BarkhofPetra PouwelsMenno SchoonheimAnnette MollJeannette BoeropAlette WesselsMartin KleinFrank SnoekMichaela Diamant Source Type: research

Altered glucose metabolism rather than naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to vitamin D status in severe obesity
Context: The last decades have provided insights into vitamin D physiology linked to glucose homeostasis. Uncertainties remain in obesity due to its intrinsic effects on vitamin D and glucose tolerance.Objectives: To assess the relationship between vitamin D and glucose abnormalities in severely obese individuals previously unknown to suffer from abnormal glucose metabolism.Setting: Tertiary care centre.Patients: 524 obese patients (50.3 +/- 14.9 yrs; BMI, 47.7 +/- 7.3 kg/m2) screened by OGTT, HbA1c and the lipid profile. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25(OH)D3, PTH and electrolyte levels. 25(OH)D3 deficiency/insufficien...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mattia BellanGabriele GuzzaloniMaura RinaldiElena MerlottiCarlotta FerrariAntonella TagliaferriMario PirisiGianluca AimarettiMassimo ScacchiPaolo Marzullo Source Type: research

Novel unbiased equations to calculate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol from routine non-fasting lipids
Conclusions: TRL-C and log[TG] are as effective and interchangeable for assessing remnant atherogenic particles. For grading TRL-AD, it is best to use log[TG]/HDL-C, inherently superior to TRL-C/apoA-I, while measuring the same underlying variable. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michel HermansSylvie AhnMichel Rousseau Source Type: research

Body adiposity dictates different mechanisms of increased coronary reactivity related to improved in vivo cardiac function
Conclusions: Nascent obesity-induced improvement of cardiac function may be supported by an enhanced coronary reserve occurring via different mechanisms. These mechanisms implicate either the endothelial cells activity or the smooth muscle cells sensitivity depending on the body adiposity of the animals. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Evangelia MourmouraValérie ChatéKarine CouturierBrigitte LailletGuillaume VialJean-Paul RigaudiereBéatrice MorioCorinne Malpuech-BrugèreKasra AzarnoushLuc Demaison Source Type: research

High glucose induces human endothelial dysfunction through an Axl-dependent mechanism
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HG can alter Gas6/Axl signaling and may through Akt and VEGF/VEGFR2 downstream molecules and suggests that Gas6/Axl may involve in HG-induced EC dysfunction. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chien-Hsing LeeYi-Shing ShiehFone-Ching HsiaoFeng-Chih KuoChih-Yuan LinChang-Hsun HsiehYi-Jen Hung Source Type: research

The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1¿ and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1α with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 ± 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores wer...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gang LiWei-hua LuRong AiJian-hong YangFang ChenZhong-zhi Tang Source Type: research

The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1alpha with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 +/- 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores were assessed by a 320-slice CT sca...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gang LiWei-hua LuRong AiJian-hong YangFang ChenZhong-zhi Tang Source Type: research

Reduced circulating sTWEAK levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk
Background: The circulating soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is a cytokine that modulates inflammatory and atherogenic reactions related to cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the association between sTWEAK levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in older subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 452 non-diabetic individuals (men and women aged 55-80 years) at high cardiovascular risk. MetS was defined by AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for MetS and its components by tertiles of serum sTWEA...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andrés Díaz-LópezMònica BullóMatilde ChacónRamón EstruchJoan VendrellJavier Díez-EspinoMontserrat FitóDolores CorellaJordi Salas-Salvadó Source Type: research

Liraglutide decreases carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes: 8-month prospective pilot study
Background: Liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, has several non- glycemic properties, but its effect on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a recognized marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is still unknown. Methods: A prospective study of 8 months duration in 64 patients with type-2 diabetes and no prior history of coronary artery disease evaluated whether adding liraglutide to metformin affects carotid IMT, measured by color doppler ultrasound. Results: After 8 months, fasting glucose decreased by 2.1 mmol/l and HbA1c by 1.9% (p
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Manfredi RizzoManisha ChandaliaAngelo PattiVittoria Di BartoloAli RizviGiuseppe MontaltoNicola Abate Source Type: research

Impaired dopamine D1 receptor-mediated vasorelaxation of mesenteric arteries in obese Zucker rats
Conclusions: Both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia caused D1 receptor dysfunction by decreasing arterial D1 receptor expression and increasing D1 receptor phosphorylation. Impaired D1 receptor-mediated vasorelaxation is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jinjuan FuYu HanHongyong WangZhen WangYukai LiuXingjian ChenYue CaiWeiwei GuanDi YangLaureano AsicoLin ZhouPedro JoseChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

Vitamin D and 1-hour post-load plasma glucose in hypertensive patients
Background: A plasma glucose value>=155 mg/dl for 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes and with subclinical organ damage. We designed this study to address if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] circulating levels are associated with glucose tolerance status, and in particular with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels. Methods: We enrolled 300 consecutive Caucasian hypertensive never-treated outpatients (160 men and 140 women, aged 52.9 +/- 9.2 years) Subjects underwent OGTT and measureme...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 20, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Angela SciacquaMaria PerticoneNadia GrilloTania FalboGiuseppe BencardinoElvira AngottiFranco ArturiGiuseppe ParlatoGiorgio SestiFrancesco Perticone Source Type: research

N-Acetylcysteine prevents congenital heart defects induced by pregestational diabetes
Conclusions: Treatment with NAC increases GSH levels, decreases ROS levels in the fetal heart and prevents the development of CHDs in the offspring of pregestational diabetes. Our study suggests that NAC may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of CHDs induced by pregestational diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hoda MoazzenXiangru LuNoelle MaThomas VelenosiBrad UrquhartLambertus WisseAdriana GrootQingping Feng Source Type: research

Thresholds of various glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetes based on prevalence of retinopathy in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the FPG and HbA1c thresholds for diagnosing diabetes in the Japanese population are lower than the current diagnostic criterion, while the 2-hour PG threshold is comparable with the diagnostic criterion. 2-hour PG had the highest discriminative ability, whereas FPG, HbA1c, GA, and 1,5-AG were similar in their ability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naoko MukaiMiho YasudaToshiharu NinomiyaJun HataYoichiro HirakawaFumie IkedaMasayo FukuharaTaeko HottaMasafumi KogaUdai NakamuraDongchon KangTakanari KitazonoYutaka Kiyohara Source Type: research

Cardiovascular microRNAs: as modulators and diagnostic biomarkers of diabetic heart disease
Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the people with diabetes, with approximately 80% of the deaths in diabetics are due to cardiovascular complications. Importantly, heart disease in the diabetics develop at a much earlier stage, although remaining asymptomatic till the later stage of the disease, thereby restricting its early detection and active therapeutic management. Thus, a better understanding of the modulators involved in the pathophysiology of DHD is necessary for the early diagnosis and development of novel therapeutic implications for diabetes-associated cardiovascul...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shruti RawalPatrick ManningRajesh Katare Source Type: research

Differential gene expression in Lin-/VEGF-R2+ bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells isolated from diabetic mice
Conclusion: Low SDF-1 expression may contribute to the dysfunctional mobilization of bone marrow Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells, which may contribute to microvascular injury in early diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daniel BarthelmesLing ZhuWeiyong ShenMark GilliesMohammad Irhimeh Source Type: research

Vaspin inhibits cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in vascular endothelial cells
Conclusions: Vaspin might attenuate the cytokine-induced expression of adhesion molecule genes by inhibiting NF-kappaB following AMPK activation. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chang Hee JungMin Jung LeeYu Mi KangYoo La LeeHae Kyeong YoonSang-Wook KangWoo Je LeeJoong-Yeol Park Source Type: research

Correction: CYP2J3 gene delivery reduces insulin resistance via upregulation of eNOS in fructose-treated rats
No description available (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xizhen XuLing TuLuyun WangXiaosai FangDao Wen Wang Source Type: research

Opposite effects of angiotensins receptors type 2 and type 4 on streptozotocin induced diabetes vascular alterations in mice
Conclusions: The results suggest an opposite contribution of AT2 and AT4 receptors to the vascular alterations caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, since chronic stimulation of AT4 by AngIV and inhibition of AT2 similarly reverse diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling, and increase NO bioavailability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohamad NasserNicolas ClereLaurent BotelleJames JavellaudNicole OudartSébastien FaureJean-Michel Achard Source Type: research

Kir6.2-containing ATP-sensitive K+ channel is required for cardioprotection of resveratrol in mice
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that resveratrol exerts cardioprotective effects through AMPK -Kir6.2/K-ATP signal pathway and Kir6.2-containing K-ATP channel is required for cardioprotection of resveratrol. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ren-Hong DuTing DaiWen-Jing CaoMing LuJian-hua DingGang Hu Source Type: research

Changes in liraglutide-induced body composition are related to modifications in plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients
Conclusions: There were significant correlations between increases in both plasma ANP and BNP levels and changes in liraglutide-induced body composition. Our data implied that increases in plasma NPs may add a novel dimension to explain how liraglutide induces weight loss. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chun-Jun LiQian YuPei YuTie-Lian YuQiu-Mei ZhangShan LuDe-Min Yu Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle markers in relation to obesity and metabolic complications in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease
Conclusions: In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, EV-cystatin C levels were positively related, and EV-CD14 levels were negatively related to metabolic complications of obesity. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mariëtte KranendonkDominique de KleijnEric KalkhovenDanny KanhaiCuno UiterwaalYolanda van der GraafGerard PasterkampFrank Visseren Source Type: research

Assessment of the cardiovascular safety of saxagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: pooled analysis of 20 clinical trials
Conclusions: Analysis of pooled data from 20 clinical trials in patients with T2DM suggests that saxagliptin is not associated with an increased CV risk. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nayyar IqbalArtist ParkerRobert FrederichMark DonovanBoaz Hirshberg Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetic patients: effect of glycemic control and impact of ldl subfraction phenotype
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with higher cardiovascular risk partly related to an increase in inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the association of inflammatory biomarkers with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype and glycemic control in subjects with T2D and poor glycemic control. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed comparing 122 subjects with T2D (59 +/- 11 years old, body mass index 30.2 +/- 5.6 kg/m2) with 54 control subjects. Patients with T2D were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype and inflammatory biomarkers (C-re...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Irene VinagreJosé Luis Sánchez-QuesadaJuan Sánchez-HernándezDavid SantosJordi Ordoñez-LlanosAlberto De LeivaAntonio Pérez Source Type: research

The DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin attenuates the progress of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice via AMPK- and MAPK-dependent mechanisms
Background: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, a new anti-diabetic medicine, is effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing the activation and duration of action of glucagon-like peptide-1. Since atherosclerosis is the main pathological feature of diabetic cardiovascular complications, it is important to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of sitagliptin and explore the relevant mechanisms. Methods: Male apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed either high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus sitagliptin at a concentration of 0.3% for 16 weeks. Body weight, ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yanmei ZengChenzhong LiMeiping GuanZongji ZhengJingjing LiWenwei XuLing WangFeiying HeYaoming Xue Source Type: research

Microvascular dysfunction in the course of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). One important feature underlying the pathophysiology of many types of CVD is microvascular dysfunction. Although components of MetS are themselves CVD risk factors, the risk is increased when the syndrome is considered as one entity. We aimed to characterize microvascular function and some of its influencing factors in the course of MetS development. Methods: Development of MetS in C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet (HFD, 51% of energy from fat) was studied. The initial phase of MetS (I-MetS) was defined as the first 2 wee...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cristiane AoquiStefan ChmielewskiElias SchererRuth EißlerDaniel SollingerIrina HeidRickmer BrarenChristoph SchmadererRemco MegensChristian WeberUwe HeemannMatthias TschöpMarcus Baumann Source Type: research

Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, restores endothelial function by reducing vascular inflammation and by increasing the phosphorylation ratio Ser1177/Thr497 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in diabetic mice
Conclusions: These results provide evidence that azilsartan prevents endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice, more potently than does candesartan cilexetil. Azilsartan's higher affinity for and slower dissociation from AT1 receptors may underlie its efficacy in diabetic vascular dysfunction via a dual effect on uncoupled eNOS and on Nox. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 31, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sachiko MatsumotoMichio ShimabukuroDaiju FukudaTakeshi SoekiKen YamakawaHiroaki MasuzakiMasataka Sata Source Type: research