Novel unbiased equations to calculate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol from routine non-fasting lipids
Conclusions: TRL-C and log[TG] are as effective and interchangeable for assessing remnant atherogenic particles. For grading TRL-AD, it is best to use log[TG]/HDL-C, inherently superior to TRL-C/apoA-I, while measuring the same underlying variable. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michel HermansSylvie AhnMichel Rousseau Source Type: research

Body adiposity dictates different mechanisms of increased coronary reactivity related to improved in vivo cardiac function
Conclusions: Nascent obesity-induced improvement of cardiac function may be supported by an enhanced coronary reserve occurring via different mechanisms. These mechanisms implicate either the endothelial cells activity or the smooth muscle cells sensitivity depending on the body adiposity of the animals. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Evangelia MourmouraValérie ChatéKarine CouturierBrigitte LailletGuillaume VialJean-Paul RigaudiereBéatrice MorioCorinne Malpuech-BrugèreKasra AzarnoushLuc Demaison Source Type: research

High glucose induces human endothelial dysfunction through an Axl-dependent mechanism
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HG can alter Gas6/Axl signaling and may through Akt and VEGF/VEGFR2 downstream molecules and suggests that Gas6/Axl may involve in HG-induced EC dysfunction. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chien-Hsing LeeYi-Shing ShiehFone-Ching HsiaoFeng-Chih KuoChih-Yuan LinChang-Hsun HsiehYi-Jen Hung Source Type: research

The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1¿ and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1α with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 ± 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores wer...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gang LiWei-hua LuRong AiJian-hong YangFang ChenZhong-zhi Tang Source Type: research

The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1alpha with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 +/- 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores were assessed by a 320-slice CT sca...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gang LiWei-hua LuRong AiJian-hong YangFang ChenZhong-zhi Tang Source Type: research

Reduced circulating sTWEAK levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk
Background: The circulating soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is a cytokine that modulates inflammatory and atherogenic reactions related to cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the association between sTWEAK levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in older subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 452 non-diabetic individuals (men and women aged 55-80 years) at high cardiovascular risk. MetS was defined by AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for MetS and its components by tertiles of serum sTWEA...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andrés Díaz-LópezMònica BullóMatilde ChacónRamón EstruchJoan VendrellJavier Díez-EspinoMontserrat FitóDolores CorellaJordi Salas-Salvadó Source Type: research

Liraglutide decreases carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes: 8-month prospective pilot study
Background: Liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, has several non- glycemic properties, but its effect on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a recognized marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is still unknown. Methods: A prospective study of 8 months duration in 64 patients with type-2 diabetes and no prior history of coronary artery disease evaluated whether adding liraglutide to metformin affects carotid IMT, measured by color doppler ultrasound. Results: After 8 months, fasting glucose decreased by 2.1 mmol/l and HbA1c by 1.9% (p
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Manfredi RizzoManisha ChandaliaAngelo PattiVittoria Di BartoloAli RizviGiuseppe MontaltoNicola Abate Source Type: research

Impaired dopamine D1 receptor-mediated vasorelaxation of mesenteric arteries in obese Zucker rats
Conclusions: Both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia caused D1 receptor dysfunction by decreasing arterial D1 receptor expression and increasing D1 receptor phosphorylation. Impaired D1 receptor-mediated vasorelaxation is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jinjuan FuYu HanHongyong WangZhen WangYukai LiuXingjian ChenYue CaiWeiwei GuanDi YangLaureano AsicoLin ZhouPedro JoseChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

Vitamin D and 1-hour post-load plasma glucose in hypertensive patients
Background: A plasma glucose value>=155 mg/dl for 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes and with subclinical organ damage. We designed this study to address if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] circulating levels are associated with glucose tolerance status, and in particular with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels. Methods: We enrolled 300 consecutive Caucasian hypertensive never-treated outpatients (160 men and 140 women, aged 52.9 +/- 9.2 years) Subjects underwent OGTT and measureme...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 20, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Angela SciacquaMaria PerticoneNadia GrilloTania FalboGiuseppe BencardinoElvira AngottiFranco ArturiGiuseppe ParlatoGiorgio SestiFrancesco Perticone Source Type: research

N-Acetylcysteine prevents congenital heart defects induced by pregestational diabetes
Conclusions: Treatment with NAC increases GSH levels, decreases ROS levels in the fetal heart and prevents the development of CHDs in the offspring of pregestational diabetes. Our study suggests that NAC may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of CHDs induced by pregestational diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hoda MoazzenXiangru LuNoelle MaThomas VelenosiBrad UrquhartLambertus WisseAdriana GrootQingping Feng Source Type: research

Thresholds of various glycemic measures for diagnosing diabetes based on prevalence of retinopathy in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the FPG and HbA1c thresholds for diagnosing diabetes in the Japanese population are lower than the current diagnostic criterion, while the 2-hour PG threshold is comparable with the diagnostic criterion. 2-hour PG had the highest discriminative ability, whereas FPG, HbA1c, GA, and 1,5-AG were similar in their ability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naoko MukaiMiho YasudaToshiharu NinomiyaJun HataYoichiro HirakawaFumie IkedaMasayo FukuharaTaeko HottaMasafumi KogaUdai NakamuraDongchon KangTakanari KitazonoYutaka Kiyohara Source Type: research

Cardiovascular microRNAs: as modulators and diagnostic biomarkers of diabetic heart disease
Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the people with diabetes, with approximately 80% of the deaths in diabetics are due to cardiovascular complications. Importantly, heart disease in the diabetics develop at a much earlier stage, although remaining asymptomatic till the later stage of the disease, thereby restricting its early detection and active therapeutic management. Thus, a better understanding of the modulators involved in the pathophysiology of DHD is necessary for the early diagnosis and development of novel therapeutic implications for diabetes-associated cardiovascul...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shruti RawalPatrick ManningRajesh Katare Source Type: research

Differential gene expression in Lin-/VEGF-R2+ bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells isolated from diabetic mice
Conclusion: Low SDF-1 expression may contribute to the dysfunctional mobilization of bone marrow Lin-/VEGF-R2+ endothelial progenitor cells, which may contribute to microvascular injury in early diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daniel BarthelmesLing ZhuWeiyong ShenMark GilliesMohammad Irhimeh Source Type: research

Vaspin inhibits cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in vascular endothelial cells
Conclusions: Vaspin might attenuate the cytokine-induced expression of adhesion molecule genes by inhibiting NF-kappaB following AMPK activation. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chang Hee JungMin Jung LeeYu Mi KangYoo La LeeHae Kyeong YoonSang-Wook KangWoo Je LeeJoong-Yeol Park Source Type: research

Correction: CYP2J3 gene delivery reduces insulin resistance via upregulation of eNOS in fructose-treated rats
No description available (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xizhen XuLing TuLuyun WangXiaosai FangDao Wen Wang Source Type: research

Opposite effects of angiotensins receptors type 2 and type 4 on streptozotocin induced diabetes vascular alterations in mice
Conclusions: The results suggest an opposite contribution of AT2 and AT4 receptors to the vascular alterations caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice, since chronic stimulation of AT4 by AngIV and inhibition of AT2 similarly reverse diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling, and increase NO bioavailability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohamad NasserNicolas ClereLaurent BotelleJames JavellaudNicole OudartSébastien FaureJean-Michel Achard Source Type: research

Kir6.2-containing ATP-sensitive K+ channel is required for cardioprotection of resveratrol in mice
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that resveratrol exerts cardioprotective effects through AMPK -Kir6.2/K-ATP signal pathway and Kir6.2-containing K-ATP channel is required for cardioprotection of resveratrol. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ren-Hong DuTing DaiWen-Jing CaoMing LuJian-hua DingGang Hu Source Type: research

Changes in liraglutide-induced body composition are related to modifications in plasma cardiac natriuretic peptides levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients
Conclusions: There were significant correlations between increases in both plasma ANP and BNP levels and changes in liraglutide-induced body composition. Our data implied that increases in plasma NPs may add a novel dimension to explain how liraglutide induces weight loss. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chun-Jun LiQian YuPei YuTie-Lian YuQiu-Mei ZhangShan LuDe-Min Yu Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicle markers in relation to obesity and metabolic complications in patients with manifest cardiovascular disease
Conclusions: In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, EV-cystatin C levels were positively related, and EV-CD14 levels were negatively related to metabolic complications of obesity. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mariëtte KranendonkDominique de KleijnEric KalkhovenDanny KanhaiCuno UiterwaalYolanda van der GraafGerard PasterkampFrank Visseren Source Type: research

Assessment of the cardiovascular safety of saxagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: pooled analysis of 20 clinical trials
Conclusions: Analysis of pooled data from 20 clinical trials in patients with T2DM suggests that saxagliptin is not associated with an increased CV risk. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nayyar IqbalArtist ParkerRobert FrederichMark DonovanBoaz Hirshberg Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetic patients: effect of glycemic control and impact of ldl subfraction phenotype
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with higher cardiovascular risk partly related to an increase in inflammatory parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the association of inflammatory biomarkers with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction phenotype and glycemic control in subjects with T2D and poor glycemic control. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed comparing 122 subjects with T2D (59 +/- 11 years old, body mass index 30.2 +/- 5.6 kg/m2) with 54 control subjects. Patients with T2D were classified according to their LDL subfraction phenotype and inflammatory biomarkers (C-re...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Irene VinagreJosé Luis Sánchez-QuesadaJuan Sánchez-HernándezDavid SantosJordi Ordoñez-LlanosAlberto De LeivaAntonio Pérez Source Type: research

The DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin attenuates the progress of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice via AMPK- and MAPK-dependent mechanisms
Background: The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, a new anti-diabetic medicine, is effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing the activation and duration of action of glucagon-like peptide-1. Since atherosclerosis is the main pathological feature of diabetic cardiovascular complications, it is important to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of sitagliptin and explore the relevant mechanisms. Methods: Male apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed either high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus sitagliptin at a concentration of 0.3% for 16 weeks. Body weight, ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yanmei ZengChenzhong LiMeiping GuanZongji ZhengJingjing LiWenwei XuLing WangFeiying HeYaoming Xue Source Type: research

Microvascular dysfunction in the course of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). One important feature underlying the pathophysiology of many types of CVD is microvascular dysfunction. Although components of MetS are themselves CVD risk factors, the risk is increased when the syndrome is considered as one entity. We aimed to characterize microvascular function and some of its influencing factors in the course of MetS development. Methods: Development of MetS in C57BL/6 mice on a high-fat diet (HFD, 51% of energy from fat) was studied. The initial phase of MetS (I-MetS) was defined as the first 2 wee...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cristiane AoquiStefan ChmielewskiElias SchererRuth EißlerDaniel SollingerIrina HeidRickmer BrarenChristoph SchmadererRemco MegensChristian WeberUwe HeemannMatthias TschöpMarcus Baumann Source Type: research

Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, restores endothelial function by reducing vascular inflammation and by increasing the phosphorylation ratio Ser1177/Thr497 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in diabetic mice
Conclusions: These results provide evidence that azilsartan prevents endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice, more potently than does candesartan cilexetil. Azilsartan's higher affinity for and slower dissociation from AT1 receptors may underlie its efficacy in diabetic vascular dysfunction via a dual effect on uncoupled eNOS and on Nox. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 31, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sachiko MatsumotoMichio ShimabukuroDaiju FukudaTakeshi SoekiKen YamakawaHiroaki MasuzakiMasataka Sata Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease and cardio-metabolic risk: is there is a place for obstructive sleep apnea?
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder acting as a risk factor for the development and progression of cardiometabolic derangements including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recent research data suggest that non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease may be a more sensitive marker than non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for early subclinical metabolic risk and may contribute to the progression of subclinical disease to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus.Presentation of the hypothesisWe postulate that obstructive sleep apnea may be a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease. It is well known that in...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aibek Mirrakhimov Source Type: research

Annual acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers
Contributing reviewersThe Editors of Cardiovascular Diabetology wish to thank all reviewers, both Editorial Board Members and external referees, who contributed to the journal in 2013 (Volume 12), and whose enthusiastic support in providing the essential service of peer review continues to improve the scientific quality of the journal and enable its goals to be achieved. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alexander TenenbaumEnrique Fisman Source Type: research

The effect of empagliflozin on arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in subjects with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus
Background: Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for the development of hypertension, contributing to cardiovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia-mediated neurohormonal activation increases arterial stiffness, and is an important contributing factor for hypertension. Since the sodium glucose cotransport-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin lowers blood pressure and HbA1c in type 1 diabetes mellitus, we hypothesized that this agent would also reduce arterial stiffness and markers of sympathetic nervous system activity. Methods: Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, heart rate variability (HRV) and circulat...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 29, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: David CherneyBruce PerkinsNima SoleymanlouRonnie HarNora FaganOdd JohansenHans-Juergen WoerleMaximilian von EynattenUli Broedl Source Type: research

CNX-012-570, a direct AMPK activator provides strong glycemic and lipid control along with significant reduction in body weight; studies from both diet-induced obese mice and db/db mice models
Conclusions: CNX-012-570 has the potential to control hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It also reduces body weight gain with an additional benefit of minimizing cardiovascular risks in diabetics. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tharappel AnilChandrashekaran HarishMudigere LakshmiKrishnaReddy HarshaMallappa OnkaramurthyVenkatesh Sathish KumarNitya ShreeVenkatachalaiah GeethaGundalmandikal BalamuraliAralakuppe GopalaBobbili Madhusudhan ReddyMadabosse GovindMammen AnupYoganand Mool Source Type: research

Residual macrovascular risk in 2013: what have we learned?
In conclusion, the R3i believes that ongoing trials with these novel treatments may help to define the optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia to reduce the clinical and socioeconomic burden of residual cardiovascular risk. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jean-Charles FruchartJean DavignonMichel HermansKhalid Al-RubeaanPierre AmarencoGerd AssmannPhilip BarterJohn BetteridgeEric BruckertAda CuevasMichel FarnierEle FerranniniPaola FiorettoJacques GenestHenry GinsbergAntonio GottoDayi HuTakashi KadowakiTatsuh Source Type: research

Long term liver specific glucokinase gene defect induced diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK
Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in the myocardium occur in the liver-specific glucokinase knockout mouse and suggest that reduced glucokinase expression in the liver may induce diabetic cardiomyopathy by up regulating NADPH oxidase and down regulating insulin receptor and p-AMPK protein levels. Rosiglitazone treatment may protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy by altering the levels of a set of proteins involved in cardiac damage. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hui LiXi WangYiqing MaoRuobi HuWei XuZhen LeiNa ZhouLing JinTingting GuoZhixin LiDavid IrwinGang NiuHuanran Tan Source Type: research

Associations of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus with 16-year survival after CABG
Background: The associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) or diabetes mellitus (DM) on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of MetS and DM on the 16-year survival after CABG. Methods: Diabetic and metabolic status together with relevant cardiovascular data was established in 910 CABG patients operated in 1993-94. They were divided in three groups as follows: neither DM nor MetS (375 patients), MetS alone (279 patients) and DM with or without MetS (256 patients). The 16-year follow-up of patient survival was...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ville HällbergAri PalomäkiJorma LahtelaSeppo VoutilainenMatti TarkkaMatti Kataja Source Type: research

Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)
Objectives: Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods: We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 16, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Noel MuellerBruce DuncanSandhi BarretoDora ChorMarina BesselEstela AquinoMark PereiraMaria Schmidt Source Type: research

Flow-mediated-paradoxical vasoconstriction is independently associated with asymptomatic myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients
Background: To investigate whether flow-mediated dilation (FMD) impairment, which precedes overt atherosclerosis, is associated with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Forearm FMD was measured by ultrasonography in 25 healthy control, 30 non-diabetic overweight or obese patients and 118 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile. SMI (abnormal stress myocardial scintiscan and/or stress dobutamine echocardiogram) and CAD (coronary angiography in the patients with SMI) were assessed in the diabetic cohort. Results: FM...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Minh Tuan NguyenIsabelle PhamPaul ValensiHélène RousseauEric VicautChristelle Laguillier-MorizotAlain NitenbergEmmanuel Cosson Source Type: research

Do incretins improve endothelial function?
An impaired endothelial function has been recognized in the early stage of atherosclerosis, and is a major factor affecting the future development of cardiovascular events. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is widely prevalent, and is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. T2DM is associated with increases in both morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease.New therapies based on the incretin hormone and its actions are now becoming widely used, and appear to offer advantages over conventional therapies by keeping the body weight steady and limiting hypoglycemia, while also a...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jun-ichi OyamaYukihito HigashiKoichi Node Source Type: research

Possible effects of glimepiride beyond glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a preliminary report
Conclusions: Glimepiride may have potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties and it may potentially repair tissue damage by decreasing the levels of toxic AGE and increasing colony-stimulating factors. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ikuko NakamuraJun-ichi OyamaHiroshi KomodaAya ShirakiYoshiko SakamotoIsao TaguchiAtsushi HiwatashiAiko KomatsuMasayoshi TakeuchiSho-ichi YamagishiTeruo InoueKoichi Node Source Type: research

A randomised controlled trial of increasing fruit and vegetable intake and how this influences the carotenoid concentration and activities of PON-1 and LCAT in HDL from subjects with type 2 diabetes
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study in subjects with T2D to demonstrate that increased F&V intake augmented the carotenoid content and influenced enzymes associated with the antioxidant properties of HDL. We suggest that these changes would enhance the cardioprotective properties of this lipoprotein.Clinical trial registration: ISRCTN21676269 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jane-Ann DanielsCiara MulliganDavid McCanceJayne WoodsideChristopher PattersonIan YoungJane McEneny Source Type: research

Effects of saxagliptin on early microvascular changes in patients with type 2 diabetes
Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for microvascular complications. Early changes in microcirculation are characterized by hyperperfusion (e.g. in the retina and kidney) and increased pulse wave reflection leading to increased aortic pressure. We investigated the effects of the DPP-4-inhibitor saxagliptin on early retinal microvascular changes. Methods: In this double-blind, controlled, cross-over trial 50 patients (without clinical signs of microvascular alterations) with type-2 diabetes (mean duration of 4 years) were randomized to receive placebo or 5 mg saxagliptin for 6 weeks. Retinal ar...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Christian OttUlrike RaffStephanie SchmidtIris KistnerStefanie FriedrichPeter BramlageJoanna HaraznyRoland Schmieder Source Type: research

Implications of C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3) and progranulin in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris
Background: C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP-3), an adiponectin paralog, and progranulin were recently identified as novel adipokines which may link obesity with glucose dysregulation and subclinical inflammation. We analyzed the relationship between CTRP-3, progranulin and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Korean men and women. Methods: Circulating CTRP-3 and progranulin levels were examined in 362 Korean adults with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n = 69), stable angina pectoris (SAP, n = 85), and control subjects (n = 208) along with various kinds of cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: CTRP-3 concentrations were signific...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 13, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kyung ChoiSoon HwangHo HongHae ChoiHye YooByung-Soo YounSei BaikHong Seo Source Type: research

Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is associated with progression of coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus: results of the treatment with statin on atheroma regression evaluated by intravascular ultrasound with virtual histology (TRUTH) study
Conclusions: Low serum DHA is associated with progression of coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients with DM.Trial registration: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN ID: C000000311. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 13, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tsuyoshi NozueShingo YamamotoShinichi TohyamaKazuki FukuiShigeo UmezawaYuko OnishiTomoyuki KunishimaAkira SatoToshihiro NozatoShogo MiyakeYouichi TakeyamaYoshihiro MorinoTakao YamauchiToshiya MuramatsuKiyoshi HibiMitsuyasu TerashimaIchiro Michishita Source Type: research

The co-occurrence of myocardial dysfunction and peripheral insensate neuropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes
Conclusions: Cardiovascular structural and functional changes developed early in the course of DM and in combination with insensate neuropathy. In parallel, signs of cardiac autonomic dysfunction were also found and included decreased myocardial NE levels and altered CGRP levels. These results may indicate the need for early cardiovascular evaluation in DM patients with insensate neuropathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maria MarangoniScott BradyShamim ChowdhuryMariann Piano Source Type: research

Leptin is associated with vascular endothelial function in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes
In this study, we investigated the association of plasma leptin levels with vascular endothelial function in lean and overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: One hundred seventy-one type 2 diabetic patients, of which 85 were overweight (body mass index (BMI)>= 25 kg/m2), were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured to evaluate vascular endothelial function using ultrasound. Results: No significant difference in FMD was found between the lean and overweight groups ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tomoaki MoriokaMasanori EmotoYuko YamazakiNaoya KawanoSatoshi ImamuraRyutaro NumaguchiHiromi UrataKoka MotoyamaKatsuhito MoriShinya FukumotoHidenori KoyamaTetsuo ShojiMasaaki Inaba Source Type: research

High serum C1q-binding adiponectin levels in male patients with acute coronary syndrome
Conclusions: Patients with ACS had higher serum C1q-APN levels.Trial RegistrationUMIN000002997 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 9, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ken KishidaYasuhiko NakagawaHironori KobayashiToru MazakiHiroyoshi YokoiKoji YanagiTohru FunahashiIichiro Shimomura Source Type: research

Vitamin D manipulates miR-181c, miR-20b and miR-15a in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to a diabetic-like environment
Conclusion: This study identified novel miRNA in the field of diabetic vasculopathy and might provide new information about the effect of vitamin D on gene regulation induced by a diabetic-like environment. New gene targets that are part of the molecular mechanism and the therapeutic treatment in diabetic vasculopathy are highlighted. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tali Zitman-GalJanice GreenMetsada Pasmanik-ChorEliezer GolanJacques BernheimSydney Benchetrit Source Type: research

Novel association of the obesity risk-allele near Fas Apoptotic Inhibitory Molecule 2 (FAIM2) gene with heart rate and study of its effects on myocardial infarction in diabetic participants of the PREDIMED trial
Conclusions: We confirmed the FAIM2-rs7138803 relationship with obesity and identified novel and consistent associations with heart rate in particular in type 2 diabetic subjects. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible association of this polymorphism with higher myocardial infarction risk in type-2 diabetic subjects, although this result needs to be replicated as it could represent a false positive. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 6, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dolores CorellaJose SorlíJosé GonzálezCarolina OrtegaMontserrat FitóMonica BullóMiguel Martínez-GonzálezEmilio RosFernando ArósJosé LapetraEnrique Gómez-GraciaLluís Serra-MajemValentina Ruiz-GutierrezMiquel FiolOscar ColtellErnest VinyolesXavie Source Type: research

Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls
Conclusion: Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial.Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 6, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michael SponderDaniela DanglStephanie KampfMonika Fritzer-SzekeresJeanette Strametz-Juranek Source Type: research

Step Monitoring to improve ARTERial health (SMARTER) through step count prescription in type 2 diabetes and hypertension: trial design and methods
Background: With increasing numbers of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and hypertension patients, there is a pressing need for effective, time-efficient and sustainable strategies to help physicians support their patients to achieve higher physical activity levels. SMARTER will determine whether physician-delivered step count prescriptions reduce arterial stiffness over a one-year period, compared with usual care, in sedentary overweight/obese adults with DM2/hypertension.DesignRandomized, allocation-concealed, assessor-blind, multisite clinical trial. The primary outcome is change in arterial stiffness over one year. The secondary ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 6, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kaberi DasguptaEllen RosenbergStella Daskalopouloufor the SMARTER collaborators Source Type: research

The afterload-dependent peak efficiency of the isolated working rat heart is unaffected by streptozotocin-induced diabetes
Conclusions: Diabetes reduces the ability of the heart to pump at high afterloads and, consequently, reduces the afterload at which peak efficiency occurs. However, the peak efficiency of the isolated working rat heart remains unaffected by STZ-induced diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: June-Chiew HanSoyeon GooCarolyn BarrettKimberley MellorAndrew TabernerDenis Loiselle Source Type: research

Increased Th1 and suppressed Th2 serum cytokine levels in subjects with diabetic coronary artery disease
Conclusion: In conclusion, from the present study it appears that transition from T2DM or CAD to T2DM-CAD co-morbidity is associated with strong down regulation of Th2 cytokines and enhancement of Th1 responses. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Haridoss MadhumithaViswanathan MohanMohan DeepaSubash BabuVivekanandhan Aravindhan Source Type: research

Relationship of obesity and insulin resistance with the cerebrovascular reactivity: a case control study
Conclusions: We found a diminished vasomotor reactivity in individuals with obesity which was not explained by the presence of insulin resistance. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marcela Rodríguez-FloresCarlos Cantú-BritoEduardo García-GarcíaClaudia Cano-Nigenda Source Type: research

National trends in utilization and outcomes of coronary revascularization procedures among people with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001-2011)
Conclusions: The annual percent change in PCI procedures increased in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Higher comorbidity and the female gender are associated with a higher IHM in PCI procedures. In diabetic and non-diabetic patients, we found a decrease in the use of CABG procedures. IHM was higher in patients without diabetes than in those with diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ana Lopez-de-AndresRodrigo Jimenez-GarcíaValentin Hernandez-BarreraNapoleon Perez-FarinosJose de Miguel-YanesManuel Mendez-BailonIsabel Jimenez-TrujilloAngel de MiguelCarmen PinoPilar Carrasco-Garrido Source Type: research