Caffeic acid phenethyl amide ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Conclusions: CAPA, which is structurally similar to CAPE, exerts cardioprotective activity in I/R injury through its antioxidant property and by preserving nitric oxide levels. On the other hand, chronic CAPA treatment could also ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in diabetic animals. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yi-Jin HoAn-Sheng LeeWen-Pin ChenWei-Lung ChangYing-Kang TsaiHsi-Lin ChiuYueh-Hsiung KuoMing-Jai Su Source Type: research

Dopamine D4 receptors inhibit proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by insulin via down-regulation of insulin receptor expression
This study suggests that activation of the D4 receptor suppresses the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, therefore, inhibit atherosclerosis. The D4 receptor may be a potential therapeutic target to reduce the effects of insulin on artery remodeling. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Changqing YuZhen WangYu HanYukai LiuWei Eric WangCaiyu ChenHongyong WangPedro A JoseChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

A pilot three-month sitagliptin treatment increases serum adiponectin level in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus- a randomized controlled trial START-J study
Conclusion: In Japanese T2DM patients, serum adiponectin level was elevated by three-month treatment with sitagliptin without change of body weight.Trial registration: UMIN000004721 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Toshiyuki HibuseNorikazu MaedaKen KishidaTakekazu KimuraTomoko MinamiEriko TakeshitaAyumu HirataYasuhiko NakagawaSusumu KashineAkemi OkaMasumi HayashiHitoshi NishizawaTohru FunahashiIichiro Shimomura Source Type: research

Multiple risk factor intervention reduces carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: Intensification of risk factor intervention in type 2 diabetes results in CIMT regression over a period of 2 years. None of the biomarkers used including endothelial function parameters or endothelial progenitor cells turned out to be useful to predict CIMT changes.Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registration - URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00660790 Unique identifier: NCT00660790 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 23, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Norbert TripoltSophie NarathMichaela EderThomas PieberThomas WascherHarald Sourij Source Type: research

Safety and tolerability of canakinumab, an IL-1ß inhibitor, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a pooled analysis of three randomised double-blind studies
Background: We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of different doses of canakinumab versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Data were pooled from three studies in 1026 T2DM patients with different routes of administration, treatment regimens and follow-up duration. Canakinumab groups were categorised as low (0.03 mg/kg i.v. once; N = 20), intermediate (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg i.v. once, 5 and 15 mg s.c. monthly; N = 247), medium (1.5 mg/kg i.v. once, 50 mg s.c. monthly and 150 mg s.c. once; N = 268), and high doses (10 mg/kg i.v. once and 150 mg s.c. monthly; N = 137) and compared with ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Campbell HowardAdele NoeAndrej SkerjanecBjörn HolzhauerMargaret WernsingMonica Ligueros-SaylanTom Thuren Source Type: research

Effects of metformin and exercise training, alone or in association, on cardio-pulmonary performance and quality of life in insulin resistance patients
Background: Metformin (MET) therapy exerts positive effects improving glucose tolerance and preventing the evolution toward diabetes in insulin resistant patients. It has been shown that adding MET to exercise training does not improve insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of MET and exercise training alone or in combination on maximal aerobic capacity and, as a secondary end-point on quality of life indexes in individuals with insulin resistance. Methods: 75 insulin resistant patients were enrolled and subsequently assigned to MET (M), MET with exercise training (MEx), and ET alone (Ex). 1...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Christian CadedduSilvio NoccoCugusi LuciaMartino DeiddaAlessandro BinaOrru FabioStefano BandinuEfisio CossuMarco BaroniGiuseppe Mercuro Source Type: research

The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor Saxagliptin improves function of circulating pro-angiogenic cells from type 2 diabetic patients
Conclusions: Saxagliptin reverses PACs dysfunction associated with T2D in vitro and improves inducible angiogenesis by circulating cells in vivo. These data add knowledge to the potential pleiotropic cardiovascular effects of DPP-4 inhibition. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nicol PoncinaMattia AlbieroLisa MenegazzoRoberta CappellariAngelo AvogaroGian Fadini Source Type: research

PLA1A2 platelet polymorphism predicts mortality in prediabetic subjects of the population based KORA S4-Cohort
Conclusion: PLA1A2 polymorphism is associated with mortality in participants with HbA1c ranging from 5.5% (37 mmol/mol) to 6.5% (48 mmol/mol). Maintenance of euglycemic control and antiplatelet therapy are therefore regarded as effective primary prevention in this group. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bernd StratmannTao XuChrista MeisingerBarbara MenartMichael RodenChristian HerderHarald GrallertAnnette PetersWolfgang KoenigThomas IlligHeinz Erich WichmannRui Wang-SattlerWolfgang RathmannDiethelm Tschoepe Source Type: research

High glucose induces smad activation via the transcriptional coregulator p300 and contributes to cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy
Background: Despite advances in the treatment of heart failure, mortality remains high, particularly in individuals with diabetes. Activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) contributes to the pathogenesis of the fibrotic interstitium observed in diabetic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that high glucose enhances the activity of the transcriptional co-activator p300, leading to the activation of TGF-beta via acetylation of Smad2; and that by inhibiting p300, TGF-beta activity will be reduced and heart failure prevented in a clinically relevant animal model of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods: p300 activity was as...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antoinette Bugyei-TwumAndrew AdvaniSuzanne AdvaniYuan ZhangKerri ThaiDarren KellyKim Connelly Source Type: research

Influence of a family history of type 2 diabetes, demographic and clinical data on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
Background: Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery is a surrogate end point of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Identifying the factors associated with a higher IMT may contribute to the identification of subjects with higher CVD risk. Our objective was to compare the common carotid IMT of type 1 diabetes patients to healthy control subjects. The secondary objective was to determine factors associated with a higher carotid IMT. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study between March 2009 and October 2013, comprising 127 type 1 diabetes patients and 125 control subjects matched by age, gender and body ma...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carlos de JuniorEliete SilvaMaria da MattaMarcia CastierMaria RosaMarília Gomes Source Type: research

Insulin resistance and subclinical abnormalities of global and regional left ventricular function in patients with aortic valve sclerosis
Background: Insulin resistance, as a key mediator of metabolic syndrome, is thought to be associated with pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease and altered left ventricular (LV) function and structure. However, in patients with aortic valve sclerosis (AVS), the association between insulin resistance and subclinical impairment of LV function is not fully elucidated. Methods: We studied 57 patients (mean age 70 +/- 8 years, 22 women) with asymptomatic AVS but normal LV ejection fraction in echocardiography. LV longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate was analyzed using two-dimensional speckle tracking ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hiroto UtsunomiyaHideya YamamotoEiji KunitaTakayuki HidakaYasuki Kihara Source Type: research

Vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes: the involvement of matrix Gla protein
Conclusions: High dp-ucMGP levels were independently associated with below-knee arterial calcification score in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal or slightly altered kidney function. The reversibility of the elevation of dp-ucMGP levels and the latter's relationship with clinical events merit further investigation. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sophie LiabeufBourron OlivierCees VemeerElke TheuwissenElke MagdeleynsCarole AubertMichel BrazierRomuald MentaverriAgnes HartemannZiad Massy Source Type: research

Impact of serum omentin-1 levels on cardiac prognosis in patients with heart failure
Background: Various adipokines are reported to be associated with the development of heart failure (HF) through insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine and is associated with incident coronary artery disease. However, it remains unclear whether serum omentin-1 levels are associated with cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Methods: We measured serum omentin-1 levels at admission in 136 consecutive patients with HF, and 20 control subjects without signs of significant heart disease. We prospectively followed patients with HF to endpoints of cardiac death or re-hospitalization for worsen...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 23, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Taro NarumiTetsu WatanabeShinpei KadowakiDaisuke KinoshitaMiyuki YokoyamaYuki HondaYoichiro OtakiSatoshi NishiyamaHiroki TakahashiTakanori ArimotoTetsuro ShishidoTakuya MiyamotoIsao Kubota Source Type: research

Low sensitivity of the metabolic syndrome to identify adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance: An analysis of NHANES 1999-2010
Conclusion: This lack of overlap between MetS and IGT may indicate that assessment of MetS is not likely to be a good indicator of which adolescents to screen using OGTT. These data further underscore the importance of other potential contributors to IGT, including Type 1 diabetes and genetic causes of poor beta-cell function. Practitioners should keep these potential causes of IGT in mind, even when evaluating obese adolescents with IGT. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 23, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mark DeBoerMatthew Gurka Source Type: research

The compensatory enrichment of sphingosine -1- phosphate harbored on glycated high-density lipoprotein restores endothelial protective function in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: Glycation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases its ability to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin I-2 (PGI-2) release in endothelial cells. Whether lipid content of HDL, especially sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), plays any specific role in restoring the protective function of HDL in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still unknown.Methods and results: Immunochemical techniques demonstrated that glycated HDL loses its protective function of regulating COX-2 expression compared with diabetic HDL. We proved that the lipid content differed between diabetic HDL and glycated HDL, especia...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 21, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xunliang TongPu LvAnna MathewDonghui LiuChenguang NiuYan WangLiang JiJizhao LiZhiwei FuBing PanSubramaniam PennathurLemin ZhengYining Huang Source Type: research

On the potential of acarbose to reduce cardiovascular disease
In the emerging landscape of cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials evaluating the effects of blood glucose lowering drugs in individuals with type 2 diabetes, it is becoming increasingly apparent that since the promising signals coming from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) no unequivocal benefits have been established for any single therapy thus far. There is an unmet need for introducing an effective pharmacological agent which could target both correlates of glycaemic regulation and CV risk factors, to ameliorate the enormous burden of fatal and non-fatal CV events in diabetic patients. Acarbose, like o...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 16, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eberhard StandlMichael TheodorakisMichael ErbachOliver SchnellJaakko Tuomilehto Source Type: research

Streptozotocin-induced diabetes prolongs twitch duration without affecting the energetics of isolated ventricular trabeculae
Conclusions: Diabetes prolongs twitch duration without having an effect on work output or heat production, and hence efficiency, of isolated ventricular trabeculae. Collectively, our results, arising from isolated trabeculae, reconcile the discrepancy between the mechanical performance of the whole heart and its tissues. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: June-Chiew HanKenneth TranPoul NielsenAndrew TabernerDenis Loiselle Source Type: research

Atherogenic, fibrotic and glucose utilising actions of glucokinase activators on vascular endothelium and smooth muscle
Conclusions: GKA RO-28-1675 did not increase glucose consumption in endothelial cells indicating the absence of GK in those cells. No direct deleterious actions, in terms of atherogenic changes or excessive vasoactive effects were seen on cells or vessels of the cardiovascular system in response to GKAs. If reflected in vivo, these drugs are unlikely to have their use compromised by direct cardiovascular toxicity. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sefaa Al-aryahiDanielle KamatoRobel GetachewWenhua ZhengSimon PotocnikNeale CohenDaniel GuidoneNarin OsmanPeter Little Source Type: research

Advanced glycation endproducts trigger autophagy in cadiomyocyte Via RAGE/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that AGEs induces cardiomyocyte autophagy by, at least in part, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway via RAGE. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xuwei HouZhaohui HuHanying XuJian XuShunrong ZhangYigang ZhongXiuying HeNingfu Wang Source Type: research

Analysis of common and coding variants with cardiovascular disease in the diabetes heart study
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Identification of genetic risk factors for CVD is important to understand disease risk. Two recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium detected CVD-associated loci. Methods: Variants identified in CHARGE were tested for association with CVD phenotypes, including vascular calcification, and conventional CVD risk factors, in the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) (n = 1208;>80% T2DM affected). This included 36 genotyped or imputed si...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jeremy AdamsLaura RaffieldBarry FreedmanCarl LangefeldMaggie NgJ CarrAmanda CoxDonald Bowden Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis of circulating adipokines and HsCRP association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Arabs
In this study, for the first time, the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and circulating level of adipokines in Arab ethnicity was investigated. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey on 379 adult Arab participants living in Kuwait. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Plasma levels of circulating Leptin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and adipsin were assessed using the multiplexing immunobead-based...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 9, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohamed Abu-FarhaKazem BehbehaniNaser Elkum Source Type: research

Progressive decay of Ca2+ homeostasis in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy
Conclusions: Ca2+ sparks exhibited a time-dependent decay with progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy, which may partly contribute to cardiac dysfunction. This abnormality may be attributable to alterations in the expressions of some Ca2+-associated proteins. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 9, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shu-Mei ZhaoYong-Liang WangChun-Yan GuoJin-Ling ChenYong-Quan Wu Source Type: research

Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jianxin DouHuating LiXiaojing MaMingliang ZhangQichen FangMeiyun NieYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Osteocalcin attenuates high fat diet-induced impairment of endothelial-dependent relaxation through Akt/eNOS-dependent pathway
Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that OCN has an endothelial-protective effect in atherosclerosis through mediating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jianxin DouHuating LiXiaojing MaMingliang ZhangQichen FangMeiyun NieYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Impaired relaxation despite upregulated calcium-handling protein atrial myocardium from type 2 diabetic patients with preserved ejection fraction
In patients with coronary disease and preserved ejection fraction, T2DM results in impaired relaxation and increased fibrosis of the right atrium, with preserved myocardial contractile function. The novel finding of increased expression of SERCA2a:phospholamban ratio suggests a compensatory mechanism to enhance relaxation and maintain diastolic function of the fibrotic atrial myocardium. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Regis LambertsShivanjali LingamHeng-Yu WangIlse BollenGillian HughesIvor GalvinRichard BuntonAndrew BahnRajesh KatareJ BaldiMichael WilliamsPankaj SaxenaSean CoffeyPeter Jones Source Type: research

Acute insulin resistance in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients is associated with incomplete myocardial reperfusion and impaired coronary microcirculatory function
In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Methods: In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and f...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Danijela TrifunovicSanja StankovicDragana Sobic-SaranovicJelena MarinkovicMarija PetrovicDejan OrlicBranko BeleslinMarko BanovicBosiljka Vujisic-TesicMilan PetrovicIvana NedeljkovicJelena StepanovicAna Djordjevic-DikicMilorad TesicNina DjukanovicOlga Petr Source Type: research

Impaired relaxation despite upregulated calcium-handling pro in atrial myocardium from type 2 diabetic patients with preserved ejection fraction
In patients with coronary disease and preserved ejection fraction, T2DM results in impaired relaxation and increased fibrosis of the right atrium, with preserved myocardial contractile function. The novel finding of increased expression of SERCA2a:phospholamban ratio suggests a compensatory mechanism to enhance relaxation and maintain diastolic function of the fibrotic atrial myocardium. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Regis LambertsShivanjali LingamHeng-Yu WangIlse BollenGillian HughesIvor GalvinRichard BuntonAndrew BahnRajesh KatareJ BaldiMichael WilliamsPankaj SaxenaSean CoffeyPeter Jones Source Type: research

Bezafibrate improves postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and associated endothelial dysfunction in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study
Background: Postprandial elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins impairs endothelial function, which can initiate atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of bezafibrate on postprandial endothelial dysfunction and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Ten patients with metabolic syndrome were treated with 400 mg/day bezafibrate or untreated for 4 weeks in a randomized crossover study. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and lipid profiles were assessed during fasting and after consumption of a standardized snack. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol contents of lipoprotein fractions we...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 5, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuko OhnoToru MiyoshiYoko NodaHiroki OeNorihisa TohKazufumi NakamuraKunihisa KohnoHiroshi MoritaHiroshi Ito Source Type: research

Subclinical vascular inflammation in subjects with normal weight obesity and its association with body Fat: an 18 F-FDG-PET/CT study
Normal weight obesity subjects (NWO), having increased body fat percent compared to normal weight lean subjects, show a higher degree of subclinical vascular inflammation using the 18F-FDG-PET/CT technique. NWO subjects, formerly classified as non-obese with the conventional BMI criteria, may represent a unique subset of patients with a higher risk for future cardiovascular events. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shinae KangChanhee KyungJong ParkSohee KimSeung-Pyo LeeMin KimHye KimKyung KimTae JeonChul Ahn Source Type: research

Exenatide induces aortic vasodilation increasing hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide production
Conclusions: Exenatide induces vasodilation in rat thoracic aorta with the contribution of all three gasotransmitters. We provide in vitro evidence for the potential ability of exenatide to lower central (aortic) blood pressure, which could have relevant clinical importance. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eszter SélleySzilárd KunIstván SzijártóBoglárka LaczyTibor KovácsFerenc FülöpIstván WittmannGerg¿ Molnár Source Type: research

Cardiovascular guidelines: separate career may help attenuate controversy
The release of recent guidelines for high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes in the U.S. has been accompanied by great noise and concerns, both in the academic circuits and the lay press. For persons aged 40 to75 years, with LDL cholesterol levels between 70-189 mg/dL and 7.5% or higher estimated 10-year risk, the peril of a global "statinization" has been advocated, predicting a 70% increase of statin use in this otherwise healthy people. A minority of the Eight Joint National Committee panel disagreed with the recommendation to increase the target systolic blood pressure from 140 to 150 mmHg in persons aged...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Katherine EspositoAntonio CerielloStefano GenoveseDario Giugliano Source Type: research

Contribution of subcutaneous abdominal fat on ultrasonography to carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: Whereas visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with cardiometabolic risk, there is debate regarding the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 234 patients (men 131, women 103, mean age: 53 years) with T2DM were enrolled. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) were assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonogr...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chan-Hee JungBo-Yeon KimKyu-Jin KimSang-Hee JungChul-Hee KimSung-Koo KangJi-Oh Mok Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study
We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once dai...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 28, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kohei KakuHirotaka WatadaYasuhiko IwamotoKazunori UtsunomiyaYasuo TerauchiKazuyuki TobeYukio TanizawaEiichi ArakiMasamichi UedaHideki SuganamiDaisuke Watanabe Source Type: research

Gender disparity in LDL-induced cardiovascular damage and the protective role of estrogens against electronegative LDL
DNA damage and endothelial senescence observed in male db/db mice maybe partly attributed to the presence of more electronegative LDL. Furthermore, estrogens provide hormonal protection against the harmful effects of electronegative LDL, and gender disparities in LDL electronegativity may impact the development of coronary disease. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: An-Sheng LeeWei-Yu ChenHua-Chen ChanJing-Fang HsuMing-Yi ShenChia-Ming ChangHenry BairMing-Jai SuKuan-Cheng ChangChu-Huang Chen Source Type: research

Predictive value of high-sensitivity troponin-I for future adverse cardiovascular outcome in stable patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that elevated hs-TnI in patients with T2DM is associated with increased MACE, HF, MI and cardiovascular mortality. Importantly, a normal hs-TnI level has an excellent negative predictive value for future adverse cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kai-Hang YiuKui-Kai LauChun-Ting ZhaoYap-Hang ChanYan ChenZhe ZhenArthur WongChu-Pak LauHung-Fat Tse Source Type: research

Myocardial blood flow under general anaesthesia with sevoflurane in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot study
Conclusion: These pilot data in type 2 diabetic patients show that sevoflurane anaesthesia decreases resting myocardial blood flow compared to healthy controls. Further, we observed a trend towards a lower endothelium-independent vasodilation capacity in diabetic patients under sevoflurane anaesthesia. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not affected by sevoflurane in diabetic patients. These data provide preliminary insight into myocardial responses in type 2 diabetic patients under general anaesthesia.Trial registration: www.clinialtrials.gov, NCT00866801 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 23, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carolien BulteCharissa van den BromStephan LoerChrista BoerR Bouwman Source Type: research

Differential association of visceral adipose tissue with coronary plaque characteristics in patients with and without diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: The VAT area is associated with the characteristics of coronary plaques on CTA in patients without DM, but not in patients with DM. VAT may be a significant cardiometabolic risk factor that is associated with plaque vulnerability before the development of DM. CTA findings may help to improve risk stratification in such patients. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kazuhiro OsawaToru MiyoshiYasushi KoyamaShuhei SatoNoriaki AkagiYusuke MorimitsuMotoki KuboHiroki SugiyamaKazufumi NakamuraHiroshi MoritaSusumu KanazawaHiroshi Ito Source Type: research

Advanced glycation end products potentiate citrated plasma-evoked oxidative and inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells by up-regulating protease-activated receptor-1 expression
In this study, we investigated the effects of rivaroxaban, an inhibitor of factor Xa on 3% citrated human plasma-evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and RAGE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene expression in AGE-exposed ECs. We further examined whether FR171113, an inhibitor of PAR-1 blocked the plasma-induced EC damage and if AGEs increased PAR-1 expression in ECs. Human citrated plasma stimulated ROS generation and RAGE, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 expression in ECs, all of which were potentiated by the treatment with AGEs. Rivaroxaban or FR171113 significantly...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 13, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuji IshibashiTakanori MatsuiSeiji UedaKei FukamiSho-ichi Yamagishi Source Type: research

Distribution of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes according to different classification systems for chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study
Conclusions: Though the new systems perform better than the NKF's KDOQI in grading complications and identifying diabetic subjects without complications, they might underestimate CVD burden in patients assigned to lower risk categories and should be tested in large prospective studies.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00715481 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 13, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe PuglieseAnna SoliniEnzo BonoraEmanuela OrsiGianpaolo ZerbiniCecilia FondelliGabriella GrudenFranco CavalotOlga LamacchiaRoberto TrevisanMonica VedovatoGiuseppe Penno Source Type: research

Differential impact of subclinical carotid artery disease on cerebral structure and functioning in type 1 diabetes patients with versus those without proliferative retinopathy
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with cerebral compromise, typically found in patients with microangiopathy. Associations between subclinical macroangiopathy and the brain, whether or not in the presence of microangiopathy, have not been fully explored in T1DM. We hypothesized that subclinical macroangiopathy in adult T1DM may affect the brain and interacts with microangiopathy. Methods: In 51 asymptomatic T1DM patients with, 53 without proliferative retinopathy and 51 controls, right common carotid artery ultrasound was used to assess intima media thickness (cIMT) and distensibility (cD). Neuropsy...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eelco van DuinkerkenRichard IJzermanNynke van der ZijlFrederik BarkhofPetra PouwelsMenno SchoonheimAnnette MollJeannette BoeropAlette WesselsMartin KleinFrank SnoekMichaela Diamant Source Type: research

Altered glucose metabolism rather than naive type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to vitamin D status in severe obesity
Context: The last decades have provided insights into vitamin D physiology linked to glucose homeostasis. Uncertainties remain in obesity due to its intrinsic effects on vitamin D and glucose tolerance.Objectives: To assess the relationship between vitamin D and glucose abnormalities in severely obese individuals previously unknown to suffer from abnormal glucose metabolism.Setting: Tertiary care centre.Patients: 524 obese patients (50.3 +/- 14.9 yrs; BMI, 47.7 +/- 7.3 kg/m2) screened by OGTT, HbA1c and the lipid profile. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25(OH)D3, PTH and electrolyte levels. 25(OH)D3 deficiency/insufficien...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mattia BellanGabriele GuzzaloniMaura RinaldiElena MerlottiCarlotta FerrariAntonella TagliaferriMario PirisiGianluca AimarettiMassimo ScacchiPaolo Marzullo Source Type: research

Novel unbiased equations to calculate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol from routine non-fasting lipids
Conclusions: TRL-C and log[TG] are as effective and interchangeable for assessing remnant atherogenic particles. For grading TRL-AD, it is best to use log[TG]/HDL-C, inherently superior to TRL-C/apoA-I, while measuring the same underlying variable. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michel HermansSylvie AhnMichel Rousseau Source Type: research

Body adiposity dictates different mechanisms of increased coronary reactivity related to improved in vivo cardiac function
Conclusions: Nascent obesity-induced improvement of cardiac function may be supported by an enhanced coronary reserve occurring via different mechanisms. These mechanisms implicate either the endothelial cells activity or the smooth muscle cells sensitivity depending on the body adiposity of the animals. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Evangelia MourmouraValérie ChatéKarine CouturierBrigitte LailletGuillaume VialJean-Paul RigaudiereBéatrice MorioCorinne Malpuech-BrugèreKasra AzarnoushLuc Demaison Source Type: research

High glucose induces human endothelial dysfunction through an Axl-dependent mechanism
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that HG can alter Gas6/Axl signaling and may through Akt and VEGF/VEGFR2 downstream molecules and suggests that Gas6/Axl may involve in HG-induced EC dysfunction. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chien-Hsing LeeYi-Shing ShiehFone-Ching HsiaoFeng-Chih KuoChih-Yuan LinChang-Hsun HsiehYi-Jen Hung Source Type: research

The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1¿ and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1α with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 ± 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores wer...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gang LiWei-hua LuRong AiJian-hong YangFang ChenZhong-zhi Tang Source Type: research

The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1alpha with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3 +/- 6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores were assessed by a 320-slice CT sca...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gang LiWei-hua LuRong AiJian-hong YangFang ChenZhong-zhi Tang Source Type: research

Reduced circulating sTWEAK levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk
Background: The circulating soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) is a cytokine that modulates inflammatory and atherogenic reactions related to cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the association between sTWEAK levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in older subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 452 non-diabetic individuals (men and women aged 55-80 years) at high cardiovascular risk. MetS was defined by AHA/NHLBI and IDF criteria. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for MetS and its components by tertiles of serum sTWEA...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andrés Díaz-LópezMònica BullóMatilde ChacónRamón EstruchJoan VendrellJavier Díez-EspinoMontserrat FitóDolores CorellaJordi Salas-Salvadó Source Type: research

Liraglutide decreases carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes: 8-month prospective pilot study
Background: Liraglutide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, has several non- glycemic properties, but its effect on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a recognized marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is still unknown. Methods: A prospective study of 8 months duration in 64 patients with type-2 diabetes and no prior history of coronary artery disease evaluated whether adding liraglutide to metformin affects carotid IMT, measured by color doppler ultrasound. Results: After 8 months, fasting glucose decreased by 2.1 mmol/l and HbA1c by 1.9% (p
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Manfredi RizzoManisha ChandaliaAngelo PattiVittoria Di BartoloAli RizviGiuseppe MontaltoNicola Abate Source Type: research

Impaired dopamine D1 receptor-mediated vasorelaxation of mesenteric arteries in obese Zucker rats
Conclusions: Both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia caused D1 receptor dysfunction by decreasing arterial D1 receptor expression and increasing D1 receptor phosphorylation. Impaired D1 receptor-mediated vasorelaxation is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jinjuan FuYu HanHongyong WangZhen WangYukai LiuXingjian ChenYue CaiWeiwei GuanDi YangLaureano AsicoLin ZhouPedro JoseChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

Vitamin D and 1-hour post-load plasma glucose in hypertensive patients
Background: A plasma glucose value>=155 mg/dl for 1-hour post-load plasma glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is able to identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at high-risk for type-2 diabetes and with subclinical organ damage. We designed this study to address if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] circulating levels are associated with glucose tolerance status, and in particular with 1-hour post-load plasma glucose levels. Methods: We enrolled 300 consecutive Caucasian hypertensive never-treated outpatients (160 men and 140 women, aged 52.9 +/- 9.2 years) Subjects underwent OGTT and measureme...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 20, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Angela SciacquaMaria PerticoneNadia GrilloTania FalboGiuseppe BencardinoElvira AngottiFranco ArturiGiuseppe ParlatoGiorgio SestiFrancesco Perticone Source Type: research