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A study about the relevance of adding acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effects on some new emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular risk
Conclusion: All biomarkers considered were significantly improved by ASA addition. These data suggest that the use of ASA in primary prevention could be useful in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02064218 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe DerosaAmedeo MugelliniRosa PesceAngela D¿AngeloPamela Maffioli Source Type: research

The receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of peripheral arterial disease, amputation or death in type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study
Conclusion: Higher plasma levels of S100A12 and the combined effect (RAGE-score) of esRAGE, carboxymethyl-lysine and S100A12 seem to be associated with shorter PAD- and amputation-free survival in patients with type 2 diabetes. This may indicate a role for S100A12 in PAD by activation of the RAGE system. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jonas MalmstedtLars KärvestedtJesper SwedenborgKerstin Brismar Source Type: research

Partial inhibition of the ubiquitin–proteasome system ameliorates cardiac dysfunction following ischemia–reperfusion in the presence of high glucose
Conclusions: This study established that partial proteasome inhibition elicits cardioprotection in hearts exposed to ischemia–reperfusion with acute simulated hyperglycemia. These data reveal that protease inhibition triggered three major protective effects, i.e. (a) enhancing myocardial anti-oxidant defenses, (b) attenuating inflammation, and (c) increasing the autophagic response. Thus the UPS emerges as a unique therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic heart disease under such conditions. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Buin AdamsRudo MapangaM Essop Source Type: research

Enhancement of insulin-mediated rat muscle glucose uptake and microvascular perfusion by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside
Background: Insulin-induced microvascular recruitment is important for optimal muscle glucose uptake. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase), can also induce microvascular recruitment, at doses that do not acutely activate glucose transport in rat muscle. Whether low doses of AICAR can augment physiologic insulin action is unknown. In the present study we used the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess whether insulin action is augmented by low dose AICAR. Methods: Anesthetized rats were studied during saline infusion or euglycemic insulin (3 ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eloise BradleyLei ZhangAmanda GendersStephen RichardsStephen RattiganMichelle Keske Source Type: research

Chronic Rho-kinase inhibition improves left ventricular contractile dysfunction in early type-1 diabetes by increasing myosin cross-bridge extension
Background: Impaired actin–myosin cross-bridge (CB) dynamics correlate with impaired left ventricular (LV) function in early diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Elevated expression and activity of Rho kinase (ROCK) contributes to the development of DCM. ROCK targets several sarcomeric proteins including myosin light chain 2, myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C), troponin I (TnI) and troponin T that all have important roles in regulating CB dynamics and contractility of the myocardium. Our aim was to examine if chronic ROCK inhibition prevents impaired CB dynamics and LV dysfunction in a rat model of early diabetes, and wheth...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mark WaddinghamAmanda EdgleyAlberto AstolfoTadakatsu InagakiYutaka FujiiCheng-Kun DuDong-Yun ZhanHirotsugu TsuchimochiNaoto YagiDarren KellyMikiyasu ShiraiJames Pearson Source Type: research

Rutin administration attenuates myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats
Conclusion: Rutin attenuates cardiac remodeling and left ventricular and myocardial dysfunction caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 17, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Julliano GuimaraesBruno MuzioCamila RosaAndre NascimentoMario SugizakiAna FernandesAntonio CicognaCarlos PadovaniMarina OkoshiKatashi Okoshi Source Type: research

Vitamin D status is associated with skin autofluorescence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a preliminary report
Background: Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive measurement of advanced glycation end products (AGE), which are suggested to be one of the major agents in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes related cardiovascular complications. Recently, low vitamin D status has been linked to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between vitamin D status and skin autofluorescence in patients with T2DM. Methods: In this preliminary report skin autofluorescence was measured non-invasively with an AGE-reader in 245 patients with T2D...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Y Krul-PoelR AgcaP LipsH van WijlandF StamS Simsek Source Type: research

Diet-induced pre-diabetes slows cardiac conductance and promotes arrhythmogenesis
This study describes electrophysiological alterations in a diet-induced pre-diabetic rat model and examines the underlying mechanism. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either high-fat diet and fructose water or normal chow and water for 6 weeks. The electrophysiological properties of the whole heart was analyzed by in vivo surface ECG recordings, as wells as ex vivo in Langendorff perfused hearts during baseline, ischemia and re-perfussion. Conduction velocity was examined in isolated tissue strips. Ion channel and gap junction conductances were analyzed by patch-clamp studies in isolated cardiomyocytes. Fib...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lene AxelsenKirstine CalloeThomas BraunsteinMads RiemannJohannes HofgaardBo LiangChrista JensenKristine OlsenEmil BartelsUlrik BaandrupThomas JespersenLars NielsenNiels-Henrik Holstein-RathlouMorten Nielsen Source Type: research

Platelet hyperactivity and fibrin clot structure in transient ischemic attack individuals in the presence of metabolic syndrome: a microscopy and thromboelastography ® study
Conclusion: The findings indicate that pathological clot formation is not caused by alterations in the coagulation cascade but rather by the premature activation of platelets (as a result of chronic inflammation) that in turn causes altered fibrin formation. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mia-Jeanne van RooyWiebren DuimRene EhlersAntoinette BuysEtheresia Pretorius Source Type: research

The effect of a preparation of minerals, vitamins and trace elements on the cardiac gene expression pattern in male diabetic rats
Conclusions: MVT-treatment improved diagnostic markers of diabetes. This is the first demonstration that MVT-treatment significantly alters cardiac gene expression profile in both control and diabetic rats. Our results and further studies exploring the mechanistic role of individual genes may contribute to the prevention or diagnosis of cardiac complications in diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Márta SárközyGerg¿ Sz¿csMárton PipiczÁgnes ZvaraKatalin ÉderVeronika FeketeCsilla Sz¿csJudit BárkányiCsaba CsonkaLászló PuskásCsaba KónyaPéter FerdinandyTamás Csont Source Type: research

Association of hemoglobin A 1c and glycated albumin with carotid atherosclerosis in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study
Background: It is not clear which glucose measure is more useful in the assessment of atherosclerosis. We investigated the associations of hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postload glucose (PG) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in community-dwelling Japanese subjects. Methods: A total of 2702 subjects aged 40–79 years underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and measurements of HbA 1c , GA, 1,5-AG, and carotid IMT by ultrasonography in 2007–2008. Car...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 24, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naoko MukaiToshiharu NinomiyaJun HataYoichiro HirakawaFumie IkedaMasayo FukuharaTaeko HottaMasafumi KogaUdai NakamuraDongchon KangTakanari KitazonoYutaka Kiyohara Source Type: research

Comparison of effects of sitagliptin and voglibose on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the 3D trial
Background: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) and may have cardio-protective effects. It remains unclear whether DPP-4i improves LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes, and, if so, it is attributable to the attenuation of PPH or to a direct cardiac effect of DPP-4i. We compared the effects of the DPP-4i, sitagliptin, and the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, on LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We conducted a prospective...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hiroki OeKazufumi NakamuraHajime KiharaKenei ShimadaShota FukudaTsutomu TakagiToru MiyoshiKumiko HirataJunichi YoshikawaHiroshi ItoFESC, for Effect of a DPP-4 inhibitor on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabeti Source Type: research

Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, improves neovascularization in the ischemic hindlimb of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
Conclusions: Rivaroxaban promoted vessel formation in diabetic mice and improved endothelial progenitor cell function under hyperglycemic conditions. These effects may be associated with enhancement of expression of eNOS and VEGF. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tao-Cheng WuJenq-Shyong ChanChiu-Yang LeeHsin-Bang LeuPo-Hsun HuangJia-Shiong ChenShing-Jong LinJaw-Wen Chen Source Type: research

Relationship between serum osteocalcin level and carotid intima-media thickness in a metabolically healthy Chinese population
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum osteocalcin level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in a metabolically healthy population. Methods: A total of 476 subjects with normal values for weight, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and lipids (age range, 20–75 years; 155 men, 201 premenopausal women, 120 postmenopausal women) from the Shanghai Obesity Study were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease or carotid plaque were excluded. C-IMT was measured by ultrasonography. Serum osteocalcin level was assessed by an electrochemiluminescen...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuqi LuoXiaojing MaYaping HaoQin XiongYiting XuXiaoping PanYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Differential response in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to one-year metformin treatment in prediabetic patients by race/ethnicity
Conclusion: This result suggests a notion that Whites and AAs are more responsive than Hispanics to one-year metformin use in HDL-C level changes, and that racial and ethnic identity is a factor to consider when interpreting the effects of metformin treatment on lipid profiles. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chao ZhangFeng GaoHao LuoChun-Ting ZhangRen Zhang Source Type: research

High-risk type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, without prior ischemic events, have normal blood platelet functionality profiles: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions: High risk type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, without prior ischemic events, have normal blood platelet functionality profiles. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gadi ShlomaiTal Haran-AppelTal SellaYoni GrossmanHagit HauschnerNurit RosenbergEhud Grossman Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor 21 deletion aggravates diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta in type 1 diabetic mice
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism, and has been considered as a potential therapy for diabetes. The effect of FGF21 on the development and progression of diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta has not currently been addressed. To characterize these effects, type 1 diabetes was induced in both FGF21 knockout (FGF21KO) and C57BL/6 J wild type (WT) mice via multiple-dose streptozotocin injection. FGF21KO diabetic mice showed both earlier and more severe aortic remodeling indicated by aortic thickening, collagen accumulation and fibrotic mediator connec...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaoqing YanJun ChenChi ZhangJun ZengShanshan ZhouZhiguo ZhangXuemian LuJing ChenWenke FengXiaokun LiYi Tan Source Type: research

Association between daily glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque properties in patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy assessed by continuous glucose monitoring and optical coherence tomography
This study aimed to investigate the association between glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque morphology in CAD patients. Methods: This prospective study enrolled 72 consecutive CAD patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy. They were divided into 3 tertiles according to the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), which represents glucose fluctuation, measured by continuous glucose monitoring (tertile 1; 85.3). Morphological feature of plaques were evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Lipid index (LI) (mean lipid arc × length), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), and the prevalence of th...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Masaru KurodaToshiro ShinkeKazuhiko SakaguchiHiromasa OtakeTomofumi TakayaYushi HirotaTsuyoshi OsueHiroto KinutaniAkihide KonishiHachidai TakahashiDaisuke TerashitaKenzo UzuKen-ichi Hirata Source Type: research

Protective role of oleic acid against cardiovascular insulin resistance and in the early and late cellular atherosclerotic process
Conclusions: Our data suggest a differential role between oleate and palmitate and support the concept of the cardioprotector role of oleate as the main lipid component of virgin olive oil. Thus, oleate protects against cardiovascular insulin resistance, improves endothelial dysfunction in response to proinflammatory signals and finally, reduces proliferation and apoptosis in VSMCs that may contribute to an ameliorated atherosclerotic process and plaque stability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liliana PerdomoNuria BeneitYolanda OteroÓscar EscribanoSabela Díaz-CastroverdeAlmudena Gómez-HernándezManuel Benito Source Type: research

Chronic NF-κB blockade improves renal angiotensin II type 1 receptor functions and reduces blood pressure in Zucker diabetic rats
Conclusions: Our present study indicates blockade of NF-κB, via inhibition of binding of NF-κB with AT1R promoter, reduces renal AT1R expression and function, improves oxidative stress and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance, therefore, lowers blood pressure and recovers renal function in ZDF rats. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hao LuoXinquan WangJialiang WangCaiyu ChenNa WangZaicheng XuShuo ChenChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are related to subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes
In this study, we evaluated the association of serum FGF21 with intima-media thickness (IMT) and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Serum FGF21 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 212 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis or cardiovascular diseases. IMT of the carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound to determine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, which was defined as having an IMT > 1.0 mm and/or plaque on one or more of the three arteries wi...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yang XiaoLingjiao LiuAimin XuPengcheng ZhouZhaofeng LongYiting TuXiaoyan ChenWeili TangGan HuangZhiguang Zhou Source Type: research

Galectin-3 deficiency exacerbates hyperglycemia and the endothelial response to diabetes
Conclusions: Galectin-3 deficiency leads to exacerbated metabolic derangement and endothelial dysfunction. The impaired tissue uptake of glucose in KO mice can be attributed to the reduced expression of GLUT4. Enhanced coagulation activity in the diabetic KO suggests a protective role for galectin-3 against thrombosis. These studies demonstrate that galectin-3 deficiency contributes both to the pathogenesis of diabetes and the associated vasculopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: April DarrowRalph Shohet Source Type: research

Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study
Conclusion: Increased IR estimated by HOMA-IR was significantly associated with a higher remodeling index and positive coronary artery remodeling. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sang-Hoon KimJae-Youn MoonYeong LimKyung KimWoo-In YangJung-Hoon SungSeung YooIn KimSang-Wook LimDong-Hun ChaSeung-Yun Cho Source Type: research

The inflammation, vascular repair and injury responses to exercise in fit males with and without Type 1 diabetes: an observational study
Conclusions: Resting cEPCs and cECs in Type 1 diabetes patients with excellent HbA1c and high physical-fitness are comparable to healthy controls, despite eliciting 4-fold greater TNF-α. Furthermore, Type 1 diabetes patients appear to have a blunted post-exercise cEPCs response (vascular repair), whilst a biomarker of vascular injury (cECs) remained comparable to healthy controls. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 5, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daniel WestMatthew CampbellJavier GonzalezMark WalkerEmma StevensonFahad AhmedStephanie WijayaJames ShawJolanta Weaver Source Type: research

The association between glycemic variability and diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusion: CV in CGM and all parameters of HbA1c variability were independently associated with the presence of CAN in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes requiring CGM. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ji JunSang-Man JinJongha BaekSewon OhKyu HurMyung-Shik LeeMoon-Kyu LeeJae Kim Source Type: research

Cardiospecific CD36 suppression by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference prevents cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction in high-fat-diet induced obese mice
Conclusions: Cardiospecific CD36 inhibition protects against the aggravation of cardiac functional and morphological changes associated with HFD induced obesity. CD36 represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity cardiomyopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yijie ZhangMingwei BaoMingyan DaiXin WangWenbo HeTuantuan TanDandan LinWei WangYing WenRui Zhang Source Type: research

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with retinopathy and macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective complications study
Conclusions: In individuals with type 1 diabetes, both higher 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 are associated with a lower prevalence of macroalbuminuria, but not of retinopathy and CVD. Prospective studies are needed to further examine the associations between 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 and the development of microvascular complications and CVD in type 1 diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lian EngelenCasper SchalkwijkSimone EussenJean ScheijenSabita Soedamah-MuthuNish ChaturvediJohn FullerCoen Stehouwer Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus and platelet reactivity in patients under prasugrel or ticagrelor treatment: an observational study
Background: The influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on platelet reactivity (PR) in prasugrel or ticagrelor treated patients is not well studied. Methods: In an observational study involving 777 patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated by either prasugrel 10 mg od (n = 315) or ticagrelor 90 mg bid (n = 462), platelet function was assessed using the VerifyNow P2Y12 function assay (in PRU) at one month post intervention. Results: In the overall population, ticagrelor and insulin-treated DM affected PR, with a decrease in log by 0.88 (corr...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dimitrios AlexopoulosChrysoula VogiatziKaterina StavrouNiki VlassopoulouAngelos PerperisIoanna PentaraIoanna Xanthopoulou Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and myocardial ischemic preconditioning in symptomatic coronary artery disease patients
Conclusions: In this study, diabetes mellitus was not associated with impairment in ischemic preconditioning in symptomatic coronary artery disease patients. Furthermore, diabetic patients experienced an improvement in this significant mechanism of myocardial protection. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paulo RezendeRosa RahmiAugusto UchidaLeandro da CostaThiago ScudelerCibele GarzilloEduardo LimaCarlos SegrePriscyla GirardiMyrthes TakiutiMarcela SilvaWhady HuebJose RamiresRoberto Filho Source Type: research

Longitudinal association of C-reactive protein and Haemoglobin A1c over 13 years: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer - Norfolk study
Conclusion: In this study we found longitudinal observational evidence suggesting that increase in systemic inflammation is associated with an increase in HbA1c and thus systemic inflammation may have a role in development of type-2 diabetes and its complications. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sara Ahmadi-AbhariStephen KaptogeRobert LubenNicholas WarehamKay-Tee Khaw Source Type: research

Serum leptin levels are independently related to the incidence of ischemic heart disease in a prospective study of patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: Our data support the use of serum leptin in type 2 diabetes to add independent prognostic information in terms of ischemic heart disease when compared with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In the men of the cohort this prognostic information was in addition also to data on IMT and PWV, two non-invasive measurements of the extent of vascular disease. The power to detect a similar relationship in women was less strong due to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01049737. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Camilla VavruchToste LänneMats FredriksonTorbjörn LindströmCarl ÖstgrenFredrik Nystrom Source Type: research

Predictive value of dynamic renal resistive index (drin) for renal outcome in type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension: a prospective study
Conclusions: PWV and DRIN are able to predict microalbuminuria onset in newly diagnosed EH and T2DM. DRIN is early compromised in T2DM patients developing microalbuminuria. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: R. BrunoA. SalvatiM. BarzacchiS. TaddeiK. RaimoL. GhiadoniA. Solini Source Type: research

Cardiovascular safety of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes: a comprehensive patient-level pooled analysis of prospectively adjudicated cardiovascular events
Background: The cardiovascular (CV) safety of linagliptin was evaluated in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: Pre-specified patient-level pooled analysis of all available double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, ≥12 weeks’ duration (19 trials, 9459 subjects) of linagliptin versus placebo/active treatment. Primary end point: composite of prospectively adjudicated CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina (4P-MACE). Hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) was also evaluated; adjudication of CHF was introduced during the phase ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Julio RosenstockNikolaus MarxDietmar NeubacherThomas SeckSanjay PatelHans-Juergen WoerleOdd Johansen Source Type: research

Normal-weight obesity is associated with increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis
Conclusions: NWO individuals carry a higher incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with NWL individuals, regardless of other clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sohee KimChanhee KyungJong ParkSeung-Pyo LeeHye KimChul AhnKyung KimShinae Kang Source Type: research

Additive prognostic value of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and coronary artery calcification for cardiovascular events and mortality in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria but without known coronary artery disease, NT-proBNP and CAC were strongly associated with fatal and nonfatal CVD, as well as with mortality. Their additive prognostic capability holds promise for identification of patients at high risk. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bernt von ScholtenHenrik ReinhardTine HansenMorten LindhardtClaus PetersenNiels WiinbergPeter HansenHans-Henrik ParvingPeter JacobsenPeter Rossing Source Type: research

Baseline diabetes as a way to predict CV outcomes in a lipid-modifying trial: a meta-analysis of 330,376 patients from 47 landmark studies
Conclusions: Absolute and relative CV risk associated with diabetes at inclusion can be readily predicted using linear equations relating diabetes prevalence to primary outcomes or CHD rates. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michel HermansEvariste BouenizabilaDaniel Amoussou-guenouSylvie AhnMichel Rousseau Source Type: research

DPP-4 inhibition with linagliptin ameliorates cognitive impairment and brain atrophy induced by transient cerebral ischemia in type 2 diabetic mice
Conclusions: DPP-4 inhibition with linagliptin counteracted cognitive impairment and brain atrophy induced by transient cerebral ischemia in diabetic mice, independently of blood glucose lowering effect. This cerebroprotective effect of linagliptin was associated with the suppression of blood brain barrier disruption and the attenuation of cerebral oxidative stress. Thus, our present work highlights DPP-4 inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy for cognitive impairment and cerebral vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: MingJie MaYu HasegawaNobutaka KoibuchiKensuke ToyamaKen UekawaTakashi NakagawaBowen LinShokei Kim-Mitsuyama Source Type: research

Sex influenced association of directly measured insulin sensitivity and serum transaminase levels: Why alanine aminotransferase only predicts cardiovascular risk in men?
Background: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor which is closely associated with insulin resistance measured by both direct or indirect methods. Gender specific findings in the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and CV disease, the prevalence of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been published recently.The aim of the present study was to explore the gender aspects of the association between insulin sensitivity, liver markers and other metabolic biomarkers in order to elucidate the background behind the sex influenced difference in both NAFLD, T2DM...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Barbara BudayPeter PachBotond Literati-NagyMarta VitaiGyorgyi KovacsZsuzsa VecseiLaszlo KoranyiCsaba Lengyel Source Type: research

Tissue inflammation and nitric oxide-mediated alterations in cardiovascular function are major determinants of endotoxin-induced insulin resistance
Conclusion: Nitric oxide excess and LPS impairs glycemic control by diminishing MGU. LPS impairs MGU by both the direct effect of inflammation on the myocyte, as well as by the indirect NO-driven cardiovascular dysfunction. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lawrence HouseRobert MorrisTammy BarnesLouise LantierTravis CyphertOwen McGuinnessYolanda Otero Source Type: research

Glycated albumin and the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in subjects with Type 1 Diabetes
Conclusions: Mean GA levels were more closely associated with DN progression than mean HbA1c in subjects with T1D. However, they were not associated with the CAA. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hye-jin YoonYong-ho LeeSo KimTyler RimEun LeeEun KangBong-Soo ChaHyun LeeByung-Wan Lee Source Type: research

Treadmill running improves hindlimb arteriolar endothelial function in type 1 diabetic mice as visualized by X-ray microangiography
Background: Vascular function is impaired in patients with diabetes, however diabetic vascular dysfunction is ameliorated by exercise training. We aimed to clarify which hindlimb arterial segments are affected by treadmill running in the hindlimbs of streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice in vivo. Methods: Mice were divided into 3 groups; healthy control, diabetic control, and diabetic-running groups. The exercise regimen was performed by treadmill level running mice for 60 min/day, for 4 weeks. Thereafter, we examined the vascular response to systemic acetylcholine administration in the left hindlimb of anest...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takashi SonobeHirotsugu TsuchimochiDaryl SchwenkeJames PearsonMikiyasu Shirai Source Type: research

Association of elevated apoA-I glycation and reduced HDL-associated paraoxonase1, 3 activity, and their interaction with angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
ObjectiveTo investigate whether apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I glycation and paraoxonase (PON) activities are associated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Relative intensity of apoA-I glycation and activities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated PON1 and PON3 were determined in 205 consecutive T2DM patients with stable angina with (n = 144) or without (n = 61) significant CAD (luminal diameter stenosis ≥ 70 %). The severity of CAD was expressed by number of diseased coronary arteries, extent index, an...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ying ShenFeng DingJia SunLi PuRui ZhangQi ZhangQiu ChenWei ShenLin Lu Source Type: research

The amount of C1q–adiponectin complex is higher in the serum and the complex localizes to perivascular areas of fat tissues and the intimal–medial layer of blood vessels of coronary artery disease patients
Conclusions: Serum C1q concentration and the C1q/HMW-APN ratio were independent markers of coronary artery stenosis. The amount of C1q–APN complex was significantly greater in serum from CAD patients. C1q and APN co-localized to perivascular areas in adipose tissue and blood vessels. The association between the increased amount of the C1q–APN complex and CAD should be investigated further. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 9, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eun HongCheong LimHye ChoiEu KuKyoung KimJae MoonSoo LimKyong ParkHak JangSung Choi Source Type: research

Interactive effects of a common γ-glutamyltransferase 1 variant and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol on diabetic macro- and micro-angiopathy
Conclusions: We herein describe for the first time the significant interactive effects of the GGT1 G allele and a low HDL-C level on a high baPWV and DR. These findings may encourage future clinical trials comparing the efficacy of agents increasing the HDL-C levels among the GGT1 genotypes. However, well-designed studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our results. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hideaki JinnouchiKazunori MoritaTakahiro TanakaAyami KajiwaraYuki KawataKentaro OnikiJunji SaruwatariKazuko NakagawaKoji OtakeYasuhiro OgataAkira YoshidaSeiji HokimotoHisao Ogawa Source Type: research

Association of peripheral nerve conduction in diabetic neuropathy with subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction
Background: Subclinical left ventricular (LV) longitudinal myocardial systolic dysfunction occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and is closely related to DM-related complications. However, the association of diabetic neuropathy (DN) with subclinical LV systolic longitudinal dysfunction in such patients has not been fully clarified. Methods: The subjects of this study were 112 consecutive DM patients with preserved LVEF (all ≥50%) without coronary artery disease and overt heart failure (aged 59 ± 14 years; 60 women, 52 men). Global longitudina...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yasuhide MochizukiHidekazu TanakaKensuke MatsumotoHiroyuki SanoHiromi TokiHiroyuki ShimouraJunichi OokaTakuma SawaYoshiki MotojiKeiko RyoYushi HirotaWataru OgawaKen-ichi Hirata Source Type: research

Epicardial fat thickness is associated to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean men: a cross-sectional study
Background: Visceral fat, including epicardial fat (EF) is recognized as a responsible factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between EF and diabetes in Korean men. Methods: EF thickness was measured in the left main coronary artery fat tissue (LMCA-fat) by low-dose chest CT scans in 1,048 Korean men (age above 20 years). LMCA-fat values were divided into quartiles and the prevalence of diabetes was analyzed based on the quartiles of LMCA-fat values using logistic regression. Results: There were significant correlations between LMCA-fat and body mass index (r&thinsp...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hyejin ChunEunkyung SuhA ByunHae ParkKyung Shim Source Type: research

Low fasting glucose is associated with enhanced thrombin generation and unfavorable fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk
ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of low blood glucose on thrombin generation and fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In 165 patients with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk, we measured ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeation [Ks], turbidity and efficiency of fibrinolysis including clot lysis time [t50%], together with thrombin generation and platelet activation markers in relation to fasting blood glucose. Results: As compared to patients in medium (4.5-6.0 mmol/l, n = 52) and higher (>6.0 mmol/l, n = 75) glucose group, subjects with low glycemia ( (Source: Ca...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 1, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Grzegorz GajosMalgorzata KonieczynskaJaroslaw ZalewskiAnetta Undas Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in salt-sensitive hypertension: role of angiotensin II activation of NFκB
Conclusion: The current findings strongly suggest that the activation of NFκB inflammatory pathway by Ang II play a critical role in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in salt-sensitive hypertension. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 1, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ming-Sheng ZhouChang LiuRunxia TianAkira NishiyamaLeopoldo Raij Source Type: research

Cross-sectional analysis of serum calcium levels for associations with left ventricular hypertrophy in normocalcemia individuals with type 2 diabetes
Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that an increase in albumin-adjusted serum calcium level is associated with an elevated risk of T2DM. We speculate that increased serum calcium levels in T2DM patients are related to LVH prevalence. Methods: In this echocardiographic study, 833 normocalcemia and normophosphatemia patients with T2DM were enrolled. The associations between serum calcium and metabolic parameters, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), as well as the rate of LVH were examined using bivariate linear correlation, multiva...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 29, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Junfeng LiNan WuYintao LiKuanping YeMin HeRenming Hu Source Type: research

Polymorphisms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (rs1801282) and its coactivator-1 (rs8192673) are associated with obesity indexes in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: In a large sample of the Caucasians the rs8192673 of the PGC-1α gene and the rs1801282 of the PPAR-γ gene were associated with waist circumference in subjects with T2DM. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Peter KruzliakAndreana HaleyJovana StarcevicLudovit GasparDaniel Petrovic Source Type: research