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Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein: the association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marjo Campmans-KuijpersIvonne SluijsUte NöthlingsHeinz FreislingKim OvervadElisabete WeiderpassGuy FagherazziTilman KühnVerena KatzkeAmalia MattielloEmily SonestedtGiovanna MasalaClaudia AgnoliRosario TuminoAnnemieke SpijkermanAurelio BarricarteFulvio R Source Type: research

Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 57,946 patients with type 2 diabetes: associations with renal function and cardiovascular risk factors
Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes, management of cardiovascular risk factors and careful monitoring of eGFR may represent opportunities to reduce the risks of death, MI and IS/TIA. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lucia Cea SorianoSaga JohanssonBergur StefanssonLuis Rodríguez Source Type: research

Clinical features of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus
Background: Left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic dysfunction has been identified even in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). However, its relevant clinical features have not been fully evaluated. Methods: We studied 144 asymptomatic DM patients without coronary artery disease. Their mean age was 57 ± 15 years, 79 (55%) were female, and mean LVEF was 66 ± 4% (all ≥50%). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was determined as the average peak strain of 18 segments from the three standard apical views, and was expresse...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 17, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yasuhide MochizukiHidekazu TanakaKensuke MatsumotoHiroyuki SanoHiromi TokiHiroyuki ShimouraJunichi OokaTakuma SawaYoshiki MotojiKeiko RyoYushi HirotaWataru OgawaKen-ichi Hirata Source Type: research

Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers 2014
Contributing reviewersThe editors of Cardiovascular Diabetology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 13 (2014). (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Enrique FismanAlexander Tenenbaum Source Type: research

Association of serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 with carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: Serum ANGPTL2 concentration was significantly and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that ANGPTL2 may be important in the atherosclerosis in humans. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chang JungWoo LeeMin LeeYu KangJung JangJaechan LeemYoo La LeeSo SeolHae YoonJoong-Yeol Park Source Type: research

Decreased urine uric acid excretion is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease but not for carotid atherosclerosis in hospital-based patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
Background: The associations between urine uric acid excretion (UUAE) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)/atherosclerosis have not been investigated. Our aims were to investigate the relationships between UUAE and CKD and carotid atherosclerotic lesions in hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted with 2627 Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes. UUAE was determined enzymatically using a single 24-h urine collection. The subjects were stratified into quartiles according to their UUAE levels. Carotid atherosclerotic lesions, including carotid intima-media ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lian-Xi LiAi-Ping WangRong ZhangTing-Ting LiJun-Wei WangYu-Qian BaoWei-Ping Jia Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes-associated carotid plaque burden is increased in patients with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been associated with an increased risk for CVD. The present study was designed to test the concept that T2D patients with DR, but without previous cardiovascular (CV) events and with normal renal function, have an increased atherosclerotic burden compared with patients without DR. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using patients with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)>60 ml/min) and without previous CV events. A total of ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Núria AlonsoAlicia TravesetEsther RubinatEmilio OrtegaNuria AlcubierreJordi SanahujaMarta HernándezAngels BetriuCarmen JurjoElvira FernándezDidac Mauricio Source Type: research

Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels is associated with lower extremity atherosclerotic disease in Chinese female diabetic patients
Background: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an emerging metabolic regulator associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, and it is still unclear whether FGF21 is related to atherosclerosis. Here, we explored the potential link between FGF21 and lower extremity atherosclerotic disease (LEAD) in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 504 type 2 diabetic patients (283 men, 221 women). LEAD was defined by Ankle-brachial index (ABI) (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaoyan ZhangYanyun HuHui ZengLianxi LiJungong ZhaoJun ZhaoFang LiuYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -3, -10, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are associated with vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study
Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that impaired regulation of matrix remodeling by actions of MMP-2, -3 and-10 and TIMP-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Stijn PeetersLian EngelenJacqueline BuijsNish ChaturvediJohn FullerCasper SchalkwijkCoen StehouwerEURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group Source Type: research

Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes is accompanied by significant morphological and ultrastructural changes in both erythrocytes and in thrombin-generated fibrin: implications for diagnostics
We have noted in previous work, in a variety of inflammatory diseases, where iron dysregulation occurs, a strong tendency for erythrocytes to lose their normal discoid shape and to adopt a skewed morphology (as judged by their axial ratios in the light microscope and by their ultrastructure in the SEM). Similarly, the polymerization of fibrinogen, as induced in vitro by added thrombin, leads not to the common ‘spaghetti-like’ structures but to dense matted deposits. Type 2 diabetes is a known inflammatory disease. In the present work, we found that the axial ratio of the erythrocytes of poorly controlled (as su...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Etheresia PretoriusJanette BesterNatasha VermeulenSajee AlummoottilPrashilla SomaAntoinette BuysDouglas Kell Source Type: research

Acute hemodynamic and renal effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 analog and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in rats
Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that a GLP-1 analog and a DPP4 inhibitor may have beneficial effects on renal sodium and water handling. Additionally, the DPP4 inhibitor, MK-0626, favorably affects renal hemodynamics by increasing RBF. However, exceedingly high levels of GLP-1 receptor agonists may adversely affect the cardiovascular system in acute setting, as demonstrated by an acute increase in HR. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaoyan ZhouChin-hu HuangJulie LaoAlessandro PocaiGail ForrestOlga PriceSophie RoyDavid KelleyKathleen SullivanMichael Forrest Source Type: research

Awareness, treatment and control of cardiometabolic disorders in Chinese adults with diabetes: a national representative population study
Conclusions: Detection and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia is far from optimal in Chinese adults, especially in newly-diagnosed diabetes. Improved screening for diabetes is required to promote a better prevention, treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia in China. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 26, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tiange WangYu XuMin XuWeiqing WangYufang BiJieli LuMeng DaiDi ZhangLin DingBaihui XuJichao SunWenhua ZhaoYong JiangLimin WangYichong LiMei ZhangShenghan LaiLinhong WangGuang Ning Source Type: research

Design and rationale for the randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Liraglutide to Improve corONary haemodynamics during Exercise streSS (LIONESS) crossover study
DiscussionThe study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of Helsinki. The local Research Ethics Committee and Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency have approved the study.Trial registration• National Institute of Health Research Clinical Research Network (NIHR CRN) Portfolio ID 11112 (http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/Search/StudyDetail.aspx?StudyID=11112).• ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02315001. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aung MyatSatpal ArriDeepak BhattBernard GershSimon RedwoodMichael Marber Source Type: research

Association of obesity and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without diabetes mellitus: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry
Conclusion: In contrast to AMI patients without diabetes, AMI patients with diabetes do not experience a survival benefit from an elevated BMI. To investigate the underlying reasons for these findings, further studies stratifying their samples by diabetes status are needed. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Miriam ColomboChrista MeisingerUte AmannMargit HeierWolfgang von ScheidtBernhard KuchAnnette PetersInge Kirchberger Source Type: research

Effects of exenatide on postprandial vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: Exenatide inhibited postprandial vascular endothelial dysfunction after the meal loading test, suggesting that exenatide has a multiphasic anti-atherogenic action involving not only glucose but also lipid metabolism.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: UMIN000015699. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Keiichi TorimotoYosuke OkadaHiroko MoriTakashi OtsukaMayuko KawaguchiMegumi MatsudaFumi KunoKei SugaiSatomi SonodaMaiko HajimeKenichi TanakaTadashi AraoYoshiya Tanaka Source Type: research

Candesartan restores pressure-induced vasodilation and prevents skin pressure ulcer formation in diabetic mice
Conclusion: Candesartan decreases the vulnerability to pressure-induced ulceration and restores skin neurovascular functions in mice with STZ-induced established diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aurore DanigoMohamad NasserFlavien BessaguetJames JavellaudNicole OudartJean-Michel AchardClaire Demiot Source Type: research

Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study
Conclusions: A greater postprandial glycemic response to a small meal was positively associated with indicators of a decreased capacity for insulin secretion and negatively associated with obesity. No pattern of response was observed with a greater postprandial triglyceride excursion. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bárbara RiboldiVivian LuftCristina de CastilhosLetícia de CardosoMaria SchmidtSandhi BarretoMaria de SanderSheila AlvimBruce Duncan Source Type: research

Activation of TRPV1 Channel by dietary capsaicin improves visceral fat remodeling through Connexin43-mediated Ca 2+ Influx
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that capsaicin activation of TRPV1-evoked increased Ca2+ influx in Cx43-mediated adipocyte-to-adipocyte communication promotes lipolysis in both vitro and vivo. TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves visceral fat remodeling through the up-regulation of Cx43. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jian ChenLi LiYingsha LiXia LiangQianqian SunHao YuJian ZhongYinxing NiJing ChenZhigang ZhaoPeng GaoBin WangDaoyan LiuZhiming ZhuZhencheng Yan Source Type: research

Cardiac structure and function are altered in type 2 diabetes and Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and associate with glycemic control
Background: Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Type 2 diabetes increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The metabolic processes underlying NAFLD and Type 2 diabetes are part of an integrated mechanism but little is known about how these conditions may differentially affect the heart. We compared the impact of NAFLD and Type 2 diabetes on cardiac structure, function and metabolism. Methods: 19 adults with Type 2 diabetes (62???8?years), 19 adults with NAFLD (54???15?years) and 19 healthy controls (56???14?years) underwent assessment of cardiac structure, function and metabolism using high reso...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sophie CassidyKate HallsworthChristian ThomaGuy MacGowanKieren HollingsworthChristopher DayRoy TaylorDjordje JakovljevicMichael Trenell Source Type: research

Role of adiponectin and free fatty acids on the association between abdominal visceral fat and insulin resistance
Background: Experimental studies have shown that high free fatty acid (FFA) and low adiponectin (ADIPO) levels are involved in the mechanisms by which adiposity promotes insulin resistance (IR). However, no previous clinical studies have simultaneously analysed the relative contribution of FFA and ADIPO levels on the relation of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) with insulin resistance.ObjectiveTo analyse the contribution of low ADIPO (adiponectin??=p75th: 0.745?mEq/L in women and 0.60?mEq/L in men) to the association of high AVF (AVF?>?=p75th: 127?cm2 in women; 152.7?cm2 in men) with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR?>?=75th: ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aida Medina-UrrutiaCarlos Posadas-RomeroRosalinda Posadas-SánchezEsteban Jorge-GalarzaTeresa Villarreal-MolinaMaría González-SalazarGuillermo Cardoso-SaldañaGilberto Vargas-AlarcónMargarita Torres-TamayoJuan Juárez-Rojas Source Type: research

Glycated albumin is more closely correlated with coronary artery disease than 1,5-anhydroglucitol and glycated hemoglobin A1c
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of two nontraditional glycemic markers, glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), as well as glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: In total, 272 subjects (178 men and 94 postmenopausal women) were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent coronary angiography which was used to diagnose CAD. The severity of coronary artery stenosis was assessed by the coronary stenosis index (CSI). GA and 1,5-AG were assayed using the enzymatic method, and HbA1c was detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. R...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaojing MaXiang HuJian ZhouYaping HaoYuqi LuoZhigang LuYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Targeting metabolic disturbance in the diabetic heart
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is defined as ventricular dysfunction initiated by alterations in cardiac energy substrates in the absence of coronary artery disease and hypertension. In addition to the demonstrated burden of cardiovascular events associated with diabetes, diabetic cardiomyopathy partly explains why diabetic patients are subject to a greater risk of heart failure and a worse outcome after myocardial ischemia. The raising prevalence and accumulating costs of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients underscore the deficiencies of tertiary prevention and call for a shift in medical treatment. It is becoming increa...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jesús Fuentes-AntrásBelén PicatosteElisa RamírezJesús EgidoJosé TuñónÓscar Lorenzo Source Type: research

Liraglutide attenuates high glucose-induced abnormal cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells by activating the GLP-1 receptor, and inhibiting ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways
Background: As a new anti-diabetic medicine, Liraglutide (LIRA), one of GLP-1 analogues, has been found to have an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Since vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play pivotal roles in the occurrence of diabetic atherosclerosis, it is important to investigate the role of LIRA in reducing the harmful effects of high-glucose (HG) treatment in cultured VSMCs, and identifying associated molecular mechanisms. Methods: Primary rat VSMCs were exposed to low or high glucose-containing medium with or without LIRA. They were challenged with HG in the presence of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), extracell...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lili ShiYe JiXiaoyan JiangLihong ZhouYing XuYanbo LiWei JiangPing MengXiaomin Liu Source Type: research

Inhibition of protein kinase C enhances angiogenesis induced by platelet-derived growth factor C in hyperglycemic endothelial cells
Conclusions: These findings suggest that downregulation of the PDGF-C/ PDGFR-? axis is involved in impaired angiogenesis of hyperglycemia through upregulation of PKC. Targeting PKC to restore PDGF-C signaling might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of vascular complications in diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Junji MoriyaNapoleone Ferrara Source Type: research

Association among weight change, glycemic control, and markers of cardiovascular risk with exenatide once weekly: a pooled analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: Exenatide once weekly improved glycemic parameters independent of weight change, although the magnitude of improvement increased with increasing weight loss. The greatest trend of improvement in glycemic parameters, cardiovascular risk factors including systolic BP, LDL-C, total cholesterol, and triglycerides, and in liver enzymes, was seen in the patient quartiles with the greatest reductions in body weight. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lawrence BlondeRichard PencekLeigh MacConell Source Type: research

A real world comparison of sulfonylurea and insulin vs. incretin-based treatments in patients not controlled on prior metformin monotherapy
Conclusions: Taking the results of DiaRegis into consideration it can be concluded that incretin-based treatment strategies appear to have a favourable balance between glycemic control and treatment emergent adverse effects. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Anselm GittPeter BramlageSteffen SchneiderDiethelm Tschöpe Source Type: research

Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events: a retrospective analysis based on 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: Both blood pressure and HbA1C seem to be very important treatment targets, especially in comorbid old patients. It is of particular clinical importance that both over- and under-treatment pose a threat to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Thomas WilkeSabrina MuellerAntje GrothAndreas FuchsLisa SeitzJoachim KienhöferUlf MaywaldRainer LundershausenMartin Wehling Source Type: research

The effect of clopidogrel on platelet activity in patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus: a comparative study
Background: Although antiplatelet therapy involving clopidogrel is a standard treatment for preventing cardiovascular events after coronary stent implantation, patients can display differential responses. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of clopidogrel on platelet function inhibition in subjects with and without type-2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease. In addition, we investigated the correlation between platelet function and routine clinical parameters. Methods: A total of 64 patients with stable coronary heart disease were enrolled in the study. Among these, 32 had known type-2 diabetes, whereas the remaini...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Claudia SchuetteDaniel SteffensMarco WitkowskiCaroline StellbaumPeter BobbertHeinz-Peter SchultheissUrsula Rauch Source Type: research

Effect of empagliflozin monotherapy on postprandial glucose and 24-hour glucose variability in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week study
This study evaluated the effect of empagliflozin on postprandial glucose (PPG) and 24-hour glucose variability in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Patients (N?=?60; baseline mean [SD] HbA1c 7.91 [0.80]%;body mass index 24.3 [3.2] kg/m2) were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10?mg (n?=?20), empagliflozin 25?mg (n?=?19) or placebo (n?=?21) once daily as monotherapy for 28?days. A meal tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 24?hours were performed at baseline and on days 1 and 28. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in area under the glucose concentration-time c...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rimei NishimuraYuko TanakaKazuki KoiwaiKohei InoueThomas HachAfshin SalsaliSøren LundUli Broedl Source Type: research

Erratum: Vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes: the involvement of matrix Gla protein
No description available (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 24, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sophie LiabeufOlivier BourronCees VemeerElke TheuwissenElke MagdeleynsCarole AubertMichel BrazierRomuald MentaverriAgnes HartemannZiad Massy Source Type: research

The association of the treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide or insulin with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective observational study
Background: To evaluate the association of treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exenatide and/or insulin on macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal pharmaco-epidemiological study using large ambulatory care data to evaluate the risks of heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in established T2DM patients who received a first prescription of exenatide twice daily (EBID) or insulin between June 2005 and May 2009, with follow-up data available until December 2012. Three treatment groups were: EBID with oral ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 24, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sanjoy PaulKerenaftali KleinDavid MaggsJennie Best Source Type: research

Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in cardiac and vascular remodeling in a novel minipig model of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis induced by consumption of a high-fat/cholesterol diet
Conclusions: These data suggest that HFC-fed Tibetan minipigs develop IR and AS and that PPARs are involved in cardiovascular remodeling and impaired function. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Pan YongmingCai ZhaoweiMa YichaoZhu KeyanChen LiangChen FangmingXu XiaopingMa QuanxinChen Minli Source Type: research

Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with cardiovascular target organ damage and vascular structure and function in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome, LOD-DIABETES study: a case series report
Background: The cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of the overall stiffness of the artery from the origin of the aorta to the ankle. This index can estimate the risk of atherosclerosis. We aimed to find the relationship between CAVI and target organ damage (TOD), vascular structure and function, and cardiovascular risk factors in Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. Methods: We included 110 subjects from the LOD-Diabetes study, whose mean age was 61???11?years, and 37.3% were women. Measurements of CAVI, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV), and ankle brachial index ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Manuel Gómez-MarcosJosé Recio-RodríguezMaría Patino-AlonsoCristina Agudo-CondeLeticia Gómez-SánchezMarta Gomez-SanchezEmiliano Rodríguez-SanchezJose Maderuelo-FernandezLuís García-OrtizLOD-DIABETES Group Source Type: research

Systemic arteriosclerosis and eating behavior in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with visceral fat accumulation
We described previously visceral fat accumulation and multiple cardiovascular risk factors in a considerable number of Japanese non-obese subjects (BMI (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shiro FukudaAyumu HirataHitoshi NishizawaHirofumi NagaoSusumu KashineTakekazu KimuraKana InoueYuya FujishimaMasaya YamaokaJunji KozawaTetsuhiro KitamuraTetsuyuki YasudaNorikazu MaedaAkihisa ImagawaTohru FunahashiIichiro Shimomura Source Type: research

Body weight and risk of atrial fibrillation in 7,169 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes; an observational study
Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF) are closely associated, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We aimed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI) or weight change with risk of AF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 7,169 participations with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were stratified according to baseline BMI, and after a second BMI measurement within 18?months, further grouped according to relative weight change as ?weight gain? (>1 BMI unit), ?stable weight? (+/? 1 BMI unit) and ?weight loss? ( (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Irene GrundvoldJohan BodegardPeter NilssonBodil SvennbladGunnar JohanssonCarl ÖstgrenJohan Sundström Source Type: research

Crosstalk between advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor RAGE axis and dipeptidyl peptidase-4-incretin system in diabetic vascular complications
This article summarizes the crosstalk between AGEs-RAGE axis and DPP-4-incretin system in the development and progression of diabetes-associated disorders and its therapeutic intervention, especially focusing on diabetic vascular complications. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sho-ichi YamagishiKei FukamiTakanori Matsui Source Type: research

Higher blood aldosterone level in metabolic syndrome is independently related to adiposity and fasting plasma glucose
In this study, we investigate the association of aldosterone with MetS and IR, and compare it with that of adiponectin. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 556 women receiving physical examinations at a general hospital in central Taiwan. At the time of examination, we collected data on various demographic and physical characteristics and measured blood levels of aldosterone, adiponectin and a variety of metabolic factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using adiponectin or aldosterone as the dependent variables. Results: We found an inverse correlation between blood adiponectin and aldo...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jui-Kun ChiangChi-Ling ChenFeng-Yu TsengYu-Chiao ChiKuo-Chin HuangWei-Shiung Yang Source Type: research

Diastolic dysfunction in the diabetic continuum : association with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes
Background: Diabetes increases the risk of heart failure but the underlying mechanisms leading to diabetic cardiomyopathy are poorly understood. Left ventricle diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is one of the earliest cardiac changes in these patients. We aimed to evaluate the association between LVDD with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes, across the diabetic continuum. Methods: Within a population-based study (EPIPorto), a total of 1063 individuals aged ?45?years (38% male, 61.2???9.6?years) were evaluated. Diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography, using tissue Doppler analysis (E? velocity an...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ricardo Fontes-CarvalhoRicardo Ladeiras-LopesPaulo BettencourtAdelino Leite-MoreiraAna Azevedo Source Type: research

Glyceraldehyde-derived pyridinium (GLAP) evokes oxidative stress and inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions in endothelial cells via the interaction with RAGE
Conclusions: The present study suggests that GLAP might be a main glyceraldehyde-related AGE structure in Gly-AGEs that bound to RAGE and subsequently elicited ROS generation and inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions in HUVECs. Blockade of the GLAP-RAGE interaction by AGE-aptamer or GLAP-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular injury in diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - January 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takanori MatsuiEriko OdaYuichiro HigashimotoSho-ichi Yamagishi Source Type: research

The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Conclusions: In this short-term model of type 1 diabetes, endothelial dysfunction is associated to an IL-1 receptor-mediated activation of vascular NADPH oxidase and NF-?B, as well as to vascular inflammation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, vascular oxidative stress and inflammation were reduced after anakinra treatment. Whether this mechanism can be extrapolated to a chronic situation or whether it may apply to diabetic patients remain to be established. However, it may provide new insights to further investigate the therapeutic use of IL-1 receptor antagonists to obtain vascular benefits in patients with diabetes mel...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - December 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Susana VallejoErika PalaciosTania RomachoLaura VillalobosConcepción PeiróCarlos Sánchez-Ferrer Source Type: research

Prediction of mortality using a multi-bed vascular calcification score in the Diabetes Heart Study
Background: Vascular calcified plaque, a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), is unlikely to be limited to a single vascular bed in patients with multiple risk factors. Consideration of vascular calcified plaque as a global phenomenon may allow for a more accurate assessment of the CVD burden. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of a combined vascular calcified plaque score in the prediction of mortality. Methods: Vascular calcified plaque scores from the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic vascular beds and a derived multi-bed score were examined for associations with all-cause and CVD-mor...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - December 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Amanda CoxFang-Chi HsuSubhashish AgarwalBarry FreedmanDavid HerringtonJ CarrDonald Bowden Source Type: research

Increased haemodynamic adrenergic load with isoflurane anaesthesia in type 2 diabetic and obese rats in vivo
Background: Increasing numbers of type 2 diabetic and obese patients with enhanced rates of cardiovascular complications require surgical interventions, however they have a higher incidence of perioperative haemodynamic complications, which has been linked to adrenergic dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to determine how α- and β-adrenoceptor (AR)-mediated haemodynamic responses are affected by isoflurane anaesthesia in experimental type 2 diabetes and obesity in vivo. Methods: Sixteen-week old male Zucker type 2 Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, Zucker Obese rats and their lean counterparts (n = 7-9 per gr...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - December 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carol BusseyAnne de LeeuwRegis Lamberts Source Type: research

Hypertriglyceridemia: a too long unfairly neglected major cardiovascular risk factor
In conclusion, the classical clinical paradigm of lipids-modifying treatment should be changed and high TG should be recognized as an important target for therapy in their own right. Hypertriglyceridemia should be treated. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - December 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alexander TenenbaumRobert KlempfnerEnrique Fisman Source Type: research

Asymmetric dimethylarginine and long-term adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes: relation with the glycemic control
Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes, ADMA might be an independent risk factor for long-term adverse cardiovascular events. However, ADMA was not correlated with serum HbA1c level, and in diabetic patients with HbA1c ?6.5%, elevated ADMA level was no longer associated with increased risk of long-term prognosis. Our findings suggested that the prognosis predictive value of ADMA in type 2 diabetes might be modified by the glycemic control. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - December 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chiao-Po HsuPai-Feng HsuMing-Yi ChungShing-Jong LinTse-Min Lu Source Type: research

DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin ameliorates cardiovascular injury in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats independently of blood glucose and blood pressure
Conclusions: Our results provided the experimental evidence that linagliptin treatment initiated after the appearance of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy protected against cardiovascular injury induced by salt-sensitive hypertension, independently of blood pressure and blood glucose. These beneficial effects of linagliptin seem to be attributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and ACE. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - November 29, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nobutaka KoibuchiYu HasegawaTetsuji KatayamaKensuke ToyamaKen UekawaDaisuke SuetaHiroaki KusakaMingJie MaTakashi NakagawaBowen LinShokei Kim-Mitsuyama Source Type: research

Liver X receptor agonist treatment attenuates cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that GW3965 exerts a cardioprotective effect against DCM by (at least in part) attenuating insulin resistance, modulating Akt and MAP kinases pathways, and reducing oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory response. These findings strongly suggest that LXR agonist may have therapeutic potential in treating DCM. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - November 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Qing HeJun PuAncai YuanTianbao YaoXiaoying YingYichao ZhaoLongwei XuHuan TongBen He Source Type: research

Exenatide can inhibit calcification of human VSMCs through the NF-kappaB/RANKL signaling pathway
Conclusion: GLP-1RA exenatide can inhibit human VSMCs calcification through NF-κB/RANKL signaling. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jun-Kun ZhanPan TanYan-Jiao WangYi WangJie-Yu HeZhi-Yong TangWu HuangYou-Shuo Liu Source Type: research

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin attenuates neointima formation after vascular injury
In this study, we investigated the vascular-protective effect of the DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, using vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (n =19) and linagliptin (3 mg/kg/day, n =20) treated groups. Endothelial denudation injuries were induced in the femoral artery at 8 weeks of age, followed by evaluation of neointima formation at 12 weeks. To evaluate cell proliferation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells, a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay was performed. Results: Linagliptin treatment reduced vascular injury-induced neointima...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuichi TerawakiTakashi NomiyamaTakako KawanamiYuriko HamaguchiHiroyuki TakahashiTomoko TanakaKunitaka MuraseRyoko NagaishiMakito TanabeToshihiko Yanase Source Type: research

The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet on endothelial resistance to GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes: a preliminary report
Conclusions: These data suggest that the Mediterranean diet, using olive oil, prevents the acute hyperglycemia effect on endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress, and improves the action of GLP-1, which may have a favorable effect on the management of type 2 diabetes, particularly for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Antonio CerielloKatherine EspositoLucia La SalaGemma PujadasValeria De NigrisRoberto TestaLoredana BucciarelliMaurizio RondinelliStefano Genovese Source Type: research