Protective role of oleic acid against cardiovascular insulin resistance and in the early and late cellular atherosclerotic process
Conclusions: Our data suggest a differential role between oleate and palmitate and support the concept of the cardioprotector role of oleate as the main lipid component of virgin olive oil. Thus, oleate protects against cardiovascular insulin resistance, improves endothelial dysfunction in response to proinflammatory signals and finally, reduces proliferation and apoptosis in VSMCs that may contribute to an ameliorated atherosclerotic process and plaque stability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liliana PerdomoNuria BeneitYolanda OteroÓscar EscribanoSabela Díaz-CastroverdeAlmudena Gómez-HernándezManuel Benito Source Type: research

Chronic NF-κB blockade improves renal angiotensin II type 1 receptor functions and reduces blood pressure in Zucker diabetic rats
Conclusions: Our present study indicates blockade of NF-κB, via inhibition of binding of NF-κB with AT1R promoter, reduces renal AT1R expression and function, improves oxidative stress and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance, therefore, lowers blood pressure and recovers renal function in ZDF rats. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hao LuoXinquan WangJialiang WangCaiyu ChenNa WangZaicheng XuShuo ChenChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are related to subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes
In this study, we evaluated the association of serum FGF21 with intima-media thickness (IMT) and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Serum FGF21 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 212 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis or cardiovascular diseases. IMT of the carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound to determine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, which was defined as having an IMT > 1.0 mm and/or plaque on one or more of the three arteries wi...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yang XiaoLingjiao LiuAimin XuPengcheng ZhouZhaofeng LongYiting TuXiaoyan ChenWeili TangGan HuangZhiguang Zhou Source Type: research

Galectin-3 deficiency exacerbates hyperglycemia and the endothelial response to diabetes
Conclusions: Galectin-3 deficiency leads to exacerbated metabolic derangement and endothelial dysfunction. The impaired tissue uptake of glucose in KO mice can be attributed to the reduced expression of GLUT4. Enhanced coagulation activity in the diabetic KO suggests a protective role for galectin-3 against thrombosis. These studies demonstrate that galectin-3 deficiency contributes both to the pathogenesis of diabetes and the associated vasculopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: April DarrowRalph Shohet Source Type: research

Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study
Conclusion: Increased IR estimated by HOMA-IR was significantly associated with a higher remodeling index and positive coronary artery remodeling. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sang-Hoon KimJae-Youn MoonYeong LimKyung KimWoo-In YangJung-Hoon SungSeung YooIn KimSang-Wook LimDong-Hun ChaSeung-Yun Cho Source Type: research

The inflammation, vascular repair and injury responses to exercise in fit males with and without Type 1 diabetes: an observational study
Conclusions: Resting cEPCs and cECs in Type 1 diabetes patients with excellent HbA1c and high physical-fitness are comparable to healthy controls, despite eliciting 4-fold greater TNF-α. Furthermore, Type 1 diabetes patients appear to have a blunted post-exercise cEPCs response (vascular repair), whilst a biomarker of vascular injury (cECs) remained comparable to healthy controls. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 5, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daniel WestMatthew CampbellJavier GonzalezMark WalkerEmma StevensonFahad AhmedStephanie WijayaJames ShawJolanta Weaver Source Type: research

The association between glycemic variability and diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusion: CV in CGM and all parameters of HbA1c variability were independently associated with the presence of CAN in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes requiring CGM. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ji JunSang-Man JinJongha BaekSewon OhKyu HurMyung-Shik LeeMoon-Kyu LeeJae Kim Source Type: research

Cardiospecific CD36 suppression by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference prevents cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction in high-fat-diet induced obese mice
Conclusions: Cardiospecific CD36 inhibition protects against the aggravation of cardiac functional and morphological changes associated with HFD induced obesity. CD36 represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity cardiomyopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yijie ZhangMingwei BaoMingyan DaiXin WangWenbo HeTuantuan TanDandan LinWei WangYing WenRui Zhang Source Type: research

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are independently associated with macroalbuminuria, but not with retinopathy and macrovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB prospective complications study
Conclusions: In individuals with type 1 diabetes, both higher 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 are associated with a lower prevalence of macroalbuminuria, but not of retinopathy and CVD. Prospective studies are needed to further examine the associations between 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 and the development of microvascular complications and CVD in type 1 diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lian EngelenCasper SchalkwijkSimone EussenJean ScheijenSabita Soedamah-MuthuNish ChaturvediJohn FullerCoen Stehouwer Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus and platelet reactivity in patients under prasugrel or ticagrelor treatment: an observational study
Background: The influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on platelet reactivity (PR) in prasugrel or ticagrelor treated patients is not well studied. Methods: In an observational study involving 777 patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated by either prasugrel 10 mg od (n = 315) or ticagrelor 90 mg bid (n = 462), platelet function was assessed using the VerifyNow P2Y12 function assay (in PRU) at one month post intervention. Results: In the overall population, ticagrelor and insulin-treated DM affected PR, with a decrease in log by 0.88 (corr...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dimitrios AlexopoulosChrysoula VogiatziKaterina StavrouNiki VlassopoulouAngelos PerperisIoanna PentaraIoanna Xanthopoulou Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and myocardial ischemic preconditioning in symptomatic coronary artery disease patients
Conclusions: In this study, diabetes mellitus was not associated with impairment in ischemic preconditioning in symptomatic coronary artery disease patients. Furthermore, diabetic patients experienced an improvement in this significant mechanism of myocardial protection. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paulo RezendeRosa RahmiAugusto UchidaLeandro da CostaThiago ScudelerCibele GarzilloEduardo LimaCarlos SegrePriscyla GirardiMyrthes TakiutiMarcela SilvaWhady HuebJose RamiresRoberto Filho Source Type: research

Longitudinal association of C-reactive protein and Haemoglobin A1c over 13 years: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer - Norfolk study
Conclusion: In this study we found longitudinal observational evidence suggesting that increase in systemic inflammation is associated with an increase in HbA1c and thus systemic inflammation may have a role in development of type-2 diabetes and its complications. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sara Ahmadi-AbhariStephen KaptogeRobert LubenNicholas WarehamKay-Tee Khaw Source Type: research

Serum leptin levels are independently related to the incidence of ischemic heart disease in a prospective study of patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: Our data support the use of serum leptin in type 2 diabetes to add independent prognostic information in terms of ischemic heart disease when compared with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In the men of the cohort this prognostic information was in addition also to data on IMT and PWV, two non-invasive measurements of the extent of vascular disease. The power to detect a similar relationship in women was less strong due to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01049737. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Camilla VavruchToste LänneMats FredriksonTorbjörn LindströmCarl ÖstgrenFredrik Nystrom Source Type: research

Predictive value of dynamic renal resistive index (drin) for renal outcome in type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension: a prospective study
Conclusions: PWV and DRIN are able to predict microalbuminuria onset in newly diagnosed EH and T2DM. DRIN is early compromised in T2DM patients developing microalbuminuria. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: R. BrunoA. SalvatiM. BarzacchiS. TaddeiK. RaimoL. GhiadoniA. Solini Source Type: research

Cardiovascular safety of linagliptin in type 2 diabetes: a comprehensive patient-level pooled analysis of prospectively adjudicated cardiovascular events
Background: The cardiovascular (CV) safety of linagliptin was evaluated in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: Pre-specified patient-level pooled analysis of all available double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, ≥12 weeks’ duration (19 trials, 9459 subjects) of linagliptin versus placebo/active treatment. Primary end point: composite of prospectively adjudicated CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina (4P-MACE). Hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) was also evaluated; adjudication of CHF was introduced during the phase ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Julio RosenstockNikolaus MarxDietmar NeubacherThomas SeckSanjay PatelHans-Juergen WoerleOdd Johansen Source Type: research

Normal-weight obesity is associated with increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis
Conclusions: NWO individuals carry a higher incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis compared with NWL individuals, regardless of other clinical risk factors for atherosclerosis. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sohee KimChanhee KyungJong ParkSeung-Pyo LeeHye KimChul AhnKyung KimShinae Kang Source Type: research

Additive prognostic value of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and coronary artery calcification for cardiovascular events and mortality in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria but without known coronary artery disease, NT-proBNP and CAC were strongly associated with fatal and nonfatal CVD, as well as with mortality. Their additive prognostic capability holds promise for identification of patients at high risk. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bernt von ScholtenHenrik ReinhardTine HansenMorten LindhardtClaus PetersenNiels WiinbergPeter HansenHans-Henrik ParvingPeter JacobsenPeter Rossing Source Type: research

Baseline diabetes as a way to predict CV outcomes in a lipid-modifying trial: a meta-analysis of 330,376 patients from 47 landmark studies
Conclusions: Absolute and relative CV risk associated with diabetes at inclusion can be readily predicted using linear equations relating diabetes prevalence to primary outcomes or CHD rates. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michel HermansEvariste BouenizabilaDaniel Amoussou-guenouSylvie AhnMichel Rousseau Source Type: research

DPP-4 inhibition with linagliptin ameliorates cognitive impairment and brain atrophy induced by transient cerebral ischemia in type 2 diabetic mice
Conclusions: DPP-4 inhibition with linagliptin counteracted cognitive impairment and brain atrophy induced by transient cerebral ischemia in diabetic mice, independently of blood glucose lowering effect. This cerebroprotective effect of linagliptin was associated with the suppression of blood brain barrier disruption and the attenuation of cerebral oxidative stress. Thus, our present work highlights DPP-4 inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy for cognitive impairment and cerebral vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: MingJie MaYu HasegawaNobutaka KoibuchiKensuke ToyamaKen UekawaTakashi NakagawaBowen LinShokei Kim-Mitsuyama Source Type: research

Sex influenced association of directly measured insulin sensitivity and serum transaminase levels: Why alanine aminotransferase only predicts cardiovascular risk in men?
Background: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor which is closely associated with insulin resistance measured by both direct or indirect methods. Gender specific findings in the relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and CV disease, the prevalence of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have been published recently.The aim of the present study was to explore the gender aspects of the association between insulin sensitivity, liver markers and other metabolic biomarkers in order to elucidate the background behind the sex influenced difference in both NAFLD, T2DM...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Barbara BudayPeter PachBotond Literati-NagyMarta VitaiGyorgyi KovacsZsuzsa VecseiLaszlo KoranyiCsaba Lengyel Source Type: research

Tissue inflammation and nitric oxide-mediated alterations in cardiovascular function are major determinants of endotoxin-induced insulin resistance
Conclusion: Nitric oxide excess and LPS impairs glycemic control by diminishing MGU. LPS impairs MGU by both the direct effect of inflammation on the myocyte, as well as by the indirect NO-driven cardiovascular dysfunction. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lawrence HouseRobert MorrisTammy BarnesLouise LantierTravis CyphertOwen McGuinnessYolanda Otero Source Type: research

Glycated albumin and the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in subjects with Type 1 Diabetes
Conclusions: Mean GA levels were more closely associated with DN progression than mean HbA1c in subjects with T1D. However, they were not associated with the CAA. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hye-jin YoonYong-ho LeeSo KimTyler RimEun LeeEun KangBong-Soo ChaHyun LeeByung-Wan Lee Source Type: research

Treadmill running improves hindlimb arteriolar endothelial function in type 1 diabetic mice as visualized by X-ray microangiography
Background: Vascular function is impaired in patients with diabetes, however diabetic vascular dysfunction is ameliorated by exercise training. We aimed to clarify which hindlimb arterial segments are affected by treadmill running in the hindlimbs of streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice in vivo. Methods: Mice were divided into 3 groups; healthy control, diabetic control, and diabetic-running groups. The exercise regimen was performed by treadmill level running mice for 60 min/day, for 4 weeks. Thereafter, we examined the vascular response to systemic acetylcholine administration in the left hindlimb of anest...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takashi SonobeHirotsugu TsuchimochiDaryl SchwenkeJames PearsonMikiyasu Shirai Source Type: research

Association of elevated apoA-I glycation and reduced HDL-associated paraoxonase1, 3 activity, and their interaction with angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
ObjectiveTo investigate whether apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I glycation and paraoxonase (PON) activities are associated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Relative intensity of apoA-I glycation and activities of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated PON1 and PON3 were determined in 205 consecutive T2DM patients with stable angina with (n = 144) or without (n = 61) significant CAD (luminal diameter stenosis ≥ 70 %). The severity of CAD was expressed by number of diseased coronary arteries, extent index, an...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 13, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ying ShenFeng DingJia SunLi PuRui ZhangQi ZhangQiu ChenWei ShenLin Lu Source Type: research

The amount of C1q–adiponectin complex is higher in the serum and the complex localizes to perivascular areas of fat tissues and the intimal–medial layer of blood vessels of coronary artery disease patients
Conclusions: Serum C1q concentration and the C1q/HMW-APN ratio were independent markers of coronary artery stenosis. The amount of C1q–APN complex was significantly greater in serum from CAD patients. C1q and APN co-localized to perivascular areas in adipose tissue and blood vessels. The association between the increased amount of the C1q–APN complex and CAD should be investigated further. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 9, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eun HongCheong LimHye ChoiEu KuKyoung KimJae MoonSoo LimKyong ParkHak JangSung Choi Source Type: research

Interactive effects of a common γ-glutamyltransferase 1 variant and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol on diabetic macro- and micro-angiopathy
Conclusions: We herein describe for the first time the significant interactive effects of the GGT1 G allele and a low HDL-C level on a high baPWV and DR. These findings may encourage future clinical trials comparing the efficacy of agents increasing the HDL-C levels among the GGT1 genotypes. However, well-designed studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm our results. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hideaki JinnouchiKazunori MoritaTakahiro TanakaAyami KajiwaraYuki KawataKentaro OnikiJunji SaruwatariKazuko NakagawaKoji OtakeYasuhiro OgataAkira YoshidaSeiji HokimotoHisao Ogawa Source Type: research

Association of peripheral nerve conduction in diabetic neuropathy with subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction
Background: Subclinical left ventricular (LV) longitudinal myocardial systolic dysfunction occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and is closely related to DM-related complications. However, the association of diabetic neuropathy (DN) with subclinical LV systolic longitudinal dysfunction in such patients has not been fully clarified. Methods: The subjects of this study were 112 consecutive DM patients with preserved LVEF (all ≥50%) without coronary artery disease and overt heart failure (aged 59 ± 14 years; 60 women, 52 men). Global longitudina...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yasuhide MochizukiHidekazu TanakaKensuke MatsumotoHiroyuki SanoHiromi TokiHiroyuki ShimouraJunichi OokaTakuma SawaYoshiki MotojiKeiko RyoYushi HirotaWataru OgawaKen-ichi Hirata Source Type: research

Epicardial fat thickness is associated to type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean men: a cross-sectional study
Background: Visceral fat, including epicardial fat (EF) is recognized as a responsible factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between EF and diabetes in Korean men. Methods: EF thickness was measured in the left main coronary artery fat tissue (LMCA-fat) by low-dose chest CT scans in 1,048 Korean men (age above 20 years). LMCA-fat values were divided into quartiles and the prevalence of diabetes was analyzed based on the quartiles of LMCA-fat values using logistic regression. Results: There were significant correlations between LMCA-fat and body mass index (r&thinsp...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hyejin ChunEunkyung SuhA ByunHae ParkKyung Shim Source Type: research

Low fasting glucose is associated with enhanced thrombin generation and unfavorable fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk
ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of low blood glucose on thrombin generation and fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: In 165 patients with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk, we measured ex vivo plasma fibrin clot permeation [Ks], turbidity and efficiency of fibrinolysis including clot lysis time [t50%], together with thrombin generation and platelet activation markers in relation to fasting blood glucose. Results: As compared to patients in medium (4.5-6.0 mmol/l, n = 52) and higher (>6.0 mmol/l, n = 75) glucose group, subjects with low glycemia ( (Source: Ca...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 1, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Grzegorz GajosMalgorzata KonieczynskaJaroslaw ZalewskiAnetta Undas Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in salt-sensitive hypertension: role of angiotensin II activation of NFκB
Conclusion: The current findings strongly suggest that the activation of NFκB inflammatory pathway by Ang II play a critical role in skeletal muscle insulin resistance in salt-sensitive hypertension. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - May 1, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ming-Sheng ZhouChang LiuRunxia TianAkira NishiyamaLeopoldo Raij Source Type: research

Cross-sectional analysis of serum calcium levels for associations with left ventricular hypertrophy in normocalcemia individuals with type 2 diabetes
Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that an increase in albumin-adjusted serum calcium level is associated with an elevated risk of T2DM. We speculate that increased serum calcium levels in T2DM patients are related to LVH prevalence. Methods: In this echocardiographic study, 833 normocalcemia and normophosphatemia patients with T2DM were enrolled. The associations between serum calcium and metabolic parameters, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), as well as the rate of LVH were examined using bivariate linear correlation, multiva...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 29, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Junfeng LiNan WuYintao LiKuanping YeMin HeRenming Hu Source Type: research

Polymorphisms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (rs1801282) and its coactivator-1 (rs8192673) are associated with obesity indexes in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: In a large sample of the Caucasians the rs8192673 of the PGC-1α gene and the rs1801282 of the PPAR-γ gene were associated with waist circumference in subjects with T2DM. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Peter KruzliakAndreana HaleyJovana StarcevicLudovit GasparDaniel Petrovic Source Type: research

The FAT expandability (FATe) Project: Biomarkers to determine the limit of expansion and the complications of obesity
This study will also provide mechanistic evidence that promoting subcutaneous fat expansion might be a suitable therapy to reduce metabolic complications associated with positive energy balance characteristic of Westernized societies. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Elena Torres-PerezMonica ValeroBeatriz Garcia-RodriguezYolanda Gonzalez-IrazabalPilar CalmarzaLuisa Calvo-RuataCarmen OrtegaMaria Garcia-SobrevielaAlejandro Sanz-ParisJose ArtigasJavier LagosJose Arbones-Mainar Source Type: research

Effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on coronary microvascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes – a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over pilot study
Conclusions: In this short-term treatment study, 10 weeks of liraglutide treatment had no significant effect on neither coronary nor peripheral microvascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further long-term studies, preferably in patients with more impaired microvascular function and using a higher dosage of GLP-1 analogues, are needed to confirm these findings.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01931982. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rebekka FaberMette ZanderAdam PenaMarie MichelsenNaja MygindEva Prescott Source Type: research

Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein: the association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marjo Campmans-KuijpersIvonne SluijsUte NöthlingsHeinz FreislingKim OvervadElisabete WeiderpassGuy FagherazziTilman KühnVerena KatzkeAmalia MattielloEmily SonestedtGiovanna MasalaClaudia AgnoliRosario TuminoAnnemieke SpijkermanAurelio BarricarteFulvio R Source Type: research

Cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 57,946 patients with type 2 diabetes: associations with renal function and cardiovascular risk factors
Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes, management of cardiovascular risk factors and careful monitoring of eGFR may represent opportunities to reduce the risks of death, MI and IS/TIA. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lucia Cea SorianoSaga JohanssonBergur StefanssonLuis Rodríguez Source Type: research

Clinical features of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus
Background: Left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic dysfunction has been identified even in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF). However, its relevant clinical features have not been fully evaluated. Methods: We studied 144 asymptomatic DM patients without coronary artery disease. Their mean age was 57 ± 15 years, 79 (55%) were female, and mean LVEF was 66 ± 4% (all ≥50%). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was determined as the average peak strain of 18 segments from the three standard apical views, and was expresse...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 17, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yasuhide MochizukiHidekazu TanakaKensuke MatsumotoHiroyuki SanoHiromi TokiHiroyuki ShimouraJunichi OokaTakuma SawaYoshiki MotojiKeiko RyoYushi HirotaWataru OgawaKen-ichi Hirata Source Type: research

Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers 2014
Contributing reviewersThe editors of Cardiovascular Diabetology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 13 (2014). (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Enrique FismanAlexander Tenenbaum Source Type: research

Association of serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 with carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes
Conclusions: Serum ANGPTL2 concentration was significantly and positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that ANGPTL2 may be important in the atherosclerosis in humans. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chang JungWoo LeeMin LeeYu KangJung JangJaechan LeemYoo La LeeSo SeolHae YoonJoong-Yeol Park Source Type: research

Decreased urine uric acid excretion is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease but not for carotid atherosclerosis in hospital-based patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study
Background: The associations between urine uric acid excretion (UUAE) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)/atherosclerosis have not been investigated. Our aims were to investigate the relationships between UUAE and CKD and carotid atherosclerotic lesions in hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was conducted with 2627 Chinese inpatients with type 2 diabetes. UUAE was determined enzymatically using a single 24-h urine collection. The subjects were stratified into quartiles according to their UUAE levels. Carotid atherosclerotic lesions, including carotid intima-media ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lian-Xi LiAi-Ping WangRong ZhangTing-Ting LiJun-Wei WangYu-Qian BaoWei-Ping Jia Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes-associated carotid plaque burden is increased in patients with retinopathy compared to those without retinopathy
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been associated with an increased risk for CVD. The present study was designed to test the concept that T2D patients with DR, but without previous cardiovascular (CV) events and with normal renal function, have an increased atherosclerotic burden compared with patients without DR. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using patients with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)>60 ml/min) and without previous CV events. A total of ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Núria AlonsoAlicia TravesetEsther RubinatEmilio OrtegaNuria AlcubierreJordi SanahujaMarta HernándezAngels BetriuCarmen JurjoElvira FernándezDidac Mauricio Source Type: research

Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels is associated with lower extremity atherosclerotic disease in Chinese female diabetic patients
Background: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an emerging metabolic regulator associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, and it is still unclear whether FGF21 is related to atherosclerosis. Here, we explored the potential link between FGF21 and lower extremity atherosclerotic disease (LEAD) in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 504 type 2 diabetic patients (283 men, 221 women). LEAD was defined by Ankle-brachial index (ABI) (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaoyan ZhangYanyun HuHui ZengLianxi LiJungong ZhaoJun ZhaoFang LiuYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -3, -10, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are associated with vascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study
Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that impaired regulation of matrix remodeling by actions of MMP-2, -3 and-10 and TIMP-1 contributes to the pathogenesis of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Stijn PeetersLian EngelenJacqueline BuijsNish ChaturvediJohn FullerCasper SchalkwijkCoen StehouwerEURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group Source Type: research

Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes is accompanied by significant morphological and ultrastructural changes in both erythrocytes and in thrombin-generated fibrin: implications for diagnostics
We have noted in previous work, in a variety of inflammatory diseases, where iron dysregulation occurs, a strong tendency for erythrocytes to lose their normal discoid shape and to adopt a skewed morphology (as judged by their axial ratios in the light microscope and by their ultrastructure in the SEM). Similarly, the polymerization of fibrinogen, as induced in vitro by added thrombin, leads not to the common ‘spaghetti-like’ structures but to dense matted deposits. Type 2 diabetes is a known inflammatory disease. In the present work, we found that the axial ratio of the erythrocytes of poorly controlled (as su...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Etheresia PretoriusJanette BesterNatasha VermeulenSajee AlummoottilPrashilla SomaAntoinette BuysDouglas Kell Source Type: research

Acute hemodynamic and renal effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 analog and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in rats
Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that a GLP-1 analog and a DPP4 inhibitor may have beneficial effects on renal sodium and water handling. Additionally, the DPP4 inhibitor, MK-0626, favorably affects renal hemodynamics by increasing RBF. However, exceedingly high levels of GLP-1 receptor agonists may adversely affect the cardiovascular system in acute setting, as demonstrated by an acute increase in HR. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - March 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaoyan ZhouChin-hu HuangJulie LaoAlessandro PocaiGail ForrestOlga PriceSophie RoyDavid KelleyKathleen SullivanMichael Forrest Source Type: research

Awareness, treatment and control of cardiometabolic disorders in Chinese adults with diabetes: a national representative population study
Conclusions: Detection and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia is far from optimal in Chinese adults, especially in newly-diagnosed diabetes. Improved screening for diabetes is required to promote a better prevention, treatment and control of hypertension and dyslipidemia in China. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 26, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tiange WangYu XuMin XuWeiqing WangYufang BiJieli LuMeng DaiDi ZhangLin DingBaihui XuJichao SunWenhua ZhaoYong JiangLimin WangYichong LiMei ZhangShenghan LaiLinhong WangGuang Ning Source Type: research

Design and rationale for the randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Liraglutide to Improve corONary haemodynamics during Exercise streSS (LIONESS) crossover study
DiscussionThe study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of Helsinki. The local Research Ethics Committee and Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency have approved the study.Trial registration• National Institute of Health Research Clinical Research Network (NIHR CRN) Portfolio ID 11112 (http://public.ukcrn.org.uk/Search/StudyDetail.aspx?StudyID=11112).• ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02315001. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aung MyatSatpal ArriDeepak BhattBernard GershSimon RedwoodMichael Marber Source Type: research

Association of obesity and long-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without diabetes mellitus: results from the MONICA/KORA myocardial infarction registry
Conclusion: In contrast to AMI patients without diabetes, AMI patients with diabetes do not experience a survival benefit from an elevated BMI. To investigate the underlying reasons for these findings, further studies stratifying their samples by diabetes status are needed. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Miriam ColomboChrista MeisingerUte AmannMargit HeierWolfgang von ScheidtBernhard KuchAnnette PetersInge Kirchberger Source Type: research

Effects of exenatide on postprandial vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: Exenatide inhibited postprandial vascular endothelial dysfunction after the meal loading test, suggesting that exenatide has a multiphasic anti-atherogenic action involving not only glucose but also lipid metabolism.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: UMIN000015699. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Keiichi TorimotoYosuke OkadaHiroko MoriTakashi OtsukaMayuko KawaguchiMegumi MatsudaFumi KunoKei SugaiSatomi SonodaMaiko HajimeKenichi TanakaTadashi AraoYoshiya Tanaka Source Type: research

Candesartan restores pressure-induced vasodilation and prevents skin pressure ulcer formation in diabetic mice
Conclusion: Candesartan decreases the vulnerability to pressure-induced ulceration and restores skin neurovascular functions in mice with STZ-induced established diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - February 18, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aurore DanigoMohamad NasserFlavien BessaguetJames JavellaudNicole OudartJean-Michel AchardClaire Demiot Source Type: research