Impaired fasting glucose and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in middle-age adults: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 2971 subjects
Background: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a well-established and early echocardiographic characteristic of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, there are limited data on the association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and LVDD.ObjectiveTo determine whether IFG is associated with LVDD among middle age adults. Methods: Amongst 3781 subjects screened in an annual health survey program and referred for an echocardiogram, 2971 individuals without LV systolic dysfunction or valvular heart disease were selected. Mean age of study population was 59 ± 12 years and 75 % were men...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - September 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Assi MilwidskyElad MaorShaye KivityAnat BerkovitchSagit ZekryAlexander TenenbaumEnrique FismanAharon ErezShlomo SegevYechezkel SidiIlan GoldenbergRafael Kuperstein Source Type: research

Skin collagen advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the long-term progression of sub-clinical cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes
Background: We recently reported strong associations between eight skin collagen AGEs and two solubility markers from skin biopsies obtained at DCCT study closeout and the long-term progression of microvascular disease in EDIC, despite adjustment for mean glycemia. Herein we investigated the hypothesis that some of these AGEs (fluorescence to be reported elsewhere) correlate with long-term subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) measurements, i.e. coronary artery calcium score (CAC) at EDIC year 7–9 (n = 187), change of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) from EDIC year 1 to year 6 and 12 (n = 1...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - September 5, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vincent MonnierWanjie SunXiaoyu GaoDavid SellPatricia ClearyJohn LachinSaul GenuthThe DCCT/EDIC Research Group Source Type: research

Long-term changes in cardiovascular risk markers during administration of exenatide twice daily or glimepiride: results from the European exenatide study
ObjectiveThe risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is significantly increased in patients with diabetes; thus, it is important to determine whether glucose-lowering therapy affects this risk over time. Changes in cardiovascular risk markers were examined in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide twice daily (a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist) or glimepiride (a sulfonylurea) added to metformin in the EURopean EXenAtide (EUREXA) study.Research design and methodsPatients with type 2 diabetes failing metformin were randomized to add-on exenatide twice daily (n = 515) or glimepiride (n&...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - September 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rafael SimóBruno GuerciGuntram SchernthanerBaptist GallwitzJuan Rosas-GuzmànFrancesco DottaAndreas FestaMing ZhouJacek Kilja¿ski Source Type: research

Plasma leptin level is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: HSCAA study
Background: It has been shown that visceral fat accumulation is associated with autonomic dysfunction, though the precise mechanism remains unclear. A recent basic study found that leptin can directly modulate autonomic function through the dorsomedial hypothalamus in relation to obesity. Here, we investigated the mutual relationships among plasma leptin, visceral fat accumulation, and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 100 diabetic patients, and 100 age- and gender-matched non-diabetic patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Plasma leptin and sol...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - September 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Masafumi KurajohHidenori KoyamaManabu KadoyaMariko NakaAkio MiyoshiAkinori KanzakiMiki Kakutani-HatayamaHirokazu OkazakiTakuhito ShojiYuji MoriwakiTetsuya YamamotoMasanori EmotoMasaaki InabaMitsuyoshi Namba Source Type: research

PROMETHEUS: an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study of hypertriglyceridemia in Russia
Background: Data regarding the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population are lacking, despite triglyceride (TG)-mediated pathways being causal in cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of mixed dyslipidemia and severe hypertriglyceridemia in the Russian population (PROMETHEUS) was undertaken to address this gap. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional retrospective study. Data from adults with a full/partial lipoprotein record who had blood analyses done at an INVITRO laboratory in Russia between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of h...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 25, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuri KarpovYunona Khomitskaya Source Type: research

Reduction in peripheral vascular resistance predicts improvement in insulin clearance following weight loss
Conclusions: Insulin clearance is independently and reciprocally associated with changes in vascular function during weight loss intervention.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01771042 and NCT00408850 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nora StraznickyMariee GrimaCarolina SariElisabeth LambertSarah PhillipsNina EikelisDaisuke KobayashiDagmara HeringJustin MarianiJohn DixonPaul NestelSofie KarapanagiotidisMarkus SchlaichGavin Lambert Source Type: research

Short-term high glucose exposure impairs insulin signaling in endothelial cells
Conclusions: Exposure to short-term high glucose negatively affects insulin signaling even when physiological insulin concentrations are added. The impairment of the PI3K/AKT/eNOS pathway after physiological insulin treatment could contribute to detrimental effects on cardiovascular homeostasis under high glucose conditions, and might shift toward the activation of certain mitogenic effectors, such as ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, the only ones that respond to physiological insulin treatment in high glucose. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Valeria De NigrisGemma PujadasLucia La SalaRoberto TestaStefano GenoveseAntonio Ceriello Source Type: research

Association between blood glucose variability and coronary plaque instability in patients with acute coronary syndromes
Conclusions: Among all glucose indicators studied, only higher blood glucose variability was an independent determinant of increased lipid and decreased fibrous contents with larger plaque burden, suggesting blood glucose variability as one of the important factors related to coronary plaque vulnerability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kozo OkadaKiyoshi HibiMasaomi GohbaraShunsuke KataokaKeiko TakanoEiichi AkiyamaYasushi MatsuzawaKenichiro SakaNobuhiko MaejimaMitsuaki EndoNoriaki IwahashiKengo TsukaharaMasami KosugeToshiaki EbinaPeter FitzgeraldYasuhiro HondaSatoshi UmemuraKazuo Kimura Source Type: research

Lack of associations between betatrophin/ANGPTL8 level and C-peptide in type 2 diabetic subjects
This study was designed to examine the association between plasma betatrophin level and C-peptide in 749 T2D and non-diabetics. Results: Betatrophin and C-peptide levels were higher in T2D subjects compared with non-diabetics subjects. Betatrophin showed strong correlation with C-peptide in non-diabetics subjects (r = 0.28, p =  (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mohamed Abu-FarhaJehad AbubakerFiona NoronhaIrina Al-KhairiPreethi CherianMonira AlaroujAbdullah BennakhiNaser Elkum Source Type: research

Adjustment of the GRACE score by HemoglobinA1c enables a more accurate prediction of long-term major adverse cardiac events in acute coronary syndrome without diabetes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention
Background: The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score is widely recommended for risk assessment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Chronic hyperglycemia [hemoglobinA1c (HbA1c)] can independently predict major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ACS. We investigated whether the prediction of MACEs with the GRACE score could be improved with the addition of HbA1c content in ACS patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: We enrolled 549 ACS patients without DM who underwent PCI. The GRACE score and HbA1c content were dete...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiao-Jun LiuZhao-Fei WanNa ZhaoYa-Ping ZhangLan MiXin-Hong WangDong ZhouYan WuZu-Yi Yuan Source Type: research

The pleiotropic effects of metformin: time for prospective studies
The global prevalence of diabetes has risen to epidemic proportions and the trend is predicted to continue. The consequent burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern and new treatments are required to mitigate the deleterious effects of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. Ischaemia–reperfusion injury is well known to exacerbate the harmful effects of acute myocardial infarction and subsequent therapeutic reperfusion, and several mechanical and pharmacological approaches to mitigating this injury have been investigated. Metformin, which is cheap, relatively safe and wide...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daniel BromageDerek Yellon Source Type: research

Long-term effects of the multidisciplinary risk assessment and management program for patients with diabetes mellitus (RAMP-DM): a population-based cohort study
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary risk assessment and management program for patients with diabetes mellitus (RAMP-DM) in reducing the risks of cardiovascular complications and all-cause mortality. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 18,188 propensity score matched RAMP-DM participants and subjects with diabetes under usual primary care (9,094 subjects in each group). The study endpoints were the first occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF), total cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We constructed multivariable Cox propor...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fangfang JiaoColman FungYuk WanSarah McGheeCarlos WongDaisy DaiRuby KwokCindy Lam Source Type: research

Lack of correlation between the optimal glycaemic control and coronary micro vascular dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study
Background: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is associated with cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Optimal glycaemic control does not always preclude future events. We sought to assess the effect of the current target of HBA1c level on the coronary microcirculatory function and identify predictive factors for CMD in T2DM patients. Methods: We studied 100 patients with T2DM and 214 patients without T2DM. All of them with a history of chest pain, non-obstructive angiograms and a direct assessment of coronary blood flow increase in response to adenosine and acetylcholine coronary infusion, for e...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Luis Valenzuela-GarciaYasushi MatsuzawaJaskanwal SaraTaek-Geun KwonRyan LennonLilach LermanRafael Ruiz-SalmeronAmir Lerman Source Type: research

Alterations in lipid transfers to HDL associated with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: We previously showed that unesterified-cholesterol transfer to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a crucial step in cholesterol esterification and role in reverse cholesterol transport, was diminished in non-diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim was to investigate whether, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the occurrence of CAD was also associated with alterations in lipid transfers and other parameters of plasma lipid metabolism. Methods: Seventy-nine T2DM with CAD and 76 T2DM without CAD, confirmed by cineangiography, paired for sex, age (40–80 years), BMI and w...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Marilia SprandelWhady HuebAlexandre SegreJosé RamiresRoberto Kalil-FilhoRaul Maranhão Source Type: research

Association between metabolic syndrome and multiple lesions of intracranial atherothrombotic stroke: a hospital-based study
Conclusion: MetS may be pathophysiologically associated with intracranial atherothrombotic stroke multiplicity in women in particular. Future studies are warranted to confirm the findings. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kazuhiko KotaniNoriko Satoh-AsaharaTakuya NakakukiHajime YamakageAkira ShimatsuTetsuya Tsukahara Source Type: research

Involvement of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) and bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator (BMPER) in high glucose-increased alkaline phosphatase expression and activity in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells
Conclusions: There are at least two independent pathways in high glucose-induced ALP activation in HCASMCs: the Rho–ROCK signaling pathway and the BMPER-dependent pathway. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuya TeraoSeimi Satomi-KobayashiKen-ichi HirataYoshiyuki Rikitake Source Type: research

Inhibition of DPP-4 reduces acute mortality after myocardial infarction with restoration of autophagic response in type 2 diabetic rats
Conclusions: The results indicate that vildagliptin reduces T2DM-induced increase in post-MI acute mortality possibly by restoring the autophagic response through attenuation of Bcl-2-Beclin-1 interaction. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hiromichi MuraseAtsushi KunoTakayuki MikiMasaya TannoToshiyuki YanoHidemichi KouzuSatoko IshikawaToshiyuki TobisawaMakoto OgasawaraKeitaro NishizawaTetsuji Miura Source Type: research

Glucagon-like peptide-1 protects against ischemic left ventricular dysfunction during hyperglycemia in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: Enhancement of myocardial glucose uptake may reduce fatty acid oxidation and improve tolerance to ischemia. Hyperglycemia, in association with hyperinsulinemia, stimulates this metabolic change but may have deleterious effects on left ventricular (LV) function. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), also has favorable cardiovascular effects, and has emerged as an alternative method of altering myocardial substrate utilization. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we investigated: (1) the effect of a hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp (HHC) on myocardial performance during dobutami...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liam McCormickPatrick HeckLiam RingAnna KyddSophie ClarkeStephen HooleDavid Dutka Source Type: research

Delay in treatment intensification increases the risks of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of delay in treatment intensification (IT; clinical inertia) in conjunction with glycaemic burden on the risk of macrovascular events (CVE) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out using United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, including T2DM patients diagnosed from 1990 with follow-up data available until 2012. Results: In the cohort of 105,477 patients mean HbA1c was 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) at diagnosis, 11% had a history of cardiovascular disease, and 7.1% experienced at least one CVE during 5.3 y...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sanjoy PaulKerenaftali KleinBrian ThorstedMichael WoldenKamlesh Khunti Source Type: research

Sensitivity of various adiposity indices in identifying cardiometabolic diseases in Arab adults
This study aims to determine the sensitivity of six anthropometric indices [Body mass index (BMI), waist, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body adiposity index (BAI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI)] in determining diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Saudi adults recruited from two independent cohorts (2008–2009 and 2013–2014). Methods: A total of 6,821 Saudi adults [2008–2009, N = 3,971 (1,698 males and 2,273 females); 2013–2014, N = 2,850 (926 males and 1,924 females)] aged 18&nda...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nasser Al-DaghriOmar Al-AttasKaiser WaniAbdullah AlnaamiShaun SabicoAbdulrahman Al-AjlanGeorge ChrousosMajed Alokail Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition improves myocardial function and prevents cardiac remodeling in diabetic mice
Conclusion: HDAC inhibition plays a critical role in improving cardiac function and suppressing myocardial remodeling in diabetic heart. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Youfang ChenJianfeng DuYu ZhaoLing ZhangGuorong LvShougang ZhuangGangjian QinTing Zhao Source Type: research

MuRF2 regulates PPARγ1 activity to protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and enhance weight gain induced by a high fat diet
Conclusions: Mutations in MuRF2 have been described to contribute to the severity of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The present study suggests that the lack of MuRF2, as found in these patients, can result in an exaggerated diabetic cardiomyopathy. These studies also identify MuRF2 as the first ubiquitin ligase to regulate cardiac PPARα and PPARγ1 activities in vivo via post-translational modification without degradation. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 5, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jun HeMegan QuintanaJenyth SullivanTraci L ParryTrisha J GrevengoedJonathan SchislerJoseph HillCecelia YatesRudo MapangaM EssopWilliam StansfieldJames BainChristopher NewgardMichael MuehlbauerYipin HanBrian ClarkeMonte Willis Source Type: research

Coronary microvascular function is independently associated with left ventricular filling pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is known as an early marker of myocardial alterations in patients with diabetes. Because microvascular disease has been regarded as an important cause of heart failure or diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients, we tested the hypothesis that coronary flow reserve (CFR), which reflects coronary microvascular function, is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We studied asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes but without overt heart failure. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed that included pulsed tiss...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - August 5, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Takayuki KawataMasao DaimonSakiko MiyazakiRyoko IchikawaMasaki MaruyamaShuo-Ju ChiangChiharu ItoFumihiko SatoHirotaka WatadaHiroyuki Daida Source Type: research

Interplay between ultrastructural findings and atherothrombotic complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main underlying factor contributing to the high risk of atherothrombotic events in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherothrombotic complications are the main cause of mortality. Like with many bodily systems, pathology is observed when the normal processes are exaggerated or uncontrolled. This applies to the processes of coagulation and thrombosis as well. In diabetes, in fact, the balance between prothrombotic and fibrinolytic factors is impaired and thus the scale is tipped towards a prothrombotic and hypofibrinolytic milieu, which in association with the vascular changes accompany...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 31, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Prashilla SomaEtheresia Pretorius Source Type: research

A study about the relevance of adding acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: effects on some new emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular risk
Conclusion: All biomarkers considered were significantly improved by ASA addition. These data suggest that the use of ASA in primary prevention could be useful in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02064218 (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe DerosaAmedeo MugelliniRosa PesceAngela D¿AngeloPamela Maffioli Source Type: research

The receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of peripheral arterial disease, amputation or death in type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study
Conclusion: Higher plasma levels of S100A12 and the combined effect (RAGE-score) of esRAGE, carboxymethyl-lysine and S100A12 seem to be associated with shorter PAD- and amputation-free survival in patients with type 2 diabetes. This may indicate a role for S100A12 in PAD by activation of the RAGE system. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jonas MalmstedtLars KärvestedtJesper SwedenborgKerstin Brismar Source Type: research

Partial inhibition of the ubiquitin–proteasome system ameliorates cardiac dysfunction following ischemia–reperfusion in the presence of high glucose
Conclusions: This study established that partial proteasome inhibition elicits cardioprotection in hearts exposed to ischemia–reperfusion with acute simulated hyperglycemia. These data reveal that protease inhibition triggered three major protective effects, i.e. (a) enhancing myocardial anti-oxidant defenses, (b) attenuating inflammation, and (c) increasing the autophagic response. Thus the UPS emerges as a unique therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic heart disease under such conditions. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Buin AdamsRudo MapangaM Essop Source Type: research

Enhancement of insulin-mediated rat muscle glucose uptake and microvascular perfusion by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside
Background: Insulin-induced microvascular recruitment is important for optimal muscle glucose uptake. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase), can also induce microvascular recruitment, at doses that do not acutely activate glucose transport in rat muscle. Whether low doses of AICAR can augment physiologic insulin action is unknown. In the present study we used the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess whether insulin action is augmented by low dose AICAR. Methods: Anesthetized rats were studied during saline infusion or euglycemic insulin (3 ...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Eloise BradleyLei ZhangAmanda GendersStephen RichardsStephen RattiganMichelle Keske Source Type: research

Chronic Rho-kinase inhibition improves left ventricular contractile dysfunction in early type-1 diabetes by increasing myosin cross-bridge extension
Background: Impaired actin–myosin cross-bridge (CB) dynamics correlate with impaired left ventricular (LV) function in early diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Elevated expression and activity of Rho kinase (ROCK) contributes to the development of DCM. ROCK targets several sarcomeric proteins including myosin light chain 2, myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C), troponin I (TnI) and troponin T that all have important roles in regulating CB dynamics and contractility of the myocardium. Our aim was to examine if chronic ROCK inhibition prevents impaired CB dynamics and LV dysfunction in a rat model of early diabetes, and wheth...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 22, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mark WaddinghamAmanda EdgleyAlberto AstolfoTadakatsu InagakiYutaka FujiiCheng-Kun DuDong-Yun ZhanHirotsugu TsuchimochiNaoto YagiDarren KellyMikiyasu ShiraiJames Pearson Source Type: research

Rutin administration attenuates myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats
Conclusion: Rutin attenuates cardiac remodeling and left ventricular and myocardial dysfunction caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 17, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Julliano GuimaraesBruno MuzioCamila RosaAndre NascimentoMario SugizakiAna FernandesAntonio CicognaCarlos PadovaniMarina OkoshiKatashi Okoshi Source Type: research

Vitamin D status is associated with skin autofluorescence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a preliminary report
Background: Skin autofluorescence is a non-invasive measurement of advanced glycation end products (AGE), which are suggested to be one of the major agents in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes related cardiovascular complications. Recently, low vitamin D status has been linked to the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between vitamin D status and skin autofluorescence in patients with T2DM. Methods: In this preliminary report skin autofluorescence was measured non-invasively with an AGE-reader in 245 patients with T2D...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Y Krul-PoelR AgcaP LipsH van WijlandF StamS Simsek Source Type: research

Diet-induced pre-diabetes slows cardiac conductance and promotes arrhythmogenesis
This study describes electrophysiological alterations in a diet-induced pre-diabetic rat model and examines the underlying mechanism. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were fed either high-fat diet and fructose water or normal chow and water for 6 weeks. The electrophysiological properties of the whole heart was analyzed by in vivo surface ECG recordings, as wells as ex vivo in Langendorff perfused hearts during baseline, ischemia and re-perfussion. Conduction velocity was examined in isolated tissue strips. Ion channel and gap junction conductances were analyzed by patch-clamp studies in isolated cardiomyocytes. Fib...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lene AxelsenKirstine CalloeThomas BraunsteinMads RiemannJohannes HofgaardBo LiangChrista JensenKristine OlsenEmil BartelsUlrik BaandrupThomas JespersenLars NielsenNiels-Henrik Holstein-RathlouMorten Nielsen Source Type: research

Platelet hyperactivity and fibrin clot structure in transient ischemic attack individuals in the presence of metabolic syndrome: a microscopy and thromboelastography ® study
Conclusion: The findings indicate that pathological clot formation is not caused by alterations in the coagulation cascade but rather by the premature activation of platelets (as a result of chronic inflammation) that in turn causes altered fibrin formation. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - July 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mia-Jeanne van RooyWiebren DuimRene EhlersAntoinette BuysEtheresia Pretorius Source Type: research

The effect of a preparation of minerals, vitamins and trace elements on the cardiac gene expression pattern in male diabetic rats
Conclusions: MVT-treatment improved diagnostic markers of diabetes. This is the first demonstration that MVT-treatment significantly alters cardiac gene expression profile in both control and diabetic rats. Our results and further studies exploring the mechanistic role of individual genes may contribute to the prevention or diagnosis of cardiac complications in diabetes. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 28, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Márta SárközyGerg¿ Sz¿csMárton PipiczÁgnes ZvaraKatalin ÉderVeronika FeketeCsilla Sz¿csJudit BárkányiCsaba CsonkaLászló PuskásCsaba KónyaPéter FerdinandyTamás Csont Source Type: research

Association of hemoglobin A 1c and glycated albumin with carotid atherosclerosis in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study
Background: It is not clear which glucose measure is more useful in the assessment of atherosclerosis. We investigated the associations of hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postload glucose (PG) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in community-dwelling Japanese subjects. Methods: A total of 2702 subjects aged 40–79 years underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and measurements of HbA 1c , GA, 1,5-AG, and carotid IMT by ultrasonography in 2007–2008. Car...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 24, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naoko MukaiToshiharu NinomiyaJun HataYoichiro HirakawaFumie IkedaMasayo FukuharaTaeko HottaMasafumi KogaUdai NakamuraDongchon KangTakanari KitazonoYutaka Kiyohara Source Type: research

Comparison of effects of sitagliptin and voglibose on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the 3D trial
Background: Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) and may have cardio-protective effects. It remains unclear whether DPP-4i improves LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes, and, if so, it is attributable to the attenuation of PPH or to a direct cardiac effect of DPP-4i. We compared the effects of the DPP-4i, sitagliptin, and the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, on LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We conducted a prospective...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 19, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hiroki OeKazufumi NakamuraHajime KiharaKenei ShimadaShota FukudaTsutomu TakagiToru MiyoshiKumiko HirataJunichi YoshikawaHiroshi ItoFESC, for Effect of a DPP-4 inhibitor on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabeti Source Type: research

Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, improves neovascularization in the ischemic hindlimb of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice
Conclusions: Rivaroxaban promoted vessel formation in diabetic mice and improved endothelial progenitor cell function under hyperglycemic conditions. These effects may be associated with enhancement of expression of eNOS and VEGF. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tao-Cheng WuJenq-Shyong ChanChiu-Yang LeeHsin-Bang LeuPo-Hsun HuangJia-Shiong ChenShing-Jong LinJaw-Wen Chen Source Type: research

Relationship between serum osteocalcin level and carotid intima-media thickness in a metabolically healthy Chinese population
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum osteocalcin level and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) in a metabolically healthy population. Methods: A total of 476 subjects with normal values for weight, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and lipids (age range, 20–75 years; 155 men, 201 premenopausal women, 120 postmenopausal women) from the Shanghai Obesity Study were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease or carotid plaque were excluded. C-IMT was measured by ultrasonography. Serum osteocalcin level was assessed by an electrochemiluminescen...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 16, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuqi LuoXiaojing MaYaping HaoQin XiongYiting XuXiaoping PanYuqian BaoWeiping Jia Source Type: research

Differential response in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to one-year metformin treatment in prediabetic patients by race/ethnicity
Conclusion: This result suggests a notion that Whites and AAs are more responsive than Hispanics to one-year metformin use in HDL-C level changes, and that racial and ethnic identity is a factor to consider when interpreting the effects of metformin treatment on lipid profiles. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chao ZhangFeng GaoHao LuoChun-Ting ZhangRen Zhang Source Type: research

High-risk type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, without prior ischemic events, have normal blood platelet functionality profiles: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions: High risk type-2 diabetes mellitus patients, without prior ischemic events, have normal blood platelet functionality profiles. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 12, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gadi ShlomaiTal Haran-AppelTal SellaYoni GrossmanHagit HauschnerNurit RosenbergEhud Grossman Source Type: research

Fibroblast growth factor 21 deletion aggravates diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta in type 1 diabetic mice
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism, and has been considered as a potential therapy for diabetes. The effect of FGF21 on the development and progression of diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta has not currently been addressed. To characterize these effects, type 1 diabetes was induced in both FGF21 knockout (FGF21KO) and C57BL/6 J wild type (WT) mice via multiple-dose streptozotocin injection. FGF21KO diabetic mice showed both earlier and more severe aortic remodeling indicated by aortic thickening, collagen accumulation and fibrotic mediator connec...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xiaoqing YanJun ChenChi ZhangJun ZengShanshan ZhouZhiguo ZhangXuemian LuJing ChenWenke FengXiaokun LiYi Tan Source Type: research

Association between daily glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque properties in patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy assessed by continuous glucose monitoring and optical coherence tomography
This study aimed to investigate the association between glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque morphology in CAD patients. Methods: This prospective study enrolled 72 consecutive CAD patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy. They were divided into 3 tertiles according to the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), which represents glucose fluctuation, measured by continuous glucose monitoring (tertile 1; 85.3). Morphological feature of plaques were evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Lipid index (LI) (mean lipid arc × length), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), and the prevalence of th...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Masaru KurodaToshiro ShinkeKazuhiko SakaguchiHiromasa OtakeTomofumi TakayaYushi HirotaTsuyoshi OsueHiroto KinutaniAkihide KonishiHachidai TakahashiDaisuke TerashitaKenzo UzuKen-ichi Hirata Source Type: research

Protective role of oleic acid against cardiovascular insulin resistance and in the early and late cellular atherosclerotic process
Conclusions: Our data suggest a differential role between oleate and palmitate and support the concept of the cardioprotector role of oleate as the main lipid component of virgin olive oil. Thus, oleate protects against cardiovascular insulin resistance, improves endothelial dysfunction in response to proinflammatory signals and finally, reduces proliferation and apoptosis in VSMCs that may contribute to an ameliorated atherosclerotic process and plaque stability. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Liliana PerdomoNuria BeneitYolanda OteroÓscar EscribanoSabela Díaz-CastroverdeAlmudena Gómez-HernándezManuel Benito Source Type: research

Chronic NF-κB blockade improves renal angiotensin II type 1 receptor functions and reduces blood pressure in Zucker diabetic rats
Conclusions: Our present study indicates blockade of NF-κB, via inhibition of binding of NF-κB with AT1R promoter, reduces renal AT1R expression and function, improves oxidative stress and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance, therefore, lowers blood pressure and recovers renal function in ZDF rats. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 10, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hao LuoXinquan WangJialiang WangCaiyu ChenNa WangZaicheng XuShuo ChenChunyu Zeng Source Type: research

Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 levels are related to subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes
In this study, we evaluated the association of serum FGF21 with intima-media thickness (IMT) and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Serum FGF21 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 212 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis or cardiovascular diseases. IMT of the carotid, femoral, and iliac arteries were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound to determine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, which was defined as having an IMT > 1.0 mm and/or plaque on one or more of the three arteries wi...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yang XiaoLingjiao LiuAimin XuPengcheng ZhouZhaofeng LongYiting TuXiaoyan ChenWeili TangGan HuangZhiguang Zhou Source Type: research

Galectin-3 deficiency exacerbates hyperglycemia and the endothelial response to diabetes
Conclusions: Galectin-3 deficiency leads to exacerbated metabolic derangement and endothelial dysfunction. The impaired tissue uptake of glucose in KO mice can be attributed to the reduced expression of GLUT4. Enhanced coagulation activity in the diabetic KO suggests a protective role for galectin-3 against thrombosis. These studies demonstrate that galectin-3 deficiency contributes both to the pathogenesis of diabetes and the associated vasculopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: April DarrowRalph Shohet Source Type: research

Association of insulin resistance and coronary artery remodeling: an intravascular ultrasound study
Conclusion: Increased IR estimated by HOMA-IR was significantly associated with a higher remodeling index and positive coronary artery remodeling. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 6, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sang-Hoon KimJae-Youn MoonYeong LimKyung KimWoo-In YangJung-Hoon SungSeung YooIn KimSang-Wook LimDong-Hun ChaSeung-Yun Cho Source Type: research

The inflammation, vascular repair and injury responses to exercise in fit males with and without Type 1 diabetes: an observational study
Conclusions: Resting cEPCs and cECs in Type 1 diabetes patients with excellent HbA1c and high physical-fitness are comparable to healthy controls, despite eliciting 4-fold greater TNF-α. Furthermore, Type 1 diabetes patients appear to have a blunted post-exercise cEPCs response (vascular repair), whilst a biomarker of vascular injury (cECs) remained comparable to healthy controls. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 5, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Daniel WestMatthew CampbellJavier GonzalezMark WalkerEmma StevensonFahad AhmedStephanie WijayaJames ShawJolanta Weaver Source Type: research

The association between glycemic variability and diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes
Conclusion: CV in CGM and all parameters of HbA1c variability were independently associated with the presence of CAN in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes requiring CGM. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 4, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ji JunSang-Man JinJongha BaekSewon OhKyu HurMyung-Shik LeeMoon-Kyu LeeJae Kim Source Type: research

Cardiospecific CD36 suppression by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference prevents cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction in high-fat-diet induced obese mice
Conclusions: Cardiospecific CD36 inhibition protects against the aggravation of cardiac functional and morphological changes associated with HFD induced obesity. CD36 represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity cardiomyopathy. (Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology)
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - June 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yijie ZhangMingwei BaoMingyan DaiXin WangWenbo HeTuantuan TanDandan LinWei WangYing WenRui Zhang Source Type: research