Perceived discrimination is associated with the inflammatory response to acute laboratory stress in women at risk for cardiovascular disease
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Karen L. Saban, Herbert L. Mathews, Fred B. Bryant, Dina Tell, Cara Joyce, Holli A. DeVon, Linda Witek JanusekAbstractCardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and exacts a disproportionate toll on minorities. Growing evidence demonstrates that perceived discrimination is a significant contributing factor to psychological distress, chronic low-grade inflammation, and cardiovascular health. However, little is known regarding the extent to which perceived discrimination contributes to the infla...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Can neuroimmune mechanisms explain the link between ultraviolet light (UV) exposure and addictive behavior?
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Krystal Iacopetta, Lyndsey E. Collins-Praino, Femke T.A. Buisman-Pijlman, Mark R. HutchinsonAbstractHigh ultraviolet (UV) light exposure on the skin acts as a reinforcing stimulus, increasing sun-seeking behavior and even addiction-like sun seeking behavior. However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this process remain to be defined. Here, we propose a novel hypothesis that neuroimmune signaling, arising from inflammatory responses in UV-damaged skin cells, causes potentiated signaling within the cortico-mesolimbic path...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

More fish-happier mom, smarter child?
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Jane Pei-Chen Chang (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acylated ghrelin suppresses the cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide and does so independently of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Ilvana Ziko, Luba Sominsky, Simone N. De Luca, Francis Lelngei, Sarah J. SpencerAbstractGhrelin, one of the major metabolic hormones involved in controlling energy balance, has recently been shown to have other properties including regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to psychological stress and being a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Ghrelin’s HPA axis and anti-inflammatory actions have previously been identified as principally due to the acylated form (AG). However, our recent work has also su...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stress and aging act through common mechanisms to elicit neuroinflammatory priming
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Laura K. Fonken, Matthew G. Frank, Andrew D. Gaudet, Steven F. MaierAbstractOver the course of an animal’s lifespan, there is a protracted breakdown in basic homeostatic functions. Stressors (both psychological and physiological) can accelerate this process and compromise multiple homeostatic mechanisms. For example, both stress and aging can modulate neuroinflammatory function and cause a primed phenotype resulting in a heightened neuroinflammatory profile upon immune activation. Microglia, the brain’s resident myelo...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mouse models of maternal immune activation: Mind your caging system!
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Flavia S. Mueller, Marcello Polesel, Juliet Richetto, Urs Meyer, Ulrike Weber-StadlbauerAbstractRodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) are increasingly used as experimental tools to study neuronal and behavioral dysfunctions in relation to infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders. One of the most widely used MIA models is based on gestational administration of poly(I:C) (= polyriboinosinic-polyribocytdilic acid), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA that induces a cytokine-associated viral-like acute phase ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Two hit induced acute lung injury impairs cognitive function in mice: a potential model to study cross talk between lung and brain
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Bijayani Sahu, Rajat Sandhir, Amarjit S NauraAbstractAcute lung injury (ALI), a pulmonary inflammatory disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Interestingly, ALI survivors have been reported for some neurocognitive deterioration at/after discharge. However, the molecular factors behind such extra pulmonary manifestation are not clearly known. The present work was designed to investigate lung-brain cross talk in experimental mice for deciphering primary molecular factors that may be involved in ALI-mediate...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Danger-associated molecular patterns in health and disease.
Authors: PMID: 30005765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research

VEGFR2 promotes central endothelial activation and the spread of pain in inflammatory arthritis
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Nicholas Beazley-Long, Catherine Elizabeth Moss, William Robert Ashby, Samuel Marcus Bestall, Fatimah Almahasneh, Alexandra Margaret Durrant, Andrew Vaughan Benest, Zoe Blackley, Kurt Ballmer-Hofer, Masanori Hirashima, Richard Phillip Hulse, David Owen Bates, Lucy Frances DonaldsonAbstractChronic pain can develop in response to conditions such as inflammatory arthritis. The central mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic pain in humans are not well elucidated although there is evidence for a role of micr...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of psychological interventions on systemic levels of inflammatory biomarkers in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): M.S. O'Toole, D.H. Bovbjerg, M.E. Renna, M. Lekander, D.S. Mennin, R. ZachariaeAbstractThe purpose of the present investigation was to systematically review randomized controlled trials examining the effects of psychological interventions on inflammatory biomarkers in adult populations and to quantitatively analyze those effects by meta-analysis. Two researchers independently searched key electronic databases, selected eligible publications, extracted data, and evaluated methodological quality. Nineteen randomized controlled tria...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inhibition of immunoproteasome promotes angiogenesis via enhancing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α abundance in rats following focal cerebral ischaemia
In this study, we identified that inhibition of immunoproteasome LMP2 was able to enhance angiogenesis and facilitate neurological functional recovery in rats after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) significantly enhanced the expression of immunoproteasome LMP2 and proteasome activities in primary culture astrocytes, but these beneficial effects were abolished by knockdown of LMP2 with siRNA transfection. Along with this, protein abundance of HIF-1α was significantly increased by inhibition LMP2 in vivo and in vitro and was associated with angiogenesis a...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinct characteristics of hippocampal pathogenic TH17 cells in a mouse model of depression
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Eléonore Beurel, Jeffrey Lowell, Richard JopeAbstractIncreasing evidence indicates that multiple actions of the immune system are closely intertwined with the development of depression and subsequent recovery processes. One of these interactions is substantial evidence that the TH17 subtype of CD4+ T cells promotes susceptibility to depression-like behaviors in rodents. Comparing subtypes of CD4+ T cells, we found that administration of TH17 cells, but not TH1 cells or TREGS, promoted susceptibility to learned-helplessnes...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

White matter microstructure alterations correlate with terminally differentiated CD8+ effector T cell depletion in the peripheral blood in mania: Combined DTI and immunological investigation in the different phases of bipolar disorder
ConclusionsOur data show a combined occurrence of WM and immunological alterations in mania. WM abnormalities highly correlated with reduction in circulating CD8+ T cell subpopulations that are terminally differentiated effector cells prone to tissue migration, suggesting that these T cells could play a role in WM alteration in BD. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Extracellular self-DNA as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that triggers self-specific immunity induction in plants
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Dalia Duran-Flores, Martin HeilAbstractMammals sense self or non-self extracellular or extranuclear DNA fragments (hereinafter collectively termed eDNA) as indicators of injury or infection and respond with immunity. We hypothesised that eDNA acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) also in plants and that it contributes to self versus non-self discrimination. Treating plants and suspension-cultured cells of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with fragmented self eDNA (obtained from other plants of the same species) induced ea...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

PNIRS Society Announcements
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Danger-associated molecular patterns in health and disease
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Depression and sterile inflammation: Essential role of danger associated molecular patterns
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Tina C. Franklin, Chelsea Xu, Ronald S. DumanAbstractStress is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorder including major depressive disorder (MDD) and can induce inflammation, which is known to be dysregulated in depression. Several clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated a strong association between depressive symptoms and the expression of factors that increase inflammation. Conversely, administration of anti-inflammatory agents has been shown to ameliorate depressive symptoms, demonstrating the importance of inflammati...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High Mobility Group Box 1 is a novel pathogenic factor and a mechanistic biomarker for epilepsy
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Teresa Ravizza, Gaetano Terrone, Alessia Salamone, Federica Frigerio, Silvia Balosso, Daniel J. Antoine, Annamaria VezzaniAbstractApproximately 30% of epilepsy patients experience seizures that are not controlled by the available drugs. Moreover, these drugs provide mainly a symptomatic treatment since they do not interfere with the disease’s mechanisms. A mechanistic approach to the discovery of key pathogenic brain modifications causing seizure onset, recurrence and progression is instrumental for designing novel and rationale t...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is increased in injured mouse spinal cord and can elicit neurotoxic inflammation
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Kristina A. Kigerl, Wenmin Lai, Lindsay M. Wallace, Huan Yang, Phillip G. PopovichAbstractInflammation is a ubiquitous but poorly understood consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). The mechanisms controlling this response are unclear but culminate in the sequential activation of resident and recruited immune cells. Collectively, these cells can exert divergent effects on cell survival and tissue repair. HMGB1 is a ubiquitously expressed DNA binding protein and also a potent inflammatory stimulus. Necrotic cells release HGMB1, but HMGB1...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intrathecal administration of antisense oligonucleotide against p38α but not p38β MAP kinase isoform reduces neuropathic and postoperative pain and TLR4-induced pain in male mice
We examined the therapeutic effects of isoform-specific ASOs in several chronic pain models following single intrathecal injection (300 μg/10 μl) in CD1 mice. In the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, p38α MAPK ASO, given on post-operative day 5, reduced CCI-induced mechanical allodynia in male but not female mice. In contrast, mechanical allodynia after CCI in both sexes was not affected by p38β MAPK ASO. Intrathecal injection of p38α or p38β ASO resulted in a partial reduction (≈ 50%) of spinal p38α or p38β mRNA level, respectively, in both sexes at two weeks. In con...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protraction of neuropathic pain by morphine is mediated by spinal damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in male rats
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Peter M. Grace, Keith A. Strand, Erika L. Galer, Kenner C. Rice, Steven F. Maier, Linda R. WatkinsAbstractWe have recently reported that a short course of morphine, starting 10 days after sciatic chronic constriction injury (CCI), prolonged the duration of mechanical allodynia for months after morphine ceased. Maintenance of this morphine-induced persistent sensitization was dependent on spinal NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes—protein complexes that proteolytically activate interleukin-1β (IL-1β) vi...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HMGB1 mediates depressive behavior induced by chronic stress through activating the kynurenine pathway
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Bo Wang, Yong-Jie Lian, Wen-Jun Su, Wei Peng, Xin Dong, Lin-Lin Liu, Hong Gong, Ting Zhang, Chun-Lei Jiang, Yun-Xia WangAbstractOur previous study has reported that the proactive secretion and role of central high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive behavior. Here, the potential mechanism of HMGB1 mediating chronic-stress-induced depression through the kynurenine pathway (KP) was further explored both in vivo and in vitro. Depression model was established with the 4-week chronic unpredictable mild stres...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HMGB1/IL-1β complexes regulate neuroimmune responses in alcoholism
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Leon G. Coleman, Jian Zou, Liya Qin, Fulton T. CrewsAbstractNeuroimmune activation is a key feature of the pathologies of numerous psychiatric disorders including alcoholism, depression, and anxiety. Both HMGB1 and IL-1β have been implicated in brain disorders. Previous studies find HMGB1 andIL-1β form heterocomplexes in vitro with enhanced immune responses, lead to our hypothesis that HMGB1 and IL-1β heterocomplexes formed in vivo to contribute to the pathology of alcoholism. HMGB1/IL-1β heterocomplexes were prepare...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

AMPK regulates immunometabolism in sepsis
Publication date: August 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 72Author(s): Jun Huang, Ke Liu, Shan Zhu, Min Xie, Rui Kang, Lizhi Cao, Daolin TangAbstractSepsis and septic shock remain challenging for intensive care units worldwide and have limited treatment options; therefore, identification of targetable key players in systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure is urgently needed. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a negative regulator of bioenergetic reprogramming in immune cells and suppresses sepsis development in vivo. Mechanistically, AMPK deficiency increases pyruvate kinase...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The potential of treating Gulf War Illness with curcumin
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Jeffrey A. Leibowitz, Brandi K. OrmerodAbstractA large proportion of Gulf War Veterans suffer from Gulf War Illness (GWI) – a devastating chronic disorder characterized by heterogeneous fatigue, pain and neuropsychological symptoms. In their recent Brain, Behavior and Immunity publication entitled “Curcumin Treatment Leads to Better Cognitive and Mood Function in a Model of Gulf War Illness with Enhanced Neurogenesis, and Alleviation of Inflammation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Hippocampus”, Kodali and colleagues ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Use of the flu vaccine opens the door to studying associations between inflammation, depression, and cognitive impairments
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): John D. Johnson (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dorsal root ganglia pulsed radiofrequency treatment alters the spinal immune environment
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Yawar J. Qadri, Ru-Rong Ji (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Developmental psychoneuroimmunology grows up
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Andrea Danese (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Complex interplay of multiple biological systems that contribute to post-stroke infections
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Raymond Shim, Connie H.Y. WongAbstractStroke is a leading contributor of death and disability around the world. Despite its recognised debilitating neurological deficits, a devastating clinical complication of surviving stroke patients that needs more attention is infection. Up to half of the patients develop infections after stroke, and a high proportion of them will die as a direct consequence. Major clinical trials that examined preventive antibiotic therapy in stroke patients have demonstrated this method of prevention is not effective...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The dopamine transporter: An unrecognized nexus for dysfunctional peripheral immunity and signaling in Parkinson’s Disease
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Phillip Mackie, Joe Lebowitz, Leila Saadatpour, Emily Nickoloff, Peter Gaskill, Habibeh KhoshboueiAbstractThe second-most common neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson’s Disease (PD) has three hallmarks: dysfunctional dopamine transmission due, at least in part, to dopamine neuron degeneration; intracellular inclusions of α-synuclein aggregates; and neuroinflammation. The origin and interplay of these features remains a puzzle, as does the underlying mechanism of PD pathogenesis and progression. When viewed in the context of neur...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive benefits of lithium chloride in APP/PS1 mice are associated with enhanced brain clearance of β-amyloid
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Yijun Pan, Jennifer L. Short, Stephanie A. Newman, Kwok H.C. Choy, Durgesh Tiwari, Christopher Yap, Danielle Senyschyn, William A. Banks, Joseph A. NicolazzoAbstractEpidemiological evidence suggests that people with bipolar disorder prescribed lithium exhibit a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) relative to those prescribed other mood-stabilizing medicines. Lithium chloride (LiCl) reduces brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels, and the brain clearance of Aβ is reduced in AD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mice: Gut microbiota, glial reaction and TLR4/TNF-α signaling pathway
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Meng-Fei Sun, Ying-Li Zhu, Zhi-Lan Zhou, Xue-Bing Jia, Yi-Da Xu, Qin Yang, Chun Cui, Yan-Qin ShenAbstractParkinson’s disease (PD) patients display alterations in gut microbiota composition. However, mechanism between gut microbial dysbiosis and pathogenesis of PD remains unexplored, and no recognized therapies are available to halt or slow progression of PD. Here we identified that gut microbiota from PD mice induced motor impairment and striatal neurotransmitter decrease on normal mice. Sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that phylum Fi...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rethinking IL-6 and CRP: Why they are more than inflammatory biomarkers, and why it matters
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Marco Del Giudice, Steven W. GangestadAbstractBehavioral researchers have increasingly become interested in the idea that chronic, low-grade inflammation is a pathway through which social and behavioral variables exert long-term effects on health. Much research in the area employs putative inflammatory biomarkers to infer an underlying state of inflammation. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP, whose production is stimulated by IL-6) are arguably the two most commonly assayed biomarkers. Yet, in contrast with near-universal as...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dithiolethione ACDT suppresses neuroinflammation and ameliorates disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Ping-Chang Kuo, Dennis A. Brown, Barbara A. Scofield, Hallel C. Paraiso, Pei-Yu Wang, I-Chen Yu, Jui-Hung YenAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the central nervous system (CNS) infiltration of myelin-specific pathogenic T cells followed by brain inflammation in association with demyelination. Similarly, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, also exhibits increased CNS infiltration of pathogenic T cells, including Th1 and Th17, leading to detrimental effects of neuro...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A pilot study on immuno-psychiatry in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A role for Th17 cells in psychosis?
ConclusionsGiven the literature on the role of T cells and in particular of Th17 cells and IL-17 in hippocampus development, cognition and behavior, these results support the hypothesis for a role of Th17 cells in the development and/or regulation of psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2DS. This pilot study underlines the importance to further study the role of T-cell defects and of Th17 cells in the development of psychiatric symptoms. It also supports the possibility to use 22q11.2DS as a model to study T-cell involvement in the development of SSD. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exposure to an obesogenic diet during adolescence leads to abnormal maturation of neural and behavioral substrates underpinning fear and anxiety
ConclusionsOur findings demonstrate that consumption of an obesogenic diet during adolescence has a profound impact in the maturation of the fear neurocircuitry. The implications of this research are significant as they identify potential biomarkers of risk for psychopathology in the growing obese population. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interaction between hypothermia and delayed mesenchymal stem cell therapy in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury
This study delineates potential unexpected side effects of cell-based therapies as add-on therapy for acute hypothermia treatment. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of maternal immune activation on maternal care behavior, offspring emotionality and intergenerational transmission in C3H/He mice
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Stefanie Berger, Marianne Ronovsky, Orsolya Horvath, Angelika Berger, Daniela D. PollakAbstractMaternal immune activation (MIA) is a well-established model for the investigation of the deleterious effects of gestational infection on offspring mental health later in life. Hence, MIA represents a critical environmental variable determining brain development and the depending neural and behavioral functions in the progeny. Transgenerational transmission of some of the effects of MIA has been recently reported using the Polyinosinic:polycytidy...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differential effects of acute versus chronic stress on ethanol sensitivity: Evidence for interactions on both behavioral and neuroimmune outcomes
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Tamara L. Doremus-Fitzwater, Jacqueline E. Paniccia, Anny Gano, Andrew S. Vore, Terrence DeakAbstractAcute alcohol intoxication induces significant alterations in brain cytokines. Since stress challenges also profoundly impact central cytokine expression, these experiments examined the influence of acute and chronic stress on ethanol-induced brain cytokine responses. In Experiment 1, adult male rats were exposed to acute footshock. After a post-stress recovery interval of 0, 2, 4, or 24 h, rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg; intrag...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Human dorsal root ganglion pulsed radiofrequency treatment modulates cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytes and neuroinflammatory markers in chronic radicular pain
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Basabjit Das, Melissa Conroy, David Moore, Joanne Lysaght, Connail McCroryAbstractRadicular pain is a common cause of disability. Traditionally treatment has been either epidural steroid injection providing short-term relief or surgery with associated complications. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) applied to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a minimally invasive day-care treatment, which is gaining significant clinical acceptance in a selective group of patients with pure radicular pain. Greater insights into the immunomodulatory effects of th...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Attenuation of neuro-inflammation improves survival and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Simone Vodret, Giulia Bortolussi, Alessandra Iaconcig, Elena Martinelli, Claudio Tiribelli, Andrés F. MuroAbstractAll pre-term newborns and a high proportion of term newborns develop neonatal jaundice. Neonatal jaundice is usually a benign condition and self-resolves within few days after birth. However, a combination of unfavorable complications may lead to acute hyperbilirubinemia. Excessive hyperbilirubinemia may be toxic for the developing nervous system leading to severe neurological damage and death by kernicterus. Survivors s...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chemerin suppresses neuroinflammation and improves neurological recovery via CaMKK2/AMPK/Nrf2 pathway after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats
This study investigated the role of Chemerin and its natural receptor, ChemR23, as well as its downstream mediator calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) /Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) in neonatal rats, with a specific focus on inflammation. GMH was induced by intraparenchymal injection of bacterial collagenase (0.3U) in P7 rat pups. The results demonstrated that human recombinant Chemerin (rh-Chemerin) improved neurological and morphological outcomes after GMH. Rh-Chemerin promoted accumul...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alteration of the fecal microbiota in Chinese patients with Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Yiwei Qian, Xiaodong Yang, Shaoqing Xu, Chunyan Wu, Yanyan Song, Nan Qin, Sheng-Di Chen, Qin XiaoAbstractEmerging evidences suggest that gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the alterations in fecal microbiome in Chinese PD patients remains unknown. This case-control study was conducted to explore fecal microbiota compositions in Chinese PD patients. Microbiota communities in the feces of 45 patients and their healthy spouses were investigated using high-throughput Illumina Miseq sequencing targ...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

HLA typing using genome wide data reveals susceptibility types for infections in a psychiatric disease enriched sample
ConclusionsWe identified HLA types that showed strong and significant associations with neurotropic infections. Since some of these associations depended on mental illness status, the engagement of HLA-related pathways may be altered in schizophrenia due to immunogenetic differences or exposure history. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Systemic inflammation without gliosis mediates cognitive deficits through impaired BDNF expression in bile duct ligation model of hepatic encephalopathy
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Saurabh Dhanda, Smriti Gupta, Avishek Halder, Aditya Sunkaria, Rajat SandhirAbstractChronic liver disease per se induces neuroinflammation that contributes to cognitive deficits in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the processes by which pro-inflammatory molecules result in cognitive impairment still remains unclear. In the present study, a significant increase in the activity of liver function enzymes viz. alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed along with increase in plasma...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Insight meditation and telomere biology: The effects of intensive retreat and the moderating role of personality
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Quinn A. Conklin, Brandon G. King, Anthony P. Zanesco, Jue Lin, Anahita B. Hamidi, Jennifer J. Pokorny, María Jesús Álvarez-López, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Colin Huang, Perla Kaliman, Elissa S. Epel, Clifford D. SaronAbstractA growing body of evidence suggests that meditation training may have a range of salubrious effects, including improved telomere regulation. Telomeres and the enzyme telomerase interact with a variety of molecular components to regulate cell-cycle signaling cascades, and are implicat...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Complement component 3a receptor deficiency attenuates chronic stress-induced monocyte infiltration and depressive-like behavior
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Amanda Crider, Tami Feng, Chirayu D. Pandya, Talisha Davis, Ashwati Nair, Anthony O. Ahmed, Babak Baban, Gustavo Turecki, Anilkumar PillaiAbstractMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and debilitating neuropsychiatric illnesses. Accumulating evidence suggests a potential role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of MDD. The complement system represents one of the major effector mechanisms of the innate immune system, and plays a critical role in inflammation. However, the role of complement components in MDD is n...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Minority stress and leukocyte gene expression in sexual minority men living with treated HIV infection
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Annesa Flentje, Kord M. Kober, Adam W. Carrico, Torsten B. Neilands, Elena Flowers, Nicholas C. Heck, Bradley E. AouizeratAbstractSexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) individuals experience poorer mental and physical health, accounted for in part by the additional burden of sexual minority stress occurring from being situated in a culture favoring heteronormativity. Informed by previous research, the purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between sexual minority stress and leukocyte gene expression related to inflammati...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroinflammatory priming to stress is differentially regulated in male and female rats
Publication date: May 2018Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 70Author(s): Laura K. Fonken, Matthew G. Frank, Andrew D. Gaudet, Heather M. D'Angelo, Rachel A. Daut, Emma C. Hampson, Monica T. Ayala, Linda R. Watkins, Steven F. MaierAbstractExposure to stressors can enhance neuroinflammatory responses, and both stress and neuroinflammation are predisposing factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. Females suffer disproportionately more from several psychiatric disorders, yet stress-induced changes in neuroinflammation have primarily been studied in males. Here we tested whether exposure to inescapable t...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research